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ACPI: Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

Emma Jane Hogbin

  [http://www.xtrinsic.com] xtrinsic


���<emmajane@xtrinsic.com>

Erich Schubert - Author of the section on DSDT.
Revision History                                                             
Revision v1.5.1            2004-07-15           Revised by: ejh              
Link included to the French translation of this document.                    
Revision v1.5              2004-05-21           Revised by: ejh              
Minor updates for the 2.6.6 kernel and corrections regarding which kernels   
need patching.                                                               
Revision v1.4              2004-05-12           Revised by: ejh              
Initial thoughts on the 2.6.5 kernel; includes information on battery        
monitoring applications causing touchpad lockup problems.                    


Outlines how to patch a kernel for ACPI support.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. About this document
2. Copyright and License
3. Translations
4. About ACPI
5. Why switch?
6. DSDT: Differentiated System Description Table
7. Installing from scratch
    7.1. Choosing a kernel
   
   
8. Backups
9. Download and Unpack the New Kernel
    9.1. Required packages
    9.2. Unpack
   
   
10. Configure the new kernel
11. Compile the new kernel
12. Install the new kernel
13. Reboot and test
14. Load related modules
15. Switching from APM to ACPI
16. Using ACPI
17. References and Resources
18. Thanks
A. Patching Old Kernels
    A.1. Getting the Source Files
   
   
B. ACPI the Non-Debian Way
    B.1. Compile the kernel
    B.2. Install the new kernel
    B.3. Software packages
   
   
C. GNU Free Documentation License
    C.1. PREAMBLE
    C.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    C.3. VERBATIM COPYING
    C.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    C.5. MODIFICATIONS
    C.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    C.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    C.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    C.9. TRANSLATION
    C.10. TERMINATION
    C.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    C.12. How to use this License for your documents
   
   

1. About this document

When I first started the switch from APM to ACPI I didn't realize the kernel
needed to be patched. My problem (insanely loud fan) was fixed just by
upgrading to 2.4.20 (Debian packaged kernel with an earlier patch from [http:
//acpi.sourceforge.net] acpi.sourceforge.net). Unfortunately after the first
upgrade I wasn't able to halt my computer without using the power switch to
power-down my computer. It wasn't until later that I realized I had an old,
ineffectual ACPI patch. This HOWTO was written to summarize the install
process for myself, and hopefully help others who are also having a hard time
finding information about ACPI. Please note: the main article outlines [http:
//www.debian.org] The Debian Way of doing things. There is also generic
information in the Appendix B for those of you who prefer ... the generic
way.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Copyright and License

      Copyright (c) 2003, 2004 Emma Jane Hogbin.
   
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any
    later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
    Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A
    copy of the license is included in Appendix C.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Translations

This document is also available in the following languages:

��*�English version 1.2 translated to: [http://www.traduc.org/docs/HOWTO/
    lecture/ACPI-HOWTO.html] Francais. Merci a Guillaume Lelarge et Vanessa
    Conchodon pour le traduction!
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. About ACPI

In the world of power management ACPI is relatively new to the game. It was
first released in 1996 by Compaq/Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix
and Toshiba. These developers aimed to replace the previous industry standard
for power management. Their [http://www.acpi.info] ACPI.info site contains
the official specifications, a list of companies that support ACPI and a
number of other goodies. This is definitely not required reading, but may be
of some interest to the insanely curious.

ACPI allows control of power management from within the operating system. The
previous industry standard for power management, Advanced Power Management
(APM), is controlled at the BIOS level. APM is activated when the system
becomes idle--the longer the system idles, the less power it consumes (e.g.
screen saver vs. sleep vs. suspend). In APM, the operating system has no
knowledge of when the system will change power states.

ACPI can typically be configured from within the operating system. This is
unlike APM where configuration often involves rebooting and entering the BIOS
configuration screens to set parameters.

ACPI has several different software components:

��*�a subsystem which controls hardware states and functions that may have
    previously been in the BIOS configuration
   
    These states include:
   
    ��+�thermal control
       
    ��+�motherboard configuration
       
    ��+�power states (sleep, suspend)
       
   
��*�a policy manager, which is software that sits on top of the operating
    system and allows user input on the system policies
   
��*�the ACPI also has device drivers that control/monitor devices such as a
    laptop battery, SMBus (communication/transmission path) and EC (embedded
    controller).
   

If you would like more information on power management in laptops, check out
the resources on [http://www.tuxmobil.org] tuxmobil.org. Specifically: Power
Management with Linux - APM, ACPI, PMU and the [http://tuxmobil.org/
Mobile-Guide.db/mobile-guide-p2c1-hardware-in-detail.html] Hardware in Detail
section of the Linux Mobile Guide.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Why switch?

Not all systems support both APM and ACPI. I switched because my system only
supported ACPI. Pretty easy decision really. If you're switching to get
[http://acpi.sourceforge.net/documentation/sleep.html] S3 (suspend to RAM)
support and you're using a 2.4.x kernel, don't bother. It is [http://
lists.debian.org/debian-laptop/2003/debian-laptop-200304/msg00418.html] not
supported. Period.

Not sure if your system is supported? ACPI4Linux has a list of supported
machines/BIOSes started on their Wiki. Please contribute to the list if
you've installed ACPI! They also have a list of machines that are [http://
acpi.sourceforge.net/documentation/blacklist.html] not supported.

For more information about the power management in laptops you may (also)
find the [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/mini/Battery-Powered/index.html] Battery
Powered Linux Mini-HOWTO useful.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. DSDT: Differentiated System Description Table

Thanks to [http://www.vitavonni.de/] Erich writing this section.

You might need to override the DSDT when certain features like battery status
are incorrectly reported (usually causing error messages to syslog). DELL
laptops usually need this kind of override. Fixed DSDT for many systems are
available on the [http://acpi.sourceforge.net/dsdt/index.php] DSDT page,
along with a patch that tells the kernel to ignore the BIOS-supplied table
but use the compiled-in fixed DSDT.

Basically you need to copy the fixed table into your kernel source with a
special filename (or modifying the filename in the patch supplied at the
[http://acpi.sourceforge.net/dsdt/index.php] DSDT page) This override is
quite easy: instead of loading the DSDT table from bios, the kernel uses the
compiled-in DSDT table. That's all.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Installing from scratch

ACPI is constantly being revised. It is available in later versions of the
2.4.x series kernel (2.4.22 and higher), and all 2.6.x series kernels. If you
would like to use a kernel before 2.4.22, you will need to patch your kernel
source to add ACPI functionality. If at all possible you should use the
latest stable version of the kernel. Patches are available from [http://
acpi.sourceforge.net] acpi.sourceforge.net.

Red Hat Fedora Core 2 now ships with ACPI enabled by default! This is big
progress for the ACPI development team. Congratulations to everyone.

Note Even the latest kernel will sometimes have minor bug fixes available as 
     a patch. You should check the ACPI4Linux web site to see if there are   
     any patches available.                                                  

 You need to get the patch that exactly matches the version of the kernel
that you are running. Since this is the "install from scratch" section I will
assume you know exactly which kernel you will be installing.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1. Choosing a kernel

This document was originally written for the 2.4.20 kernel and has been
updated since to include information about the 2.6.x series kernels. At the
time of this update the 2.6.x series kernels are proving easy for some and
harder for others. (I personally cannot properly power down my computer with
the 2.6.5 kernel.)

If you can, I would recommend waiting to upgrade your kernel to the 2.6.x
series until more bugs are ironed out. There are a lot of changes in the
2.6.x series kernel. When I upgraded to 2.6.5 to update this document I ran
into problems with my wireless connection, my nvidia graphics card, and with
ACPI. Your mileage may vary. I personally had good success with the 2.4.20
with the latest patch and the 2.4.22 kernel with no patch. A Google through
your distribution's mailing list, and the acpi-devel mailing list should help
you to pick the right kernel.

Note This document uses the 2.4.20 kernel as an example for 2.4.x series     
     kernels. Substitute your own kernel version as appropriate.             

Regardless of which kernel you choose, if it is a kernel that requires
patching, it is important to use the latest version of the ACPI patch. Some
distributions have already patched their kernels. This is the case for
Debian, and may be the case for others. For more information on the patches
that have been applied to the Debian kernel source package scan through: /usr
/src/kernel-source-<version>/README.Debian. If you are not using Debian you
will probably still be able to find an equivalent file for your distribution.

A user on acpi-support confirmed that I shouldn't need any of the additional
patches that have been applied to the kernel to run my laptop. If you are
running a production-level server and/or are serving web pages to the
internet, you should really apply any additional security patches.

Warning If a kernel has had other patches applied to it, you may have        
        problems applying the ACPI patch. Of course, an ACPI patch should not
        be applied to a kernel that is already patched for ACPI. As long as  
        there has not been an ACPI patch applied to the kernel it should be  
        possible to apply one now. Depending on the patches applied, you may 
        need to modify some of the Makefiles for your patch to be successful.
        This is beyond my current grasp of reality so it is not covered in   
        this document.                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1.1. Debian-ized pre-patched kernel

If you would prefer to use a Debian-ized kernel instead of a fresh one,
[http://people.debian.org/~maxx] maxx has provided a pre-patched
kernel-source package with the latest patch for the 2.4.20 kernel. This would
be instead of downloading a fresh (non-patched) kernel from [http://
www.kernel.org] www.kernel.org. He sent me an email with the following
details:
�       I took the kernel-source 2.4.20-8 from unstable, removed the �      
        ACPI changes [i.e. the old patch] and applied                       
        acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff.gz from acpi.sf.net since the             
        vanilla 2.4.20 HAS several security leaks (ptrace, hash             
        table, ...).                                                        
                                                                            
        You can find the package at [http://people.debian.org/~maxx/        
        kernel-source-2.4.20/] http://people.debian.org/~maxx/              
        kernel-source-2.4.20/ (I didn't upload the .orig.tar.gz             
        since you can get it from any debian mirror and the .deb is         
        already big enough)                                                 
                             --[http://people.debian.org/~maxx] maxx �      

Warning I have not tested these packages. You may or may not have any luck   
        with them. Please don't email me asking about them, ask maxx instead.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Backups

If you are already running a kernel that is the same version of the one you
are about to patch I recommend creating a fresh directory for the newly
patched kernel. Remember that backups are never a bad thing. These are the
files that I back up:

��*�/etc/lilo.conf
   
��*�/usr/src/*.deb (Debian-specific)
   
��*�/etc/modules
   
��*�/etc/modutils/aliases
   
��*�/usr/src/linux/.config
   
��*�If you are not doing things The Debian Way you should also back up the /
    lib/modules directory, /boot/vmlinuz, /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/
    bzImage and /usr/src/System.map. It's possible my notes on the location
    of these files differs. Do a locate <file> if they're not where I've
    stated they should be.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Download and Unpack the New Kernel

9.1. Required packages

The following is a list of packages required to patch a 2.4.x series kernel.
I am still working on the notes for a 2.6.x series install.

2.4.x series kernels

��*�kernel source files
   
��*�ACPI patch that exactly matches the kernel version
   
��*�debian packages: make, bzip2, gcc, libc6-dev, tk8.3, libncurses5-dev,
    kernel-package
   
��*�after you've patched the kernel add the debian packages: acpid, acpi
    (this last package is available in testing and unstable versions of
    Debian, but not stable)
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.2. Unpack

We need to unpack the bz2 file (bzip2) and shuffle the directories around a
bit. /usr/src/linux probably points to your current kernel. We need it to
point to the new kernel, so we'll do that as well.

��*�    cd /usr/src
   
��*�  mkdir kernel-source-<version> (use an alternate name if you already
    have a version of this kernel installed)
   
��*�  cp linux.<version>.tar.bz2 /usr/src/kernel-source-<version>
   
��*�  cd /usr/src/kernel-source-<version>
   
��*�  tar xjfv linux.<version>.tar.bz2
   
��*�  mv linux.<version> /usr/src/linux-<version>
   
��*�  rm linux (assuming that's a link to your old kernel)
   
��*�  ln -s /usr/src/linux-<version> linux
   

If your kernel needs to be patched, do so now. Instructions are available
from Appendix A.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. Configure the new kernel

Note Patch Your Kernel First                                                 
�    If you are using an old kernel you will need to patch it before you can 
     proceed. Instructions on patching your kernel are available from        
     Appendix A. The 2.6.x series kernels do not need to be patched.         

Now instead of using make menuconfig, I have an excellent alternative. Check
this out: copy your current .config file into /usr/src/linux. Now use "make
oldconfig". It will run through your old config file and see what's been
updated so that you don't have to find all the new options. For everything to
do with ACPI and your specific hardware (Toshibas choose the Toshiba options,
Asus choose the Asus options) choose M for module. There are about ten
different ACPI related options that you will need to select.

In point form, this is how the kernel should be configured:

��*�  cd /usr/src/linux
   
��*�  cp /usr/src/<oldkernel-source-directory>/.config .config
   
��*�  make oldconfig (say M to all new options for ACPI--you can also say "Y"
    if you prefer to compile it directly into your kernel)
   

Now go in to the config file with make menuconfig. I want you do check and
make sure you have your APM (the old stuff) turned off. Under "General Setup"
, make sure that:

��*�  Power Management Support is ON
   
��*�  APM (Advanced Power Management) is OFF (this is the old one--you don't
    even want it as a module unless you really know what you're doing. And if
    you really know what you're doing you're probably not reading this.)
   
��*�everything to do with ACPI should be M (modules) or * (compiled directly
    into the kernel). Read the list carefully. Some options will not apply to
    your hardware.
   

exit and save the new configuration
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11. Compile the new kernel

If you have additional modules that are not part of the main source tree, you
will need to add modules_image when you make your Debian packages. This is
almost inevitable if you're using a laptop and an older kernel. Only my
nvidia graphics card now requires additional modules.

��*�  cd /usr/src/linux
   
��*�  make-kpkg clean
   
��*�  make-kpkg --append-to-version=.<date> kernel_image modules_image
   

Note Naming kernel builds                                                    
�    I no longer use .date to distinguish kernel builds. It was too          
     frustrating to have 030627a, 032627b (etc) as I tried to figure things  
     out. I now use names, in alphabetical order, starting with the kernel   
     build "alien". I'm going to leave the date option in though as I still  
     think it's a good way to do things.                                     
                                                                             
     My current kernel, 2.6.6, is "Elrond." The machine itself is "Smeagol." 

Note Kernel compile help                                                     
�    For non-Debian instructions see the Appendix "Appendix B".              
                                                                             
     For more information on how to compile the kernel The Debian Way please 
     read Creating custom kernels with Debian's kernel-package system        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. Install the new kernel

I like to configure lilo on my own, but do whatever tickles your fancy.

��*�  cd /usr/src
   
��*�  dpkg -i kernel-image-<version>.<date>_10.00.Custom_i386.deb At this
    point I decline all the lilo updates and configure it myself by hand.
   
��*�configure lilo by hand: vi /etc/lilo.conf
   
��*�  load the new kernel into lilo: lilo
   
��*�  If you have any other deb files for your modules you should install
    them now as well. If you're not sure check /usr/src for additional .deb
    files.
   

Note Kernel compile help                                                     
�    For non-Debian instructions see the Appendix "Appendix B".              
                                                                             
     For more information on how to compile the kernel The Debian Way please 
     read Creating custom kernels with Debian's kernel-package system        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. Reboot and test

At this point you should reboot your machine. When your system comes back up
(assuming of course that everything went well and you still have a system),
check to see what kernel you're running with uname -a. It should show you the
one you just built. You also need to make sure the correct patch was
installed. You can do that with   dmesg | grep ACPI.*Subsystem\ revision . It
should give the output: ACPI: Subsystem revision 20021212. The revision is
the date the patch was released. This number will be different than mine if
you are not using the 2.4.20 kernel. To look at all ACPI-related bits that
were loaded/started when your system rebooted, do this: dmesg | grep ACPI . 
dmesg prints your boot messages and grep ACPI makes sure that only
ACPI-related messages are printed.

You can also check to see what version you're using with cat /proc/acpi/info.
Don't believe everything you read though. My output says that S3 is a
supported state, but we already know it's not. It does give the correct
version though, which is useful.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14. Load related modules

Check to see that each of the ACPI modules have been loaded after your
machine boots. You can do this with the command lsmod. You are looking for
the following options: button, battery, fan, ac, thermal and processor. If
you chose "Y" instead of modules when you compiled your kernel, you will not
see this list. The output on my computer looks like this:
Module                  Size  Used by    Tainted: P                          
button                  2420   0 (unused)                                    
battery                 5960   0 (unused)                                    
ac                      1832   0 (unused)                                    
fan                     1608   0 (unused)                                    
thermal                 6664   0 (unused)                                    
processor               8664   0 [thermal]                                   
NVdriver              945408  11                                             

The last module is my graphics card, which uses proprietary drivers. This is
why I have a "P" next to Tainted on the top line.

If you compiled ACPI support in as "M"odules and you don't see the ACPI
modules listed you will need to load the modules by hand. The modules should
be in /lib/modules/<version>. <date>/kernel/drivers/acpi/, and are as
follows:
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         4.1k Jun  3 23:57 ac.o                 
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         9.5k Jun  3 23:57 battery.o            
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         5.2k Jun  3 23:57 button.o             
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         3.7k Jun  3 23:57 fan.o                
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          14k Jun  3 23:57 processor.o          
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root          11k Jun  3 23:57 thermal.o            
-rw-r--r--    1 root     root         6.2k Jun  3 23:57 toshiba_acpi.o       

Note Extensions on Modules                                                   
�    The module name is the bit before .o extension on a module filename.    
     processor.o is the file, and processor is the module name. To install a 
     loadable kernel module use: insmod processor.                           
                                                                             
     The 2.4.x series kernels use the extension .o; however, the 2.6.x series
     kernel use the extension .ko.                                           

The first time I rebooted I loaded them all by hand, typing insmod <
modulename>. I personally load processor first, although there are mixed
feelings on whether or not the order matters.

Note Operating System Power Management (OSPM)                                
�    The first time I tried this the modules were all in separate directories
     and were ospm_<name>. This was probably because I was using an old      
     patch, but it is something to be aware of. The OSPM modules are now     
     deprecated so hopefully you won't see them.                             

To prevent having to load the modules each time you reboot you can do one of
two things: compile them directly into the kernel (bit late for that though,
eh?), or add them to your /etc/modules file. If you don't already have a copy
of the file just create a new one and add each module name (remember, no
dot-o) on a separate line. You can also try running update-modules which
should automatically update your /etc/modules.conf configuration file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15. Switching from APM to ACPI

Do not let apmd and acpid run at the same time unless you REALLY know what
you're doing. Debian will not make sure only one is running at a time. You
will have to check. APM will try to put your system into S3. On the 2.4.x
(and before) series kernels this will quite probably hang your machine. S3 is
not supported until at least 2.5.x. Even the patch won't provide support for
S3 in the 2.4.x series kernels. I personally did an apt-get remove apmd to
solve the hanging problem.

You should also be aware of another little glitch I discovered. The XFree86
server has an option for DPMS (Energy Star) features. The DPMS can states can
be one of standby, suspend, off or on. Since the 2.4.x kernels cannot suspend
to disk, this can cause problems. I fixed my system by doing two things:

��*�  xset -dpms (disables DPMS features)
   
��*�  In /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 I commented out the line Option "DPMS" under
    Section "Monitor".
   

Warning Lost Touchpad and Keyboard Interrupts                                
�       Karl Hegbloom emailed me to say that "keyboard keys sticking,        
        touchpad pointer jumping suddenly across the screen, lockups under   
        heavy network I/O [was] caused by polling the battery state via ACPI 
        and the proc file system." This problem caused, in part, by a delay  
        between the initial request for information about the battery's      
        status and the response. In that delay interrupts may be locked out  
        and synchronization with the keyboard and touch pad may be lost. "The
        overnight solution is to either turn off the battery applet, or      
        reduce its polling frequency." Karl also notes that a BIOS update was
        also able to solve the problem. Thanks Karl!                         
                                                                             
        I did not find this to be a problem for me in the 2.4.x kernels,     
        however, it was a problem when I upgraded to 2.6.5. I use wmacpi to  
        monitor my battery status. By setting the polling frequency to 1 (the
        lowest possible number), I seem to have eliminated the touchpad      
        lockups. In my .xinitrc file I use:                                  
                                                                             
        /usr/bin/wmacpi -s 1                                                 
                                                                             
        The -s 1 represents the polling frequency (sample rate) of "once per 
        minute." The default is 20.                                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

16. Using ACPI

There are a few different applications/daemons you will want to install on
your system: acpid (the daemon that will control your hardware states), and 
acpi (the interface to monitor events and states) are the base install. The 
acpi Debian package is only available in testing and is unstable. If you're
running stable you won't be able to install it without playing around with
apt and your list.sources file. You can probably also compile from source. If
you do get acpi installed you can use it to monitor your system like this: 
acpi -V. The output will tell you about your system. Mine looks like this:
     Thermal 1: ok, 47.1 degrees C                                           
     Thermal 2: ok, 45.1 degrees C                                           
  AC Adapter 1: off-line <-- running off battery                             
  AC Adapter 1: on-line <-- running off AC power                             

Unfortunately, the -V "full version" doesn't work for me. Fortunately I can
still look in each of the acpi files individually for information about my
system. Check in the /proc/acpi directory for various things of importance.
If I want to check my battery I read the following file like this: cat /proc/
acpi/battery/BAT0/state. The output is as follows:
present:                 yes                                                 
capacity state:          ok                                                  
charging state:          discharging <-- running off battery                 
present rate:            unknown                                             
remaining capacity:      3920 mAh <-- watch this number                      
present voltage:         14800 mV                                            
present:                 yes                                                 
capacity state:          ok                                                  
charging state:          discharging                                         
present rate:            unknown                                             
remaining capacity:      3840 mAh <-- capacity getting smaller               
present voltage:         14800 mV                                            
present:                 yes                                                 
capacity state:          ok                                                  
charging state:          charging <-- AC adapter plugged in                  
present rate:            unknown                                             
remaining capacity:      3840 mAh                                            
present voltage:         14800 mV                                            

If I want information about my battery in general I check it out like this: 
cat /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info
present:                 yes                                                 
design capacity:         3920 mAh                                            
last full capacity:      3920 mAh                                            
battery technology:      rechargeable                                        
design voltage:          14800 mV                                            
design capacity warning: 30 mAh                                              
design capacity low:     20 mAh                                              
capacity granularity 1:  10 mAh                                              
capacity granularity 2:  3470 mAh                                            
model number:            Bat0                                                
serial number:                                                               
battery type:            Lion                                                
OEM info:                Acer                                                

You're smart people. You can probably figure it out from here. :)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

17. References and Resources

The following URLs were incredibly useful in writing this HOWTO and generally
getting ACPI up and running.

HOWTOs

HOWTO install ACPI under Linux
        http://sylvestre.ledru.info/howto/howto_acpi.php
   
Linux ACPI-HOWTO
        http://www.columbia.edu/~ariel/acpi/acpi_howto.txt
   
Linux on the road, formerly:   Linux Laptop HOWTO
        http://tuxmobil.org/howtos.html You'll need to scroll a bit, or use
    the HTML version:   http://tuxmobil.org/Mobile-Guide.db/Mobile-Guide.html
   
Hardware in Detail (part of Linux on the road)
        http://tuxmobil.org/Mobile-Guide.db/
    mobile-guide-p2c1-hardware-in-detail.html
   
Power Management with Linux - APM, ACPI, PMU
        http://tuxmobil.org/apm_linux.html
   
Battery Powered Linux Mini-HOWTO
        http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/mini/Battery-Powered/
   
Creating custom kernels with Debian's Kernel-Package system
        http://newbiedoc.sourceforge.net/system/kernel-pkg.html
   

Hardware-specific Install Reports and Info

Installation Reports
        http://acpi.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/InstallationReports
   
Blacklist
        http://acpi.sourceforge.net/documentation/blacklist.html
   
DSDT: Overview
        http://acpi.sourceforge.net/dsdt/index.php Includes links to patched
    DSDTs and HOWTOs about patching your own DSDT.
   
BIOS Settings for the AcerTM (Phoenix BIOS)
        http://help.nec-computers.com/au/pri/item_instr_bios_7521N.asp
   

Software Development Groups

ACPI4Linux
        http://acpi.sf.net
   
ACPI Special Interest Group
        http://www.acpi.info/
   
Intel
        http://developer.intel.com/technology/iapc/acpi/
   

ACPI articles

Fan Speed Control Techniques in PCs
        http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/34-04/fan/
   

Mailing List Threads

debian-laptop thread: can't restore from suspend
        http://lists.debian.org/debian-laptop/2003/debian-laptop-200304/
    msg00367.html
   
acpi-support thread: newbie HOWTO and debian patching
        http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/forum.php?forum_id=7803&max_rows=
    25&style=flat&viewmonth=200304&viewday=17
   
debian-laptop thread: acer 634 acpi & apm
        http://lists.debian.org/debian-laptop/2002/debian-laptop-200212/
    msg00242.html
   

ACPI packages and related software

The Kernel
    Remember to choose "F" for full when you download your kernel source.  
    http://www.kernel.org
   
Debian-ized kernel
    maxx's pre-patched 2.4.20-8 kernel source package. For more information
    see maxx's notes.   http://people.debian.org/~maxx/kernel-source-2.4.20/
   
ACPI kernel patch
    You'll need to pick the version that exactly matches the kernel you're
    using.   http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=36832
   
acpid
    the daemon   http://sourceforge.net/projects/acpid
   
acpi
    text interface   http://grahame.angrygoats.net/acpi.shtml
   
Kacpi
    graphical interface for KDE   http://www.elektronikschule.de/~genannt/
    kacpi/download.html
   
aKpi
    another KDE interface   http://akpi.scmd.at/
   
wmacpi
    WindowMaker DockApp (another GUI)   http://www.ne.jp/asahi/linux/timecop/
   
wmacpi+clecourt
    WindowMaker DockApp (another graphical interface). Handles two battery
    slots.   http://open.iliad.fr/~clecourt/wmacpi/index.html
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
18. Thanks

Much thanks goes out to the following:

��*� [http://acpi.sourceforge.net/mailinglists.html] acpi-support (note: the
    discussion list for ACPI4Linux is now at acpi-devel)
   
��*�  [http://lists.debian.org/debian-laptop/] debian-laptop
   
��*� [http://lists.debian.org/debian-user/] debian-user
   
��*� [http://linuxchix.org/] techtalk
   
��*� TLDP mailing lists (discuss and docbook)
   
��*�Sebastian Henschel for reminding me I'd promised to write it all down
   
��*�Erich Schubert for writing the section on DSDTs
   
��*�Werner Heuser for suggesting I submit the document to The LDP
   
��*�Tabatha Marshall for editing and generally being very enthusiastic about
    learning DocBook
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A. Patching Old Kernels

If you are using a 2.4.x series kernel, the kernel will need to be patched
before you can add ACPI support. Although ACPI is included in the 2.6.x
series kernels you should check to see if any patches have been released to
fix bugs. You can find this information on the ACPI4Linux site.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.1. Getting the Source Files

Download a fresh kernel from [http://www.kernel.org] www.kernel.org. You need
to make sure you get a full kernel. Find the "latest stable version of the
Linux kernel" and click on F for FULL. Wait patiently. A bzipped kernel is
about 26M. If you're feeling particularly geeky you could also wget http://
kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.4/linux-<version>.tar.bz2.

Tip You may or may not want the latest stable version. For more information  
    read the Section 7.1 section of this document. If you decide to use a    
    version of the kernel that is not published on the front page, use the   
    [http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/] /pub/linux/kernel directory on 
    the [http://www.kernel.org] kernel.org site to find the kernel you'd     
    like.                                                                    

While you're waiting, grab a copy of the patch as well. For the 2.4.20 kernel
use the 2.4.20 patch. It's dated 2002.12.12. You'll need to know that number
later when we check to make sure the patch worked. If you are using a
different kernel version make sure you take note of the date of your patch.
Your numbers will differ slightly from the one I use later on.

Once you've got those two files (the kernel and the patch) unpack them and
patch the kernel.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.1.1. Patch

Now we're going to actually patch the kernel. I take one extra step from
[http://acpi.sourceforge.net/download.html] the instructions at ACPI4Linux.
Instead of gunzipping and patching in the same line, I use two lines. This is
purely a matter of preference. When you patch the kernel you want to make
sure there are no error messages. (There is no "yay" line, instead look for
the absence of errors.)

��*�  cd /usr/src/linux
   
��*�  cp acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff.gz /usr/src/linux/. (Your patch filename
    will be different if you're not using the 2.4.20 kernel.)
   
��*�  gunzip acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff.gz
   
��*�  patch -p1 < acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff (this is the actual patching
    part)
   

Once you've finished patching your kernel, continue reading at Section 10.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. ACPI the Non-Debian Way

There is very little difference between The Debian Way and the generic way.
In fact it's probably only 10 or so lines of difference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

B.1. Compile the kernel

The "normal" way of compiling a kernel does not use make-kpkg. Instead, it
uses the following steps:

��*�  cd /usr/src/linux which should point to the 2.4.20 kernel (unzipped)
    files
   
��*�  make dep
   
��*�  make clean
   
��*�  make bzImage
   
��*�  make modules (remember to unpack your modules first)
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
B.2. Install the new kernel

In The Debian Way, you create a deb file which contains information about
where the kernel is (and makes the kernel and yada-yada). In the "normal"
way, you put things where they need to be right away. You need to install
your modules and then configure lilo to point to the new kernel and then run
lilo. If you are not doing things The Debian Way your "install" will look
like this:

��*�  cd /usr/src/linux
   
��*�  make modules_install
   
��*�  cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz.<date>
   
��*�  vi /etc/lilo.conf and copy the structure of your existing kernel. Do
    NOT delete the reference to your existing kernel! You need to point lilo
    to the "vmlinuz" file that was created when you compiled the kernel above
   
��*�lilo (yup, just exactly like that.) Lilo will let you know if it's going
    to have major problems loading the new kernel.
   

Warning Do NOT forget to run lilo before rebooting. Type lilo. It's that easy
        (and that easy to forget).                                           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

B.3. Software packages

You can still use all of the software mentioned in this HOWTO even if you're
not using Debian. Unfortunately it will take a little more effort on your
part to download and install everything. Fortunately it's really not that
difficult. Most software packages include a README file when you gunzip them
which will explain what you need to do to get things working on your system.

Tip Software downloads                                                       
�   For more information about software for ACPI, please use the ACPI        
    packages and related software.                                           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

   
    Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite
    330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
C.1. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
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A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
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The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
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The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
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A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
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The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
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any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
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text.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
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If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
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network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
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in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.5. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
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Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
    that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
    if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
    may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
    that version gives permission.
   
 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
   
 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
    the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
    License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
    required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
 I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an
    item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
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 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
    locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
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    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
    section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone
    of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
    therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
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    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
    title with any Invariant Section.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
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copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
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You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
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between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
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terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
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terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
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Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.12. How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
      Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
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If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead
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If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
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software.





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