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Linux Amateur Radio AX.25 HOWTO

Jeff Tranter, VE3ICH

tranter@pobox.com

v2.0, 19 September 2001


The Linux operating system is perhaps the only operating system in the world
that can boast native and standard support for the AX.25 packet radio
protocol utilized by Amateur Radio operators worldwide. This document
describes how to install and configure this support.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Changes from the previous version
    1.2. Where to obtain new versions of this document
    1.3. Other related documentation
   
   
2. The Packet Radio Protocols and Linux
    2.1. How it all fits together
   
   
3. The AX.25/NET/ROM/ROSE software components
    3.1. Finding the kernel, tools and utility packages
   
   
4. Installing the AX.25/NET/ROM/ROSE software
    4.1. Compiling the kernel
    4.2. The AX.25 library, tools, and application programs
   
   
5. A note on callsigns, addresses and things before we start
    5.1. What are all those T1, T2, N2 and things ?
    5.2. Run time configurable parameters
   
   
6. Configuring an AX.25 port
    6.1. Creating the AX.25 network device
    6.2. Creating the /etc/ax25/axports file
    6.3. Configuring AX.25 routing
   
   
7. Configuring an AX.25 interface for TCP/IP
8. Configuring a NET/ROM port
    8.1. Configuring /etc/ax25/nrports
    8.2. Configuring /etc/ax25/nrbroadcast
    8.3. Creating the NET/ROM Network device
    8.4. Starting the NET/ROM daemon
    8.5. Configuring NET/ROM routing.
   
   
9. Configuring a NET/ROM interface for TCP/IP
10. Configuring a ROSE port
    10.1. Configuring /etc/ax25/rsports
    10.2. Creating the ROSE Network device
    10.3. Configuring ROSE Routing
   
   
11. Making AX.25/NET/ROM/ROSE calls
12. Configuring Linux to accept Packet connections
    12.1. Creating the /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file
    12.2. A simple example ax25d.conf file
    12.3. Starting ax25d
   
   
13. Configuring the node software
    13.1. Creating the /etc/ax25/node.conf file
    13.2. Creating the /etc/ax25/node.perms file
    13.3. Configuring node to run from ax25d
    13.4. Configuring node to run from inetd
   
   
14. Configuring axspawn
    14.1. Creating the /etc/ax25/axspawn.conf file
   
   
15. Configuring the pms
    15.1. Create the /etc/ax25/pms.motd file
    15.2. Create the /etc/ax25/pms.info file
    15.3. Associate AX.25 callsigns with system users
    15.4. Add the PMS to the /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file
    15.5. Test the PMS
   
   
16. Configuring the user_call programs
17. Configuring the ROSE Uplink and Downlink commands
    17.1. Configuring a ROSE downlink
    17.2. Configuring a ROSE uplink
   
   
18. Associating AX.25 callsigns with Linux users
19. Configuring APRS
20. The /proc/ file system entries
21. AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE network programming
    21.1. The address families
    21.2. The header files
    21.3. Callsign mangling and examples
   
   
22. Some sample configurations
    22.1. Small Ethernet LAN with Linux as a router to Radio LAN
    22.2. IPIP encapsulated gateway configuration
    22.3. AXIP encapsulated gateway configuration
    22.4. Linking NOS and Linux using a pipe device
   
   
23. Summary of AX.25-related Linux commands
24. Where do I find more information about .... ?
    24.1. Packet Radio
    24.2. Protocol Documentation
    24.3. Hardware Documentation
    24.4. Linux Ham Radio Software
   
   
25. Discussion relating to Amateur Radio and Linux
26. Acknowledgements
27. Feedback
28. Distribution Policy

1. Introduction

Amateur radio is a non-profit, non-commercial activity enjoyed by hobbyists
world-wide. Radio amateurs are licensed by government authorities to use
portions of the radio spectrum allocated to them for non-commercial,
non-profit activities including personal communication, public service, and
technical experimentation. Packet Radio is a particular digital mode of
communication that makes use of networking protocols to provide computer to
computer communication.

This document was originally an appendix to the HAM-HOWTO, but grew too large
to be reasonably managed in that fashion. This document describes how to
install and configure the native AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE support for Linux. A
few typical configurations are described that could be used as models to work
from.

The Linux implementation of the amateur radio protocols is very flexible. To
people relatively unfamiliar with the Linux operating system the
configuration process may look daunting and complicated. It will take you a
little time to come to understand how the whole thing fits together. You will
find configuration very difficult if you have not properly prepared yourself
by learning about Linux in general. You cannot expect to switch from some
other environment to Linux without learning about Linux itself.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. Changes from the previous version

��*�Document has a new maintainer.
   
��*�Converted to DocBook SGML format. Converted most tabular information to
    use tables.
   
��*�Released under GNU FDL license.
   
��*�Added information on new drivers for Baycom, YAM, 6PACK, and user mode
    soundmodem.
   
��*�Added APRS section.
   
��*�Many miscellaneous updates to reflect changes since document was last
    updated in 1997. There are likely still many errors or outdated
    information.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.2. Where to obtain new versions of this document

The best place to obtain the latest version of this document is from a Linux
Documentation Project archive. The Linux Documentation Project runs a web
server and this document appears there as [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/
AX25-HOWTO.html] the AX25-HOWTO. This document is also available in various
formats from the [http://www.linuxdoc.org] Linux Documentation Project.

You can always contact me, but I pass new versions of the document directly
to the LDP HOWTO coordinator, so if it isn't there then chances are I haven't
finished it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Other related documentation

There is a lot of related documentation. There are many documents that relate
to Linux networking in more general ways and I strongly recommend you also
read these as they will assist you in your efforts and provide you with
deeper insight into other possible configurations. They are:

��*�[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Net-HOWTO/index.html] Linux Networking
    HOWTO
   
��*�[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Ethernet-HOWTO.html] Linux Ethernet HOWTO
   
��*�[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Firewall-HOWTO.html] Linux Firewall and
    Proxy Server HOWTO
   
��*�[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Adv-Routing-HOWTO.html] Linux 2.4 Advanced
    Routing HOWTO
   
��*�[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Netrom-Node.html] Netrom-Node
    mini-Howto
   

You may come across references to a Linux HAM HOWTO. This document is
obsolete and has been replaced by the Hamsoft Linux Ham Radio Applications
and Utilities Database web site. More general Linux information may be found
by referencing other Linux HOWTO documents.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. The Packet Radio Protocols and Linux

The AX.25 protocol offers both connected and connectionless modes of
operation, and is used either by itself for point-point links, or to carry
other protocols such as TCP/IP and NET/ROM.

It is similar to X.25 level 2 in structure, with some extensions to make it
more useful in the amateur radio environment.

The NET/ROM protocol is an attempt at a full network protocol and uses AX.25
at its lowest layer as a datalink protocol. It provides a network layer that
is an adapted form of AX.25. The NET/ROM protocol features dynamic routing
and node aliases.

The ROSE protocol was conceived and first implemented by Tom Moulton W2VY and
is an implementation of the X.25 packet layer protocol and is designed to
operate with AX.25 as its datalink layer protocol. It too provides a network
layer. ROSE addresses take the form of 10 digit numbers. The first four
digits are called the Data Network Identification Code (DNIC) and are taken
from Appendix B of the CCITT X.121 recommendation. More information on the
ROSE protocol may be obtained from the [http://www.rats.org/] RATS Web
server.

Alan Cox developed some early kernel based AX.25 software support for Linux. 
Jonathon Naylor has taken up ongoing development of the code, has added NET/
ROM and ROSE support and is now the developer of the AX.25 related kernel
code. DAMA support was developed by [mailto:jreuter@poboxes.com] Joerg,
DL1BKE. Baycom and Soundmodem support were added by [mailto:
sailer@ife.ee.ethz.ch] Thomas Sailer. The AX.25 software is now maintained by
a small team of developers on [http://www.sourceforge.net] SourceForge.

The Linux code supports KISS and 6PACK based TNC's (Terminal Node
Controllers), the Ottawa PI card, the Gracilis PacketTwin card and other
Z8530 SCC based cards with the generic SCC driver, several parallel and
serial port Baycom modems, and serial port YAM modems. Thomas Sailer's kernel
soundmodem driver supports SoundBlaster and sound cards based on the Crystal
chip set, and his newer user-mode soundmodem uses the standard kernel sound
drivers, so it should work with any sound card supported under Linux.

The user programs contain a simple PMS (Personal Message System), a beacon
facility, a line mode connect program, listen (an example of how to capture
all AX.25 frames at raw interface level), and programs to configure the NET/
ROM protocol. Also included are an AX.25 server style program to handle and
dispatch incoming AX.25 connections and a NET/ROM daemon which does most of
the hard work for NET/ROM support.

There are utility programs to support APRS, including digipeating and
gatewaying to the Internet.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. How it all fits together

The Linux AX.25 implementation is a brand new implementation. While in many
ways it may looks similar to NOS, or BPQ or other AX.25 implementations, it
is none of these and is not identical to any of them. The Linux AX.25
implementation is capable of being configured to behave almost identically to
other implementations, but the configuration process is very different.

To assist you in understanding how you need to think when configuring this
section describes some of the structural features of the AX.25 implementation
and how it fits into the context of the overall Linux structure.

Simplified Protocol Layering Diagram
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| _____________________________________________                             |
||         |           |             |         |                            |
|| AF_AX25 | AF_NETROM |  AF_INET    | AF_ROSE |                            |
||=========|===========|=============|=========|                            |
||         |           |             |         |                            |
||         |           |    TCP/IP   |         |                            |
||         |           |________     |         |                            |
||         |   NET/ROM          |    | ROSE    |                            |
||         |____________________|____|_________|                            |
||            AX.25                            |                            |
||_____________________________________________|                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This diagram simply illustrates that NET/ROM, ROSE and TCP/IP all run
directly on top of AX.25, but that each of these protocols is treated as a
separate protocol at the programming interface. The `_' names are simply the
names given to the `Address Family' of each of these protocols when writing
programs to use them. The important thing to note here is the implicit
dependence on the configuration of your AX.25 devices before you can
configure your NET/ROM, ROSE or TCP/IP devices.

Software Module Diagram of Linux Network Implementation
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ___________________________________________________________________________  |
||         |           |                       ||          |                 | |
|| User    | Programs  |   call        node    ||  Daemons | ax25d  mheardd  | |
||         |           |   pms         mheard  ||          | inetd  netromd  | |
||_________|___________|_______________________||__________|_________________| |
||         | Sockets   |open(), close(), listen(), read(), write(), connect()| |
||         |           |_____________________________________________________| |
||         |           |   AF_AX25   |  AF_NETROM  |   AF_ROSE   |  AF_INET  | |
||         |___________|_____________|_____________|_____________|___________| |
||Kernel   | Protocols |   AX.25     |   NetRom    |     ROSE    | IP/TCP/UDP| |
||         |___________|_____________|_____________|_____________|___________| |
||         | Devices   |   ax0,ax1   |  nr0,nr1    | rose0,rose1 | eth0,ppp0 | |
||         |___________|_____________|_____________|_____________|___________| |
||         | Drivers   | Kiss   PI2   PacketTwin   SCC   BPQ     | slip ppp  | |
||         |           |     Soundmodem      Baycom              | ethernet  | |
||_________|___________|_________________________________________|___________| |
||Hardware | PI2 Card, PacketTwin Card, SCC card, Serial port, Ethernet Card | |
||_________|_________________________________________________________________| |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This diagram is a little more general than the first. This diagram attempts
to show the relationship between user applications, the kernel and the
hardware. It also shows the relationship between the Socket application
programming interface, the actual protocol modules, the kernel networking
devices and the device drivers. Anything in this diagram is dependent on
anything underneath it, and in general you must configure from the bottom of
the diagram upwards. So for example, if you want to run the call program you
must also configure the hardware, then ensure that the kernel has the
appropriate device driver, that you create the appropriate network device,
that the kernel includes the desired protocol that presents a programming
interface that the call program can use. I have attempted to lay out this
document in roughly that order.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. The AX.25/NET/ROM/ROSE software components

The AX.25 software is comprised of three components: the kernel source, the
network configuration tools and the utility programs.

AX.25 support in the Linux kernel has been fairly stable since the 2.2 series
of kernel versions. This document assumes you are using the most recent
kernel, which as the time of writing was 2.4.9.

Note Software versions listed in this document were the latest at the time of
     writing, but are subject to change. Check for newer versions when       
     downloading them.                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Finding the kernel, tools and utility packages

3.1.1. The kernel source

The kernel source can be found at www.kernel.org and ftp.kernel.org. For the
2.4.9 kernel it would be downloaded from [ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/
kernel/v2.4/linux-2.4.9.tar.gz] ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.4/
linux-2.4.9.tar.gz.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1.2. The network tools

The latest release of the standard Linux network tools support AX.25 and NET/
ROM and can be found at [http://www.tazenda.demon.co.uk/phil/net-tools] http:
//www.tazenda.demon.co.uk/phil/net-tools.

The latest ipchains package can be found at [http://netfilter.filewatcher.org
/ipchains/] http://netfilter.filewatcher.org/ipchains.

Note It is usually not necessary to download and install these as any recent 
     Linux distribution should include them.                                 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1.3. The AX.25 utilities

The old ax25-utils used with the 2.0 and 2.1 kernels is now obsolete and has
been replaced with new packages hosted on [http://sourceforge.net]
SourceForge at [http://sourceforge.net/projects/hams] http://sourceforge.net/
projects/hams.

The software is distributed as three packages: the AX.25 library, tools, and
applications. At the time of writing the most recent versions were the
following:

��*�[ftp://hams.sourceforge.net/pub/hams/ax25/libax25-0.0.7.tar.gz] ftp://
    hams.sourceforge.net/pub/hams/ax25/libax25-0.0.7.tar.gz
   
��*�[ftp://hams.sourceforge.net/pub/hams/ax25/ax25-tools-0.0.6.tar.gz] ftp://
    hams.sourceforge.net/pub/hams/ax25/ax25-tools-0.0.6.tar.gz
   
��*�[ftp://hams.sourceforge.net/pub/hams/ax25/ax25-apps-0.0.4.tar.gz] ftp://
    hams.sourceforge.net/pub/hams/ax25/ax25-apps-0.0.4.tar.gz
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1.4. The APRS utilities

If you want to use APRS you can download [http://sourceforge.net/projects/
aprsd/] aprsd and [http://www.users.cloud9.net/~alan/ham/aprs/] aprsdigi:

��*�[http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/aprsd/aprsd-2.1.4.tar.gz] http://
    prdownloads.sourceforge.net/aprsd/aprsd-2.1.4.tar.gz
   
��*�[http://www.users.cloud9.net/~alan/ham/aprs/aprsdigi-2.0-pre3.tar.gz]
    http://www.users.cloud9.net/~alan/ham/aprs/aprsdigi-2.0-pre3.tar.gz
   

 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Installing the AX.25/NET/ROM/ROSE software

To successfully install AX.25 support on your Linux system you must configure
and install an appropriate kernel and then install the AX.25 utilities.

Tip Rather than building and installing from source, you may prefer to       
    install prebuilt binary packages for your system. Debian and RPM format  
    packages are available on various archive sites including [http://       
    www.debian.org] http://www.debian.org and [http://rpmfind.net] http://   
    rpmfind.net; look for "ax25". Incidently, the Debian Linux distribution  
    is considered by many people to be one of the more "Amateur Radio        
    friendly" distributions, and provides many amateur radio applications as 
    Debian packages (one of the founders of the project is a ham).           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Compiling the kernel

If you are already familiar with the process of compiling the Linux kernel
then you can skip this section, just be sure to select the appropriate
options when compiling the kernel. If you are not, then read on. You may also
want to read the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html] Linux
Kernel HOWTO. 

The normal place for the kernel source to be unpacked to is the /usr/src
directory into a subdirectory called linux. To do this you should be logged
in as root and execute a series of commands similar to the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# cd /usr/src                                                              |
|# mv linux linux.old                                                       |
|# tar xzvf linux-2.4.9.tar.gz                                              |
|# cd linux                                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

After you have unpacked the kernel source, you need to run the configuration
script and choose the options that suit your hardware configuration and the
options that you wish built into your kernel. You do this by using the
command:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# make menuconfig                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you are running X you can get a graphical interface using:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# make xconfig                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You might also try:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# make config                                                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

I'm going to describe the full screen method (menuconfig) because it is
easier to move around, but use whichever you are most comfortable with.

In either case you will be offered a range of options at which you must
answer `Y' or `N'. (Note you may also answer `M' if you are using modules.
For the sake of simplicity I will assume you are not, please make appropriate
modifications if you are).

The options most relevant to an AX.25 configuration are:

+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Code maturity level options  --->                                              |
|    [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers                  |
|    ...                                                                        |
|General setup  --->                                                            |
|    ...                                                                        |
|    [*] Networking support                                                     |
|    ...                                                                        |
|Networking options  --->                                                       |
|    <*> UNIX domain sockets                                                    |
|    ...                                                                        |
|    [*] TCP/IP networking                                                      |
|    ...                                                                        |
|    [?] IP: tunneling                                                          |
|    ...                                                                        |
|Amateur Radio Support --->                                                     |
|    --- Packet Radio protocols                                                 |
|    [*]   Amateur Radio AX.25 Level 2 protocol                                 |
|    [?]     AX.25 DAMA Slave support                                           |
|    [?]     Amateur Radio NET/ROM protocol                                     |
|    [?]     Amateur Radio X.25 PLP (Rose)                                      |
|    AX.25 network device drivers  --->                                         |
|    <?> Serial port KISS driver                                                |
|    <?> Serial port 6PACK driver                                               |
|    <?> BPQ Ethernet driver                                                    |
|    <?> High-speed (DMA) SCC driver for AX.25                                  |
|    <?> Z8530 SCC driver                                                       |
|    <?> BAYCOM ser12 fullduplex driver for AX.25                               |
|    <?> BAYCOM ser12 halfduplex driver for AX.25                               |
|    <?> BAYCOM picpar and par96 driver for AX.25                               |
|    <?> BAYCOM epp driver for AX.25                                            |
|    <?> Soundcard modem driver                                                 |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for Soundblaster and compatible cards             |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for WSS and Crystal cards                         |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 1200 baud AFSK modulation                     |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 2400 baud AFSK modulation (7.3728MHz crystal) |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 2400 baud AFSK modulation (8MHz crystal)      |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 2666 baud AFSK modulation                     |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 4800 baud HAPN-1 modulation                   |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 4800 baud PSK modulation                      |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 9600 baud FSK G3RUH modulation                |
|    <?> YAM driver for AX.25                                                   |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The options I have flagged with a `*' are those that you must must answer `Y'
to. The rest are dependent on what hardware you have and what other options
you want to include. Some of these options are described in more detail later
on, so if you don't know what you want yet, then read ahead and come back to
this step later.

After you have completed the kernel configuration you should be able to
cleanly compile your new kernel:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# make dep                                                                 |
|# make clean                                                               |
|# make zImage                                                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Make sure you move your arch/i386/boot/zImage file wherever you want it and
then edit your /etc/lilo.conf file and rerun lilo to ensure that you actually
boot from it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.1. A word about kernel modules

 Compiling drivers as modules is useful if you only use AX.25 occasionally
and want to be able to load and unload them on demand to save system
resources. However, some people have problems getting the modularized drivers
working because they are more complicated to configure. If you've chosen to
compile any drivers as modules, then you'll also need to run the commands:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# make modules                                                             |
|# make modules_install                                                     |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

to install your modules in the appropriate location.

You will also need to add some entries into your /etc/modules.conf file to
ensure that the kerneld program knows how to locate the kernel modules. You
should add/modify the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|alias net-pf-3     ax25                                                    |
|alias net-pf-6     netrom                                                  |
|alias net-pf-11    rose                                                    |
|alias tty-ldisc-1  slip                                                    |
|alias tty-ldisc-3  ppp                                                     |
|alias tty-ldisc-5  mkiss                                                   |
|alias bc0          baycom                                                  |
|alias nr0          netrom                                                  |
|alias pi0a         pi2                                                     |
|alias pt0a         pt                                                      |
|alias scc0         optoscc    (or one of the other scc drivers)            |
|alias sm0          soundmodem                                              |
|alias tunl0        newtunnel                                               |
|alias char-major-4 serial                                                  |
|alias char-major-5 serial                                                  |
|alias char-major-6 lp                                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip On Debian-based Linux systems these entries should go into the file /etc/
    modutils/aliases and then you need to run /sbin/update-mpodules.         
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. The AX.25 library, tools, and application programs

After you have successfully compiled and booted your new kernel you need to
compile and install the ax25 library, tools, and application programs.

To compile and install libax25 you should use a series of commands similar to
the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# cd /usr/src                                                              |
|# tar xzvf libax25-0.0.7.tar.gz                                            |
|# cd libax25-0.0.7                                                         |
|# ./configure --exec_prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var    |
|# make                                                                     |
|# make install                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Tip The arguments to the configure command ensure that the files will be     
    installed in the "standard" places under the directory /usr in           
    subdirectories bin, sbin, etc and man. If you simply run configure with  
    no options it will default to putting all files under /usr/local. This   
    can cause the situation where you have configuration files in both /usr  
    and /usr/local. If you want to ensure that this can't happen you can make
    /usr/local/etc/ax25 a symbolic link to /etc/ax25 at the very beginning of
    the install process and then you won't have to worry about it.           

If this is a first time installation, that is you've never installed any ax25
code on your machine before, you should also use the:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# make installconf                                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

command to install some sample configuration files into the /etc/ax25/
directory from which to work.

You can now build install the AX.25 tools in a similar fashion:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# cd /usr/src                                                              |
|# tar xzvf ax25-tools-0.0.6.tar.gz                                         |
|# cd ax25-tools-0.0.6                                                      |
|# ./configure --prefix=/usr  --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var        |
|# make                                                                     |
|# make install                                                             |
|# make installconf (if you want to install the configuration files)        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

And finally you can install the AX.25 applications:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# cd /usr/src                                                              |
|# tar xzvf ax25-apps-0.0.4.tar.gz                                          |
|# cd ax25-apps-0.0.4                                                       |
|# ./configure --prefix=/usr  --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var        |
|# make                                                                     |
|# make install                                                             |
|# make installconf (if you want to install the configuration files)        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you get messages something like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -I../lib -c call.c                       |
|call.c: In function `statline':                                            |
|call.c:268: warning: implicit declaration of function `attron'             |
|call.c:268: `A_REVERSE' undeclared (first use this function)               |
|call.c:268: (Each undeclared identifier is reported only once              |
|call.c:268: for each function it appears in.)                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

then you should double check that you have the ncurses package properly
installed on your system. The configuration script attempts to locate your
package in the common locations, but some installations have it badly
installed and it is unable to locate them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. A note on callsigns, addresses and things before we start

Each AX.25 and NET/ROM port on your system must have a callsign/ssid
allocated to it. These are configured in the configuration files that will be
described in detail later on.

Some AX.25 implementations such as NOS and BPQ will allow you to configure
the same callsign/ssid on each AX.25 and NET/ROM port. For somewhat
complicated technical reasons Linux does not allow this. This isn't as big a
problem in practice as it might seem.

This means that there are things you should be aware of and take into
consideration when doing your configurations.

 

 1. Each AX.25 and NET/ROM port must be configured with a unique callsign/
    ssid.
   
 2. TCP/IP will use the callsign/ssid of the AX.25 port it is being
    transmitted or received by, ie the one you configured for the AX.25
    interface in point 1.
   
 3. NET/ROM will use the callsign/ssid specified for it in its configuration
    file, but this callsign is only used when your NET/ROM is speaking to
    another NET/ROM, this is not the callsign/ssid that AX.25 users who wish
    to use your NET/ROM `node' will use. More on this later.
   
 4. ROSE will, by default, use the callsign/ssid of the AX.25 port, unless
    the ROSE callsign has been specifically set using the `rsparms' command.
    If you set a callsign/ssid using the `rsparms' command then ROSE will use
    this callsign/ssid on all ports.
   
 5. Other programs, such as the `ax25d' program can listen using any callsign
    /ssid that they wish and these may be duplicated across different ports.
   
 6. If you are careful with routing you can configure the same IP address on
    all ports if you wish.
   

 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. What are all those T1, T2, N2 and things ?

Not every AX.25 implementation is a TNC2. Linux uses nomenclature that
differs in some respects from that you will be used to if your sole
experience with packet is a TNC. The following table should help you
interpret what each of the configurable items are, so that when you come
across them later in this text you'll understand what they mean.

+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|Linux |TAPR TNC|Description                                                |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|T1    |FRACK   |How long to wait before retransmitting an unacknowledged   |
|      |        |frame.                                                     |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|T2    |RESPTIME|The minimum amount of time to wait for another frame to be |
|      |        |received before transmitting an acknowledgement.           |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|T3    |CHECK   |The period of time we wait between sending a check that the|
|      |        |link is still active.                                      |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|N2    |RETRY   |How many times to retransmit a frame before assuming the   |
|      |        |connection has failed.                                     |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|Idle  |�       |The period of time a connection can be idle before we close|
|      |        |it down.                                                   |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
|Window|MAXFRAME|The maximum number of unacknowledged transmitted frames.   |
+------+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2. Run time configurable parameters

The kernel allows you to change many parameters at run time. If you take a
careful look at the /proc/sys/net/ directory structure you will see many
files with useful names that describe various parameters for the network
configuration. The files in the /proc/sys/net/ax25/ directory each represent
one configured AX.25 port. The name of the file relates to the name of the
port.

The structure of the files in /proc/sys/net/ax25/portname/ is as follows:

+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|Filename             |Meaning           |Values                 |Default|
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|ip_default_mode      |IP Default Mode   |0=DG 1=VC              |0      |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|ax25_default_mode    |AX.25 Default Mode|0=Normal 1=Extended    |0      |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|backoff_type         |Backoff           |0=Linear 1=Exponential |1      |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|connect_mode         |Connected Mode    |0=No 1=Yes             |1      |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|standard_window_size |Standard Window   |1 .. 7                 |2      |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|extended_window_size |Extended Window   |1 .. 63                |32     |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|t1_timeout           |T1 Timeout        |1s .. 30s              |10s    |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|t2_timeout           |T2 Timeout        |1s .. 20s              |3s     |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|t3_timeout           |T3 Timeout        |0s .. 3600s            |300s   |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|idle_timeout         |Idle Timeout      |0m or greater          |20m    |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|maximum_retry_count  |N2                |1 .. 31                |10     |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+
|maximum_packet_length|AX.25 Frame Length|1 .. 512               |256    |
+---------------------+------------------+-----------------------+-------+

In the table T1, T2 and T3 are given in seconds, and the Idle Timeout is
given in minutes. But please note that the values used in the sysctl
interface are given in internal units where the time in seconds is multiplied
by 10, this allows resolution down to 1/10 of a second. With timers that are
allowed to be zero, e.g. T3 and Idle, a zero value indicates that the timer
is disabled.

The structure of the files in /proc/sys/net/netrom/ is as follows:

+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|Filename                       |Meaning |Values |Default |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|default_path_quality           |�       |�      |10      |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|link_fails_count               |�       |�      |2       |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|network_ttl_initialiser        |�       |�      |16      |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|obsolescence_count_initialiser |�       |�      |6       |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|routing_control                |�       |�      |1       |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|transport_acknowledge_delay    |�       |�      |50      |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|transport_busy_delay           |�       |�      |1800    |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|transport_maximum_tries        |�       |�      |3       |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|transport_requested_window_size|�       |�      |4       |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+
|transport_timeout              |�       |�      |1200    |
+-------------------------------+--------+-------+--------+

The structure of the files in /proc/sys/net/rose/ is as follows:

+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|Filename                      |Meaning|Values|Default|
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|acknowledge_hold_back_timeout |�      |�     |50     |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|call_request_timeout          |�      |�     |2000   |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|clear_request_timeout         |�      |�     |1800   |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|link_fail_timeout             |�      |�     |1200   |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|maximum_virtual_circuits      |�      |�     |50     |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|reset_request_timeout         |�      |�     |1800   |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|restart_request_timeout       |�      |�     |1800   |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|routing_control               |�      |�     |1      |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+
|window_size                   |�      |�     |3      |
+------------------------------+-------+------+-------+

To set a parameter all you need to do is write the desired value to the file
itself, for example to check and set the ROSE window size you'd use something
like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# cat /proc/sys/net/rose/window_size                                       |
|3                                                                          |
|# echo 4 >/proc/sys/net/rose/window_size                                   |
|# cat /proc/sys/net/rose/window_size                                       |
|4                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Configuring an AX.25 port

Each of the AX.25 applications read a particular configuration file to obtain
the parameters for the various AX.25 ports configured on your Linux machine.
For AX.25 ports the file that is read is the /etc/ax25/axports file. You must
have an entry in this file for each AX.25 port you want on your system.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. Creating the AX.25 network device

The network device is what is listed when you use the `ifconfig' command.
This is the object that the Linux kernel sends and receives network data
from. Nearly always the network device has a physical port associated with
it, but there are occasions where this isn't necessary. The network device
does relate directly to a device driver.

In the Linux AX.25 code there are a number of device drivers. The most common
is probably the KISS driver, but others are the SCC driver(s), the Baycom
driver and the Soundmodem driver.

Each of these device drivers will create a network device when it is started.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.1. Creating a KISS device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Amateur Radio support  --->                                                |
|    [*] Amateur Radio support                                              |
|    --- Packet Radio protocols                                             |
|    <*>   Amateur Radio AX.25 Level 2 protocol                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    AX.25 network device drivers  --->                                     |
|    --- AX.25 network device drivers                                       |
|    <*> Serial port KISS driver                                            |
|    ...                                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

Probably the most common configuration will be for a KISS TNC on a serial
port. You will need to have the TNC preconfigured and connected to your
serial port. You can use a communications program like minicom or seyon to
configure the TNC into kiss mode.

To create a KISS device you use the kissattach program. In it simplest form
you can use the kissattach program as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/kissattach /dev/ttyS0 radio 44.135.96.242                      |
|# kissparms -p radio -t 100 -s 100 -r 25                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The kissattach command will create a KISS network device. These devices are
called `ax[0-9]'. The first time you use the kissattach command it creates
`ax0', the second time it creates `ax1' etc. Each KISS device has an
associated serial port.

The kissparms command allows you to set various KISS parameters on a KISS
device.

Specifically the example presented would create a KISS network device using
the serial device `/dev/ttyS0' and the entry from the /etc/ax25/axports with
a port name of `radio'. It then configures it with a txdelay and slottime of
100 milliseconds and a ppersist value of 25.

Please refer to the man pages for more information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.1.1. Configuring for Dual Port TNC's

The mkiss utility included in the ax25-utils distribution allows you to make
use of both modems on a dual port TNC. Configuration is fairly simple. It
works by taking a single serial device connected to a single multiport TNC
and making it look like a number of devices each connected to a single port
TNC. You do this before you do any of the AX.25 configuration. The devices
that you then do the AX.25 configuration on are pseudo-TTY interfaces, (/dev/
ttyq*), and not the actual serial device. Pseudo-TTY devices create a kind of
pipe through which programs designed to talk to tty devices can talk to other
programs designed to talk to tty devices. Each pipe has a master and a slave
end. The master end is generally called `/dev/ptyq*' and the slave ends are
called `/dev/ttyq*'. There is a one to one relationship between masters and
slaves, so /dev/ptyq0 is the master end of a pipe with /dev/ttyq0 as its
slave. You must open the master end of a pipe before opening the slave end. 
mkiss exploits this mechanism to split a single serial device into separate
devices.

Example: if you have a dual port TNC and it is connected to your /dev/ttyS0
serial device at 9600 bps, the command:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/mkiss -s 9600 /dev/ttyS0 /dev/ptyq0 /dev/ptyq1                 |
|# /usr/sbin/kissattach /dev/ttyq0 port1 44.135.96.242                      |
|# /usr/sbin/kissattach /dev/ttyq1 port2 44.135.96.242                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

would create two pseudo-tty devices that each look like a normal single port
TNC. You would then treat /dev/ttyq0 and /dev/ttyq1 just as you would a
conventional serial device with TNC connected. This means you'd then use the 
kissattach command as described above, on each of those, in the example for
AX.25 ports called port1 and port2. You shouldn't use kissattach on the
actual serial device as the mkiss program uses it.

The mkiss command has a number of optional arguments that you may wish to
use. They are summarized as follows:

-c
    enables the addition of a one byte checksum to each KISS frame. This is
    not supported by most KISS implementations, it is supported by the G8BPG
    KISS ROM.
   
-s <speed>
    sets the speed of the serial port.
   
-h
    enables hardware handshaking on the serial port, it is off by default.
    Most KISS implementation do not support this, but some do.
   
-l
    enables logging of information to the syslog log file.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.1.2. Creating a 6PACK device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Amateur Radio support  --->                                                |
|    [*] Amateur Radio support                                              |
|    --- Packet Radio protocols                                             |
|    <*>   Amateur Radio AX.25 Level 2 protocol                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    AX.25 network device drivers  --->                                     |
|    --- AX.25 network device drivers                                       |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    <*> Serial port 6PACK driver                                           |
|    ...                                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

6PACK is a protocol that is supported by some TNCs as an alternative to KISS.
It is used in a similar fashion to the KISS driver, using the slattach
command instead of kissattach.

A mini HOWTO on the 6PACK driver is included in the kernel source code as the
file /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/6pack.txt.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.3. Creating a Baycom device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Amateur Radio support  --->                                                |
|    [*] Amateur Radio support                                              |
|    --- Packet Radio protocols                                             |
|    <*>   Amateur Radio AX.25 Level 2 protocol                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    AX.25 network device drivers  --->                                     |
|    --- AX.25 network device drivers                                       |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    <?> BAYCOM ser12 fullduplex driver for AX.25                           |
|    <?> BAYCOM ser12 halfduplex driver for AX.25                           |
|    <?> BAYCOM picpar and par96 driver for AX.25                           |
|    <?> BAYCOM epp driver for AX.25                                        |
|    ...                                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

[mailto:sailer@ife.ee.ethz.ch] Thomas Sailer, despite the popularly held
belief that it would not work very well, has developed Linux support for
Baycom modems. His driver supports the Ser12 serial port, Par96 and the
enhanced PicPar parallel port modems. Further information about the modems
themselves may be obtained from the [http://www.baycom.de/] Baycom Web site.

Your first step should be to determine the i/o and addresses of the serial or
parallel port(s) you have Baycom modem(s) connected to. When you have these
you must configure the Baycom driver with them.

The Baycom driver creates network devices called: bc0, bc1, bc2 etc. when it
is configured.

The sethdlc utility allows you to configure the driver with these parameters,
or, if you have only one Baycom modem installed you may specify the
parameters on the insmod command line when you load the Baycom module.

For example, a simple configuration. Disable the serial driver for COM1: then
configure the Baycom driver for a Ser12 serial port modem on COM1: with the
software DCD option enabled:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# setserial /dev/ttyS0 uart none                                           |
|# insmod hdlcdrv                                                           |
|# insmod baycom mode="ser12*" iobase=0x3f8 irq=4                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Par96 parallel port type modem on LPT1: using hardware DCD detection:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# insmod hdlcdrv                                                           |
|# insmod baycom mode="par96" iobase=0x378 irq=7 options=0                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This is not really the preferred way to do it. The sethdlc utility works just
as easily with one device as with many.

The sethdlc man page has the full details, but a couple of examples will
illustrate the most important aspects of this configuration. The following
examples assume you have already loaded the Baycom module using:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# insmod hdlcdrv                                                           |
|# insmod baycom                                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

or that you compiled the kernel with the driver inbuilt.

Configure the bc0 device driver as a Parallel port Baycom modem on LPT1: with
software DCD:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -p -i bc0 mode par96 io 0x378 irq 7                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Configure the bc1 device driver as a Serial port Baycom modem on COM1:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -p -i bc1 mode "ser12*" io 0x3f8 irq 4                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.4. Configuring the AX.25 channel access parameters

The AX.25 channel access parameters are the equivalent of the KISS ppersist,
txdelay and slottime type parameters. Again you use the sethdlc utility for
this.

Again the sethdlc man page is the source of the most complete information but
another example of two won't hurt:

Configure the bc0 device with TxDelay of 200 mS, SlotTime of 100 mS, PPersist
of 40 and half duplex:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -i bc0 -a txd 200 slot 100 ppersist 40 half                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note that the timing values are in milliseconds.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.4.1. Configuring the Kernel AX.25 to use the Baycom device

The Baycom driver creates standard network devices that the AX.25 Kernel code
can use. Configuration is much the same as that for a PI or PacketTwin card.

The first step is to configure the device with an AX.25 callsign. The 
ifconfig utility may be used to perform this.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/ifconfig bc0 hw ax25 VK2KTJ-15 up                                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

will assign the Baycom device bc0 the AX.25 callsign VK2KTJ-15. Alternatively
you can use the axparms command, you'll still need to use the ifconfig
command to bring the device up though:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ifconfig bc0 up                                                          |
|# axparms -setcall bc0 vk2ktj-15                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

The next step is to create an entry in the /etc/ax25/axports file as you
would for any other device. The entry in the axports file is associated with
the network device you've configured by the callsign you configure. The entry
in the axports file that has the callsign that you configured the Baycom
device with is the one that will be used to refer to it.

You may then treat the new AX.25 device as you would any other. You can
configure it for TCP/IP, add it to ax25d and run NET/ROM or ROSE over it as
you please.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.5. Creating a kernel Soundmodem device

Kernel Compile Options:
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Amateur Radio support  --->                                                    |
|    [*] Amateur Radio support                                                  |
|    --- Packet Radio protocols                                                 |
|    <*>   Amateur Radio AX.25 Level 2 protocol                                 |
|    ...                                                                        |
|    AX.25 network device drivers  --->                                         |
|    --- AX.25 network device drivers                                           |
|    ...                                                                        |
|    <*> Soundcard modem driver                                                 |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for Soundblaster and compatible cards             |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for WSS and Crystal cards                         |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 1200 baud AFSK modulation                     |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 2400 baud AFSK modulation (7.3728MHz crystal) |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 2400 baud AFSK modulation (8MHz crystal)      |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 2666 baud AFSK modulation                     |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 4800 baud HAPN-1 modulation                   |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 4800 baud PSK modulation                      |
|    [?]   soundmodem support for 9600 baud FSK G3RUH modulation                |
|    ...                                                                        |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Thomas Sailer has built a driver for the kernel that allows you to use your
soundcard as a modem. Connect your radio directly to your soundcard to play
packet! Thomas recommends at least a 486DX2/66 if you want to use this
software as all of the digital signal processing is done by the main CPU.

The driver currently emulates 1200 bps AFSK, 4800 HAPN and 9600 FSK (G3RUH
compatible) modem types. The only sound cards currently supported are
SoundBlaster and Windows Sound System Compatible models. If you have a sound
card of another type, you can try the user-mode soundmodem described later in
this document.

The sound cards require some circuitry to help them drive the Push-To-Talk
circuitry, and information on this is available from Thomas's Soundmodem PTT
circuit web page. There are quite a few possible options, they are: detect
the sound output from the soundcard, or use output from a parallel port,
serial port or MIDI port. Circuit examples for each of these are on Thomas's
site.

The Soundmodem driver creates network devices called: sm0, sm1, sm2 etc when
it is configured.

Note The Soundmodem driver competes for the same resources as the Linux sound
     driver, so if you wish to use the Soundmodem driver you must ensure that
     the Linux sound driver is not installed. You can, of course, compile    
     them both as modules and insert and remove them as you wish.            
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.5.1. Configuring the sound card

The Soundmodem driver does not initialize the sound card. The ax25-utils
package includes a utility to do this called `setcrystal' that may be used
for sound cards based on the Crystal chip set. If you have some other card
then you will have to use some other software to initialize it. Its syntax is
fairly straightforward:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|setcrystal [-w wssio] [-s sbio] [-f synthio] [-i irq] [-d dma] [-c dma2]   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

So, for example, if you wished to configure a SoundBlaster card at i/o base
address 0x388, irq 10 and DMA 1 you would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# setcrystal -s 0x388 -i 10 -d 1                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

To configure a Window Sound System card at i/o base address 0x534, irq 5, DMA
3 you would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# setcrystal -w 0x534 -i 5 -d 3                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The [-f synthio] parameter is the set the synthesizer address, and the [-c
dma2] parameter is to set the second DMA channel to allow full duplex
operation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.5.2. Configuring the Soundmodem driver

When you have configured the soundcard you need to configure the driver
telling it where the sound card is located and what sort of modem you wish it
to emulate.

The sethdlc utility allows you to configure the driver with these parameters,
or, if you have only one soundcard installed you may specify the parameters
on the insmod command line when you load the Soundmodem module.

For example, a simple configuration, with one SoundBlaster soundcard
configured as described above emulating a 1200 bps modem:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# insmod hdlcdrv                                                           |
|# insmod soundmodem mode="sbc:afsk1200" iobase=0x220 irq=5 dma=1           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This is not really the preferred way to do it. The sethdlc utility works just
as easily with one device as with many.

The sethdlc man page has the full details, but a couple of examples will
illustrate the most important aspects of this configuration. The following
examples assume you have already loaded the Soundmodem modules using:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# insmod hdlcdrv                                                           |
|# insmod soundmodem                                                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

or that you compiled the kernel with the driver inbuilt.

Configure the driver to support the Windows Sound System card we configured
above to emulate a G3RUH 9600 compatible modem as device sm0 using a parallel
port at 0x378 to key the Push-To-Talk:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -p -i sm0 mode wss:fsk9600 io 0x534 irq 5 dma 3 pario 0x378      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Configure the driver to support the SoundBlaster card we configured above to
emulate a 4800 bps HAPN modem as device sm1 using the serial port located at
0x2f8 to key the Push-To-Talk:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -p -i sm1 mode sbc:hapn4800 io 0x388 irq 10 dma 1 serio 0x2f8    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Configure the driver to support the SoundBlaster card we configured above to
emulate a 1200 bps AFSK modem as device sm1 using the serial port located at
0x2f8 to key the Push-To-Talk:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -p -i sm1 mode sbc:afsk1200 io 0x388 irq 10 dma 1 serio 0x2f8    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.5.3. Configuring the AX.25 channel access parameters

The AX.25 channel access parameters are the equivalent of the KISS ppersist,
txdelay and slottime type parameters. You use the sethdlc utility for this as
well.

Again the sethdlc man page is the source of the most complete information but
another example of two won't hurt:

Configure the sm0 device with TxDelay of 100 mS, SlotTime of 50mS, PPersist
of 128 and full duplex:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sethdlc -i sm0 -a txd 100 slot 50 ppersist 128 full                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note that the timing values are in milliseconds.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.5.4. Setting the audio levels and tuning the driver

It is very important that the audio levels be set correctly for any radio
based modem to work. This is equally true of the Soundmodem. Thomas has
developed some utility programs that make this task easier. They are called 
smdiag and smmixer.

smdiag
    provides two types of display, either an oscilloscope type display or an
    eye pattern type display.
   
smmixer
    allows you to actually adjust the transmit and receive audio levels.
   

To start the smdiag utility in 'eye' mode for the Soundmodem device sm0 you
would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# smdiag -i sm0 -e                                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

To start the smmixer utility for the Soundmodem device sm0 you would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# smmixer -i sm0                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.5.5. Configuring the Kernel AX.25 to use the Soundmodem

The Soundmodem driver creates standard network devices that the AX.25 Kernel
code can use. Configuration is much the same as that for a PI or PacketTwin
card.

The first step is to configure the device with an AX.25 callsign. The 
ifconfig utility may be used to perform this.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/ifconfig sm0 hw ax25 VK2KTJ-15 up                                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

will assign the Soundmodem device sm0 the AX.25 callsign VK2KTJ-15.
Alternatively you can use the axparms command, but you still need the 
ifconfig utility to bring the device up:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ifconfig sm0 up                                                          |
|# axparms -setcall sm0 vk2ktj-15                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The next step is to create an entry in the /etc/ax25/axports file as you
would for any other device. The entry in the axports file is associated with
the network device you've configured by the callsign you configure. The entry
in the axports file that has the callsign that you configured the Soundmodem
device with is the one that will be used to refer to it.

You may then treat the new AX.25 device as you would any other. You can
configure it for TCP/IP, add it to ax25d and run NET/ROM or ROSE over it as
you please.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.6. Creating a user-mode Soundmodem device

Kernel Compile Options: not applicable 

Thomas Sailer has written a sound modem driver that runs in user-mode using
the kernel sound drivers, so it should work with any sound card supported
under Linux.

The driver is implemented as the user-mode program soundmodem. The graphical
soundmodemconfig program allows configuring and testing the soundmodem
driver. As well as kernel sound support you need the kernel AX.25 mkiss
driver.

The software and documentation can be downloaded from [http://www.baycom.org/
~tom/ham/soundmodem/] http://www.baycom.org/~tom/ham/soundmodem.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.7. Creating a YAM device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Amateur Radio support  --->                                                |
|    [*] Amateur Radio support                                              |
|    --- Packet Radio protocols                                             |
|    <*>   Amateur Radio AX.25 Level 2 protocol                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    AX.25 network device drivers  --->                                     |
|    --- AX.25 network device drivers                                       |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    <?> YAM driver for AX.25                                               |
|    ...                                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

YAM is Yet Another Modem, a 9600 baud modem designed by Nico Palermo.
Information on the Linux driver can be found at [http://www.teaser.fr/~frible
/yam.html] http://www.teaser.fr/~frible/yam.html while general information on
the modem can be found at [http://www.microlet.com/yam/] http://
www.microlet.com/yam/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.8. Creating a PI card device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|General setup  --->                                                        |
|    [*] Networking support                                                 |
|Network device support  --->                                               |
|    [*] Network device support                                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    [*] Radio network interfaces                                           |
|    [*] Ottawa PI and PI/2 support for AX.25                               |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

The PI card device driver creates devices named `pi[0-9][ab]'. The first PI
card detected will be allocated `pi0', the second `pi1' etc. The `a' and `b'
refer to the first and second physical interface on the PI card. If you have
built your kernel to include the PI card driver, and the card has been
properly detected then you can use the following command to configure the
network device:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/ifconfig pi0a hw ax25 VK2KTJ-15 up                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would configure the first port on the first PI card detected
with the callsign VK2KTJ-15 and make it active. To use the device all you now
need to do is to configure an entry into your /etc/ax25/axports file with a
matching callsign/ssid and you will be ready to continue on.

The PI card driver was written by [mailto:dp@hydra.carleton.edu] David Perry.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.9. Creating a PacketTwin device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|General setup  --->                                                        |
|    [*] Networking support                                                 |
|Network device support  --->                                               |
|    [*] Network device support                                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    [*] Radio network interfaces                                           |
|    [*] Gracilis PackeTwin support for AX.25                               |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

The PacketTwin card device driver creates devices named `pt[0-9][ab]'. The
first PacketTwin card detected will be allocated `pt0', the second `pt1' etc.
The `a' and `b' refer to the first and second physical interface on the
PacketTwin card. If you have built your kernel to include the PacketTwin card
driver, and the card has been properly detected then you can use the
following command to configure the network device:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/ifconfig pt0a hw ax25 VK2KTJ-15 up                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would configure the first port on the first PacketTwin card
detected with the callsign VK2KTJ-15 and make it active. To use the device
all you now need to do is to configure an entry into your /etc/ax25/axports
file with a matching callsign/ssid and you will be ready to continue on.

The PacketTwin card driver was written by [mailto:csmall@triode.apana.org.au]
Craig Small, VK2XLZ.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.10. Creating a generic SCC device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|General setup  --->                                                        |
|    [*] Networking support                                                 |
|Network device support  --->                                               |
|    [*] Network device support                                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    [*] Radio network interfaces                                           |
|    [*] Z8530 SCC KISS emulation driver for AX.25                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

[mailto:jreuter@poboxes.com] Joerg Reuter, DL1BKE, has developed generic
support for Z8530 SCC based cards. His driver is configurable to support a
range of different types of cards and present an interface that looks like a
KISS TNC so you can treat it as though it were a KISS TNC.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.10.1. Obtaining and building the configuration tool package

While the kernel driver is included in the standard kernel distribution,
Joerg distributes more recent versions of his driver with the suite of
configuration tools that you will need to obtain as well.

You can obtain the configuration tools package from: [http://www.qsl.net/
dl1bke] Joerg's web page, [ftp://db0bm.automation.fh-aachen.de/incoming/
dl1bke] ftp://db0bm.automation.fh-aachen.de/incoming/dl1bke, [ftp://
insl1.etec.uni-karlsruhe.de/pub/hamradio/linux/z8530] ftp://
insl1.etec.uni-karlsruhe.de/pub/hamradio/linux/z8530, [ftp://ftp.ucsd.edu/
hamradio/packet/tcpip/linux] ftp://ftp.ucsd.edu/hamradio/packet/tcpip/linux,
or [ftp://ftp.ucsd.edu/hamradio/packet/tcpip/incoming] ftp://ftp.ucsd.edu/
hamradio/packet/tcpip/incoming.

You will find multiple versions, choose the one that best suits the kernel
you intend to use: z8530drv-2.4a.dl1bke.tar.gz for 2.0.* kernels and
z8530drv-utils-3.0.tar.gz for 2.1.6 or later kernels.

The following commands were what I used to compile and install the package
for kernel version 2.0.30:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# cd /usr/src                                                              |
|# gzip -dc z8530drv-2.4a.dl1bke.tar.gz | tar xvpofz -                      |
|# cd z8530drv                                                              |
|# make clean                                                               |
|# make dep                                                                 |
|# make module         # If you want to build the driver as a module        |
|# make for_kernel     # If you want the driver to built into your kernel   |
|# make install                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

After the above is complete you should have three new programs installed in
your /sbin directory: gencfg, sccinit and sccstat. It is these programs that
you will use to configure the driver for your card.

You will also have a group of new special device files created in your /dev
called scc0-scc7. These will be used later and will be the `KISS' devices you
will end up using.

If you chose to 'make for_kernel' then you will need to recompile your
kernel. To ensure that you include support for the z8530 driver you must be
sure to answer `Y' to: `Z8530 SCC kiss emulation driver for AX.25' when asked
during a kernel `make config'.

If you chose to 'make module' then the new scc.o will have been installed in
the appropriate /lib/modules directory and you do not need to recompile your
kernel. Remember to use the insmod command to load the module before your try
and configure it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.10.2. Configuring the driver for your card

The z8530 SCC driver has been designed to be as flexible as possible so as to
support as many different types of cards as possible. With this flexibility
has come some cost in configuration.

There is more comprehensive documentation in the package and you should read
this if you have any problems. You should particularly look at doc/
scc_eng.doc or doc/scc_ger.doc for more detailed information. I've
paraphrased the important details, but as a result there is a lot of lower
level detail that I have not included.

The main configuration file is read by the sccinit program and is called /etc
/z8530drv.conf. This file is broken into two main stages: Configuration of
the hardware parameters and channel configuration. After you have configured
this file you need only add:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sccinit                                                                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

into the rc file that configures your network and the driver will be
initialized according to the contents of the configuration file. You must do
this before you attempt to use the driver.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.10.2.1. Configuration of the hardware parameters

The first section is broken into stanzas, each stanza representing an 8530
chip. Each stanza is a list of keywords with arguments. You may specify up to
four SCC chips in this file by default. The #define MAXSCC 4 in scc.c can be
increased if you require support for more.

The allowable keywords and arguments are:

chip
    the chip keyword is used to separate stanzas. It will take anything as an
    argument. The arguments are not used.
   
data_a
    this keyword is used to specify the address of the data port for the
    z8530 channel `A'. The argument is a hexadecimal number e.g. 0x300
   
ctrl_a
    this keyword is used to specify the address of the control port for the
    z8530 channel `A'. The arguments is a hexadecimal number e.g. 0x304
   
data_b
    this keyword is used to specify the address of the data port for the
    z8530 channel `B'. The argument is a hexadecimal number e.g. 0x301
   
ctrl_b
    this keyword is used to specify the address of the control port for the
    z8530 channel `B'. The arguments is a hexadecimal number e.g. 0x305
   
irq
    this keyword is used to specify the IRQ used by the 8530 SCC described in
    this stanza. The argument is an integer e.g. 5
   
pclock
    this keyword is used to specify the frequency of the clock at the PCLK
    pin of the 8530. The argument is an integer frequency in Hz which
    defaults to 4915200 if the keyword is not supplied.
   
board
    the type of board supporting this 8530 SCC. The argument is a character
    string. The allowed values are:
   
    PA0HZP
        the PA0HZP SCC Card
       
    EAGLE
        the Eagle card
       
    PC100
        the DRSI PC100 SCC card
       
    PRIMUS
        the PRIMUS-PC (DG9BL) card
       
    BAYCOM
        BayCom (U)SCC card
       
   
   
escc
    this keyword is optional and is used to enable support for the Extended
    SCC chips (ESCC) such as the 8580, 85180, or the 85280. The argument is a
    character string with allowed values of `yes' or `no'. The default is
    `no'.
   
vector
    this keyword is optional and specifies the address of the vector latch
    (also known as "intack port") for PA0HZP cards. There can be only one
    vector latch for all chips. The default is 0.
   
special
    this keyword is optional and specifies the address of the special
    function register on several cards. The default is 0.
   
option
    this keyword is optional and defaults to 0.
   

Some example configurations for the more popular cards are as follows:

BayCom USCC
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |chip    1                                                      |
    |data_a  0x300                                                  |
    |ctrl_a  0x304                                                  |
    |data_b  0x301                                                  |
    |ctrl_b  0x305                                                  |
    |irq     5                                                      |
    |board   BAYCOM                                                 |
    |#                                                              |
    |# SCC chip 2                                                   |
    |#                                                              |
    |chip    2                                                      |
    |data_a  0x302                                                  |
    |ctrl_a  0x306                                                  |
    |data_b  0x303                                                  |
    |ctrl_b  0x307                                                  |
    |board   BAYCOM                                                 |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   
PA0HZP SCC card
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |chip 1                                                         |
    |data_a 0x153                                                   |
    |data_b 0x151                                                   |
    |ctrl_a 0x152                                                   |
    |ctrl_b 0x150                                                   |
    |irq 9                                                          |
    |pclock 4915200                                                 |
    |board PA0HZP                                                   |
    |vector 0x168                                                   |
    |escc no                                                        |
    |#                                                              |
    |#                                                              |
    |#                                                              |
    |chip 2                                                         |
    |data_a 0x157                                                   |
    |data_b 0x155                                                   |
    |ctrl_a 0x156                                                   |
    |ctrl_b 0x154                                                   |
    |irq 9                                                          |
    |pclock 4915200                                                 |
    |board PA0HZP                                                   |
    |vector 0x168                                                   |
    |escc no                                                        |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   
DRSI SCC card
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |chip 1                                                         |
    |data_a 0x303                                                   |
    |data_b 0x301                                                   |
    |ctrl_a 0x302                                                   |
    |ctrl_b 0x300                                                   |
    |irq 7                                                          |
    |pclock 4915200                                                 |
    |board DRSI                                                     |
    |escc no                                                        |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   

If you already have a working configuration for your card under NOS, then you
can use the gencfg command to convert the PE1CHL NOS driver commands into a
form suitable for use in the z8530 driver configuration file.

To use gencfg you simply invoke it with the same parameters as you used for
the PE1CHL driver in NET/NOS. For example:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# gencfg 2 0x150 4 2 0 1 0x168 9 4915200                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

will generate a skeleton configuration for the OptoSCC card.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.10.3. Channel Configuration

The Channel Configuration section is where you specify all of the other
parameters associated with the port you are configuring. Again this section
is broken into stanzas. One stanza represents one logical port, and therefore
there would be two of these for each one of the hardware parameters stanzas
as each 8530 SCC supports two ports.

These keywords and arguments are also written to the /etc/z8530drv.conf file
and must appear after the hardware parameters section.

Sequence is very important in this section, but if you stick with the
suggested sequence it should work okay. The keywords and arguments are:

device
    this keyword must be the first line of a port definition and specifies
    the name of the special device file that the rest of the configuration
    applies to. e.g. /dev/scc0
   
speed
    this keyword specifies the speed in bits per second of the interface. The
    argument is an integer: e.g. 1200
   
clock
    this keyword specifies where the clock for the data will be sourced.
    Allowable values are:
   
    dpll
        normal halfduplex operation
       
    external
        MODEM supplies its own Rx/Tx clock
       
    divider
        use fullduplex divider if installed.
       
   
   
mode
    this keyword specifies the data coding to be used. Allowable arguments
    are: nrzi or nrz
   
rxbuffers
    this keyword specifies the number of receive buffers to allocate memory
    for. The argument is an integer, e.g. 8.
   
txbuffers
    this keyword specifies the number of transmit buffers to allocate memory
    for. The argument is an integer, e.g. 8.
   
bufsize
    this keyword specifies the size of the receive and transmit buffers. The
    arguments is in bytes and represents the total length of the frame, so it
    must also take into account the AX.25 headers and not just the length of
    the data field. This keyword is optional and default to 384
   
txdelay
    the KISS transmit delay value, the argument is an integer in mS.
   
persist
    the KISS persist value, the argument is an integer.
   
slot
    the KISS slot time value, the argument is an integer in mS.
   
tail
    the KISS transmit tail value, the argument is an integer in mS.
   
fulldup
    the KISS full duplex flag, the argument is an integer. 1==Full Duplex, 0=
    =Half Duplex.
   
wait
    the KISS wait value, the argument is an integer in mS.
   
min
    the KISS min value, the argument is an integer in S.
   
maxkey
    the KISS maximum keyup time, the argument is an integer in S.
   
idle
    the KISS idle timer value, the argument is an integer in S.
   
maxdef
    the KISS maxdef value, the argument is an integer.
   
group
    the KISS group value, the argument is an integer.
   
txoff
    the KISS txoff value, the argument is an integer in mS.
   
softdcd
    the KISS softdcd value, the argument is an integer.
   
slip
    the KISS slip flag, the argument is an integer.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.1.10.4. Using the driver

To use the driver you simply treat the /dev/scc* devices just as you would a
serial tty device with a KISS TNC connected to it. For example, to configure
Linux Kernel networking to use your SCC card you could use something like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# kissattach -s 4800 /dev/scc0 VK2KTJ                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You can also use NOS to attach to it in precisely the same way. From JNOS for
example you would use something like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|attach asy scc0 0 ax25 scc0 256 256 4800                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.10.5. The sccstat and sccparam tools

To assist in the diagnosis of problems you can use the sccstat program to
display the current configuration of an SCC device. To use it try:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sccstat /dev/scc0                                                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

you will displayed a very large amount of information relating to the
configuration and health of the /dev/scc0 SCC port.

The sccparam command allows you to change or modify a configuration after you
have booted. Its syntax is very similar to the NOS param command, so to set
the txtail setting of a device to 100mS you would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# sccparam /dev/scc0 txtail 0x8                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.11. Creating a BPQ ethernet device

Kernel Compile Options:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|General setup  --->                                                        |
|    [*] Networking support                                                 |
|Network device support  --->                                               |
|    [*] Network device support                                             |
|    ...                                                                    |
|    [*] Radio network interfaces                                           |
|    [*] BPQ Ethernet driver for AX.25                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Linux supports BPQ Ethernet compatibility. This enables you to run the AX.25
protocol over your Ethernet LAN and to interwork your linux machine with
other BPQ machines on the LAN.

The BPQ network devices are named `bpq[0-9]'. The `bpq0' device is associated
with the `eth0' device, the `bpq1' device with the `eth1' device etc.

Configuration is quite straightforward. You firstly must have configured a
standard Ethernet device. This means you will have compiled your kernel to
support your Ethernet card and tested that this works. Refer to the
[Ethernet-HOWTO.html] Ethernet-HOWTO for more information on how to do this.

To configure the BPQ support you need to configure the Ethernet device with
an AX.25 callsign. The following command will do this for you:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/ifconfig bpq0 hw ax25 vk2ktj-14 up                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Again, remember that the callsign you specify should match the entry in the /
etc/ax25/axports file that you wish to use for this port.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.12. Configuring the BPQ Node to talk to the Linux AX.25 support

BPQ Ethernet normally uses a multicast address. The Linux implementation does
not, and instead it uses the normal Ethernet broadcast address. The NET.CFG
file for the BPQ ODI driver should therefore be modified to look similar to
this:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|LINK SUPPORT                                                               |
|                                                                           |
|        MAX STACKS 1                                                       |
|        MAX BOARDS 1                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|LINK DRIVER E2000                    ; or other MLID to suit your card     |
|                                                                           |
|        INT 10                       ;                                     |
|        PORT 300                     ; to suit your card                   |
|                                                                           |
|        FRAME ETHERNET_II                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|        PROTOCOL BPQ 8FF ETHERNET_II ; required for BPQ - can change PID   |
|                                                                           |
|BPQPARAMS                            ; optional - only needed if you want  |
|                                     ; to override the default target addr |
|                                                                           |
|        ETH_ADDR  FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF  ; Target address                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Creating the /etc/ax25/axports file

The /etc/ax25/axports is a simple text file that you create with a text
editor. The format of the /etc/ax25/axports file is as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|portname  callsign  baudrate  paclen  window  description                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

where:

portname
    is a text name that you will refer to the port by.
   
callsign
    is the AX.25 callsign you want to assign to the port.
   
baudrate
    is the speed at which you wish the port to communicate with your TNC.
   
paclen
    is the maximum packet length you want to configure the port to use for
    AX.25 connected mode connections.
   
window
    is the AX.25 window (K) parameter. This is the same as the MAXFRAME
    setting of many TNC's.
   
description
    is a textual description of the port.
   

In my case, mine looks like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|radio    VK2KTJ-15       4800        256     2       4800bps 144.800 MHz   |
|ether    VK2KTJ-14       10000000    256     2       BPQ/ethernet device   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Remember, you must assign unique callsign/ssid to each AX.25 port you create.
Create one entry for each AX.25 device you want to use, this includes KISS,
Baycom, SCC, PI, PT and Soundmodem ports. Each entry here will describe
exactly one AX.25 network device. The entries in this file are associated
with the network devices by the callsign/ssid. This is at least one good
reason for requiring unique callsign/ssid.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3. Configuring AX.25 routing

You may wish to configure default digipeaters paths for specific hosts. This
is useful for both normal AX.25 connections and also IP based connections.
The axparms command enables you to do this. Again, the man page offers a
complete description, but a simple example might be:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/axparms -route add radio VK2XLZ VK2SUT                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would set a digipeater entry for VK2XLZ via VK2SUT on the AX.25
port named radio.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Configuring an AX.25 interface for TCP/IP

It is very simple to configure an AX.25 port to carry TCP/IP. If you have
KISS interfaces then there are two methods for configuring an IP address. The
kissattach command has an option that allows you to specify an IP address.
The more conventional method using the ifconfig command will work on all
interface types.

So, modifying the previous KISS example:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/kissattach -i 44.136.8.5 -m 512 /dev/ttyS0 radio               |
|# /sbin/route add -net 44.136.8.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 ax0                |
|# /sbin/route add default ax0                                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

to create the AX.25 interface with an IP address of 44.136.8.5 and an MTU of
512 bytes. You should still use the ifconfig to configure the other
parameters if necessary.

If you have any other interface type then you use the ifconfig program to
configure the ip address and netmask details for the port and add a route via
the port, just as you would for any other TCP/IP interface. The following
example is for a PI card device, but would work equally well for any other
AX.25 network device:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/ifconfig pi0a 44.136.8.5 netmask 255.255.255.0 up                  |
|# /sbin/ifconfig pi0a broadcast 44.136.8.255 mtu 512                       |
|# /sbin/route add -net 44.136.8.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 pi0a               |
|# /sbin/route add default pi0a                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The commands listed above are typical of the sort of configuration many of
you would be familiar with if you have used NOS or any of its derivatives or
any other TCP/IP software. Note that the default route might not be required
in your configuration if you have some other network device configured.

To test it out, try a ping or a telnet to a local host.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ping -i 5 44.136.8.58                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note the use of the `-i 5' arguments to ping to tell it to send pings every 5
seconds instead of its default of 1 second.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Configuring a NET/ROM port

The NET/ROM protocol relies on, and uses the AX.25 ports you have created.
The NET/ROM protocol rides on top of the AX.25 protocol. To configure NET/ROM
on an AX.25 interface you must configure two files. One file describes the
NET/ROM interfaces, and the other file describes which of the AX.25 ports
will carry NET/ROM. You can configure multiple NET/ROM ports, each with its
own callsign and alias, the same procedure applies for each.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1. Configuring /etc/ax25/nrports

The first is the /etc/ax25/nrports file. This file describes the NET/ROM
ports in much the same way as the /etc/ax25/axports file describes the AX.25
ports. Each NET/ROM device you wish to create must have an entry in the /etc/
ax25/nrports file. Normally a Linux machine would have only one NET/ROM
device configured that would use a number of the AX.25 ports defined. In some
situations you might wish a special service such as a BBS to have a separate
NET/ROM alias and so you would create more than one.

This file is formatted as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|name callsign  alias  paclen   description                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Where:

name
    is the text name that you wish to refer to the port by.
   
callsign
    is the callsign that the NET/ROM traffic from this port will use. Note,
    this is not that address that users should connect to to get access to a 
    node style interface. (The node program is covered later). This callsign/
    ssid should be unique and should not appear elsewhere in either of the /
    etc/ax25/axports or the /etc/ax25/nrports files.
   
alias
    is the NET/ROM alias this port will have assigned to it.
   
paclen
    is the maximum size of NET/ROM frames transmitted by this port.
   
description
    is a free text description of the port.
   

An example would look something like the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|netrom  VK2KTJ-9        LINUX   236     Linux Switch Port                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This example creates a NET/ROM port known to the rest of the NET/ROM network
as `LINUX:VK2KTJ-9'.

This file is used by programs such as the call program.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2. Configuring /etc/ax25/nrbroadcast

The second file is the /etc/ax25/nrbroadcast file. This file may contain a
number of entries. There would normally be one entry for each AX.25 port that
you wish to allow NET/ROM traffic on.

This file is formatted as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|axport min_obs def_qual worst_qual verbose                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Where:

axport
    is the port name obtained from the /etc/ax25/axports file. If you do not
    have an entry in /etc/ax25/nrbroadcasts for a port then this means that
    no NET/ROM routing will occur and any received NET/ROM broadcasts will be
    ignored for that port.
   
min_obs
    is the minimum obselesence value for the port.
   
def_qual
    is the default quality for the port.
   
worst_qual
    is the worst quality value for the port, any routes under this quality
    will be ignored.
   
verbose
    is a flag determining whether full NET/ROM routing broadcasts will occur
    from this port or only a routing broadcast advertising the node itself.
   

An example would look something like the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|radio    1       200      100         1                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.3. Creating the NET/ROM Network device

When you have the two configuration files completed you must create the NET/
ROM device in much the same way as you did for the AX.25 devices. This time
you use the nrattach command. The nrattach works in just the same way as the 
axattach command except that it creates NET/ROM network devices called `nr
[0-9]'. Again, the first time you use the nrattach command it creates the
`nr0' device, the second time it creates the `nr1' network devices etc. To
create the network device for the NET/ROM port we've defined we would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# nrattach netrom                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would start the NET/ROM device (nr0) named netrom configured
with the details specified in the /etc/ax25/nrports file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.4. Starting the NET/ROM daemon

The Linux kernel does all of the NET/ROM protocol and switching, but does not
manage some functions. The NET/ROM daemon manages the NET/ROM routing tables
and generates the NET/ROM routing broadcasts. You start NET/ROM daemon with
the command:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/netromd -i                                                     |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You should soon see the /proc/net/nr_neigh file filling up with information
about your NET/ROM neighbours.

Remember to put the /usr/sbin/netromd command in your rc files so that it is
started automatically each time you reboot.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.5. Configuring NET/ROM routing.

You may wish to configure static NET/ROM routes for specific hosts. The 
nrparms command enables you to do this. Again, the man page offers a complete
description, but a simple example might be:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/nrparms -nodes VK2XLZ-10 + #MINTO 120 5 radio VK2SUT-9         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would set a NET/ROM route to #MINTO:VK2XLZ-10 via a neighbour
VK2SUT-9 on my AX.25 port called `radio'.

You can manually create entries for new neighbours using the nrparms command
as well. For example:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/nrparms -routes radio VK2SUT-9 + 120                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would create VK2SUT-9 as a NET/ROM neighbour with a quality of
120 and this will be locked and will not be deleted automatically.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Configuring a NET/ROM interface for TCP/IP

Configuring a NET/ROM interface for TCP/IP is almost identical to configuring
an AX.25 interface for TCP/IP.

Again you can either specify the ip address and mtu on the nrattach command
line, or use the ifconfig and route commands, but you need to manually add 
arp entries for hosts you wish to route to because there is no mechanism
available for your machine to learn what NET/ROM address it should use to
reach a particular IP host.

So, to create an nr0 device with an IP address of 44.136.8.5, an mtu of 512
and configured with the details from the /etc/ax25/nrports file for a NET/ROM
port named netrom you would use:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/nrattach -i 44.136.8.5 -m 512 netrom                           |
|# route add 44.136.8.5 nr0                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

or you could use something like the following commands manually:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/nrattach netrom                                                |
|# ifconfig nr0 44.136.8.5 netmask 255.255.255.0 hw netrom VK2KTJ-9         |
|# route add 44.136.8.5 nr0                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Then for each IP host you wish to reach via NET/ROM you need to set route and
arp entries. To reach a destination host with an IP address of 44.136.80.4 at
NET/ROM address BBS:VK3BBS via a NET/ROM neighbour with callsign VK2SUT-0 you
would use commands as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# route add 44.136.80.4 nr0                                                |
|# arp -t netrom -s 44.136.80.4 vk2sut-0                                    |
|# nrparms -nodes vk3bbs + BBS 120 6 sl0 vk2sut-0                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The `120' and `6' arguments to the nrparms command are the NET/ROM quality
and obsolescence count values for the route.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. Configuring a ROSE port

The ROSE packet layer protocol is similar to layer three of the X.25
specification. The kernel based ROSE support is a modified version of the
[http://fpac.lmi.ecp.fr/f1oat/f1oat.html] FPAC Rose implementation.

The ROSE packet layer protocol protocol relies on, and uses the AX.25 ports
you have created. The ROSE protocol rides on top of the AX.25 protocol. To
configure ROSE you must create a configuration file that describes the ROSE
ports you want. You can create multiple ROSE ports if you wish, the same
procedure applies for each.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.1. Configuring /etc/ax25/rsports

The file where you configure your ROSE interfaces is the /etc/ax25/rsports
file. This file describes the ROSE port in much the same way as the /etc/ax25
/axports file describes the AX.25 ports.

This file is formatted as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|name  address  description                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Where:

name
    is the text name that you wish to refer to the port by.
   
address
    is the 10 digit ROSE address you wish to assign to this port.
   
description
    is a free text description of the port.
   

An example would look something like the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|rose  5050294760  Rose Port                                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note that ROSE will use the default callsign/ssid configured on each AX.25
port unless you specify otherwise.

To configure a separate callsign/ssid for ROSE to use on each port you use
the rsparms command as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/rsprams -call VK2KTJ-10                                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This example would make Linux listen for and use the callsign/ssid VK2KTJ-10
on all of the configured AX.25 ports for ROSE calls.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2. Creating the ROSE Network device

When you have created the /etc/ax25/rsports file you may create the ROSE
device in much the same way as you did for the AX.25 devices. This time you
use the rsattach command. The rsattach command creates network devices named
`rose[0-5]'. The first time you use the rsattach command it create the
`rose0' device, the second time it creates the `rose1' device etc. For
example:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# rsattach rose                                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command would start the ROSE device (rose0) configured with the details
specified in the /etc/ax25/rsports file for the entry named `rose'.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.3. Configuring ROSE Routing

The ROSE protocol currently supports only static routing. The rsparms utility
allows you to configure your ROSE routing table under Linux.

For example:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# rsparms -nodes add 5050295502 radio vk2xlz                               |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

would add a route to ROSE node 5050295502 via an AX.25 port named `radio' in
your /etc/ax25/axports file to a neighbour with the callsign VK2XLZ.

You may specify a route with a mask to capture a number of ROSE destinations
into a single routing entry. The syntax looks like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# rsparms -nodes add 5050295502/4 radio vk2xlz                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

which would be identical to the previous example except that it would match
any destination address that matched the first four digits supplied, in this
case any address commencing with the digits 5050. An alternate form for this
command is:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# rsparms -nodes add 5050/4 radio vk2xlz                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

which is probably the less ambiguous form.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11. Making AX.25/NET/ROM/ROSE calls

Now that you have all of your AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE interfaces configured
and active, you should be able to make test calls.

The AX.25 Utilities package includes a program called `call' which is a split
screen terminal program for AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE.

A simple AX.25 call would look like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/bin/call radio VK2DAY via VK2SUT                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

A simple NET/ROM call to a node with an alias of SUNBBS would look like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/bin/call netrom SUNBBS                                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

A simple ROSE call to HEARD at node 5050882960 would look like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/bin/call rose HEARD 5050882960                                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note: you must tell call which port you wish to make the call on, as the same
destination node might be reachable on any of the ports you have configured.

The call program is a line mode terminal program for making AX.25 calls. It
recognizes lines that start with `??' as command lines. The `??.' command
will close the connection.

Please refer to the man page in /usr/man for more information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. Configuring Linux to accept Packet connections

Linux is a powerful operating system and offers a great deal of flexibility
in how it is configured. With this flexibility comes a cost in configuring it
to do what you want. When configuring your Linux machine to accept incoming
AX.25, NET/ROM or ROSE connections there are a number of questions you need
to ask yourself. The most important of which is: "What do I want users to see
when they connect?". People are developing neat little applications that may
be used to provide services to callers, a simple example is the pms program
included in the AX.25 utilities, a more complex example is the node program
also included in the AX.25 utilities. Alternatively you might want to give
users a login prompt so that they can make use of a shell account, or you
might even have written your own program, such as a customized database or a
game, that you want people to connect to. Whatever you choose, you must tell
the AX.25 software about this so that it knows what software to run when it
accepts an incoming AX.25 connection.

The ax25d program is similar to the inetd program commonly used to accept
incoming TCP/IP connections on UNIX machines. It sits and listens for
incoming connections, when it detects one it goes away and checks a
configuration file to determine what program to run and connect to that
connection. Since this the standard tool for accepting incoming AX.25, NET/
ROM and ROSE connections I'll describe how to configure it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.1. Creating the /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file

This file is the configuration file for the ax25d AX.25 daemon which handles
incoming AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE connections.

The file is a little cryptic looking at first, but you'll soon discover it is
very simple in practice, with a small trap for you to be wary of.

The general format of the ax25d.conf file is as follows:

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# This is a comment and is ignored by the ax25d program.                     |
|[port_name] || <port_name> || {port_name}                                    |
|<peer1>    window T1 T2 T3 idle N2 <mode> <uid> <cmd> <cmd-name> <arguments> |
|<peer2>    window T1 T2 T3 idle N2 <mode> <uid> <cmd> <cmd-name> <arguments> |
|parameters window T1 T2 T3 idle N2 <mode>                                    |
|<peer3>    window T1 T2 T3 idle N2 <mode> <uid> <cmd> <cmd-name> <arguments> |
|   ...                                                                       |
|default    window T1 T2 T3 idle N2 <mode> <uid> <cmd> <cmd-name> <arguments> |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Where:

#
    at the start of a line marks a comment and is completely ignored by the 
    ax25d program.
   
<port_name>
    is the name of the AX.25, NET/ROM or ROSE port as specified in the /etc/
    ax25/axports, /etc/ax25/nrports and /etc/ax25/rsports files. The name of
    the port is surrounded by the `[]' brackets if it is an AX.25 port, the
    `<>' brackets if it is a NET/ROM port, or the `{}' brackets if it is a
    ROSE port. There is an alternate form for this field, and that is use
    prefix the port name with `callsign/ssid via' to indicate that you wish
    accept calls to the callsign/ssid via this interface. The example should
    more clearly illustrate this.
   
<peer>
    is the callsign of the peer node that this particular configuration
    applies to. If you don't specify an SSID here then any SSID will match.
   
window
    is the AX.25 Window parameter (K) or MAXFRAME parameter for this
    configuration.
   
T1
    is the Frame retransmission (T1) timer in half second units.
   
T2
    is the amount of time the AX.25 software will wait for another incoming
    frame before preparing a response in 1 second units.
   
T3
    is the amount of time of inactivity before the AX.25 software will
    disconnect the session in 1 second units.
   
idle
    is the idle timer value in seconds.
   
N2
    is the number of consecutive retransmissions that will occur before the
    connection is closed.
   
<mode>
    provides a mechanism for determining certain types of general
    permissions. The modes are enabled or disabled by supplying a combination
    of characters, each representing a permission. The characters may be in
    either upper or lower case and must be in a single block with no spaces.
   
    u/U
        UTMP - currently unsupported.
       
    v/V
        Validate call - currently unsupported.
       
    q/Q
        Quiet - Don't log connection
       
    n/N
        check NET/ROM Neighbour - currently unsupported.
       
    d/D
        Disallow Digipeaters - Connections must be direct, not digipeated.
       
    l/L
        Lockout - Don't allow connection.
       
    */0
        marker - place marker, no mode set.
       
   
   
<uid>
    is the userid that the program to be run to support the connection should
    be run as.
   
<cmd>
    is the full pathname of the command to be run, with no arguments
    specified.
   
<cmd-name>
    is the text that should appear in a ps as the command name running
    (normally the same as <cmd> except without the directory path
    information.
   
<arguments>
    are the command line argument to be passed to the <:cmd> when it is run.
    You pass useful information into these arguments by use of the following
    tokens:
   
    %d
        Name of the port the connection was received on.
       
    %U
        AX.25 callsign of the connected party without the SSID, in uppercase.
       
    %u
        AX.25 callsign of the connected party without the SSID, in lowercase.
       
    %S
        AX.25 callsign of the connected party with the SSID, in uppercase.
       
    %s
        AX.25 callsign of the connected party with the SSID, in lowercase.
       
    %P
        AX.25 callsign of the remote node that the connection came in from
        without the SSID, in uppercase.
       
    %p
        AX.25 callsign of the remote node that the connection came in from
        without the SSID, in lowercase.
       
    %R
        AX.25 callsign of the remote node that the connection came in from
        with the SSID, in uppercase.
       
    %r
        AX.25 callsign of the remote node that the connection came in from
        with the SSID, in lowercase.
       
   
   

You need one section in the above format for each AX.25, NET/ROM or ROSE
interface you want to accept incoming AX.25, NET/ROM or ROSE connections on.

There are two special lines in the paragraph, one starts with the string
`parameters' and the other starts with the string `default' (yes there is a
difference). These lines serve special functions.

The `default' lines purpose should be obvious, this line acts as a catch-all,
so that any incoming connection on the <interface_call> interface that
doesn't have a specific rule will match the `default' rule. If you don't have
a `default' rule, then any connections not matching any specific rule will be
disconnected immediately without notice.

The `parameters' line is a little more subtle, and here is the trap I
mentioned earlier. In any of the fields for any definition for a peer you can
use the `*' character to say `use the default value'. The `parameters' line
is what sets those default values. The kernel software itself has some
defaults which will be used if you don't specify any using the `parameters'
entry. The trap is that the these defaults apply only to those rules below
the `parameters' line, not to those above. You may have more than one
`parameters' rule per interface definition, and in this way you may create
groups of default configurations. It is important to note that the
`parameters' rule does not allow you to set the `uid' or `command' fields.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.2. A simple example ax25d.conf file

Okay, an illustrative example:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ax25d.conf for VK2KTJ - 02/03/97                                          |
|# This configuration uses the AX.25 port defined earlier.                   |
|                                                                            |
|# <peer> Win T1  T2  T3  idl N2 <mode> <uid> <exec> <argv[0]>[<args....>]   |
|                                                                            |
|[VK2KTJ-0 via radio]                                                        |
|parameters 1    10  *  *  *   *   *                                         |
|VK2XLZ     *     *  *  *  *   *   *    root  /usr/sbin/axspawn axspawn %u + |
|VK2DAY     *     *  *  *  *   *   *    root  /usr/sbin/axspawn axspawn %u + |
|NOCALL     *     *  *  *  *   *   L                                         |
|default    1    10  5 100 180 5   *    root  /usr/sbin/pms pms -a -o vk2ktj |
|                                                                            |
|[VK2KTJ-1 via radio]                                                        |
|default    *     *    *   *   *   0    root /usr/sbin/node node             |
|                                                                            |
|<netrom>                                                                    |
|parameters 1    10  *  *  *   *   *                                         |
|NOCALL     *     *  *  *  *   *   L                                         |
|default    *     *  *  *  *   *   0        root /usr/sbin/node node         |
|                                                                            |
|{VK2KTJ-0 via rose}                                                         |
|parameters 1    10  *  *  *   *   *                                         |
|VK2XLZ     *     *  *  *  *   *   *    root  /usr/sbin/axspawn axspawn %u + |
|VK2DAY     *     *  *  *  *   *   *    root  /usr/sbin/axspawn axspawn %u + |
|NOCALL     *     *  *  *  *   *   L                                         |
|default    1    10  5 100 180 5   *    root  /usr/sbin/pms pms -a -o vk2ktj |
|                                                                            |
|{VK2KTJ-1 via rose}                                                         |
|default    *     *    *   *   *   0    root /usr/sbin/node node radio       |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This example says that anybody attempting to connect to the callsign
`VK2KTJ-0' heard on the AX.25 port called `radio' will have the following
rules applied:

Anyone whose callsign is set to `NOCALL' should be locked out, note the use
of mode `L'.

The parameters line changes two parameters from the kernel defaults (Window
and T1) and will run the /usr/sbin/axspawn program for them. Any copies of /
usr/sbin/axspawn run this way will appear as axspawn in a ps listing for
convenience. The next two lines provide definitions for two stations who will
receive those permissions.

The last line in the paragraph is the `catch all' definition that everybody
else will get (including VK2XLZ and VK2DAY using any other SSID other than
-1). This definition sets all of the parameters implicitly and will cause the
pms program to be run with a command line argument indicating that it is
being run for an AX.25 connection, and that the owner callsign is VK2KTJ.
(See the `Configuring the PMS' section below for more details).

The next configuration accepts calls to VK2KTJ-1 via the radio port. It runs
the node program for everybody that connects to it.

The next configuration is a NET/ROM configuration, note the use of the
greater-then and less-than braces instead of the square brackets. These
denote a NET/ROM configuration. This configuration is simpler, it simply says
that anyone connecting to our NET/ROM port called `netrom' will have the node
program run for them, unless they have a callsign of `NOCALL' in which case
they will be locked out.

The last two configurations are for incoming ROSE connections. The first for
people who have placed calls to `vk2ktj-0' and the second for `VK2KTJ-1 at
the our ROSE node address. These work precisely the same way. Not the use of
the curly braces to distinguish the port as a ROSE port.

This example is a contrived one but I think it illustrates clearly the
important features of the syntax of the configuration file. The configuration
file is explained fully in the ax25d.conf man page. A more detailed example
is included in the ax25-utils package that might be useful to you too.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.3. Starting ax25d

When you have the two configuration files completed you start ax25d with the
command:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /usr/sbin/ax25d                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

When this is run people should be able to make AX.25 connections to your
Linux machine. Remember to put the ax25d command in your rc files so that it
is started automatically when you reboot each time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. Configuring the node software

The node software was developed by [mailto:tomi.manninen@hut.fi] Tomi
Manninen and was based on the original PMS program. It provides a fairly
complete and flexible node capability that is easily configured. It allows
users once they are connected to make Telnet, NET/ROM, ROSE, and AX.25
connections out and to obtain various sorts of information such as Finger,
Nodes and Heard lists etc. You can configure the node to execute any Linux
command you wish fairly simply.

The node would normally be invoked from the ax25d program although it is also
capable of being invoked from the TCP/IP inetd program to allow users to
telnet to your machine and obtain access to it, or by running it from the
command line.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.1. Creating the /etc/ax25/node.conf file

The node.conf file is where the main configuration of the node takes place.
It is a simple text file and its format is as follows:

+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /etc/ax25/node.conf                                                           |
|# configuration file for the node(8) program.                                   |
|#                                                                               |
|# Lines beginning with '#' are comments and are ignored.                        |
|                                                                                |
|# Hostname                                                                      |
|# Specifies the hostname of the node machine                                    |
|hostname        radio.gw.vk2ktj.ampr.org                                        |
|                                                                                |
|# Local Network                                                                 |
|# allows you to specify what is consider 'local' for the                        |
|# purposes of permission checking using nodes.perms.                            |
|localnet        44.136.8.96/29                                                  |
|                                                                                |
|# Hide Ports                                                                    |
|# If specified allows you to make ports invisible to users. The                 |
|# listed ports will not be listed by the (P)orts command.                       |
|hiddenports     rose netrom                                                     |
|                                                                                |
|# Node Identification.                                                          |
|# this will appear in the node prompt                                           |
|NodeId          LINUX:VK2KTJ-9                                                  |
|                                                                                |
|# NET/ROM port                                                                  |
|# This is the name of the NET/ROM port that will be used for                    |
|# outgoing NET/ROM connections from the node.                                   |
|NrPort          netrom                                                          |
|                                                                                |
|# Node Idle Timeout                                                             |
|# Specifies the idle time for connections to this node in seconds.              |
|idletimout      1800                                                            |
|                                                                                |
|# Connection Idle Timeout                                                       |
|# Specifies the idle timer for connections made via this node in                |
|# seconds.                                                                      |
|conntimeout     1800                                                            |
|                                                                                |
|# Reconnect                                                                     |
|# Specifies whether users should be reconnected to the node                     |
|# when their remote connections disconnect, or whether they                     |
|# should be disconnected complete.                                              |
|reconnect       on                                                              |
|                                                                                |
|# Command Aliases                                                               |
|# Provide a way of making complex node commands simple.                         |
|alias           CONV    "telnet vk1xwt.ampr.org 3600"                           |
|alias           BBS     "connect radio vk2xsb"                                  |
|                                                                                |
|# External Command Aliases                                                      |
|# Provide a means of executing external commands under the node.                |
|# extcmd <cmdname> <flag> <userid> <command>                                    |
|# Flag == 1 is the only implemented function.                                   |
|# <command> is formatted as per ax25d.conf                                      |
|extcmd          PMS     1       root    /usr/sbin/pms pms -u %U -o VK2KTJ       |
|                                                                                |
|# Logging                                                                       |
|# Set logging to the system log. 3 is the noisiest, 0 is disabled.              |
|loglevel        3                                                               |
|                                                                                |
|# The escape character                                                          |
|# 20 = (Control-T)                                                              |
|EscapeChar      20                                                              |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.2. Creating the /etc/ax25/node.perms file

The node allows you to assign permissions to users. These permissions allow
you to determine which users should be allowed to make use of options such as
the (T)elnet, and (C)onnect commands, for example, and which shouldn't. The
node.perms file is where this information is stored and contains five key
fields. For all fields an asterisk `*' character matches anything. This is
useful for building default rules.

user
    The first field is the callsign or user to which the permissions should
    apply. Any SSID value is ignored, so you should just place the base
    callsign here.
   
method
    Each protocol or access method is also given permissions. For example you
    might allow users who have connected via AX.25 or NET/ROM to use the (C)
    onnect option, but prevent others, such as those who are telnet connected
    from a non-local node from having access to it. The second field
    therefore allows you to select which access method this permissions rule
    should apply to. The access methods allowed are:
   
   
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |Method|Description                                                   |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |ampr  |User is telnet connected from an amprnet address (44.0.0.0)   |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |ax25  |User connected by AX.25                                       |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |host  |User started node from command line                           |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |inet  |user is telnet connected from a non-loca, non-ampr address.   |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |local |User is telnet connected from a 'local' host                  |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |netrom|User connected by NET/ROM                                     |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |rose  |User connected by ROSE                                        |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    |*     |User connected by any means.                                  |
    +------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
   
     
port
    For AX.25 users you can control permissions on a port by port basis too
    if you choose. This allows you to determine what AX.25 are allowed to do
    based on which of your ports they have connected to. The third field
    contains the port name if you are using this facility. This is useful
    only for AX.25 connections.
   
password
    You may optionally configure the node so that it prompts users to enter a
    password when they connect. This might be useful to help protect
    specially configured users who have high authority levels. If the fourth
    field is set then its value will be the password that will be accepted.
   
permissions
    The permissions field is the final field in each entry in the file. The
    permissions field is coded as a bit field, with each facility having a
    bit value which if set allows the option to be used and if not set
    prevents the facility being used. The list of controllable facilities and
    their corresponding bit values are:
   
     
   
   
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |Value|Description                                          |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |1    |Login allowed.                                       |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |2    |AX.25 (C)onnects allowed.                            |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |4    |NET/ROM (C)onnects allowed.                          |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |8    |(T)elnet to local hosts allowed.                     |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |16   |(T)elnet to amprnet (44.0.0.0) hosts allowed.        |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |32   |(T)elnet to non-local, non-amprnet hosts allowed.    |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |64   |Hidden ports allowed for AX.25 (C)onnects.           |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
    |128  |ROSE (C)onnects allowed.                             |
    +-----+-----------------------------------------------------+
   
    To code the permissions value for a rule, simply take each of the
    permissions you want that user to have and add their values together. The
    resulting number is what you place in field five.
   

A sample nodes.perms might look like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /etc/ax25/node.perms                                                     |
|#                                                                          |
|# The node operator is VK2KTJ, has a password of 'secret' and              |
|# is allowed all permissions by all connection methods                     |
|vk2ktj  *       *       secret  255                                        |
|                                                                           |
|# The following users are banned from connecting                           |
|NOCALL  *       *       *       0                                          |
|PK232   *       *       *       0                                          |
|PMS     *       *       *       0                                          |
|                                                                           |
|# INET users are banned from connecting.                                   |
|*       inet    *       *       0                                          |
|                                                                           |
|# AX.25, NET/ROM, Local, Host and AMPR users may (C)onnect and (T)elnet    |
|# to local and ampr hosts but not to other IP addresses.                   |
|*       ax25    *       *       159                                        |
|*       netrom  *       *       159                                        |
|*       local   *       *       159                                        |
|*       host    *       *       159                                        |
|*       ampr    *       *       159                                        |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.3. Configuring node to run from ax25d

The node program would normally be run by the ax25d program. To do this you
need to add appropriate rules to the /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file. In my
configuration I wanted users to have a choice of either connecting to the 
node or connecting to other services. ax25d allows you to do this by cleverly
creating creating port aliases. For example, given the ax25d configuration
presented above, I want to configure node so that all users who connect to
VK2KTJ-1 are given the node. To do this I add the following to my /etc/ax25/
ax25d.conf file:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|[vk2ktj-1 via radio]                                                       |
|default    *     *    *   *   *   0    root /usr/sbin/node node            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This says that the Linux kernel code will answer any connection requests for
the callsign `VK2KTJ-1' heard on the AX.25 port named `radio', and will cause
the node program to be run.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.4. Configuring node to run from inetd

If you want users to be able to telnet a port on your machine and obtain
access to the node you can go this fairly easily. The first thing to decide
is what port users should connect to. In this example I've arbitrarily chosen
port 4000, though Tomi gives details on how you could replace the normal
telnet daemon with the node in his documentation.

You need to modify two files.

To /etc/services you should add:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|node    3694/tcp        #OH2BNS's node software                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

and to /etc/inetd.conf you should add:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|node    stream  tcp     nowait  root    /usr/sbin/node node                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

When this is done, and you have restarted the inetd program any user who
telnet connects to port 3694 of your machine will be prompted to login and if
configured, their password and then they will be connected to the node.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14. Configuring axspawn

The axspawn program is a simple program that allows AX.25 stations who
connect to be logged in to your machine. It may be invoked from the ax25d
program as described above in a manner similar to the node program. To allow
a user to log in to your machine you should add a line similar to the
following into your /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|default * * * * * 1 root /usr/sbin/axspawn axspawn %u                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If the line ends in the + character then the connecting user must hit return
before they will be allowed to login. The default is to not wait. Any
individual host configurations that follow this line will have the axspawn
program run when they connect. When axspawn is run it first checks that the
command line argument it is supplied is a legal callsign, strips the SSID,
then it checks that /etc/passwd file to see if that user has an account
configured. If there is an account, and the password is either "" (null) or +
then the user is logged in, if there is anything in the password field the
user is prompted to enter a password. If there is not an existing account in
the /etc/passwd file then axspawn may be configured to automatically create
one.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14.1. Creating the /etc/ax25/axspawn.conf file

You can alter the behaviour of axspawn in various ways by use of the /etc/
ax25/axspawn.conf file. This file is formatted as follows:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /etc/ax25/axspawn.conf                                                   |
|#                                                                          |
|# allow automatic creation of user accounts                                |
|create    yes                                                              |
|#                                                                          |
|# guest user if above is 'no' or everything else fails. Disable with "no"  |
|guest     no                                                               |
|#                                                                          |
|# group id or name for autoaccount                                         |
|group     ax25                                                             |
|#                                                                          |
|# first user id to use                                                     |
|first_uid 2001                                                             |
|#                                                                          |
|# maximum user id                                                          |
|max_uid   3000                                                             |
|#                                                                          |
|# where to add the home directory for the new users                        |
|home      /home/ax25                                                       |
|#                                                                          |
|# user shell                                                               |
|shell     /bin/bash                                                        |
|#                                                                          |
|# bind user id to callsign for outgoing connects.                          |
|associate yes                                                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

The eight configurable characteristics of axspawn are as follows:

#
    indicates a comment.
   
create
    if this field is set to yes then axspawn will attempt to automatically
    create a user account for any user who connects and does not already have
    an entry in the /etc/passwd file.
   
guest
    this field names the login name of the account that will be used for
    people who connect who do not already have accounts if create is set to
    no. This is usually ax25 or guest.
   
group
    this field names the group name that will be used for any users who
    connect and do not already have an entry in the /etc/passwd file.
   
first_uid
    this is the number of the first userid that will be automatically created
    for new users.
   
max_uid
    this is the maximum number that will be used for the userid of new users.
   
home
    this is the home (login) directory of new users.
   
shell
    this is the login shell of any new users.
   
associate
    this flag indicates whether outgoing AX.25 connections made by this user
    after they login will use their own callsign, or your stations callsign.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
15. Configuring the pms

The pms program is an implementation of a simple personal message system. It
was originally written by Alan Cox. [mailto:dcb@vectorbd.com] Dave Brown,
N2RJT, has taken on further development of it. At present it is still very
simple, supporting only the ability to send mail to the owner of the system
and to obtain some limited system information but Dave is working to expand
its capability to make it more useful.

After that is done there are a couple of simple files that you should create
that give users some information about the system and then you need to add
appropriate entries into the ax25d.conf file so that connected users are
presented with the PMS.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.1. Create the /etc/ax25/pms.motd file

The /etc/ax25/pms.motd file contains the `message of the day' that users will
be presented with after they connect and receive the usual BBS id header. The
file is a simple text file, any text you include in this file will be sent to
users.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.2. Create the /etc/ax25/pms.info file

The /etc/ax25/pms.info file is also a simple text file in which you would put
more detailed information about your station or configuration. This file is
presented to users in response to their issuing of the Info command from the
PMS> prompt.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.3. Associate AX.25 callsigns with system users

When a connected user sends mail to an AX.25 callsign, the pms expects that
callsign to be mapped, or associated with a real system user on your machine.
This is described in a section of its own.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.4. Add the PMS to the /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file

Adding the pms to your ax25d.conf file is very simple. There is one small
thing you need to think about though. Dave has added command line arguments
to the PMS to allow it to handle a number of different text end-of-line
conventions. AX.25 and NET/ROM by convention expect the end-of-line to be 
carriage return, linefeed while the standard UNIX end-of-line is just newline
. So, for example, if you wanted to add an entry that meant that the default
action for a connection received on an AX.25 port is to start the PMS then
you would add a line that looked something like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|default  1  10 5 100 5   0    root  /usr/sbin/pms pms -a -o vk2ktj         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This simply runs the pms program, telling it that it is an AX.25 connection
it is connected to and that the PMS owner is vk2ktj. Check the man page for
what you should specify for other connection methods.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15.5. Test the PMS

To test the PMS, you can try the following command from the command line: # /
usr/sbin/pms -u vk2ktj -o vk2ktj Substitute your own callsign for mine and
this will run the pms, telling it that it is to use the UNIX end-of-line
convention, and that user logging in is vk2ktj. You can do all the things
connected users can.

Additionally you might try getting some other node to connect to you to
confirm that your ax25d.conf configuration works.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

16. Configuring the user_call programs

The `user_call' programs are really called: ax25_call and netrom_call. They
are very simple programs designed to be called from ax25d to automate network
connections to remote hosts. They may of course be called from a number of
other places such as shell scripts or other daemons such as the node program.

They are like a very simple call program. They don't do any meddling with the
data at all, so the end of line handling you'll have to worry about yourself.

Let's start with an example of how you might use them. Imagine you have a
small network at home and that you have one linux machine acting as your
Linux radio gateway and another machine, lets say a BPQ node connected to it
via an ethernet connection.

Normally if you wanted radio users to be able to connect to the BPQ node they
would either have to digipeat through your linux node, or connect to the node
program on your linux node and then connect from it. The ax25_call program
can simplify this if it is called from the ax25d program.

Imagine the BPQ node has the callsign VK2KTJ-9 and that the linux machine has
the AX.25/ethernet port named `bpq'. Let us also imagine the Linux gateway
machine has a radio port called `radio'.

An entry in the /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf that looked like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|[VK2KTJ-1 via radio]                                                       |
|default    * * * *   *   *  *                                              |
|                root /usr/sbin/ax25_call ax25_call bpq %u vk2ktj-9         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

would enable users to connect direct to `VK2KTJ-1' which would actually be
the Linux ax25d daemon and then be automatically switched to an AX.25
connection to `VK2KTJ-9' via the `bpq' interface.

There are all sorts of other possible configurations that you might try. The
`netrom_call' and `rose_call' utilities work in similar ways. One amateur has
used this utility to make connections to a remote BBS easier. Normally the
users would have to manually enter a long connection string to make the call
so he created an entry that made the BBS appear as though it were on the
local network by having his ax25d proxy the connection to the remote machine.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

17. Configuring the ROSE Uplink and Downlink commands

If you are familiar with the ROM based ROSE implementation you will be
familiar with the method by which AX.25 users make calls across a ROSE
network. If a users local ROSE node has the callsign VK2KTJ-5 and the AX.25
user wants to connect to VK5XXX at remote ROSE node 5050882960 then they
would issue the command:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|c vk5xxx v vk2ktj-5 5050 882960                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

At the remote node, VK5XXX would see an incoming connection with the local
AX.25 users callsign and being digipeated via the remote ROSE nodes callsign.

The Linux ROSE implementation does not support this capability in the kernel,
but there are two application programs called rsuplnk and rsdwnlnk which
perform this function.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

17.1. Configuring a ROSE downlink

To configure your Linux machine to accept a ROSE connection and establish an
AX.25 connection to any destination callsign that is not being listened for
on your machine you need to add an entry to your /etc/ax25/ax25d.conf file.
Normally you would configure this entry to be the default behaviour for
incoming ROSE connections. For example you might have ROSE listeners
operating for destinations like NODE-0 or HEARD-0 that you wish to handle
locally, but for all other destination calls you may want to pass them to the
rsdwnlink command and assume they are AX.25 users.

A typical configuration would look like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#                                                                          |
|{* via rose}                                                               |
|NOCALL   * * * * * *  L                                                    |
|default  * * * * * *  - root  /usr/sbin/rsdwnlnk rsdwnlnk 4800 vk2ktj-5    |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

With this configuration any user who established a ROSE connection to your
Linux nodes address with a destination call of something that you were not
specifically listening for would be converted into an AX.25 connection on the
AX.25 port named 4800 with a digipeater path of VK2KTJ-5.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

17.2. Configuring a ROSE uplink

To configure your Linux machine to accept AX.25 connections in the same way
that a ROM ROSE node would you must add an entry into your /etc/ax25/
ax25d.conf file that looks similar to the following:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#                                                                          |
|[VK2KTJ-5* via 4800]                                                       |
|NOCALL   * * * * * *  L                                                    |
|default  * * * * * *  - root  /usr/sbin/rsuplnk rsuplnk rose               |
|#                                                                          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note the special syntax for the local callsign. The `*' character indicates
that the application should be invoked if the callsign is heard in the
digipeater path of a connection.

This configuration would allow an AX.25 user to establish ROSE calls using
the example connect sequence presented in the introduction. Anybody
attempting to digipeat via VK2KTJ-5 on the AX.25 port named 4800 would be
handled by the rsuplnk command.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

18. Associating AX.25 callsigns with Linux users

There are a number of situations where it is highly desirable to associate a
callsign with a linux user account. One example might be where a number of
amateur radio operators share the same linux machine and wish to use their
own callsign when making calls. Another is the case of PMS users wanting to
talk to a particular user on your machine.

The AX.25 software provides a means of managing this association of linux
user account names with callsigns. We've mentioned it once already in the PMS
section, but I'm spelling it out here to be sure you don't miss it.

You make the association with the axparms command. An example looks like:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# axparms -assoc vk2ktj terry                                              |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This command associates that AX.25 callsign vk2ktj with the user terry on the
machine. So, for example, any mail for vk2ktj on the pms will be sent to
Linux account terry.

Remember to put these associations into your rc file so that they are
available each time your reboot.

Note you should never associate a callsign with the root account as this can
cause configuration problems in other programs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

19. Configuring APRS

Note This section has yet to be written. It should cover aprsd, aprsdigi,    
     aprsmon, xastir, JavAPRS, etc.                                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

20. The /proc/ file system entries

The /proc filesystem contains a number of files specifically related to the
AX.25 and NET/ROM kernel software. These files are normally used by the AX52
utilities, but they are plainly formatted so you may be interested in reading
them. The format is fairly easily understood so I don't think much
explanation will be necessary.

/proc/net/arp
    contains the list of Address Resolution Protocol mappings of IP addresses
    to MAC layer protocol addresses. These can can AX.25, ethernet or some
    other MAC layer protocol.
   
/proc/net/ax25
    contains a list of AX.25 sockets opened. These might be listening for a
    connection, or active sessions.
   
/proc/net/ax25_bpqether
    contains the AX.25 over ethernet BPQ style callsign mappings.
   
/proc/net/ax25_calls
    contains the linux userid to callsign mappings set my the axparms -assoc
    command.
   
/proc/net/ax25_route
    contains AX.25 digipeater path information.
   
/proc/net/nr
    contains a list of NET/ROM sockets opened. These might be listening for a
    connection, or active sessions.
   
/proc/net/nr_neigh
    contains information about the NET/ROM neighbours known to the NET/ROM
    software.
   
/proc/net/nr_nodes
    contains information about the NET/ROM nodes known to the NET/ROM
    software.
   
/proc/net/rose
    contains a list of ROSE sockets opened. These might be listening for a
    connection, or active sessions.
   
/proc/net/rose_nodes
    contains a mapping of ROSE destinations to ROSE neighbours.
   
/proc/net/rose_neigh
    contains a list of known ROSE neighbours.
   
/proc/net/rose_routes
    contains a list of all established ROSE connections.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
21. AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE network programming

Probably the biggest advantage of using the kernel based implementations of
the amateur packet radio protocols is the ease with which you can develop
applications and programs to use them.

While the subject of Unix Network Programming is outside the scope of this
document I will describe the elementary details of how you can make use of
the AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE protocols within your software.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

21.1. The address families

Network programming for AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE is quite similar to
programming for TCP/IP under Linux. The major differences being the address
families used, and the address structures that need to be mangled into place.

The address family names for AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE are AF_AX25, AF_NETROM
and AF_ROSE respectively.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

21.2. The header files

You must always include the `netax25/ax25.h' header file, and also the
`netrom/netrom.h' or `netrose/rose.h' header files if you are dealing with
those protocols. Simple top level skeletons would look something like the
following:

For AX.25:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#include <netax25/ax25.h>                                                  |
|int s, addrlen = sizeof(struct full_sockaddr_ax25);                        |
|struct full_sockaddr_ax25 sockaddr;                                        |
|sockaddr.fsa_ax25.sax25_family = AF_AX25                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

For NET/ROM:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#include <netax25/ax25.h>                                                  |
|#include <netrom/netrom.h>                                                 |
|int s, addrlen = sizeof(struct full_sockaddr_ax25);                        |
|struct full_sockaddr_ax25 sockaddr;                                        |
|sockaddr.fsa_ax25.sax25_family = AF_NETROM;                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

For ROSE:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#include <netax25/ax25.h>                                                  |
|#include <netrose/rose.h>                                                  |
|int s, addrlen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_rose);                             |
|struct sockaddr_rose sockaddr;                                             |
|sockaddr.srose_family = AF_ROSE;                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

21.3. Callsign mangling and examples

There are routines within the lib/ax25.a library built in the AX.25 utilities
package that manage the callsign conversions for you. You can write your own
of course if you wish.

The user_call utilities are excellent examples from which to work. The source
code for them is included in the AX.25 utilities package. If you spend a
little time working with those you will soon see that ninety percent of the
work is involved in just getting ready to open the socket. Actually making
the connection is easy, the preparation takes time.

The examples are simple enough to not be very confusing. If you have any
questions, you should feel to direct them to the linux-hams mailing list and
someone there will be sure to help you.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22. Some sample configurations

Following are examples of the most common types of configurations. These are
guides only as there are as many ways of configuring your network as there
are networks to configure, but they may give you a start.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.1. Small Ethernet LAN with Linux as a router to Radio LAN

Many of you may have small local area networks at home and want to connect
the machines on that network to your local radio LAN. This is the type of
configuration I use at home. I arranged to have a suitable block of addresses
allocated to me that I could capture in a single route for convenience and I
use these on my Ethernet LAN. Your local IP coordinator will assist you in
doing this if you want to try it as well. The addresses for the Ethernet LAN
form a subset of the radio LAN addresses. The following configuration is the
actual one for my linux router on my network at home:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                         . . . . . .                       |
|  ___               _________         .                                    |
|   | Network       /         \     .    Network                            |
|   | 44.136.8.96/29|         |    .     44.136.8/24        \ | /           |
|   |               | Linux   |   .                          \|/            |
|   |               |         |  .   _____      __________    |             |
|   |          eth0 | Router  |  .  /     \    /          \   |             |
|   |_______________|         |_____| TNC |____|  Radio   |__/              |
|   |   44.136.8.97 |  and    |  .  \_____/    \__________/                 |
|   |               |         | sl0                                         |
|   |               | Server  | 44.136.8.5                                  |
|   |               |         |   .                                         |
|   |               |         |     .                                       |
|   |               \_________/        .                                    |
|  _|_                                    . . . . . .                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#!/bin/sh                                                                  |
|# /etc/rc.net                                                              |
|# This configuration provides one KISS based AX.25 port and one            |
|# Ethernet device.                                                         |
|                                                                           |
|echo "/etc/rc.net"                                                         |
|echo "  Configuring:"                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|echo -n "    loopback:"                                                    |
|/sbin/ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1                                                |
|/sbin/route add 127.0.0.1                                                  |
|echo " done."                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|echo -n "    ethernet:"                                                    |
|/sbin/ifconfig eth0 44.136.8.97 netmask 255.255.255.248 \                  |
|                broadcast 44.136.8.103 up                                  |
|/sbin/route add 44.136.8.97 eth0                                           |
|/sbin/route add -net 44.136.8.96 netmask 255.255.255.248 eth0              |
|echo " done."                                                              |
|                                                                           |
|echo -n "    AX.25: "                                                      |
|kissattach -i 44.136.8.5 -m 512 /dev/ttyS1 4800                            |
|ifconfig sl0 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 44.136.8.255                  |
|route add -host 44.136.8.5 sl0                                             |
|route add -net 44.136.8.0 window 1024 sl0                                  |
|                                                                           |
|echo -n "    NET/ROM: "                                                    |
|nrattach -i 44.136.8.5 netrom                                              |
|                                                                           |
|echo "  Routing:"                                                          |
|/sbin/route add default gw 44.136.8.68 window 1024 sl0                     |
|echo "    default route."                                                  |
|echo done.                                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|# end                                                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

/etc/ax25/axports
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# name  callsign        speed   paclen  window  description                |
|4800    VK2KTJ-0        4800    256     2       144.800 MHz                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

/etc/ax25/nrports
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# name  callsign        alias   paclen  description                        |
|netrom  VK2KTJ-9        LINUX   235     Linux Switch Port                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

/etc/ax25/nrbroadcast
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# ax25_name     min_obs def_qual        worst_qual      verbose            |
|4800            1       120             10              1                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

 

��*�You must have IP_FORWARDING enabled in your kernel.
   
��*�The AX.25 configuration files are pretty much those used as examples in
    the earlier sections, refer to those where necessary.
   
��*�I've chosen to use an IP address for my radio port that is not within my
    home network block. I needn't have done so, I could have easily used
    44.136.8.97 for that port too.
   
��*�44.136.8.68 is my local IPIP encapsulated gateway and hence is where I
    point my default route.
   
��*�Each of the machines on my Ethernet network have a route:
   
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |route add -net 44.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 \                    |
    |        gw 44.136.8.97 window 512 mss 512 eth0                 |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   
    The use of the mss and window parameters means that I can get optimum
    performance from both local Ethernet and radio based connections.
   
��*�I also run my smail, http, ftp and other daemons on the router machine so
    that it needs to be the only machine to provide others with facilities.
   
��*�The router machine is a lowly 386DX20 with a 20Mb hard drive and a very
    minimal linux configuration.
   

 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.2. IPIP encapsulated gateway configuration

Warning Some information here on tunnelling is out of date. The setup has    
        changed since the 2.0.x kernel, now the "ip" command from the        
        iproute2 package should be used, as described in the Advanced Routing
        HOWTO.                                                               

Linux is now very commonly used for TCP/IP encapsulated gateways around the
world. The new tunnel driver supports multiple encapsulated routes and makes
the older ipip daemon obsolete.

A typical configuration would look similar to the following.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                         . . . . . .                       |
|  ___               _________        .                                     |
|   | Network       /         \     .    Network                            |
|   | 154.27.3/24   |         |    .     44.136.16/24       \ | /           |
|   |               | Linux   |   .                          \|/            |
|   |               |         |  .   _____      __________    |             |
|   |          eth0 | IPIP    |  .  /     \    /          \   |             |
|___|_______________|         |_____| TNC |____|  Radio   |___/             |
|   |   154.27.3.20 | Gateway |  .  \_____/    \__________/                 |
|   |               |         | sl0                                         |
|   |               |         | 44.136.16.1                                 |
|   |               |         |    .                                        |
|   |               |         |     .                                       |
|   |               \_________/       .                                     |
|  _|_                                    . . . . . .                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The configuration files of interest are:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /etc/rc.net                                                              |
|# This file is a simple configuration that provides one KISS AX.25         |
|# radio port, one Ethernet device, and utilizes the kernel tunnel driver   |
|# to perform the IPIP encapsulation/decapsulation                          |
|#                                                                          |
|echo "/etc/rc.net"                                                         |
|echo "  Configuring:"                                                      |
|#                                                                          |
|echo -n "    loopback:"                                                    |
|/sbin/ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1                                                |
|/sbin/route add 127.0.0.1                                                  |
|echo " done."                                                              |
|#                                                                          |
|echo -n "    ethernet:"                                                    |
|/sbin/ifconfig eth0 154.27.3.20 netmask 255.255.255.0 \                    |
|                broadcast 154.27.3.255 up                                  |
|/sbin/route add 154.27.3.20 eth0                                           |
|/sbin/route add -net 154.27.3.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 eth0                 |
|echo " done."                                                              |
|#                                                                          |
|echo -n "    AX.25: "                                                      |
|kissattach -i 44.136.16.1 -m 512 /dev/ttyS1 4800                           |
|/sbin/ifconfig sl0 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 44.136.16.255           |
|/sbin/route add -host 44.136.16.1 sl0                                      |
|/sbin/route add -net 44.136.16.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 window 1024 sl0     |
|#                                                                          |
|echo -n "    tunnel:"                                                      |
|/sbin/ifconfig tunl0 44.136.16.1 mtu 512 up                                |
|#                                                                          |
|echo done.                                                                 |
|#                                                                          |
|echo -n "Routing ... "                                                     |
|source /etc/ipip.routes                                                    |
|echo done.                                                                 |
|#                                                                          |
|# end.                                                                     |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

and:

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /etc/ipip.routes                                                          |
|# This file is generated using the munge script                             |
|#                                                                           |
|/sbin/route add -net 44.134.8.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 tunl0 gw 134.43.26.1  |
|/sbin/route add -net 44.34.9.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 tunl0 gw 174.84.6.17   |
|/sbin/route add -net 44.13.28.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 tunl0 gw 212.37.126.3 |
|   ...                                                                      |
|   ...                                                                      |
|   ...                                                                      |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

/etc/ax25/axports
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# name  callsign        speed   paclen  window  description                |
|4800    VK2KTJ-0        4800    256     2       144.800 MHz                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Some points to note here are:

 

��*�The new tunnel driver uses the gw field in the routing table in place of
    the pointopoint parameter to specify the address of the remote IPIP
    gateway. This is why it now supports multiple routes per interface.
   
��*�You can configure two network devices with the same address. In this
    example both the sl0 and the tunl0 devices have been configured with the
    IP address of the radio port. This is done so that the remote gateway
    sees the correct address from your gateway in encapsulated datagrams sent
    to it.
   
��*�The route commands used to specify the encapsulated routes can be
    automatically generated by a modified version of the munge script. This
    is included below. The route commands would then be written to a separate
    file and read in using the bash source /etc/ipip.routes command (assuming
    you called the file with the routing commands /etc/ipip.routes) as
    illustrated. The source file must be in the NOS route command format.
   
��*�Note the use of the window argument on the route command. Setting this
    parameter to an appropriate value improves the performance of your radio
    link.
   

 

The new tunnel-munge script:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#!/bin/sh                                                                  |
|#                                                                          |
|# From: Ron Atkinson <n8fow@hamgate.cc.wayne.edu>                          |
|#                                                                          |
|#  This script is basically the 'munge' script written by Bdale N3EUA      |
|#  for the IPIP daemon and is modified by Ron Atkinson N8FOW. It's         |
|#  purpose is to convert a KA9Q NOS format gateways route file             |
|#  (usually called 'encap.txt') into a Linux routing table format          |
|#  for the IP tunnel driver.                                               |
|#                                                                          |
|#        Usage: Gateway file on stdin, Linux route format file on stdout.  |
|#               eg.  tunnel-munge < encap.txt > ampr-routes                |
|#                                                                          |
|# NOTE: Before you use this script be sure to check or change the          |
|#       following items:                                                   |
|#                                                                          |
|#     1) Change the 'Local routes' and 'Misc user routes' sections         |
|#        to routes that apply to your own area (remove mine please!)       |
|#     2) On the fgrep line be sure to change the IP address to YOUR        |
|#        gateway Internet address. Failure to do so will cause serious     |
|#        routing loops.                                                    |
|#     3) The default interface name is 'tunl0'. Make sure this is          |
|#        correct for your system.                                          |
|                                                                           |
|echo "#"                                                                   |
|echo "# IP tunnel route table built by $LOGNAME on `date`"                 |
|echo "# by tunnel-munge script v960307."                                   |
|echo "#"                                                                   |
|echo "# Local routes"                                                      |
|echo "route add -net 44.xxx.xxx.xxx netmask 255.mmm.mmm.mmm dev sl0"       |
|echo "#"                                                                   |
|echo "# Misc user routes"                                                  |
|echo "#"                                                                   |
|echo "# remote routes"                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|fgrep encap | grep "^route" | grep -v " XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX" | \               |
|awk '{                                                                     |
|        split($3, s, "/")                                                  |
|        split(s[1], n,".")                                                 |
|        if      (n[1] == "")    n[1]="0"                                   |
|        if      (n[2] == "")    n[2]="0"                                   |
|        if      (n[3] == "")    n[3]="0"                                   |
|        if      (n[4] == "")    n[4]="0"                                   |
|        if      (s[2] == "1")   mask="128.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "2")   mask="192.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "3")   mask="224.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "4")   mask="240.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "5")   mask="248.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "6")   mask="252.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "7")   mask="254.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "8")   mask="255.0.0.0"                           |
|        else if (s[2] == "9")   mask="255.128.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "10")  mask="255.192.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "11")  mask="255.224.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "12")  mask="255.240.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "13")  mask="255.248.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "14")  mask="255.252.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "15")  mask="255.254.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "16")  mask="255.255.0.0"                         |
|        else if (s[2] == "17")  mask="255.255.128.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "18")  mask="255.255.192.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "19")  mask="255.255.224.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "20")  mask="255.255.240.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "21")  mask="255.255.248.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "22")  mask="255.255.252.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "23")  mask="255.255.254.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "24")  mask="255.255.255.0"                       |
|        else if (s[2] == "25")  mask="255.255.255.128"                     |
|        else if (s[2] == "26")  mask="255.255.255.192"                     |
|        else if (s[2] == "27")  mask="255.255.255.224"                     |
|        else if (s[2] == "28")  mask="255.255.255.240"                     |
|        else if (s[2] == "29")  mask="255.255.255.248"                     |
|        else if (s[2] == "30")  mask="255.255.255.252"                     |
|        else if (s[2] == "31")  mask="255.255.255.254"                     |
|        else                    mask="255.255.255.255"                     |
|                                                                           |
|if (mask == "255.255.255.255")                                             |
|        printf "route add -host %s.%s.%s.%s gw %s dev tunl0\n"\            |
|                ,n[1],n[2],n[3],n[4],$5                                    |
|else                                                                       |
|        printf "route add -net %s.%s.%s.%s gw %s netmask %s dev tunl0\n"\  |
|                ,n[1],n[2],n[3],n[4],$5,mask                               |
| }'                                                                        |
|                                                                           |
|echo "#"                                                                   |
|echo "# default the rest of amprnet via mirrorshades.ucsd.edu"             |
|echo "route add -net 44.0.0.0 gw 128.54.16.18 netmask 255.0.0.0 dev tunl0" |
|echo "#"                                                                   |
|echo "# the end"                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.3. AXIP encapsulated gateway configuration

Many Amateur Radio Internet gateways encapsulate AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE in
addition to tcp/ip. Encapsulation of AX.25 frames within IP datagrams is
described in RFC-1226 by Brian Kantor. Mike Westerhof wrote an implementation
of an AX.25 encapsulation daemon for UNIX in 1991. The ax25-utils package
includes a marginally enhanced version of it for Linux.

An AXIP encapsulation program accepts AX.25 frames at one end, looks at the
destination AX.25 address to determine what IP address to send them to,
encapsulates them in a tcp/ip datagram and then transmits them to the
appropriate remote destination. It also accepts tcp/ip datagrams that contain
AX.25 frames, unwraps them and processes them as if it had received them
directly from an AX.25 port. To distinguish IP datagrams containing AX.25
frames from other IP datagrams which don't, AXIP datagrams are coded with a
protocol id of 4 (or 94 which is now deprecated). This process is described
in RFC-1226.

The ax25ipd program included in the ax25-utils package presents itself as a
program supporting a KISS interface across which you pass AX.25 frames, and
an interface into the tcp/ip protocols. It is configured with a single
configuration file called /etc/ax25/ax25ipd.conf.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.3.1. AXIP configuration options

The ax25ipd program has two major modes of operation. "digipeater" mode and
"tnc" mode. In "tnc" mode the daemon is treated as though it were a kiss TNC,
you pass KISS encapsulated frames to it and it will transmit them, this is
the usual configuration. In "digipeater" mode, you treat the daemon as though
it were an AX.25 digipeater. There are subtle differences between these
modes.

In the configuration file you configure "routes" or mappings between
destination AX.25 callsigns and the IP addresses of the hosts that you want
to send the AX.25 packets too. Each route has options which will be explained
later.

Other options that are configured here are:

��*�the tty that the ax25ipd daemon will open and its speed (usually one end
    of a pipe)
   
��*�what callsign you want to use in "digipeater" mode
   
��*�beacon interval and text
   
��*�whether you want to encapsulate the AX.25 frames in IP datagrams or in
    UDP/IP datagrams. Nearly all AXIP gateways use IP encapsulation, but some
    gateways are behind firewalls that will not allow IP with the AXIP
    protocol id to pass and are forced to use UDP/IP. Whatever you choose
    must match what the tcp/ip host at the other end of the link is using.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
22.3.2. A typical /etc/ax25/ax25ipd.conf file

+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|#                                                                             |
|# ax25ipd configuration file for station floyd.vk5xxx.ampr.org                |
|#                                                                             |
|# Select axip transport. 'ip' is what you want for compatibility              |
|# with most other gateways.                                                   |
|#                                                                             |
|socket ip                                                                     |
|#                                                                             |
|# Set ax25ipd mode of operation. (digi or tnc)                                |
|#                                                                             |
|mode tnc                                                                      |
|#                                                                             |
|# If you selected digi, you must define a callsign. If you selected           |
|# tnc mode, the callsign is currently optional, but this may change           |
|# in the future! (2 calls if using dual port kiss)                            |
|#                                                                             |
|#mycall vk5xxx-4                                                              |
|#mycall2 vk5xxx-5                                                             |
|#                                                                             |
|# In digi mode, you may use an alias. (2 for dual port)                       |
|#                                                                             |
|#myalias svwdns                                                               |
|#myalias2 svwdn2                                                              |
|#                                                                             |
|# Send an ident every 540 seconds ...                                         |
|#                                                                             |
|#beacon after 540                                                             |
|#btext ax25ip -- tncmode rob/vk5xxx -- Experimental AXIP gateway              |
|#                                                                             |
|# Serial port, or pipe connected to a kissattach in my case                   |
|#                                                                             |
|device /dev/ttyq0                                                             |
|#                                                                             |
|# Set the device speed                                                        |
|#                                                                             |
|speed 9600                                                                    |
|#                                                                             |
|# loglevel 0 - no output                                                      |
|# loglevel 1 - config info only                                               |
|# loglevel 2 - major events and errors                                        |
|# loglevel 3 - major events, errors, and AX.25 frame trace                    |
|# loglevel 4 - all events                                                     |
|# log 0 for the moment, syslog not working yet ...                            |
|#                                                                             |
|loglevel 2                                                                    |
|#                                                                             |
|# If we are in digi mode, we might have a real tnc here, so use param to      |
|# set the tnc parameters ...                                                  |
|#                                                                             |
|#param 1 20                                                                   |
|#                                                                             |
|# Broadcast Address definition. Any of the addresses listed will be forwarded |
|# to any of the routes flagged as broadcast capable routes.                   |
|#                                                                             |
|broadcast QST-0 NODES-0                                                       |
|#                                                                             |
|# ax.25 route definition, define as many as you need.                         |
|# format is route (call/wildcard) (ip host at destination)                    |
|# ssid of 0 routes all ssid's                                                 |
|#                                                                             |
|# route <destcall> <destaddr> [flags]                                         |
|#                                                                             |
|# Valid flags are:                                                            |
|#         b  - allow broadcasts to be transmitted via this route              |
|#         d  - this route is the default route                                |
|#                                                                             |
|route vk2sut-0 44.136.8.68 b                                                  |
|route vk5xxx 44.136.188.221 b                                                 |
|route vk2abc 44.1.1.1                                                         |
|#                                                                             |
|#                                                                             |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.3.3. Running ax25ipd

Create your /etc/ax25/axports entry:
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |# /etc/ax25/axports                                            |
    |#                                                              |
    |axip    VK2KTJ-13       9600    256     AXIP port              |
    |#                                                              |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   
Run the kissattach command to create that port:
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |/usr/sbin/kissattach /dev/ptyq0 axip 44.135.96.242             |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   
Run the ax25ipd program:
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |/usr/sbin/ax25ipd &                                            |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   
Test the AXIP link:
     
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |call axip vk5xxx                                               |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
22.3.4. Some notes about the routes and route flags

The "route" command is where you specify where you want your AX.25 packets
encapsulated and sent to. When the ax25ipd daemon receives a packet from its
interface, it compares the destination callsign with each of the callsigns in
its routing table. If if finds a match then the ax.25 packet is encapsulated
in an IP datagram and then transmitted to the host at the specified IP
address.

There are two flags you can add to any of the route commands in the
ax25ipd.conf file. The two flags are:

b
    traffic with a destination address matching any of those on the list
    defined by the "broadcast" keyword should be transmitted via this route.
   
d
    any packets not matching any route should be transmitted via this route.
   

The broadcast flag is very useful, as it enables informations that is
normally destined for all stations to a number of AXIP destinations. Normally
axip routes are point-to-point and unable to handle 'broadcast' packets.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

22.4. Linking NOS and Linux using a pipe device

Many people like to run some version of NOS under Linux because it has all of
the features and facilities they are used to. Most of those people would also
like to have the NOS running on their machine capable of talking to the Linux
kernel so that they can offer some of the linux capabilities to radio users
via NOS.

Brandon S. Allbery, KF8NH, contributed the following information to explain
how to interconnect the NOS running on a Linux machine with the kernel code
using the Linux pipe device.

Since both Linux and NOS support the slip protocol it is possible to link the
two together by creating a slip link. You could do this by using two serial
ports with a loopback cable between them, but this would be slow and costly.
Linux provides a feature that many other Unix-like operating systems provide
called `pipes'. These are special pseudo devices that look like a standard
tty device to software but in fact loopback to another pipe device. To use
these pipes the first program must open the master end of the pipe, and the
open then the second program can open the slave end of the pipe. When both
ends are open the programs can communicate with each other simply by writing
characters to the pipes in the way they would if they were terminal devices.

To use this feature to connect the Linux Kernel and a copy of NOS, or some
other program you first must choose a pipe device to use. You can find one by
looking in your /dev directory. The master end of the pipes are named: ptyq
[1-f] and the slave end of the pipes are known as: ttyq[1-f]. Remember they
come in pairs, so if you select /dev/ptyqf as your master end then you must
use /dev/ttyqf as the slave end.

Once you have chosen a pipe device pair to use you should allocate the master
end to you linux kernel and the slave end to the NOS program, as the Linux
kernel starts first and the master end of the pipe must be opened first. You
must also remember that your Linux kernel must have a different IP address to
your NOS, so you will need to allocate a unique address for it if you haven't
already.

You configure the pipe just as if it were a serial device, so to create the
slip link from your linux kernel you can use commands similar to the
following:

 
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# /sbin/slattach -s 38400 -p slip /dev/ptyqf &                             |
|# /sbin/ifconfig sl0 broadcast 44.255.255.255 pointopoint 44.70.248.67 /   |
|        mtu 1536 44.70.4.88                                                |
|# /sbin/route add 44.70.248.67 sl0                                         |
|# /sbin/route add -net 44.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 44.70.248.67          |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

In this example the Linux kernel has been given IP address 44.70.4.88 and the
NOS program is using IP address 44.70.248.67. The route command in the last
line simply tells your linux kernel to route all datagrams for the amprnet
via the slip link created by the slattach command. Normally you would put
these commands into your /etc/rc.d/rc.inet2 file after all your other network
configuration is complete so that the slip link is created automatically when
you reboot. Note: there is no advantage in using cslip instead of slip as it
actually reduces performance because the link is only a virtual one and
occurs fast enough that having to compress the headers first takes longer
than transmitting the uncompressed datagram.

To configure the NOS end of the link you could try the following:

 
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# you can call the interface anything you want; I use "linux" for convenience. |
|attach asy ttyqf - slip linux 1024 1024 38400                                  |
|route addprivate 44.70.4.88 linux                                              |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

These commands will create a slip port named `linux' via the slave end of the
pipe device pair to your linux kernel, and a route to it to make it work.
When you have started NOS you should be able to ping and telnet to your NOS
from your Linux machine and vice versa. If not, double check that you have
made no mistakes especially that you have the addresses configured properly
and have the pipe devices around the right way.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

23. Summary of AX.25-related Linux commands

This section summarizes all of the commands that are specific to AX.25.

+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|Command         |Package   |Description                                    |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|mheard          |ax25-tools|Display AX.25 calls recently heard             |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ax25d           |ax25-tools|General purpose AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE daemon |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|axctl           |ax25-tools|Configure/Kill running AX.25 connections       |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|axparms         |ax25-tools|Configure AX.25 interfaces                     |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|axspawn         |ax25-tools|Allow automatic login to a Linux system        |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|beacon          |ax25-tools|Transmit periodic messages on an AX.25 port    |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|bpqparms        |ax25-tools|Configure BPQ ethernet devices                 |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|mheardd         |ax25-tools|Collect information about packet activity      |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rxecho          |ax25-tools|Route AX.25 packets between ports transparently|
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|sethdlc         |ax25-tools|Get/set Linux HDLC packet radio modem driver   |
|                |          |port information                               |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|smmixer         |ax25-tools|Get/set Linux soundcard packet radio modem     |
|                |          |driver mixer                                   |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|smdiag          |ax25-tools|Linux soundcard packet radio modem driver      |
|                |          |diagnostics utility                            |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|kissattach      |ax25-tools|Attach a KISS or 6PACK interface               |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|kissnetd        |ax25-tools|Create a virtual network                       |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|kissparms       |ax25-tools|Configure KISS TNCs                            |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|net2kiss        |ax25-tools|Convert a network AX.25 driver to a KISS stream|
|                |          |on a pseudo-tty                                |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|mkiss           |ax25-tools|Attach a multi KISS interface                  |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|nodesave        |ax25-tools|Saves NET/ROM routing information              |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|nrattach        |ax25-tools|Start a NET/ROM interface                      |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|nrparms         |ax25-tools|Configure the NET/ROM interface                |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|nrsdrv          |ax25-tools|KISS to NET/ROM serial converter               |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|netromd         |ax25-tools|Send and receive NET/ROM routing messages      |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rsattach        |ax25-tools|Start a ROSE interface                         |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rsdwnlnk        |ax25-tools|User exit from the ROSE network                |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rsparms         |ax25-tools|Configure the ROSE interface                   |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rsuplnk         |ax25-tools|User entry into the ROSE network               |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ttylinkd        |ax25-tools|TTYlink daemon for AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE and IP |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rip98d          |ax25-tools|Send and receive RIP98 routing messages        |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ax25_call       |ax25-tools|Make an AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE or TCP connection |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|netrom_call     |ax25-tools|Make an AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE or TCP connection |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|rose_call       |ax25-tools|Make an AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE or TCP connection |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|tcp_call        |ax25-tools|Make an AX.25, NET/ROM, ROSE or TCP connection |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|yamcfg          |ax25-tools|Configure YAM driver parameters                |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|dmascc_cfg      |ax25-tools|Configure dmascc devices                       |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ax25ipd         |ax25-apps |AX.25 into IP Encapsulator                     |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ax25rtd         |ax25-apps |AX.25 routing daemon                           |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ax25rtctl       |ax25-apps |AX.25 routing daemon control utility           |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|call            |ax25-apps |Make an AX.25, NET/ROM or ROSE connection      |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|listen          |ax25-apps |Monitor AX.25 traffic                          |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|ax25mond        |ax25-apps |Dump the AX.25 network traffic and and provide |
|                |          |sockets where the received data will be        |
|                |          |retransmitted                                  |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|soundmodem      |soundmodem|Soundcard modem driver                         |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|soundmodemconfig|soundmodem|Soundcard modem configuration utility          |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|aprsd           |aprsd     |APRS daemon                                    |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|aprspass        |aprsd     |APRS passcode generator                        |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|aprsdigi        |aprsdigi  |APRS digipeater                                |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+
|aprsmon         |aprsdigi  |Monitor APRS AX.25 traffic for JavAPRS         |
+----------------+----------+-----------------------------------------------+

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
24. Where do I find more information about .... ?

Since this document assumes you already have some experience with packet
radio, and that this might not be the case, I've collected a set of
references to other information that you might find useful.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

24.1. Packet Radio

You can get general information about Packet Radio from these sites:

��*�[http://www.arrl.org/] American Radio Relay League
   
��*�[http://www.rats.org/] Radio Amateur Teleprinter Society
   
��*�[http://www.tapr.org/] Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Group
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
24.2. Protocol Documentation

��*�AX.25, NET/ROM - Jonathon Naylor has collated a variety of documents that
    relate to the packet radio protocols themselves. This documentation has
    been packaged up into [ftp://ftp.hes.iki.fi/pub/ham/unix.linux/ax25/
    ax25-doc-1.0.tar.gz] ax25-doc-1.0.tar.gz
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
24.3. Hardware Documentation

��*�Information on the PI2 Card is provided by the [http://hydra.carleton.ca
    /] Ottawa Packet Radio Group.
   
��*�Information on Baycom hardware is available at the [http://www.baycom.de
    /] Baycom Web Page.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
24.4. Linux Ham Radio Software

John Ackermann has a web site with information related to configuring AX.25
on Linux at [http://www.febo.com/linux-ax25/index.html] http://www.febo.com/
linux-ax25/index.html.

The Hamsoft Linux Ham Radio Applications and Utilities Database attempts to
maintain a complete list of Amateur Radio related applications for Linux. It
can be found at [http://radio.linux.org.au/] http://radio.linux.org.au.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

25. Discussion relating to Amateur Radio and Linux

There are various places that discussion relating to Amateur Radio and Linux
take place. They take place in the comp.os.linux.* newsgroups, they also take
place on the linux-hams list on vger.kernel.org. Other places where they are
held include the tcp-group mailing list at ucsd.edu (the home of amateur
radio TCP/IP discussions), and you might also try the #linpeople channel on
the linuxnet irc network.

To join the Linux linux-hams channel on the mail list server, send mail to
majordomo@vger.kernel.org with the line subscribe linux-hams in the message
body. The subject line is ignored.

The linux-hams mailing list is archived at: [http://hes.iki.fi/archive/
linux-hams/] http://hes.iki.fi/archive/linux-hams/ and [http://
web.gnu.walfield.org/mail-archive/linux-hams] http://web.gnu.walfield.org/
mail-archive/linux-hams. Please use the archives when you are first starting,
because many common questions are answered there.

To join the tcp-group send mail to listserver@ucsd.edu with the line
subscribe tcp-group in the body of the text.

Note Please remember that the tcp-group is primarily for discussion of the   
     use of advanced protocols, of which TCP/IP is one, in Amateur Radio.    
     Linux specific questions should not ordinarily go there.                
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

26. Acknowledgements

Terry Dawson was the original author and maintainer of this HOWTO. Jeff
Tranter took over as maintainer in 2001 to allow Terry more time to
concentrate on AX.25 software development.

The following people have contributed to this document in one way or another,
knowingly or unknowingly. In no particular order (as I find them): Jonathon
Naylor, Thomas Sailer, Joerg Reuter, Ron Atkinson, Alan Cox, Craig Small,
John Tanner, Brandon Allbery, Hans Alblas, Klaus Kudielka, Carl Makin, John
Ackermann, Riley Williams.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

27. Feedback

I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. If you have any
suggestions, corrections, or comments, please send them to me, [mailto:
tranter@pobox.com] tranter@pobox.com, and I will try to incorporate them in
the next revision.

If you publish this document on a CD-ROM or in hardcopy form, a complimentary
copy would be appreciated; mail me for my postal address. Also consider
making a donation to the Linux Documentation Project to help support free
documentation for Linux. Contact the LDP at [mailto:feedback@linuxdoc.org]
feedback@linuxdoc.org for more information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

28. Distribution Policy

Copyright (c) 1996-1997 by Terry Dawson, Copyright (c) 2001 by Jeff Tranter.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of
the license is available at [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html





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