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Linux ACP Modem (Mwave) mini-HOWTO

Mike Sullivan

sullivam@us.ibm.com

Paul Schroeder

paulsch@us.ibm.com

Joy Yokley - Edited document and coverted to DocBook v4.1 (SGML).

2001-01-12
Revision History                                                             
Revision .11           2002-07-18            Revised by: PBS                 
Revision .10           2001-07-18            Revised by: PBS                 
Revision .09           2001-05-21            Revised by: PBS                 
Revision .08           2001-05-09            Revised by: JEY                 
Revision .07           2001-04-30            Revised by: JEY                 


This document describes how to build, setup, and use the driver and user
space application necessary for using the ACP (Mwave) Modem in the IBM
Thinkpad?? 600, 600E, and 770 models which include the on board ACP modem
hardware. The latest version of this document can always be found at [http://
www.ibm.com/linux/ltc/] http://www.ibm.com/linux/ltc/

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. General Information and Hardware Requirements
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Credits
    1.3. Where Can I Get the Latest Version of this Driver?
    1.4. Are There Any Other Resources?
    1.5. Copyright Notice and Disclaimer
    1.6. Which Systems are Supported
    1.7. Features of the Modem
   
   
2. Compilation, Installation, and Startup
    2.1. Prerequisites
    2.2. Building and Installing Source
    2.3. Setting Things Up
    2.4. Runtime
   
   
3. Resolving Installation and Configuration Problems
    3.1. DSP Does Not Start
    3.2. Resource Conflicts
    3.3. Not Connecting at Specified Starting Speed
    3.4. Dialer Application Cannot Detect Serial Port
    3.5. PPP Errors Using 2.4.0 Version of the Kernel
   
   
4. Debugging Tips
    4.1. Error Logs
    4.2. Tracing
   
   
5. Test Claims
6. List of Supported Countries
7. Trademarks

1. General Information and Hardware Requirements

1.1. Introduction

The ACP Modem for Linux is a software based modem. Support software for the
ACP modem is composed of a loadable kernel module and a user level
application. Together these components support direct connection to public
switched telephone networks (PSTNs) and support selected countries world
wide. Refer to Section 6 of this document for the supported country list.

The modem also supports the standard communications port interface (ttySx)
and is compatible with the Hayes AT Command Set.

ACP Modem software is continually under development. If you encounter bugs or
usability issues, please contact us and we'll work to correct them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Credits

This Linux ACP Modem driver was ported from the Windows NT?? version of the
driver available from IBM. Many thanks to Keith Frechette, Charles Ball, and
Frank Novak for their technical and support efforts in making this project
possible.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Where Can I Get the Latest Version of this Driver?

The latest version of this driver is available from [http://www.ibm.com/linux
/ltc/] http://www.ibm.com/linux/ltc/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Are There Any Other Resources?

Thomas Hood's [http://panopticon.csustan.edu/thood/tp600lnx.htm] Debian GNU/
Linux on IBM ThinkPad 600 and 600x page contains lots of useful information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Copyright Notice and Disclaimer

Copyright (c) 2002 IBM Corporation

This document may be reproduced or distributed in any form without prior
permission. Modified versions of this document may be freely distributed,
provided that they are clearly identified as such, and this copyright is
included intact.

This document is provided "AS IS", with no express or implied warranties. Use
the information in this document at your own risk.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6. Which Systems are Supported

This version of the ACP Modem driver supports the IBM Thinkpad?? 600E, 600,
and 770 that include on-board ACP modem hardware.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7. Features of the Modem

The ACP Modem provides the following features:

��*�Standard asynchronous COM port interface (NS16550A UART compatible)
    operation
   
��*�Bell-103/212A, CCITT-V.21/V.22,V.22bis protocols with data from 300 to
    2400 bps
   
��*�CCITT-V.32 protocols with data rates of 4800, 9600 uncoded, and 9600 bps
    Trellis coded (Optional)
   
��*�CCITT-V.32bis protocols with data rates of 4800, 9600, 12000, and 14400
    bps (optional)
   
��*�ITU-T V.34 protocols with data rates from 2400 to 33600 bps.
   
��*�56K capable modem
   
��*�Hayes AT Command Set compatibility
   
��*�DTMF and pulse dialing
   
��*�Asynchronous error recovery protocol
   
��*�Error correction via Microcom Network Protocol (MNP) classes 1-4
   
��*�Error correction via the V.42 error correction standard
   
��*�MNP class 5 for up to 2x data compression
   
��*�V.42bis for up to 4x data compression
   
��*�"Adaptive Rate Negotiation" which provides for "Fallback / Fallforward"
    as line quality deteriorates or improves
   

Your modem contains 56K technology. To take advantage of this technology, you
must first make sure that your Internet Service Provider (ISP) supports a 56K
modem protocol. Significantly higher modem connection speeds, up to 56kbps,
require all-digital transmission connections from your ISP to the line card
in the central office from which your phone line is connected. The actual
connection rate may be limited by the quality of your telephone lines.
Telephone line quality may vary from location to location. Current
regulations limit maximum trasfer rates to 53K. While your modem contains 56K
technology, typical maximum connection rates in the receive direction may be
significantly less than 56K. Currently, 56K capability is for the receive
direction only. The transmit direction uses V.34 technology.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Compilation, Installation, and Startup

2.1. Prerequisites

��*�A 2.2.16 series (or later) Linux kernel source tree
   
��*�An appropriate set of module utilities
   
��*�gcc version 2.7.x or later
   

If you are building the ACP Modem driver along with the user space
application, you need to have a complete Linux source tree for your kernel,
not just an up-to-date kernel image.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Building and Installing Source

 1. Use tar xzvf mwavem-yyyymmdd.tar.gz to unpack the distribution.
   
 2. Change directories with cd mwavem-yyyymmdd
   
 3. Use the ./configure command to configure the build options. Issue ./
    configure --help to view all of the options. The defaults are probably
    okay though.
   
    Note NOTE                                                        
    �    As of mwavem-1.0.3 you must give ./configure the            
         --enable-mwavedd argument in order to build the driver with 
         the user space application.                                 
   
 4. Use the make command to build all of the ACP Modem binaries.
   
    Note NOTE                                                        
    �    Your gcc package should be at least at the 2.7.x level.     
         Check your /usr/src/linux/Documentation/Changes file for the
         minimum version information.                                
   
 5. Use make install to install the mwavem binary, mwavem.conf configuration,
    the extra binary (mostly .dsp) files, and module device driver (if you
    specified that it must be built) and to create the /dev/modems/mwave
    device node.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3. Setting Things Up

In the [WORLDTRADE] section of your mwavem.conf file, set the Country=
parameter to your country access code.

Note NOTE                                                                    
�    The mwavem.conf file is installed in the /usr/local/etc directory unless
     you specified otherwise during the build process                        

Country information (including access codes) are listed in the mwavem.conf
file. For example, for France the following section is present:
[Telephony\Country List\33]                                                  
                                                                             
CountryCode=00000021                                                         
                                                                             
Name=France                                                                  
                                                                             
SameAreaRule=0FG                                                             
                                                                             
LongDistanceRule=0FG                                                         
                                                                             
InternationsalRule=00EFG                                                     

To set France to be your configured country in the [WORLDTRADE] section of
mwavem.conf,
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|set Country=33                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Runtime

An initialization script has been provided which may be used to to start,
stop, or check the status of the ACP Modem driver and application. It has
been successfully run on the Debian, Slackware, SuSE, and Red Hat
distributions and should run on any of their derivitives. If you are using
the runtime script, it will load the mwave device driver module, configure
the serial port, and start the mwave manager for you. All of the options
which can be passed to the device driver module, along with some options for
the script itself, can be configured by uncommenting and editing the
appropriate variables at the beginning of the script.

The mwaved startup script can be found in the src/mwavem directory of the
source distribution. If you are running the Red Hat distribution, you can
copy the script to your /etc/rc.d/init.d directory and issue the ntsysv
command in order to enable it at boot time. If not using Red Hat, see the
documentation for your distribution for information on how to set this up to
run at boot time.

It is recommended that you use the provided mwaved script. If you are not
using the script, however, the following sections will describe how to
manually start the device driver and application.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4.1. Loading the ACP device driver

To load the mwave device driver use
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|insmod mwave                                                               |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
or
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|modprobe mwave                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The following arguments may be supplied with the insmod command:

Note NOTE                                                                    
�    The following arguments are not persistent from boot to boot (i.e. We   
     are not saving them in the BIOS).                                       

��*�mwave_3780i_irq=5/7/10/11/15
   
    This parameter allows you to configure the IRQ used by the DSP if the DSP
    IRQ was not set and stored in BIOS by the Thinkpad?? configuration
    utility.
   
��*�mwave_3780i_io=0x130/0x350/0x0070/0xDB0
   
    This parameter allows you to configure the I/O range used by the DSP if
    the DSP I/O range was not set and stored in the BIOS by the Thinkpad??
    configuration utility.
   
��*�mwave_uart_irq=3/4
   
    This parameter allows you to configure the IRQ used by the ACP UART if
    the Mwave's UART IRQ was not set and stored in BIOS by the Thinkpad??
    configuration utility.
   
��*�mwave_uart_io=0x3f8/0x2f8/0x3E8/0x2E8
   
    This parameter allows you to configure the I/O range used by the ACP UART
    if the UART I/O range was not set and stored in BIOS by the Thinkpad??
    configuration utility.
   

The following code is an example of how to run DSP using ttyS1 resources:
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|insmod mwave mwave_3780i_irq=10 mwave_3780i_io=0x0130 mwave_uart_irq=3 mwave_uart_io=0x2f8|
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note NOTE                                                                    
�    The mwave is unable to check for resource conflicts. It is your         
     responsibility to ensure that none of the resources specified conflict  
     with other (commonly PCMCIA) devices.                                   

You can use the tpctl package on Linux or the Thinkpad?? configuration
utility on Windows NT or DOS to manage the configuration of Thinkpad??
related resources.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4.2. Running ACP Modem Application

 1. Once the ACP device driver is loaded successfully, use the mwavem command
    to execute the application.
   
    Note NOTE                                                        
    �    The location of the mwavem.conf file can be specified as an 
         argument to the mwavem application. If not specified the    
         default location is assumed to be /usr/local/etc/mwavem.conf
         unless otherwise changed during the build process.          
   
 2. Setup the serial driver to recognize the UART provided by the ACP driver.
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |setserial /dev/ttyS0 autoconfig                                |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   
    Note NOTE                                                        
    �    Substitute /dev/ttyS0 to match the serial port you have     
         configured the DSP to use.                                  
   
    Note NOTE                                                        
    �    You may wish to create a symbolic link from your modem      
         device to your serial device for convenience. Example: ln -s
         /dev/ttyS0 /dev/modem                                       
   

The ACP Modem is now available for use by your favorite dialing application.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Resolving Installation and Configuration Problems

The following sections list solutions to possible problems you may
experience.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. DSP Does Not Start

In order to recognize memory above 64 Meg, it may be necessary to append the
"mem=" option to the kernel command line. If you are using LILO for your boot
loader, you would do this in the lilo.conf file. For example, if you had a
machine with 128 Meg you would type:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|append="mem=130496K"                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note NOTE                                                                    
�    Your statement must reflect 576K less than you actually have. Specifying
     the full amount of memory will prevent the DSP from starting. In the    
     above example, the formula used to arrive at the proper number was 1024 
     * nMB - 576 = nK.                                                       

If you forget to run the Thinkpad?? utility to enable the ACP Modem and you
didn't specify any command line arguments when inserting the mwave module (or
it didn't work), you will receive a message in the syslog, similar to the one
below:
ACP Modem, UART settings IRQ 0x3        IO 0x2f8                             
                                                                             
tp3780::EnableDSP, pSettings->bDSPEnabled 0 failed                           
                                                                             
Mwave Modem, ERROR cannot Enable DSP error fffffffb                          
                                                                             
Mwave Modem, ERROR cannot perform Mwave Initialization retval fffffffb       

If you receive a message like the one above, check the command line arguments
you provided to insmod.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Resource Conflicts

The ACP Modem requires the use of system resources for both the DSP and the
UART provided by the ACP chip. For Linux systems, you will specify parameters
to use for the duration of the boot with the insmod mwave command line
parameters listed in Section 2.4.1.

Typically the configured resources are:
For the DSP:  IRQ 10, I/O address 0x130-0x13f                                
                                                                             
For the UART: IRQ 3,  I/O address 0x2f8 (if using ttyS1)                     
                                                                             
                                  IRQ 4,  I/O address 0x3f8 (if using ttyS0) 

For dual boot systems we recommeded that you use the Thinkpad?? Configuration
Utility on Windows NT or DOS to configure these system resources.

Windows NT Thinkpad Configuration Utility Notes: (Under the Internal Modem --
> Advanced selection)

 1. Set IRQ sharing to disabled
   
 2. Set 1st IRQ to your DSP IRQ (10 is recommened)
   
 3. Set 2nd IRQ to your UART IRQ (i.e. ttyS1 is equivalent to COM2)
   
 4. Set the DSP I/O address (0x130 is recommended)
   
 5. Set the internal modem I/O address to the UART I/O address (i.e. 0x2f8
    for COM2)
   
 6. The DMA address is unused and can be set to anything.
   

Note NOTE                                                                    
�    You may also specify parameters to use for the duration of the boot by  
     using the insmod mwave line parameters listed in section Section 2.4.1. 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Not Connecting at Specified Starting Speed

The configured initial connection speed is set to 64000. The modem should
start there and negotiate down to a connection speed based on target modem
and line capabilities. If the modem is unable to connect it may be having
difficulty negotiating with the target modem. Try setting the SPEED parameter
in mwavem.conf to a lower initial starting speed. Supported speeds include:

��*�64000
   
��*�33600
   
��*�14400
   
��*�9600
   
��*�2400
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.4. Dialer Application Cannot Detect Serial Port

The startup script that executes the serial port setup works well with Red
Hat, Debian, Slackware, and SuSE. If you are not running one of these
distributions, you may need to perform the following steps in order to set
up.

After inserting the mwave.o module and starting the mwavem application, you
must run the setserial command in order for the serial port configuration to
discover the UART on the mwave hardware:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|setserial /dev/ttySx autoconfig                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Replace ttySx with the serial port you have configured the ACP driver to use.

To test whether the serial port is setup correctly, run:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|setserial /dev/ttySx                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The above command should return the following for serial port 1:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|/dev/ttyS1, UART: 16550A, Port: 0x2f8, IRQ: 3                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The port and IRQ numbers should match the information placed in the syslog by
the ACP module when it was loaded:
kernel: Mwave Modem, UART settings IRQ 0x3 IO 0x2f8                          

If the information returned by setserial indicates that the UART is 'unknown'
or if the IRQ and I/O resources do not match what you have in the syslog, you
will need to reconfigure. Check the setserial man pages to learn how to setup
the resources on your ttySx to match what appears in the syslog output.

If you have problems running setserial, you may have a resource conflict.
Before using insmod mwave, check /proc/ioports and /proc/interrupts to make
sure the resources you intend to claim are not already in use.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5. PPP Errors Using 2.4.0 Version of the Kernel

When upgrading to the 2.4.0 version of the kernel be sure to read the ./
Documentation/Changes file. Kernel 2.4.0 requires an upgraded version of the
pppd, gcc, and modutils (amoung other things). Follow the instructions for
setting up the new pppd daemon carefully.

You may experience some initial problems getting ppp running with 2.4.0. One
of the most prevelant errors we received was, "Can't locate module
tty-ldisc-3." However, we had no problems once we rebuilt the kernel with the
following options:
CONFIG_PPP=y                                                                 
                                                                             
CONFIG_PPP_ASYNC=m                                                           
                                                                             
CONFIG_PPP_SYNC_TTY=m                                                        
                                                                             
CONFIG_PPP_DEFLATE=m                                                         
                                                                             
CONFIG_PPP_BSDCOM=m                                                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Debugging Tips

4.1. Error Logs

Errors encountered by the ACP Modem device driver or application are logged
using the syslog utility.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Tracing

The ACP device driver supports a debug argument to enable the generation of
trace information. The command for this debug is listed below. You can also
access several of the variables listed below in the mwaved script.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|insmod mwave mwave_debug=0x0f                                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Where the following debug trace information is selectable:
0x01    ACP Modem Device driver entry points                                 
                                                                             
0x02    Systems Management API(SMAPI)                                        
                                                                             
0x04    Hardware Interface (3780I)                                           
                                                                             
0x08    Thinkpad Interface (tp3780i)                                         

Trace information is logged using the syslog utility.

The ACP application supports tracing through the use of flags configured in
the [STARTUP] section of the mwavem.conf file.

Mwave Manager API trace points:
MANAGER_API_TRACE=1                                                          
                                                                             
MANAGER_API_DATA_TRACE=1                                                     
                                                                             
MANAGER_CORE_TRACE=1                                                         
                                                                             
MANAGER_SPECIFIC_TRACE=1                                                     

MEIO Manager trace points:
MEIO_API_TRACE=1                                                             
                                                                             
MEIO_CORE_TRACE=1                                                            
                                                                             
MEIO_SPECIFIC_TRACE=1                                                        

Mwave Modem application trace points:
MWMLW32_TRACE=1                                                              
                                                                             
MWMPW32_TRACE=1                                                              
                                                                             
MWMUTIL_TRACE=1                                                              
                                                                             
MWWTT32_TRACE=1                                                              

Trace information is logged using the syslog utility.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Test Claims

This driver has been tested using the ThinkPad?? 600E. The same chipset is
integrated on the 600 and 770 models and should work.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. List of Supported Countries

The following countries are supported by the ACP Modem driver

 


Table 1. List of Supported Countries
+--------------------+-------------------+
|Country Name        |Country Access Code|
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ALGERIA             |213                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ANTIGUA_BARBUDA     |102                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ARGENTINA           |54                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ARMENIA             |374                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ARUBA               |297                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|AUSTRALIA           |61                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|AUSTRIA             |43                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|AZERBAIJAN          |994                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BAHAMAS             |103                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BARBADOS            |104                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BELARUS             |375                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BELGIUM             |32                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BERMUDA             |105                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BOLIVIA             |591                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BRAZIL              |55                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BRUNEI              |673                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|BULGARIA            |359                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|CANADA              |107                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|CAYMAN_ISLANDS      |108                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|CHILE               |38                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|COLOMBIA            |57                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|COSTA_RICA          |506                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|CUBA                |53                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|CYPRUS              |357                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|CZECHREPUBLIC       |420                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|DENMARK             |45                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ECUADOR             |593                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|EGYPT               |20                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|EL_SALVADOR         |503                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|FINLAND             |358                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|FRANCE              |33                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|GERMANY             |49                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|GREECE              |30                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|GRENADA             |111                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|GUATEMALA           |502                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|GUYANA              |592                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|HONDURAS            |504                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|HONG_KONG           |852                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|HUNGARY             |36                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|INDIA               |91                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|INDONESIA           |62                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|IRELAND             |353                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ISRAEL              |972                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ITALY               |39                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|JAMAICA             |112                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|JAPAN               |81                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|JORDAN              |962                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|KOREA               |850                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|KOREA_SOUTH         |82                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|KUWAIT              |965                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|LUXEMBOURG          |352                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|MALAYSIA            |60                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|MEXICO              |52                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|NETH_ANTILLES       |599                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|NETHERLANDS         |31                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|NEW_ZEALAND         |64                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|NICARAGUA           |505                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|NORWAY              |47                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|OMAN                |968                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PAKISTAN            |92                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PANAMA              |507                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PARAGUAY            |595                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PERU                |51                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PHILIPPINES         |63                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|POLAND              |48                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PORTUGAL            |351                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|PRC                 |852                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ROMANIA             |40                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|RUSSIA              |7                  |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SAUDI_ARABIA        |966                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SINGAPORE           |65                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SLOVAKIA            |421                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SLOVENIA            |386                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SOUTH_AFRICA        |27                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SPAIN               |34                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ST_KITTS_NEVIS      |115                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ST_LUCIA            |122                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|ST_VINCENT          |116                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SURINAME            |597                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SWEDEN              |46                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|SWITZERLAND         |41                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|TAIWAN              |866                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|THAILAND            |66                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|TRINIDAD_TOBAGO     |117                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|TURKEY              |90                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|TURKS_CAICOS        |118                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|U_K                 |44                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|UKRAINE             |380                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|UNITED_ARAB_EMIRATES|971                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|URUGUAY             |598                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|USA                 |1                  |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|VENEZUELA           |58                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|VIETNAM             |84                 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|VIRGIN_IS_BRITISH   |106                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|VIRGIN_IS_USA       |123                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|YEMAN               |967                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|YUGOSLAVIA          |381                |
+--------------------+-------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Trademarks

Hayes is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc.

MNP (Microcom Network Protocol) is a trademark of Microcom, Inc.

IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines, Inc.





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