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                        Antares RAID SparcLinux Howto                        
                                                                             
                   Thom Coates1 , Carl Munio, Jim Ludemann                   
                                                                             
                             Revised 25 May 2002                             
                                                                             
        --------------------------------------       
1
    Thomas D. Coates, Jr. PhD, c/o Neuropunk.Org, PO Box 910385, Lexington KY
    40591-0385, tcoates@neuropunk.org

Table of Contents

��*�Chapter�1��Preliminaries
    ��+�1.1��Preamble
    ��+�1.2��Acknowledgements and Thanks
    ��+�1.3��New Versions
   
��*�Chapter�2��Introduction
    ��+�2.1��5070 features5070 Main Features
    ��+�2.2��Background
        ��o�2.2.1��RAID levelsRaid Levels
        ��o�2.2.2��RAID linearRAID Linear
        ��o�2.2.3��RAID 1Level 1
        ��o�2.2.4��stripingStriping
        ��o�2.2.5��RAID 0Level 0
        ��o�2.2.6��RAID 2RAID 3Level 2 and 3
        ��o�2.2.7��RAID 4Level 4
        ��o�2.2.8��RAID 5Level 5
       
   
��*�Chapter�3��Installation
    ��+�3.1��compatibilitySBUS Controller Compatibility
    ��+�3.2��hardware installationHardware Installation Procedure
        ��o�3.2.1��Serial Terminal
        ��o�3.2.2��Hard Drive Plant
       
    ��+�3.3��5070 Onboard Configuration
        ��o�3.3.1��Main Screen Options
        ��o�3.3.2��[Q]uit
        ��o�3.3.3��[R]aidSets:
        ��o�3.3.4��[H]ostports:
        ��o�3.3.5��[S]pares:
        ��o�3.3.6��[M]onitor:
        ��o�3.3.7��[G]eneral:
        ��o�3.3.8��[P]robe
        ��o�3.3.9��Example RAID Configuration Session
       
    ��+�3.4��Linux Configuration
        ��o�3.4.1��Existing Linux Installation
        ��o�3.4.2��New Linux Installation
       
    ��+�3.5��Maintenance
        ��o�3.5.1��spares, activatingActivating a spare
        ��o�3.5.2��re-integrating repaired driveRe-integrating a repaired
            drive into the RAID (levels 3 and 5)
       
    ��+�3.6��Troubleshooting / Error Messages
        ��o�3.6.1��Out of band temperature detected...
        ��o�3.6.2��... failed ... cannot have more than 1 faulty backend.
        ��o�3.6.3��When booting I see: ... Sun disklabel: bad magic 0000 ...
            unknown partition table.
       
    ��+�3.7��Bugs
    ��+�3.8��Frequently Asked Questions
        ��o�3.8.1��How do I reset/erase the onboard configuration?
        ��o�3.8.2��How can I tell if a drive in my RAID has failed?
       
    ��+�3.9��command referenceAdvanced Topics: 5070 Command Reference
        ��o�3.9.1��autobootAUTOBOOT - script to automatically create all raid
            sets and scsi monitors
        ��o�3.9.2��AUTOFAULT - script to automatically mark a backend faulty
            after a drive failure
        ��o�3.9.3��AUTOREPAIR - script to automatically allocate a spare and
            reconstruct a raid set
        ��o�3.9.4��BIND - combine elements of the namespace
        ��o�3.9.5��BUZZER - get the state or turn on or off the buzzer
        ��o�3.9.6��CACHE - display information about and delete cache ranges
        ��o�3.9.7��CACHEDUMP - Dump the contents of the write cache to
            battery backed-up ram
        ��o�3.9.8��CACHERESTORE - Load the cache with data from battery
            backed-up ram
        ��o�3.9.9��CAT - concatenate files and print on the standard output
        ��o�3.9.10��CMP - compare the contents of 2 files
        ��o�3.9.11��CONS - console device for Husky
        ��o�3.9.12��DD - copy a file (disk, etc)
        ��o�3.9.13��DEVSCMP - Compare a file's size against a given value
        ��o�3.9.14��DFORMAT- Perform formatting functions on a backend disk
            drive
        ��o�3.9.15��DIAGS - script to run a diagnostic on a given device
        ��o�3.9.16��DPART - edit a scsihd disk partition table
        ��o�3.9.17��DUP - open file descriptor device
        ��o�3.9.18��ECHO - display a line of text
        ��o�3.9.19��ENV- environment variables file system
        ��o�3.9.20��ENVIRON - RaidRunner Global environment variables - names
            and effects
        ��o�3.9.21��EXEC - cause arguments to be executed in place of this
            shell
        ��o�3.9.22��EXIT - exit a K9 process
        ��o�3.9.23��EXPR - evaluation of numeric expressions
        ��o�3.9.24��FALSE - returns the K9 false status
        ��o�3.9.25��FIFO - bi-directional fifo buffer of fixed size
        ��o�3.9.26��GET - select one value from list
        ��o�3.9.27��GETIV - get the value an internal RaidRunner variable
        ��o�3.9.28��HELP - print a list of commands and their synopses
        ��o�3.9.29��HUSKY - shell for K9 kernel
        ��o�3.9.30��HWCONF - print various hardware configuration details
        ��o�3.9.31��HWMON - monitoring daemon for temperature, fans, PSUs.
        ��o�3.9.32��INTERNALS - Internal variables used by RaidRunner to
            change dynamics of running kernel
        ��o�3.9.33��KILL - send a signal to the nominated process
        ��o�3.9.34��LED- turn on/off LED's on RaidRunner
        ��o�3.9.35��LFLASH- flash a led on RaidRunner
        ��o�3.9.36��LINE - copies one line of standard input to standard
            output
        ��o�3.9.37��LLENGTH - return the number of elements in the given list
        ��o�3.9.38��LOG - like zero with additional logging of accesses
        ��o�3.9.39��LRANGE - extract a range of elements from the given list
        ��o�3.9.40��LS - list the files in a directory
        ��o�3.9.41��LSEARCH - find the a pattern in a list
        ��o�3.9.42��LSUBSTR - replace a character in all elements of a list
        ��o�3.9.43��MEM - memory mapped file (system)
        ��o�3.9.44��MDEBUG - exercise and display statistics about memory
            allocation
        ��o�3.9.45��MKDIR - create directory (or directories)
        ��o�3.9.46��MKDISKFS - script to create a disk filesystem
        ��o�3.9.47��MKHOSTFS - script to create a host port filesystem
        ��o�3.9.48��MKRAID - script to create a raid given a line of output
            of rconf
        ��o�3.9.49��MKRAIDFS - script to create a raid filesystem
        ��o�3.9.50��MKSMON - script to start the scsi monitor daemon smon
        ��o�3.9.51��MKSTARGD - script to initialize a scsi target daemon for
            a given raid set
        ��o�3.9.52��MSTARGD - monitor for stargd
        ��o�3.9.53��NICE - Change the K9 run-queue priority of a K9 process
        ��o�3.9.54��NULL- file to throw away output in
        ��o�3.9.55��PARACC - display information about hardware parity
            accelerator
        ��o�3.9.56��PEDIT - Display/modify SCSI backend Mode Parameters Pages
        ��o�3.9.57��PIPE - two way interprocess communication
        ��o�3.9.58��PRANKS - print or set the accessible backend ranks for
            the current controller
        ��o�3.9.59��PRINTENV - print one or all GLOBAL environment variables
        ��o�3.9.60��PS - report process status
        ��o�3.9.61��PSCSIRES - print SCSI-2 reservation table for all or
            specific monikers
        ��o�3.9.62��PSTATUS - print the values of hardware status registers
        ��o�3.9.63��RAIDACTION- script to gather/reset stats or stop/start a
            raid set's stargd
        ��o�3.9.64��RAID0 - raid 0 device
        ��o�3.9.65��RAID1 - raid 1 device
        ��o�3.9.66��RAID3 - raid 3 device
        ��o�3.9.67��RAID4 - raid 4 device
        ��o�3.9.68��RAID5 - raid 5 device
        ��o�3.9.69��RAM - ram based file system
        ��o�3.9.70��RANDIO - simulate random reads and writes
        ��o�3.9.71��RCONF, SPOOL, HCONF, MCONF, CORRUPT-CONFIG - raid
            configuration and spares management
        ��o�3.9.72��REBOOT - exit K9 on target hardware + return to monitor
        ��o�3.9.73��REBUILD - raid set reconstruction utility
        ��o�3.9.74��REPAIR - script to allocate a spare to a raid set's
            failed backend
        ��o�3.9.75��REPLACE - script to restore a backend in a raid set
        ��o�3.9.76��RM - remove the file (or files)
        ��o�3.9.77��RMON - Power-On Diagnostics and Bootstrap
        ��o�3.9.78��RRSTRACE - disassemble scsihpmtr monitor data
        ��o�3.9.79��RSIZE - estimate the memory usage for a given raid set
        ��o�3.9.80��SCN2681 - access a scn2681 (serial IO device) as console
        ��o�3.9.81��SCSICHIPS - print various details about a controller's
            scsi chips
        ��o�3.9.82��SCSIHD - SCSI hard disk device (a SCSI initiator)
        ��o�3.9.83��SCSIHP - SCSI target device
        ��o�3.9.84��SET - set (or clear) an environment variable
        ��o�3.9.85��SCSIHPMTR - turn on host port debugging
        ��o�3.9.86��SETENV - set a GLOBAL environment variable
        ��o�3.9.87��SDLIST - Set or display an internal list of attached disk
            drives
        ��o�3.9.88��SETIV - set an internal RaidRunner variable
        ��o�3.9.89��SHOWBAT - display information about battery backed-up ram
        ��o�3.9.90��SHUTDOWN - script to place the RaidRunner into a shutdown
            or quiescent state
        ��o�3.9.91��SLEEP - sleep for the given number of seconds
        ��o�3.9.92��SMON - RaidRunner SCSI monitor daemon
        ��o�3.9.93��SOS - pulse the buzzer to emit sos's
        ��o�3.9.94��SPEEDTST - Generate a set number of sequential writes
            then reads
        ��o�3.9.95��SPIND - Spin up or down a disk device
        ��o�3.9.96��SPINDLE - Modify Spindle Synchronization on a disk device
        ��o�3.9.97��SRANKS - set the accessible backend ranks for a
            controller
        ��o�3.9.98��STARGD - daemon for SCSI-2 target
        ��o�3.9.99��STAT - get status information on the named files (or
            stdin)
        ��o�3.9.100�� � STATS - Print cumulative performance statistics on a
            Raid Set or Cache Range
        ��o�3.9.101�� � STRING - perform a string operation on a given value
        ��o�3.9.102�� � SUFFIX - Suffixes permitted on some big decimal
            numbers
        ��o�3.9.103�� � SYSLOG - device to send system messages for logging
        ��o�3.9.104�� � SYSLOGD - initialize or access messages in the system
            log area
        ��o�3.9.105�� � TEST - condition evaluation command
        ��o�3.9.106�� � TIME - Print the number of seconds since boot (or
            reset of clock)
        ��o�3.9.107�� � TRAP - intercept a signal and perform some action
        ��o�3.9.108�� � TRUE - returns the K9 true status
        ��o�3.9.109�� � STTY or TTY - print the user's terminal mount point
            or terminfo status
        ��o�3.9.110�� � UNSET - delete one or more environment variables
        ��o�3.9.111�� � UNSETENV - unset (delete) a GLOBAL environment
            variable
        ��o�3.9.112�� � VERSION - print out the version of the RaidRunner
            kernel
        ��o�3.9.113�� � WAIT - wait for a process (or my children) to
            terminate
        ��o�3.9.114�� � WARBLE - periodically pulse the buzzer
        ��o�3.9.115�� � XD- dump given file(s) in hexa-decimal to standard
            out
        ��o�3.9.116�� � ZAP - write zeros to a file
        ��o�3.9.117�� � ZCACHE - Manipulate the zone optimization IO table of
            a Raid Set's cache
        ��o�3.9.118�� � ZERO - file when read yields zeros continuously
        ��o�3.9.119�� � ZLABELS - Write zeros to the front and end of Raid
            Sets
       
    ��+�3.10��Advanced Topics: SCSI Monitor Daemon (SMON)
    ��+�3.11��Further Reading
   
Chapter�1��Preliminaries

This document describes how to install, configure, and maintain a hardware
RAID built around the 5070 SBUS host based RAID controller by Antares
Microsystems. Other topics of discussion include RAID levels, the 5070
controller GUI, and 5070 command line. A complete command reference for the
5070's K9 kernel and Bourne-like shell is included.

1.1��Preamble

Copyright 2000 by Thomas D. Coates, Jr. This document's source is licensed
under the terms if the GNU general public license agreement.
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this document without fee for
any purpose commercial or non-commercial is hereby granted, provided that the
author's names and this notice appear in all copies and/or supporting
documents; and that the location where a freely available unmodified version
of this document may be obtained is given. This document is distributed in
the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, either expressed
or implied. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the
information documented herein, the author(s)/editor(s)/maintainer(s)/
contributor(s) assumes NO RESPONSIBILITY for any errors, or for any damages,
direct or consequential, as a result of the use of the information documented
herein. A complete copy of the GNU Public License agreement may be obtained
from: Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
02111-1307, USA. Portions of this document are adapted and/or re-printed from
the 5070 installation guide and man pages with permission of Antares
Microsystems, Inc., Campbell CA.

1.2��Acknowledgements and Thanks

��*�Carl and Jim at Antares for the hardware, man pages, and other support/
    contributions they provided during the writing of this document.
��*�Penn State University - Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology,
    Section of Clinical Image Management (My home away from my home away from
    home).
��*�The software-raid-HOWTO Copyright 1997 by Linas Vepstas under the GNU
    public license agreement. The software-raid-HOWTO is Available from :
    http://www.linuxdoc.org

1.3��New Versions

��*�The location of the most recent version of this document is posted on my
    homepage: http://members.iglou.com/tcoates/
��*�Other versions may be found in different formats at the LDP homepage:
    http://www.linuxdoc.org and mirror sites.

Chapter�2��Introduction

The Antares 5070 is a high performance, versatile, yet relatively inexpensive
host based RAID controller. Its embedded operating system (K9 kernel) is
modelled on the Plan 9 operating system whose design is discussed in several
papers from AT&T (see the "Further Reading" section). K9 is a kernel targeted
at embedded controllers of small to medium complexity (e.g. ISDN-ethernet
bridges, RAID controllers, etc). It supports multiple lightweight processes
(i.e. without memory management) on a single CPU with a non-preemptive
scheduler. Device driver architecture is based on Plan 9 (and Unix SVR4)
streams. Concurrency control mechanisms include semaphores and signals.
The 5070 has three single ended ultra 1 SCSI channels and two onboard serial
interfaces one of which provides command line access via a connected serial
terminal or modem. The other is used to upgrade the firmware. The command
line is robust, implementing many of the essential Unix commands (e.g. dd,
ls, cat, etc.) and a scaled down Bourne shell for scripting. The Unix command
set is augmented with RAID specific configuration commands and scripts. In
addition to the command line interface an ASCII text based GUI is provided to
permit easy configuration of level 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 RAIDs.

2.1��5070 features5070 Main Features

��*�RAID levels 0, 1, 3, 4, and 5 are supported.
��*�Text based GUI for easy configuration for all supported RAID levels.
��*�A Multidisk RAID volume appears as an individual SCSI drive to the
    operating system and can be managed with the standard utilities (fdisk,
    mkfs, fsck,etc.). RAID Volumes may be assigned to different SCSI IDs or
    the same SCSI IDs but different LUNs.
��*�No special RAID drivers required for the host operating system.
��*�Multiple RAID volumes of different levels can be mixed among the drives
    forming the physical plant. For example in a hypothetical drive plant
    consisting of 9 drives:
    ��+�2 drives form a level 3 RAID assigned to SCSI ID 5, LUN 0
    ��+�2 drives form a level 0 RAID assigned to SCSI ID 5, LUN 1
    ��+�5 drives form a level 5 RAID assigned to SCSI ID 6, LUN 0
   
��*�Three single ended SCSI channels which can accommodate 6 drives each (18
    drives total).
��*�Two serial interfaces. The first permits configuration/control/monitoring
    of the RAID from a local serial terminal. The second serial port is used
    to upload new programming into the 5070 (using PPP and TFTP).
��*�Robust Unix-like command line and NVRAM based file system.
��*�Configurable ASCII SCSI communication channel for passing commands to the
    5070's command line interpreter. Allows programming running on host OS to
    directly configure/control/monitor all parameters of the 5070.

2.2��Background

Much of the information/knowledge pertaining to RAID levels in this section
is adapted from the software-raid-HOWTO by Linas Vepstas . See the
acknowledgements section for the URL where the full document may be obtained.

RAID is an acronym for "Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks" and is used to
create large, reliable disk storage systems out of individual hard disk
drives. There are two basic ways of implementing a RAID, software or
hardware. The main advantage of a software RAID is low cost. However, since
the OS of the host system must manage the RAID directly there is a
substantial penalty in performance. Furthermore if the RAID is also the boot
device, a drive failure could prove disastrous since the operating system and
utility software needed to perform the recovery is located on the RAID. The
primary advantages of hardware RAID is performance and improved reliability.
Since all RAID operations are handled by a dedicated CPU on the controller,
the host system's CPU is never bothered with RAID related tasks. In fact the
host OS is completely oblivious to the fact that its SCSI drives are really
virtual RAID drives. When a drive fails on the 5070 it can be replaced
on-the-fly with a drive from the spares pool and its data reconstructed
without the host's OS ever knowing anything has happened.

2.2.1��RAID levelsRaid Levels

The different RAID levels have different performance, redundancy, storage
capacity, reliability and cost characteristics. Most, but not all levels of
RAID offer redundancy against drive failure. There are many different levels
of RAID which have been defined by various vendors and researchers. The
following describes the first 7 RAID levels in the context of the Antares
5070 hardware RAID implementation.

2.2.2��RAID linearRAID Linear

RAID-linear is a simple concatenation of drives to create a larger virtual
drive. It is handy if you have a number small drives, and wish to create a
single, large drive. This concatenation offers no redundancy, and in fact
decreases the overall reliability: if any one drive fails, the combined drive
will fail.

SUMMARY

��*�Enables construction of a large virtual drive from a number of smaller
    drives
��*�No protection, less reliable than a single drive
��*�RAID 0 is a better choice due to better I/O performance

2.2.3��RAID 1Level 1

Also referred to as "mirroring". Two (or more) drives, all of the same size,
each store an exact copy of all data, disk-block by disk-block. Mirroring
gives strong protection against drive failure: if one drive fails, there is
another with the an exact copy of the same data. Mirroring can also help
improve performance in I/O-laden systems, as read requests can be divided up
between several drives. Unfortunately, mirroring is also one of the least
efficient in terms of storage: two mirrored drives can store no more data
than a single drive.

SUMMARY

��*�Good read/write performance
��*�Inefficient use of storage space (half the total space available for
    data)
��*�RAID 6 may be a better choice due to better I/O performance.

2.2.4��stripingStriping

Striping is the underlying concept behind all of the other RAID levels. A
stripe is a contiguous sequence of disk blocks. A stripe may be as short as a
single disk block, or may consist of thousands. The RAID drivers split up
their component drives into stripes; the different RAID levels differ in how
they organize the stripes, and what data they put in them. The interplay
between the size of the stripes, the typical size of files in the file
system, and their location on the drive is what determines the overall
performance of the RAID subsystem.

2.2.5��RAID 0Level 0

Similar to RAID-linear, except that the component drives are divided into
stripes and then interleaved. Like RAID-linear, the result is a single larger
virtual drive. Also like RAID-linear, it offers no redundancy, and therefore
decreases overall reliability: a single drive failure will knock out the
whole thing. However, the 5070 hardware RAID 0 is the fastest of any of the
schemes listed here.

SUMMARY:

��*�Use RAID 0 to combine smaller drives into one large virtual drive.
��*�Best Read/Write performance of all the schemes listed here.
��*�No protection from drive failure.
��*�ADVICE: Buy very reliable hard disk drives if you plan to use this
    scheme.

2.2.6��RAID 2RAID 3Level 2 and 3

RAID-2 is seldom used anymore, and to some degree has been made obsolete by
modern hard disk technology. RAID-2 is similar to RAID-4, but stores ECC
information instead of parity. Since all modern disk drives incorporate ECC
under the covers, this offers little additional protection. RAID-2 can offer
greater data consistency if power is lost during a write; however, battery
backup and a clean shutdown can offer the same benefits. RAID-3 is similar to
RAID-4, except that it uses the smallest possible stripe size.

SUMMARY

��*�RAID 2 is largely obsolete
��*�Use RAID 3 to combine separate drives together into one large virtual
    drive.
��*�Protection against single drive failure,
��*�Good read/write performance.

2.2.7��RAID 4Level 4

RAID-4 interleaves stripes like RAID-0, but it requires an additional drive
to store parity information. The parity is used to offer redundancy: if any
one of the drives fail, the data on the remaining drives can be used to
reconstruct the data that was on the failed drive. Given N data disks, and
one parity disk, the parity stripe is computed by taking one stripe from each
of the data disks, and XOR'ing them together. Thus, the storage capacity of a
an (N+1)-disk RAID-4 array is N, which is a lot better than mirroring (N+1)
drives, and is almost as good as a RAID-0 setup for large N. Note that for N=
1, where there is one data disk, and one parity disk, RAID-4 is a lot like
mirroring, in that each of the two disks is a copy of each other. However,
RAID-4 does NOT offer the read-performance of mirroring, and offers
considerably degraded write performance. In brief, this is because updating
the parity requires a read of the old parity, before the new parity can be
calculated and written out. In an environment with lots of writes, the parity
disk can become a bottleneck, as each write must access the parity disk.

SUMMARY

��*�Similar to RAID 0
��*�Protection against single drive failure.
��*�Poorer I/O performance than RAID 3
��*�Less of the combined storage space is available for data [than RAID 3]
    since an additional drive is needed for parity information.

2.2.8��RAID 5Level 5

RAID-5 avoids the write-bottleneck of RAID-4 by alternately storing the
parity stripe on each of the drives. However, write performance is still not
as good as for mirroring, as the parity stripe must still be read and XOR'ed
before it is written. Read performance is also not as good as it is for
mirroring, as, after all, there is only one copy of the data, not two or
more. RAID-5's principle advantage over mirroring is that it offers
redundancy and protection against single-drive failure, while offering far
more storage capacity when used with three or more drives.

SUMMARY

��*�Use RAID 5 if you need to make the best use of your available storage
    space while gaining protection against single drive failure.
��*�Slower I/O performance than RAID 3

Chapter�3��Installation

NOTE: The installation procedure given here for the SBUS controller is
similar to that found in the manual. It has been modified so minor variations
in the SPARCLinux installation may be included.

3.1��compatibilitySBUS Controller Compatibility

The 5070 / Linux 2.2 combination was tested on SPARCstation (5, 10, & 20),
Ultra 1, and Ultra 2 Creator. The 5070 was also tested on Linux with
Symmetrical Multiprocessing (SMP) support on a dual processor Ultra 2 creator
3D with no problems. Other 5070 / Linux / hardware combinations may work as
well.


3.2��hardware installationHardware Installation Procedure

If your system is already up and running, you must halt the operating system.

GNOME:

 1. From the login screen right click the "Options" button.
 2. On the popup menu select System -> Halt.
 3. Click "Yes" when the verification box appears

KDE:

 1. From the login screen right click shutdown.
 2. On the popup menu select shutdown by right clicking its radio button.
 3. Click OK

XDM:

 1. login as root
 2. Left click on the desktop to bring up the pop-up menu
 3. select "New Shell"
 4. When the shell opens type "halt" at the prompt and press return

Console Login (systems without X windows):

 1. Login as root
 2. Type "halt"

All Systems:

Wait for the message "power down" or "system halted" before proceeding. Turn
off your SPARCstation system (Note: Your system may have turned itself off
following the power down directive), its video monitor, external disk
expansion boxes, and any other peripherals connected to the system. Be sure
to check that the green power LED on the front of the system enclosure is not
lit and that the fans inside the system are not running. Do not disconnect
the system power cord.

SPARCstation 4, 5, 10, 20 & UltraSPARC Systems:

 1. Remove the top cover on the CPU enclosure. On a SPARCstation 10, this is
    done by loosening the captive screw at the top right corner of the back
    of the CPU enclosure, then tilting the top of the enclosure forward while
    using a Phillips screwdriver to press the plastic tab on the top left
    corner.
 2. Decide which SBUS slot you will use. Any slot will do. Remove the filler
    panel for that slot by removing the two screws and rectangular washers
    that hold it in.
 3. Remove the SBUS retainer (commonly called the handle) by pressing outward
    on one leg of the retainer while pulling it out of the hole in the
    printed circuit board.
 4. Insert the board into the SBUS slot you have chosen. To insert the board,
    first engage the top of the 5070 RAIDium backpanel into the backpanel of
    the CPU enclosure, then rotate the board into a level position and mate
    the SBUS connectors. Make sure that the SBUS connectors are completely
    engaged.
 5. Snap the nylon board retainers inside the SPARCstation over the 5070
    RAIDium board to secure it inside the system.
 6. Secure the 5070 RAIDium SBUS backpanel to the system by replacing the
    rectangular washers and screws that held the original filler panel in
    place.
 7. Replace the top cover by first mating the plastic hooks on the front of
    the cover to the chassis, then rotating the cover down over the unit
    until the plastic tab in back snaps into place. Tighten the captive screw
    on the upper right corner.

Ultra Enterprise Servers, SPARCserver 1000 & 2000 Systems, SPARCserver
6XO MP Series:

 1. Remove the two Allen screws that secure the CPU board to the card cage.
    These are located at each end of the CPU board backpanel.
 2. Remove the CPU board from the enclosure and place it on a static-free
    surface.
 3. Decide which SBUS slot you will use. Any slot will do. Remove the filler
    panel for that slot by removing the two screws and rectangular washers
    that hold it in. Save these screws and washers.
 4. Remove the SBUS retainer (commonly called the handle) by pressing outward
    on one leg of the retainer while pulling it out of the hole in the
    printed circuit board.
 5. Insert the board into the SBUS slot you have chosen. To insert the board,
    first engage the top of the 5070 RAIDium backpanel into the backpanel of
    the CPU enclosure, then rotate the board into a level position and mate
    the SBUS connectors. Make sure that the SBUS connectors are completely
    engaged.
 6. Secure the 5070 RAIDium board to the CPU board with the nylon screws and
    standoffs provided on the CPU board. The standoffs may have to be moved
    so that they match the holes used by the SBUS retainer, as the standoffs
    are used in different holes for an MBus module. Replace the screws and
    rectangular washers that originally held the filler panel in place,
    securing the 5070 RAIDium SBus backpanel to the system enclosure.
 7. Re-insert the CPU board into the CPU enclosure and re-install the
    Allen-head retaining screws that secure the CPU board.

All Systems:

 1. Mate the external cable adapter box to the 5070 RAIDium and gently
    tighten the two screws that extend through the cable adapter box.
 2. Connect the three cables from your SCSI devices to the three 68-pin
    SCSI-3 connectors on the Antares 5070 RAIDium. The three SCSI cables must
    always be reconnected in the same order after a RAID set has been
    established, so you should clearly mark the cables and disk enclosures
    for future disassembly and reassembly.
 3. Configure the attached SCSI devices to use SCSI target IDs other than 7,
    as that is taken by the 5070 RAIDium itself. Configuring the target
    number is done differently on various devices. Consult the manufacturer's
    installation instructions to determine the method appropriate for your
    device.
 4. As you are likely to be installing multiple SCSI devices, make sure that
    all SCSI buses are properly terminated. This means a terminator is
    installed only at each end of each SCSI bus daisy chain.

Verifying the Hardware Installation:

These steps are optional but recommended. First, power-on your system and
interrupt the booting process by pressing the "Stop" and "a" keys (or the
"break" key if you are on a serial terminal) simultaneously as soon as the
Solaris release number is shown on the screen. This will force the system to
run the Forth Monitor in the system EPROM, which will display the "ok"
prompt. This gives you access to many useful low-level commands, including:

    ok�show-devs
   
    .�.�.
   
    /iommu@f,e0000000/sbus@f,e000100SUNW,�isp@1,8800000
   
    .�.�.

The first line in the response shown above means that the 5070 RAIDium host
adapter has been properly recognized. If you don't see a line like this, you
may have a hardware problem.
Next, to see a listing of all the SCSI devices in your system, you can use
the probe-scsi-all command, but first you must prepare your system as
follows:

    ok�setenv�auto-boot?�False
   
    ok�reset
   
    ok�probe-scsi-all

This will tell you the type, target number, and logical unit number of every
SCSI device recognized in your system. The 5070 RAIDium board will report
itself attached to an ISP controller at target 0 with two Logical Unit
Numbers (LUNs): 0 for the virtual hard disk drive, and 7 for the connection
to the Graphical User Interface (GUI). Note: the GUI communication channel on
LUN 7 is currently unused under Linux. See the discussion under "SCSI Monitor
Daemon (SMON)" in the "Advanced Topics" section for more information.
REQUIRED: Perform a reconfiguration boot of the operating system:

    ok�boot�-r

If no image appears on your screen within a minute, you most likely have a
hardware installation problem. In this case, go back and check each step of
the installation procedure. This completes the hardware installation
procedure.

3.2.1��Serial Terminal

If you have a serial terminal at your disposal (e.g. DEC-VT420) it may be
connected to the controller's serial port using a 9 pin DIN male to DB25 male
serial cable. Otherwise you will need to supplement the above cable with a
null modem adapter to connect the RAID controller's serial port to the serial
port on either the host computer or a PC. The terminal emulators I have
successfully used include Minicom (on Linux), Kermit (on Caldera's Dr. DOS),
and Hyperterminal (on a windows CE palmtop), however, any decent terminal
emulation software should work. The basic settings are 9600 baud , no parity,
8 data bits, and 1 stop bit.

3.2.2��Hard Drive Plant

Choosing the brand and capacity of the drives that will form the hard drive
physical plant is up to you. I do have some recommendations:

��*�Remember, you generally get what you pay for. I strongly recommend paying
    the extra money for better (i.e. more reliable) hardware especially if
    you are setting up a RAID for a mission critical project. For example,
    consider purchasing drive cabinets with redundant hot-swappable power
    supplies, etc.
��*�You will also want a UPS for your host system and drive cabinets.
    Remember, RAID levels 3 and 5 protect you from data loss due to drive
    failure NOT power failure.
��*�The drive cabinet you select should have hot swappable drive bays, these
    cost more but are definitely worth it when you need to add/change drives.
��*�Make sure the cabinet(s) have adequate cooling when fully loaded with
    drives.
��*�Keep your SCSI cables (internal and external) as short as possible
��*�Mark the drives/cabinet(s) in such a way that you will be able to
    reconnect them to the controller in their original configuration. Once
    the RAID is configured you cannot re-organize you drives without
    re-configuring the RAID (and subsequently erasing the data stored on it).
��*�Keep in mind that although it is physically possible to connect/configure
    up to 6 drives per channel, performance will sharply decrease for RAIDs
    with more than three drives per channel. This is due to the 25 MHz
    bandwidth limitation of the SBUS. Therefore, if read/write performance is
    an issue go with a small number of large drives. If you need a really
    large RAID (~ 1 terabyte) then you will have no other choice but to load
    the channels to capacity and pay the performance penalty. NOTE: if you
    are serving files over a 10/100 Base T network you may not notice the
    performance decrease since the network is usually the bottleneck not the
    SBUS.

3.3��5070 Onboard Configuration

Before diving into the RAID configuration I need to define a few terms.

��*�"RaidRunner" is the name given to the the 5070 controller board.
��*�"Husky" is the name given to the shell which produces the ":raid;"
    command prompt. It is a command language interpreter that executes
    commands read from the standard input or from a file. Husky is a scaled
    down model of Unix's Bourne shell (sh). One major difference is that
    husky has no concept of current working directory. For more information
    on the husky shell and command prompt see the "Advanced Topics" section
��*�The "host port" is the SCSI ID assigned to the controller card itself.
    This is usually ID 7.
��*�A "backend" is a drive attached to the controller on a given channel.
��*�A "rank" is a collection of all the backends from each channel with the
    same SCSI ID
    (i.e. rank 0 would consist of all the drives with SCSI ID 0 on each
    channel)
��*�Each of the backends is identified by a three digit number where the
    first digit is the channel, the second the SCSI ID of the drive, and the
    third the LUN of the drive. The numbers are separated by a period. The
    identifier is prefixed with a "D" if it is a disk or "T" if it is a tape
    (e.g. D0.1.0). This scheme is referred to as <device_type_c.s.l> in the
    following documentation.
��*�A "RAID set" consists of given number of backends (there are certain
    requirements which I'll come to later)
��*�A "spare" is a drive which is unused until there is a failure in one of
    the RAID drives. At that time the damaged drive is automatically taken
    offline and replaced with the spare. The data is then reconstructed on
    the spare and the RAID resumes normal operation.
��*�Spares may either be "hot" or "warm" depending on user configuration. Hot
    spares are spun up when the RAID is started, which shortens the
    replacement time when a drive failure occurs. Warm spares are spun up
    when needed, which saves wear on the drive.

The test based GUI can be started by typing "agui"

    :�raid;�agui�

at the husky prompt on the serial terminal (or emulator).

Agui is a simple ASCII based GUI that can be run on the RaidRunner console
port which enables one to configure the RaidRunner. The only argument agui
takes is the terminal type that is connected to the RaidRunner console.
Current supported terminals are dtterm, vt100 and xterm. The default is
dtterm.

Each agui screen is split into two areas, data and menu. The data area, which
generally uses all but the last line of the screen, displays the details of
the information under consideration. The menu area, which generally is the
bottom line of the screen, displays a strip menu with a title then list of
options or sub-menus. Each option has one character enclosed in square
brackets (e.g. [Q]uit) which is the character to type to select that option.
Each menu line allows you to refresh the screen data (in case another process
on the RaidRunner writes to the console). The refresh character may also be
used during data entry if the screen is overwritten. The refresh character is
either <Control-l> or <Control-r>.

When agui starts, it reads the configuration of the RaidRunner and probes for
every possible backend. As it probes for each backend, it's "name" is
displayed in the bottom left corner of the screen.

3.3.1��Main Screen Options

The Main screen (Figure 3.1) is the first screen displayed. It provides a
summary of the RaidRunner configuration. At the top is the RaidRunner model,
version and serial number. Next is a line displaying, for each controller,
the SCSI ID's for each host port (labeled A, B, C, etc) and total and
currently available amounts of memory. The next set of lines display the
ranks of devices on the RaidRunner. Each device follows the nomenclature of <
device_type_c.s.l> where device_type_ can be D for disk or T for tape, c is
the internal channel the device is attached to, s is the SCSI ID (Rank) of
the device on that channel, and l is the SCSI LUN of the device (typically
0).

            ---------------------------------------------------------        
                       [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO001]                    
   
      Figure 3.1: The main screen of the 5070 onboard configuration utility  
   
            ---------------------------------------------------------        
   
The next set of lines provide a summary of the Raid Sets configured on the
RaidRunner. The summary includes the raid set name, it's type, it's size, the
amount of cache allocated to it and a comma separated list of it's backends.
See rconf in the "Advanced Topics" section for a full description of the
above.

Next the spare devices are configured. Each spare is named (device_type_c.s.l
format), followed by it's size (in 512-byte blocks), it's spin state (Hot or
Warm), it's controller allocation , and finally it's current status (Used/
Unused, Faulty/Working). If used, the raid set that uses it is nominated.

At the bottom of the data area, the number of controllers, channels, ranks
and devices are displayed.

The menu line allows one to quit agui or select further actions or sub-menus.

��*�[Q]uit: Exit the main screen and return to the husky prompt.
��*�[R]aidSets: Enter the RaidSet configuration screen.
��*�[H]ostports Enter the Host Port configuration screen.
��*�[S]pares Enter the Spare Device configuration screen.
��*�[M]onitor Enter the SCSI Monitor configuration screen.
��*�[G]eneral Enter the General configuration/information screen.
��*�[P]robe Re-probe the device backends on the RaidRunner. As each backend
    is probed it's "name" (c.s.l format) is displayed in the bottom left
    corner of the screen.

These selections are described in detail below.

3.3.2��[Q]uit

Exit the agui main screen and return to the husky ( :raid; ) prompt.

3.3.3��[R]aidSets:

The Raid Set Configuration screen (Figure 3.2) displays a Raid Set in the
data area and provides a menu which allows you to Add, Delete, Modify,
Install (changes) and Scroll through all other raid sets (First, Last, Next
and Previous). If no raid sets have been configured, only the screen title
and menu is displayed. All attributes of the raid set are displayed. For
information on each attribute of the raid set, see the rconf command in the
"Advanced Topics" section. The menu line allows one to leave the Raid Set
Configuration screen or select further actions.

            ---------------------------------------------------------        
                       [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO002]                    
   
                  Figure 3.2: The RAIDSet configuration screen.              
   
            ---------------------------------------------------------        
   
��*�[Q]uit: Exit the Raid Set Configuration screen and return to the Main
    screen. If you have modified, deleted or added a raid set and have not
    installed the changes you will be asked to confirm this. If you select
    Yes to continue the exit, all changes made since the last install action
    will be discarded.
��*�[I]nst: This action installs (into the RaidRunner configuration area) any
    changes that may have been made to raid sets, be that deletion, addition
    or modification. If you exit prior to installing, all changes made since
    the last installation will be discarded. The installation process takes
    time. It is complete once the typed "i" character, is cleared from the
    menu line.
��*�[M]od: This action allows you to modify the displayed raid set. You will
    be prompted for each Raid Set attribute that can be changed. The prompt
    includes allowable options or formats required. If you don't wish to
    change a particular attribute, then press the RETURN or TAB key. The
    attributes you can change are the raid set name, I/O mode, status (Active
    to Inactive), bootmode, spares usage, backend zone table usage, IO size
    (if raid set has never been used - i.e. just added), cache size, I/O
    queues length, host interfaces and additional stargd arguments. If you
    wish to change a single attribute then use the RETURN or TAB key to skip
    all other options. The changed attribute will be re-displayed as soon as
    you press the RETURN key. When specifying cache size, you may suffix the
    number with 'm' or 'M' to indicate the number is in Megabytes or with 'k'
    or 'K' to indicate the number is in Kilobytes. Note you can only enter
    whole integer values. When specifying io size, you may suffix the number
    with 'k' or 'K' to indicate the number is in Kilobytes. When you enter
    data, it is checked for correctness and if incorrect, a message is
    displayed and all changes are discarded and you will have to start again.
    Remember you must install ([I]nst.) any changes.
��*�[A]dd: When this option is selected you will be prompted for various
    attributes of the new raid set. These attributes are the raid set name,
    the raid set type, the initial host interface the raid set is to appear
    on (in c.h.l format where c is the controller number, h is the host port
    (0, 1, 2 etc) and l is the SCSI LUN) and finally a list of backends. When
    backends are to be entered, the screen displays a list of available
    backends, each with a numeric index (commencing at 0). You select each
    backend by entering the index and once complete enter q for Quit. As each
    backend index is entered, it's backend name is displayed in a comma
    separated list. When you enter data, it is checked for correctness and if
    incorrect, a message is displayed and the addition will be ignored and
    you will have to start again. Once the backends are complete, the newly
    created raid set will be displayed on the screen with supplied and
    default attributes. You can then modify the raid set to change other
    attributes. Remember you must install ([I]nst.) any new raid sets.
��*�[D]elete: This action will delete the currently displayed raid set. If
    this raid set is Active, then you will not be allowed to delete it. You
    will have to make it Inactive (via the [M]od. option) then delete it. You
    will be prompted to confirm the deletion. Once you confirm the deletion,
    the screen will be cleared and the next raid set will be displayed, if
    configured. Remember you must install ([I]nst.) any changes.
��*�[F]irst, [L]ast, [N]ext and [P]rev allow you to scroll through the
    configured raid sets.

3.3.4��[H]ostports:

The Host Port Configuration screen (Figure 3.3) displays for each controller,
each host port (labelled A, B, C, etc for port number 0, 1, 2, etc) and the
assigned SCSI ID. If the RaidRunner you use, has external switches for host
port SCSI ID selection, you may only exit ([Q]uit) from this screen. If the
RaidRunner you use, does NOT have external switches for host port SCSI ID
selection, then you may modify (and hence install) the SCSI ID for any host
port. The menu line allows one to leave the Host Port Configuration screen or
select further actions (if NO external host).

            ---------------------------------------------------------        
                       [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO003]                    
   
                 Figure 3.3: The host port configuration screen.             
   
            ---------------------------------------------------------        
   
��*�[Q]uit: Exit the Host Port Configuration screen and return to the Main
    screen. If you have modified a host port SCSI ID assignment and have not
    installed the changes you will be asked to confirm this. If you select
    Yes to continue the exit, all changes made since the last install action
    will be discarded.
��*�[I]nstall: This action installs (into the RaidRunner configuration area)
    any changes that may have been made to host port SCSI ID assign� ments.
    If you exit prior to installing, all changes made since the last
    installation will be discarded. The installation process takes time. It
    is complete once the typed "i" character, is cleared from the menu line.
��*�[M]odify: This action allows you to modify the host port SCSI ID
    assignments for each host port on each controller (if NO external host
    port SCSI ID switches). You will be prompted for the SCSI ID for each
    host port. You can enter either a SCSI ID (0 thru 15), the minus "-"
    character to clear the SCSI ID assignment or RETURN to SKIP. As you enter
    data, it is checked for correctness and if incorrect, a message will be
    printed although previously correctly entered data will be retained.
    Remember you must install ([I]nst.) any changes.

3.3.5��[S]pares:

The Spare Device Configuration screen (Figure 3.4) displays all configured
spare devices in the data area and provides a menu which allows you to Add,
Delete, Mod� ify and Install (changes) spare devices. If no spare devices
have been configured, only the screen title and menu is displayed. Each spare
device displayed, shows it's name (in device_type_c.s.l format), it's size in
512-byte blocks, it's spin status (Hot or Warm), it's controller allocation,
finally it's current status (Used/Unused, Faulty/Working). If used, the raid
set that uses it is nominated. For information on each attribute of a spare
device, see the rconf command in the "Advanced Topics" section. The menu line
allows one to leave the Spare Device Configuration screen or select further
actions.

            ---------------------------------------------------------        
                       [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO004]                    
   
               Figure 3.4: The spare device configuration screen.            
   
            ---------------------------------------------------------        
   
��*�[Q]uit: Exit the Spare Device Configuration screen and return to the Main
    screen. If you have modified, deleted or added a spare device and have
    not installed the changes you will be asked to confirm this. If you
    select Yes to continue the exit, all changes made since the last install
    action will be discarded.
��*�[I]nstall: This action installs (into the RaidRunner configuration area)
    any changes that may have been made to the spare devices, be that
    deletion, addition or modification. If you exit prior to installing, all
    changes made since the last installation will be discarded. The
    installation process takes time. It is complete once the typed "i"
    character, is cleared from the menu line.
��*�[M]odify: This action allows you to modify the unused spare devices. You
    will be prompted for each spare device attribute that can be changed. The
    prompt includes allowable options or formats required. If you don't wish
    to change a particular attribute, then press the RETURN key. The
    attributes you can change are the new size (in 512-byte blocks), the spin
    state (H or hot or W for Warm), and the controller allocation (A for any,
    0 for controller 0, 1 for controller 1, etc). If you wish to change a
    single attribute of a spare device, then use the RETURN key to skip all
    other attributes for each spare device. The changed attribute will not be
    re-displayed until the last prompted attribute is entered (or skipped).
    When you enter data, it is checked for cor� rectness and if incorrect, a
    message is dis� played and all changes are discarded and you will have to
    start again. Remember you must install ([I]nstall) any changes.
��*�[A]dd: When adding a spare device, the list of available devices is
    displayed and you are required to type in the device name. Once entered,
    the spare is added with defaults which you can change, if required, via
    the [M]odify option. Remember you must install ([I]nstall) any changes.
��*�[D]elete: When deleting a spare device, the list of spare devices allowed
    to be deleted is displayed and you are required to type in the required
    device name. Once entered, the spare is deleted from the screen. Remember
    you must install ([I]nstall) any changes.

3.3.6��[M]onitor:

The SCSI Monitor Configuration screen (Figure 3.5) displays a table of SCSI
monitors configured for the RaidRunner. Up to four SCSI monitors may be
configured. The table columns are entitled Controller, Host Port, SCSI LUN
and Protocol and each line of the table shows the appropriate SCSI Monitor
attribute. For details on SCSI Monitor attributes, see the rconf command in
the "Advanced Topics" section. The menu line allows one to leave the SCSI
Monitor Configuration screen or modify and install the table.

            ---------------------------------------------------------        
                       [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO005]                    
   
               Figure 3.5: The SCSI monitor configuration screen.            
   
            ---------------------------------------------------------        
   
��*�[Q]uit: Exit the SCSI Monitor Configuration screen and return to the Main
    screen. If you have made changes and have not installed them you will be
    asked to confirm this. If you select Yes to continue the exit, all
    changes made since the last install action will be discarded.
��*�[I]nstall: This action installs (into the RaidRunner configuration area)
    any changes that may have been made to SCSI Monitor configuration. If you
    exit prior to installing, all changes made since the last installation
    will be discarded. The installation process takes time. It is complete
    once the typed "i" character, is cleared from the menu line.
��*�[M]odify: This action allows you to modify the SCSI Monitor
    configuration. The cursor will be moved around the table, prompting you
    for input. If you do not want to change an attribute, enter RETURN to
    skip. If you want to delete a SCSI monitor then enter the minus "-"
    character when prompted for the controller number. If you want to use the
    default protocol list, then enter RETURN at the Protocol List prompt. As
    you enter data, it is checked for correctness and if incorrect, a message
    will be printed and any previously entered data is discarded. You will
    have to re-enter the data again. Remember you must install ([I]nstall)
    any changes.

3.3.7��[G]eneral:

The General screen (Figure 3.6) has a blank data area and a menu which allows
one to Quit and return to the main screen, or to select further sub-menus
which provide information about Devices, the System Message Logger, Global
Environment variables and throughput Statistics.

            ---------------------------------------------------------        
                       [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO006]                    
   
     Figure 3.6: The General Screen. The options accessible from here allow  
      you to view information on the attached devices (SCSI hard drives and  
     tape units), browse the system logs, and examine environment variables. 
   
            ---------------------------------------------------------        
   
��*�[Q]uit: Exit the General screen and return to the Main screen.
��*�[D]evices: Enter the Device information screen (Figure 3.7). The Devices
    screen displays the name of all devices on the RaidRunner. The menu line
    allows one to Quit and return to the General screen or display
    information about the devices.
                -----------------------------------------------------        
                         [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO007]                  
       
                     Figure 3.7: The device information screen.              
       
                -----------------------------------------------------        
       
    ��+�[Q]uit: Exit the Devices screen and return to the General screen.
    ��+�Device information[I]nformation: The Device Information screen
        (Figure 3.8) displays information about each device (Figure ). You
        can scroll through the devices. For disks, information displayed
        includes, the device name, serial number, vendor name, product id,
        speed, version, sector size, sector count, total device size in MB,
        number of cylinders, heads and sectors per track and the zone/notch
        partitions. The menu line allows one the leave the Device Information
        screen or browse through devices.
                    -------------------------------------------------        
                           [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO008]                
           
            Figure 3.8: Example of the information displayed for a hard drive
                                         device.                             
           
                    -------------------------------------------------        
           
        ��o�[Q]uit: Exit the Device Information screen and return to the
            Devices screen.
        ��o�[F]irst, [L]ast, [N]ext and [P]rev allow you to scroll through
            the devices and hence display their current data .
       
   
��*�System LogSys[L]og: Enter the System Logger Messages screen (Figure 3.9).
                -----------------------------------------------------        
                         [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO009]                  
       
        Figure 3.9: The system logger messages screen. An example message is 
                       shown, there is one message per screen.               
       
                -----------------------------------------------------        
       
    ��+�[Q]uit: Exit the System Logger Messages screen and return to the
        General screen.
    ��+�[F]irst, [L]ast, [N]ext and [P]rev allow you to scroll through the
        system log.
   
��*�Environment variable configuration[E]nvironment: Enter the Global
    Environment Variable configuration screen (Figure 3.10). The Environment
    Variable Configuration screen dis� plays all configured Global
    Environment Variables and provides a menu which allows you to Add,
    Delete, Modify and Install (changes) variables. Each variable name is
    displayed followed by an equals "=" and the value assigned to that
    variable enclosed in braces - "{" .. "}". The menu line allows you to
    Quit and return to the General screen or select further actions.
                -----------------------------------------------------        
                         [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO010]                  
       
         Figure 3.10: The global environment variable configuration screen.  
       
                -----------------------------------------------------        
       
    ��+�[Q]uit: Exit the Environment Variable Configuration screen and return
        to the General screen. If you have modified, deleted or added an
        environment variable and have not installed the changes you will be
        asked to confirm this. If you select Yes to continue the exit, all
        changes made since the last install action will be discarded.
    ��+�[I]nst: This action installs (into the RaidRunner configuration area)
        any changes that may have been made to environment variables, be that
        deletion, addition or modification. If you exit prior to installing,
        all changes made since the last installation will be discarded. The
        installation process takes time. It is complete once the typed "i"
        character, is cleared from the menu line.
    ��+�[M]od: This action allows you to modify an environment variable's
        value. You will be prompted for the name of the environment variable
        and then prompted for it's new value. If the environment variable
        entered is not found, a message will be printed and you will not be
        prompted for a new value. If you do not enter a new value, (i.e. just
        press RETURN) no change will be made. Remember you must install ([I]
        nstall) any changes.
    ��+�[A]dd: When adding a new environment variable, you will be prompted
        for it's name and value. Providing the variable name is not already
        used and you enter a value, the new variable will be added and
        displayed. Remember you must install ([I]nstall) any changes.
    ��+�[D]elete: When deleting an environment variable, you will be prompted
        for the variable name and if valid, the environment variable will be
        deleted. Remember you must install ([I]nstall) any changes.
   
��*�Throughput statistics (viewing)[S]tats: Enter the Statistics monitoring
    screen (Figure 3.11). The Statistics screen display various general and
    specific statistics about raid sets configured and running on the
    RaidRunner. The first section of the data area displays the current
    temperature in degrees Celsius and the current speed of fans in the
    RaidRunner. The next section of the data area displays various statistics
    about the named raid set. The statistics are - the current cache hit
    rate, the cumulative number of reads, read failures, writes and write
    failures for each backend of the raid set and finally the read and write
    throughput for each stargd process (indicated by it's process id) that
    front's the raid set. The menu line allows one the leave the Statistics
    screen or select further actions.
                -----------------------------------------------------        
                         [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO011]                  
       
                    Figure 3.11: The statistics monitoring screen            
       
                -----------------------------------------------------        
       
    ��+�[Q]uit: Exit the Statistics screen and return to the General screen.
    ��+�[F]irst, [L]ast, [N]ext and [P]rev allow you to scroll through the
        statistics.
    ��+�[R]efresh: This option will get the statistics for the given raid set
        and re-display the current statistics on the screen.
    ��+�[Z]ero: This option will zero the cumulative statistics for the
        currently displayed raid set.
    ��+�[C]ontinuous: This option will start a back� ground process that will
        update the statistics of the currently displayed raid set every 2
        seconds. A loop counter is created and updated every 2 seconds also.
        To inter� rupt this continuous mode of gathering statistics, just
        press any character. If you need to re-fresh the display, then press
        the refresh characters - <Control-l> or <Control-r>.
   
3.3.8��[P]robe

The probe option re-scans the SCSI channels and updates the backend list with
the hardware it finds.

3.3.9��Example RAID Configuration Session

The generalized procedure for configuration consists of three steps arranged
in the following order:

 1. Configuring the Host Port(s)
 2. Assigning Spares
 3. Configuring the RAID set

Note that there is a minimum number of backends required for the various
supported RAID levels:

��*�Level 0 : 2 backends
��*�Level 3 : 2 backends
��*�Level 5 : 3 backends

In this example we will configure a RAID 5 using 6, 2.04 gigabyte drives. The
total capacity of the virtual drive will be 10 gigabytes (the equivalent of
one drive is used for redundancy). This same configuration procedure can be
used to configure other levels of RAID sets by changing the type parameter.

 1. Power on the computer with the serial terminal connected to the
    RaidRunner's serial port.
 2. When the husky ( :raid; ) prompt appears, Start the GUI by typing "agui"
    and pressing return.
 3. When the main screen appears, select "H" for [H]ostport configuration
 4. On some models of RaidRunner the host port in not configurable. If you
    have only a [Q]uit option here then there is nothing further to be done
    for the host port configuration, note the values and skip to step 6. If
    you have add/modify options then your host port is software configurable.
 5. If there is no entry for a host port on this screen, add an entry with
    the parameters: controller=0, hostport=0 , SCSI ID=0. Don't forget to [I]
    nstall your changes. If there is already and entry present, note the
    values (they will be used in a later step).
 6. From this point onward I will assume the following hardware
    configuration:
     a. There are 7 - 2.04 gig drives connected as follows:
         i. 2 drives on SCSI channel 0 with SCSI IDs 0 and 1 (backends 0.0.0,
            and 0.1.0, respectively).
        ii. 3 drives on SCSI channel 1 with SCSI IDs 0 ,1 and 5 (backends
            1.0.0, 1.1.0, and 1.5.0).
        iii. 2 drives on SCSI channel 2 with SCSI IDs 0 and 1 (backends 2.0.0
            and 2.1.0).
       
     b. Therefore:
         i. Rank 0 consists of backends 0.0.0, 1.0.0, 2.0.0
        ii. Rank 1 consists of backends 0.1.0, 1.1.0, 2.1.0
        iii. Rank 5 contains only the backend 1.5.0
       
     c. The RaidRunner is assigned to controller 0, hostport 0
   
 7. Press Q to [Q]uit the hostports screen and return to the Main screen.
 8. Press S to enter the [S]pares screen
 9. Select A to [A]dd a new spare to the spares pool. A list of available
    backends will be displayed and you will be prompted for the following
    information:
   
    Enter the device name to add to spares - from above:
   
    enter
   
    D1.5.0
   
   
10. Select I to [I]nstall your changes
11. Select Q to [Q]uit the spares screen and return to the Main screen
12. Select R from the Main screen to enter the [R]aidsets screen.
13. Select A to [A]dd a new RAID set. You will be prompted for each of the
    RAID set parameters. The prompts and responses are given below.
     a. Enter the name of Raid Set: cim_homes (or whatever you want to call
        it).
     b. Raid set type [0,1,3,5]: 5
     c. Enter initial host interface - ctlr,hostport,scsilun: 0.0.0
       
        Now a list of the available backends will be displayed in the form:
        0 - D0.0.0 1 - D1.0.0 2 - D2.0.0 3 - D0.1.0 4 - D1.1.0 5 - D2.1.0
     d. Enter index from above - Q to Quit:
        1 press return
        2 press return
        3 press return
        4 press return
        5 press return
        Q
   
14. After pressing Q you will be returned to the Raid Sets screen. You should
    see the newly configured Raid set displayed in the data area (Figure 3.12
    ).
15. Press I to [I]nstall the changes
                -----------------------------------------------------        
                         [antares-RAID-SparcLinux-HOWTO012]                  
       
            Figure 3.12: The RaidSets screen of the GUI showing the newly    
                                  configured RAID 5                          
       
                -----------------------------------------------------        
       
   
16. Press Q to exit the RaidSet screen and return to the the Main screen
17. Press Q to [Q]uit agui and exit to the husky prompt.
18. type "reboot" then press enter. This will reboot the RaidRunner (not the
    host machine.)
19. When the RaidRunner reboots it will prepare the drives for the newly
    configured RAID.
    NOTE: Depending on the size of the RAID this could take a few minutes to
    a few hours. For the above example it takes the 5070 approximately 10 -
    20 minutes to stripe the RAID set.
20. Once you see the husky prompt again the RAID is ready for use. You can
    then proceed with the Linux configuration.

3.4��Linux Configuration

These instructions cover setting up the virtual RAID drives on RedHat Linux
6.1. Setting it up under other Linux distributions should not be a problem.
The same general instructions apply.

If you are new to Linux you may want to consider installing Linux from
scratch since the RedHat installer will do most of the configuration work for
you. If so skip to section titled "New Linux Installation." Otherwise go to
the "Existing Linux Installation" section (next).

3.4.1��Existing Linux Installation

Follow these instructions if you already have Redhat Linux installed on your
system and you do not want to re-install. If you are installing the RAID as
part of a new RedHat Linux installation (or are re-installing) skip to the
"New Linux Installation" section.

QLogic SCSI Driver

The driver can either be loaded as a module or compiled into your kernel. If
you want to boot from the RAID then you may want to use a kernel with
compiled in QLogic support (see the kernel-HOWTO available from http://
www.linuxdoc.org. To use the modular driver become the superuser and add the
following lines to /etc/conf.modules:

    alias�qlogicpti�/lib/modules/preferred/scsi/qlogicpti�

Change the above path to where ever your SCSI modules live. Then add the
following line to you /etc/fstab (with the appropriate changes for device and
mount point, see the fstab man page if you are unsure)

    /dev/sdc1�/home�ext2�defaults�1�2

Or, if you prefer to use a SYSV initialization script, create a file called
``raid'' in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory with the following contents (NOTE:
while there are a few good reasons to start the RAID using a script, one of
the aforementioned methods would be preferable):

    #!/bin/bash
   
    case�"$1"�in
   
    start)
   
    echo�"Loading�raid�module"
   
    /sbin/modprobe�qlogicpti
   
    echo
   
    echo�"Checking�and�Mounting�raid�volumes..."
   
    mount�-t�ext2�-o�check�/dev/sdc1�/home
   
    touch�/var/lock/subsys/raid
   
    ;;
   
    stop)
   
    echo�"Unmounting�raid�volumes"
   
    umount�/home
   
    echo�"Removing�raid�module(s)"
   
    /sbin/rmmod�qlogicpti
   
    rm�-f�/var/lock/subsys/raid
   
    echo
   
    ;;
   
    restart)
   
    $0�stop�
   
    $0�start�
   
    ;;�
   
    *)
   
    echo�"Usage:�raid�{start|stop|restart}"
   
    exit�1
   
    esac
   
    exit�0�

You will need to edit this example and substitute your device name(s) in
place of /dev/sdc1 and mount point(s) in place of /home. The next step is to
make the script executable by root by doing:

    chmod�0700�/etc/rc.d/init.d/raid

Now use your run level editor of choice (tksysv, ksysv, etc.) to add the
script to the appropriate run level.

Device mappings

Linux uses dynamic device mappings you can determine if the drives were found
by typing:

    more�/proc/scsi/scsi

one or more of the entries should look something like this:

    Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
   
    Vendor: ANTARES Model: CX106 Rev: 0109
   
    Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02
   
    There may also be one which looks like this:
   
    Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 07
   
    Vendor: ANTARES Model: CX106-SMON Rev: 0109
   
    Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02

This is the SCSI monitor communications channel which is currently un-used
under Linux (see SMON in the advanced topics section below).

To locate the drives (following reboot) type:

    dmesg�|�more

Locate the section of the boot messages pertaining to you SCSI devices. You
should see something like this:

    qpti0: IRQ 53 SCSI ID 7 (Firmware v1.31.32)(Firmware 1.25 96/10/15)
   
    [Ultra Wide, using single ended interface]
   
    QPTI: Total of 1 PTI Qlogic/ISP hosts found, 1 actually in use.
   
    scsi1 : PTI Qlogic,ISP SBUS SCSI irq 53 regs at fd018000 PROM node
    ffd746e0

Which indicates that the SCSI controller was properly recognized, Below this
look for the disk section:

    Vendor ANTARES Model: CX106 Rev: 0109
   
    Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02
   
    Detected scsi disk sdc at scsi1, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
   
    SCSI device sdc: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 20971200 [10239 MB]
    [10.2 GB]

Note the line that reads "Detected scsi disk sdc ..." this tells you that
this virtual disk has been mapped to device /dev/sdc. Following partitioning
the first partition will be /dev/sdc1, the second will be /dev/sdc2, etc.
There should be one of the above disk sections for each virtual disk that was
detected. There may also be an entry like the following:

    Vendor ANTARES Model: CX106-SMON Rev: 0109
   
    Type: Direct-Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02
   
    Detected scsi disk sdd at scsi1, channel 0, id 0, lun 7
   
    SCSI device sdd: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 20971200 [128 MB]
    [128.2 MB]

BEWARE: this is not a drive DO NOT try to fdisk, mkfs, or mount it!! Doing so
WILL hang your system.

Partitioning

A virtual drive appears to the host operating system as a large but otherwise
ordinary SCSI drive. Partitioning is performed using fdisk or your favorite
utility. You will have to give the virtual drive a disk label when fdisk is
started. Using the choice ``Custom with autoprobed defaults'' seems to work
well. See the man page for the given utility for details.

Installing a filesystem

Installing a filesystem is no different from any other SCSI drive:

    mkfs�-t�<filesystem_type>�/dev/<device>

for example:

    mkfs�-t�ext2�/dev/sdc1

Mounting

If QLogic SCSI support is compiled into you kernel OR you are loading the
"qlogicpti" module at boot from /etc/conf.modules then add the following line
(s) to the /etc/fstab:

    /dev/<device>�<mount�point>�ext2�defaults�1�1

If you are using a SystemV initialization script to load/unload the module
you must mount/unmount the drives there as well. See the example script
above.

3.4.2��New Linux Installation

This is the easiest way to install the RAID since the RedHat installer
program will do most of the work for you.

 1. Configure the host port, RAID sets, and spares as outlined in "Onboard
    Configuration." Your computer must be on to perform this step since the
    5070 is powered from the SBUS. It does not matter if the computer has an
    operating system installed at this point all we need is power to the
    controller card.
 2. Begin the RedHat SparcLinux installation
 3. The installation program will auto detect the 5070 controller and load
    the Qlogic driver
 4. Your virtual RAID drives will appear as ordinary SCSI hard drives to be
    partitioned and formatted during the installation. NOTE: When using the
    graphical partitioning utility during the RedHat installation DO NOT
    designate any partition on the virtual drives as type RAID since they are
    already hardware managed virtual RAID drives. The RAID selection on the
    partitioning utilities screen is for setting up a software RAID.
    IMPORTANT NOTE: you may see a small SCSI drive ( usually ~128 MB) on the
    list of available drives. DO NOT select this drive for use. It is the
    SMON communication channel NOT a drive. If setup tries to use it it will
    hang the installer.
 5. Thats it, the installation program takes care of everything else !!

3.5��Maintenance

3.5.1��spares, activatingActivating a spare

When running a RAID 3 or 5 (if you configured one or more drives to be
spares) the 5070 will detect when a drive goes offline and automatically
select a spare from the spares pool to replace it. The data will be rebuilt
on-the-fly. The RAID will continue operating normally during the
re-construction process (i.e. it can be read from and written to just is if
nothing has happened). When a backend fails you will see messages similar to
the following displayed on the 5070 console:

    930 secs: Redo:1:1 Retry:1 (DIO_cim_homes_D1.1.0_q1) CDB=28(Read_10)Re-/
    Selection Time-out @682400+16
   
    932 secs: Redo:1:1 Retry:2 (DIO_cim_homes_D1.1.0_q1) CDB=28(Read_10)Re-/
    Selection Time-out @682400+16
   
    933 secs: Redo:1:1 Retry:3 (DIO_cim_homes_D1.1.0_q1) CDB=28(Read_10)Re-/
    Selection Time-out @682400+16
   
    934 secs: CIO_cim_homes_q3 R5_W(3412000, 16): Pre-Read drive 4 (D1.1.0)
    fails with result "Re-/Selection Time-out"
   
    934 secs: CIO_cim_homes_q2 R5: Drained alternate jobs for drive 4
    (D1.1.0)
   
    934 secs: CIO_cim_homes_q2 R5: Drained alternate jobs for drive 4
    (D1.1.0) RPT 1/0
   
    934 secs: CIO_cim_homes_q2 R5_W(524288, 16): Initial Pre-Read drive 4
    (D1.1.0) fails with result "Re-/Selection Time-out"
   
    935 secs: Redo:1:0 Retry:1 (DIO_cim_homes_D1.0.0_q1) CDB=28(Read_10)SCSI
    Bus ~Reset detected @210544+16
   
    936 secs: Failed:1:1 Retry:0 (rconf) CDB=2A(Write_10)Re-/Selection
    Time-out @4194866+128
   
    ...
   
   
Then you will see the spare being pulled from the spares pool, spun up,
tested, engaged, and the data reconstructed.

    937 secs: autorepair pid=1149 /raid/cim_homes: Spinning up spare device
   
    938 secs: autorepair pid=1149 /raid/cim_homes: Testing spare device/dev/
    hd/1.5.0/data
   
    939 secs: autorepair pid=1149 /raid/cim_homes: engaging hot spare ...
   
    939 secs: autorepair pid=1149 /raid/cim_homes: reconstructing drive 4 ...
   
    939 secs: 1054
   
    939 secs: Rebuild on /raid/cim_homes/repair: Max buffer 2800 in 7491
    reads, priority 6 sleep 500
   
    ...
   
   
The rebuild script will printout its progress every 10% of the job completed

    939 secs: Rebuild on /raid/cim_homes/repair @ 0/7491
   
    1920 secs: Rebuild on /raid/cim_homes/repair @ 1498/7491
   
    2414 secs: Rebuild on /raid/cim_homes/repair @ 2247/7491
   
    2906 secs: Rebuild on /raid/cim_homes/repair @ 2996/7491
   
   
3.5.2��re-integrating repaired driveRe-integrating a repaired drive into the
RAID (levels 3 and 5)

After you have replaced the bad drive you must re-integrate it into the RAID
set using the following procedure.

 1. Start the text GUI
 2. Look the list of backends for the RAID set(s).
 3. Backends that have been marked faulty will have a (-) to the right of
    their ID ( e.g. D1.1.0- ).
 4. If you set up spares the ID of the faulty backend will be followed by the
    ID of the spare that has replaced it ( e.g. D1.1.0-D1.5.0 ) .
 5. Write down the ID(s) of the faulty backend(s) (NOT the spares).
 6. Press Q to exit agui
 7. At the husky prompt type:
   
        replace�<name>�<backend>�
   
    Where <name> is whatever you named the raid set and <backend> is the ID
    of the backend that is being re-integrated into the RAID. If a spare was
    in use it will be automatically returned to the spares pool. Be patient,
    reconstruction can take a few minutes minutes to several hours depending
    on the RAID level and the size. Fortunately, you can use the RAID as you
    normally would during this process.

3.6��Troubleshooting / Error Messages

3.6.1��Out of band temperature detected...

��*�Probable Cause: The 5070 SBUS card is not adequately cooled.
��*�Solution: Try to improve cooling inside the case. Clean dust from the
    fans, re-organize the cards so the raid card is closest to the fan, etc.
    On some of the "pizza box" sun cases (e.g. SPARC 20) you may need to add
    supplementary cooling fans especially if you have it loaded with cards.

3.6.2��... failed ... cannot have more than 1 faulty backend.

��*�Cause: More than one backend in the RAID 3/4/5 has failed (i.e. there is
    no longer sufficient redundancy to enable the lost data to be
    reconstructed).
��*�Solution: You're hosed ... Sorry.
    If you did not assign spares when you configured you RAID 3/4/5 now may
    be a good time to re-consider the wisdom of that decision. Hopefully you
    have been making regular backups. Since now you will have to replace the
    defective drives, re-configure the RAID, and restore the data from a
    secondary source.

3.6.3��When booting I see: ... Sun disklabel: bad magic 0000 ... unknown
partition table.

��*�Suspected Cause: Incorrect settings in the disk label set by fdisk (or
    whatever partitioning utility you used). This message seems to happen
    when you choose one of the preset disk labels rather than "Custom with
    autoprobed defaults."
��*�Solution: Since this error does not seem to effect the operation of the
    drive you can choose to do nothing and be ok. If you want to correct it
    you can try re-labeling the disk or re-partitioning the disk and choose
    "Custom with autoprobed defaults." If you are installing RedHat Linux
    from scratch the installer will get all of this right for you.

3.7��Bugs

None yet! Please send bug reports to tcoates@neuropunk.org

3.8��Frequently Asked Questions

3.8.1��How do I reset/erase the onboard configuration?

At the husky prompt issue the following command:

    rconf�-init

This will delete all of the RAID configuration information but not the global
variables and scsi monitors. the remove ALL configuration information type:

    rconf�-fullinit

Use these commands with caution!

3.8.2��How can I tell if a drive in my RAID has failed?

In the text GUI faulty backends appear with a (-) to the right of their ID.
For example the list of backends:

    D0.0.0,D1.0.0-,D2.0.0,D0.1.0,D1.1.0,D2.1.0
   
   
Indicates that backend (drive) D1.0.0 is either faulty or not present. If you
assigned spares (RAID 3 or 5) then you should also see that one or more
spares are in use. Both the main and the and the RaidSets screens will show
information on faulty/not present drives in a RAID set.

3.9��command referenceAdvanced Topics: 5070 Command Reference

In addition to the text based GUI the RAID configuration may also be
manipulated from the husky prompt ( the : raid; prompt) of the onboard
controller. This section describes commands that a user can input
interactively or via a script file to the K9 kernel. Since K9 is an ANSI C
Application Programming Interface (API) a shell is needed to interpret user
input and form output. Only one shell is currently available and it is called
husky. The K9 kernel is modelled on the Plan 9 operating system whose design
is discussed in several papers from AT&T (See the "Further Reading" section
for more information). K9 is a kernel targeted at embedded controllers of
small to medium complexity (e.g. ISDN-ethernet bridges, RAID controllers,
etc). It supports multiple lightweight processes (i.e. without memory
management) on a single CPU with a non-pre-emptive scheduler. Device driver
architecture is based on Plan 9 (and Unix SVR4) STREAMS. Concurrency control
mechanisms include semaphores and signals. The husky shell is modelled on a
scaled down Unix Bourne shell.

Using the built-in commands the user can write new scripts thus extending the
functionality of the 5070. The commands (adapted from the 5070 man pages) are
extensive and are described below.

3.9.1��autobootAUTOBOOT - script to automatically create all raid sets and
scsi monitors

��*�SYNOPSIS: autoboot
��*�DESCRIPTION: autoboot is a husky script which is typically executed when
    a RaidRunner boots. The following steps are taken -
     1. Start all configured scsi monitor daemons (smon).
     2. Test to see if the total cache required by all the raid sets that are
        to boot is not more than 90% of available memory.
     3. Start all the scsi target daemons (stargd) and set each daemon's mode
        to "spinning-up" which enables it to respond to all non medium access
        commands from the host. This is done to allow hosts to gain knowledge
        about the RaidRunner's scsi targets as quickly as possible.
     4. Bind into the root (ram) filesystem all unused spare backend devices.
     5. Build all raid sets.
     6. If battery backed-up ram is present, check for any saved writes and
        restore them into the just built raid sets.
     7. Finally, set the state of all scsi target daemons to "spun-up"
        enabling hosts to fully access the raid set's behind them.
   
3.9.2��AUTOFAULT - script to automatically mark a backend faulty after a
drive failure

��*�SYNOPSIS: autofault raidset
��*�DESCRIPTION: autofault is a husky script which is typically executed by a
    raid file system upon the failure of a backend of that raid set when that
    raid file system cannot use spare backends or has been configured not to
    use spare backends. After parsing it's arguments (command and
    environment) autofault issues a rconf command to mark a given backend as
    faulty.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�raidset: The bind point of the raid set whose backend failed.
    ��+�$DRIVE_NUMBER: The index of the backend that failed. The first
        backend in a raid set is 0. This option is passed as an environment
        variable.
    ��+�$BLOCK_SIZE: The raid set's io block size in bytes. (Ignored). This
        option is passed as an environment variable.
    ��+�$QUEUE_LENGTH: The raid set's queue length. (Ignored). This option is
        passed as an environment variable.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf

3.9.3��AUTOREPAIR - script to automatically allocate a spare and reconstruct
a raid set

��*�SYNOPSIS: autorepair raidset size
��*�DESCRIPTION: autorepair is a husky script which is typically executed by
    either a raid type 1, 3 or 5 file system upon the failure of a backend of
    that raid set.
   
    After parsing it's arguments (command and environment) autorepair gets a
    spare device from the RaidRunner's spares spool. It then engages it in
    write-only mode and reads the complete raid device which reconstructs the
    data on the spare. The read is from the raid file system repair
    entrypoint. Reading from this entrypoint causes a read of a block
    immediately followed by a write of that block. The read/write sequence is
    atomic (i.e is not interruptible). Once the reconstruction has completed,
    a check is made to ensure the spare did not fail during reconstruction
    and if not, the access mode of the spare device is set to the access mode
    of the raid set. The process that reads the repair entrypoint is rebuild.
   
    This device reconstruction will take anywhere from 10 minutes to one and
    a half hours depending on both the size and speed of the backends and the
    amount of activity the host is generating.
   
    During device reconstruction, pairs of numbers will be printed indicating
    each 10% of data reconstructed. The pairs of numbers are separated by a
    slash character, the first number being the number of blocks
    reconstructed so far and the second being the number number of blocks to
    be reconstructed. Further status about the rebuild can be gained from
    running rebuild.
   
    When the spare is allocated both the number of spares currently used on
    the backend and the spare device name is printed. The number of spares on
    a backend is referred to the depth of spares on the backend. Thus prior
    to re-engaging the spare after a reconstruction a check can be made to
    see if the depth is the same. If it is not, then the spare reconstruction
    failed and reconstruction using another spare is underway (or no spares
    are available), and hence we don't re-engage the drive.
   
   
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�raidset: The bind point of the raid set whose backend failed.
    ��+�size : The size of the raid set in 512 byte blocks.
    ��+�$DRIVE_NUMBER: The index of the backend that failed. The first
        backend in a raid set is 0. This option is passed as an environment
        variable.
    ��+�$BLOCK_SIZE: The raid set's io block size in bytes. This option is
        passed as an environment variable.
    ��+�$QUEUE_LENGTH: The raid set's queue length. This option is passed as
        an environment variable.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf, rebuild

3.9.4��BIND - combine elements of the namespace

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind [-k] new old
��*�DESCRIPTION: Bind replaces the existing old file (or directory) with the
    new file (or directory). If the"-k" switch is given then new must be a
    kernel recognized device (file system). Section 7k of the manual pages
    documents the devices (sometimes called file systems) that can be bound
    using the "-k" switch.

3.9.5��BUZZER - get the state or turn on or off the buzzer

��*�SYNOPSIS: buzzer or buzzer on|off|mute
��*�DESCRIPTION: Buzzer will either print the state of the buzzer, turn on or
    off the buzzer or mute it. If no arguments are given then the state of
    the buzzer is printed, that is on or off will be printed if the buzzer is
    currently on or off respectively. If the buzzer has been muted, then you
    will be informed of this. If the buzzer has not been used since the
    RaidRunner has booted then the special state, unused, is printed. If the
    argument on is given the buzzer is turned on, if off, the buzzer is
    turned off. If the argument mute is given then the muted state of the
    buzzer is changed.
��*�SEE ALSO: warble, sos

3.9.6��CACHE - display information about and delete cache ranges

��*�SYNOPSIS: cache [-D moniker] [-I moniker] [-F] [-g moniker first|last]
    lastoffset
��*�DESCRIPTION: cache will print (to standard output) information about the
    given cache range, delete a given cache range, flush the cache or return
    the last offset of all cache ranges.
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�-F: Flush all cache buffers to their backends (typically raid sets).
    ��+�-D moniker: Delete the cache range with moniker (name) moniker.
    ��+�-I moniker: Invalidate the cache for the given cache range (moniker).
        This is only useful for debugging or elaborate benchmarks.
    ��+�g moniker first|last: Print either the first or last block number of
        a cache range with moniker (name) moniker.
    ��+�lastoffset: Print the last offset of all cache ranges. The last
        offset is the last block number of all cache ranges.
   
3.9.7��CACHEDUMP - Dump the contents of the write cache to battery backed-up
ram

��*�SYNOPSIS: cachedump
��*�DESCRIPTION: cachedump causes all unwritten data in the RaidRunner's
    cache to be written out to the battery backed-up ram. No data will be
    written to battery backed-up ram if there is currently valid data already
    stored there. This command is typically executed when there is something
    wrong with the data (or it's organization) in battery backed-up ram and
    you need to re-initialize it. cachedump will always return a NULL status.
��*�SEE ALSO: showbat, cacherestore

3.9.8��CACHERESTORE - Load the cache with data from battery backed-up ram

��*�SYNOPSIS: cacherestore
��*�DESCRIPTION: cacherestore will check the RaidRunner's battery backed-up
    ram for any data it has stored as a result of a power failure. It will
    copy any data directly into the cache. This command is typically executed
    automatically at boot time and prior to the RaidRunner making it's data
    available to a host. Having successfully copied any data from battery
    backed-up ram into the cache, it flushes the cache and then
    re-initializes battery backed-up ram to indicate it holds no data.
    cacherestore will return a NULL status on success or 1 if an error
    occurred during the loading (with a message written to standard error).
��*�SEE ALSO: showbat

3.9.9��CAT - concatenate files and print on the standard output

��*�SYNOPSIS: cat [ file... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: cat writes the contents of each given file, or standard
    input if none are given or when a file named `-' is given, to standard
    output. If the nominated file is a directory then the filenames contained
    in that directory are sent to standard out (one per line). More
    information on a file (e.g. its size) can be obtained by using stat. The
    script file ls uses cat and stat to produce directory listings.
��*�SEE ALSO echo, ls, stat

3.9.10��CMP - compare the contents of 2 files

��*�SYNOPSIS: cmp [-b blockSize] [-c count] [-e] [-x] file1 file2
��*�DESCRIPTION: cmp compares the contents of the 2 named files. If file1 is
    "-" then standard input is used for that file. If the files are the same
    length and contain the same val� ues then nothing is written to standard
    output and the exit status NIL (i.e. true) is set. Where the 2 files dif�
    fer, the first bytes that differ and the position are out� put to
    standard out and the exit status is set to "differ" (i.e. false). The
    position is given by a block number (origin 0) followed by a byte offset
    within that block (origin 0). The optional "-b" switch allows the
    blockSize of each read operation to be set. The default blockSize is 512
    (bytes). For big compares involving disks a relatively large blockSize
    may be useful (e.g. 64k). See suffix for allowable suffixes. The optional
    "-c" switch allows the count of blocks read to fixed. A value of 0 for
    count is interpreted as read to the end of file (EOF). To compare the
    first 64 Megabytes of 2 files the switches "-b 64k -c 1k" could be used.
    See suffix for allowable suffixes. The optional "-e" switch instructs
    ccmmpp to output to stan� dard out (usually overwriting the same line)
    the count of blocks compared, each time a multiple of 100 is reached. The
    final block count is also output. The optional "-x" switch instructs
    ccmmpp to continue after a comparison error (but not a file error) and
    keep a count of blocks in error. If any errors are detected only the last
    one will be output when the command exits. If the "-e" switch is also
    given then the current count of blocks in error is output to the right of
    the multiple of 100 blocks compared. This command is designed to compare
    very large files. Two buffers of blockSize are allocated dynamically so
    their size is bounded by the amount of memory (i.e. RAM in the target)
    available at the time of command execution. The count could be up to 2G.
    The number of bytes compared is the product of blockSize and count (i.e.
    big enough).
��*�SEE ALSO: suffix

3.9.11��CONS - console device for Husky

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k cons bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: cons allows an interpreter (e.g. Husky) to route console
    input and output to an appropriate device. That console input and output
    is available at bind_point in the K9 namespace. The special file cons
    should always be available.
��*�EXAMPLES: Husky does the following in its initialization:
   
    bind -k cons /dev/cons
   
    On a Unix system this is equivalent to:
   
    bind -k unixfd /dev/cons
   
    On a DOS system this is equivalent to:
   
    bind -k doscon /dev/cons
   
    On target hardware using a SCN2681 chip this is equivalent to:
   
    bind -k scn2681 /dev/cons
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: unixfd, doscon, scn2681

3.9.12��DD - copy a file (disk, etc)

��*�SYNOPSIS: dd [if=file] [of=file] [ibs=bytes] [obs=bytes] [bs=bytes] [skip
    =blocks] [seek=blocks] [count=blocks] [flags=verbose]
��*�DESCRIPTION: dd copies a file (from the standard input to the standard
    output, by default) with a user-selectable blocksize.
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�if=file Read from file instead of the standard input.
    ��+�of=file, Write to file instead of the standard output.
    ��+�ibs=bytes, Read given number of bytes at a time.
    ��+�obs=bytes, Write given number of bytes at a time.
    ��+�bs=bytes, Read and write given number of bytes at a time. Override
        ibs and obs.
    ��+�skip=blocks, Skip ibs-sized blocks at start of input.
    ��+�seek=blocks, By-pass obs-sized blocks at start of output.
    ��+�count=blocks, Copy only ibs-sized input blocks.
    ��+�flags=verbose, Print (to standard output) the number of blocks copied
        every ten percent of the copy. The output is of the form X/T where X
        is the number of blocks copied so far and T is the total number of
        blocks to copy. This option can only be used if both the count= and
        of= options are also given.
    The decimal numbers given to "ibs", "obs", "bs", "skip", "seek" and
    "count" must not be negative. These numbers can optionally have a suffix
    (see suffix). dd outputs to standard out in all cases. A successful copy
    of 8 (full) blocks would cause the following output:
   
        8+0 records in
       
        8+0 records out
   
    The number after the "+" is the number of fractional blocks (i.e. blocks
    that are less than the block size) involved. This number will usually be
    zero (and is otherwise when physical media with alignment requirements is
    involved).
   
    A write failure outputting the last block on the previous example would
    cause the following output:
   
        Write failed
       
        8+0 records in
       
        7+0 records out
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: suffix

3.9.13��DEVSCMP - Compare a file's size against a given value

��*�SYNOPSIS: devscmp filename size
��*�DESCRIPTION: devscmp will find the size of the given file and compare
    it's size in 512-byte blocks to the given size (to be in 512-byte
    blocks). If the size of the file is less than the given value, then -1 is
    printed, if equal to then 0 is printed, and if the size of the given file
    is greater than the given size then 1 is printed. This routine is used in
    internal scripts to ensure that backends of raid sets are of an
    appropriate size.

3.9.14��DFORMAT- Perform formatting functions on a backend disk drive

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�dformat -p c.s.l -R bnum
    ��+�dformat -p c.s.l -pdA|-pdP|-pdG
    ��+�dformat -p c.s.l -S [-v] [-B firstbn]
    ��+�dformat -p c.s.l -F
    ��+�dformat -p c.s.l -D file
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: In it's first form dformat will either reassign a block on a
    nominated disk drive. via the SCSI-2 REASSIGN BLOCKS command. The second
    form will allow you to print out the current manufacturers defect list
    (-pdP), the grown defect list (-pdG) or both defect lists (-pdA). Each
    printed list is sorted with one defect per line in Physical Sector Format
    - Cylinder Number, Head Number and Defect Sector Number. The third form
    causes the drive to be scanned in a destructive write/read/compare
    manner. If a read or write or data comparison error occurs then an
    attempt is made to identify the bad sector(s). Typically the drive is
    scanned from block 0 to the last block on the drive. You can optionally
    give an alternative starting block number. The fourth form causes a low
    level format on the specified device. The fifth option allows you to
    download a device's microcode into the device.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-R bnum: Specify a logical block number to reassign to the drive's
        grown defect list.
    ��+�-pdA: Print both the manufacturer's and grown defect list.
    ��+�\ -pdP: Print the manufacturer's defect list.
    ��+�-pdG: Print the grown defect list.
    ��+�-S: Perform a destructive scan of the disk reporting I/O errors.
    ��+�-B firstbn: Specify the first logical block number to start a scan
        from.
    ��+�-v: Turn on verbose mode - which prints the current block number
        being scanned.
    ��+�-F: Issue a low-level SCSI format command to the given device. This
        will take some time.
    ��+�-D file: Download into the specified device, the given file. The
        download is effected by a single SCSI Write-Buffer command in save
        microcode mode. This allows users to update a device's microcode. Use
        this command carefully as you could destroy the device by loading an
        incorrect file.
    ��+�-p c.s.l: Identify the disk device by specifying it's channel, SCSI
        ID (rank) and SCSI LUN provided in the format "c.s.l"
   
��*�SEE ALSO: Product manual for disk drives used in your RAID.

3.9.15��DIAGS - script to run a diagnostic on a given device

��*�SYNOPSIS: diags disk -C count -L length -M io-mode -T io-type -D device
��*�DESCRIPTION: diags is a husky script which is used to run the randio
    diagnostic on a given device. When randio is executed, it is executed in
    verbose mode.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�disk: This is the device type of diagnostic we are to run.
    ��+�-C count: Specify the number of times to execute the diagnostic.
    ��+�-L length: Specify the "length" of the diagnostic to execute. This
        can be either short, medium or long and specified with the letter's
        s, m or l respectively. In the case of a disk, a short test will the
        first 10% of the device, a medium the first 50% and long the whole
        (100%) of the disk.
    ��+�-M io-mode: Specify a destructive (read-write) or non-destructive
        (read-only) test. Use either read-write or read-only.
    ��+�-T io-type: Specify a type of io - either sequential or random.
    ��+�-D device: Specify the device to test.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: randio, scsihdfs

3.9.16��DPART - edit a scsihd disk partition table

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�dpart -a|d|l|m -D file [-N name] [-F firstblock] [-L lastblock]
    ��+�dpart -a -D file -N name -F firstblock -L lastblock
    ��+�dpart -d -D file -N name
    ��+�dpart -l -D file
    ��+�dpart -m -D file -N name -F firstblock -L lastblock
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: Each scsihd device (typically a SCSI disk drive) can be
    divided up into eight logical partitions. By default when a scsihd device
    is bound into the RaidRunner's file system, it has four partitions, the
    whole device (raw), typically named bindpoint/raw, the partition file
    (bindpoint/partition), the RaidRunner backup configuration file
    (bindpoint/rconfig), and the "data" portion of the disk (bind- point/
    data) which represents the whole device less the backup configuration
    area and partition file. For more information, see scsihdfs. If other
    partitions are added, then they will appear as bindpoint/partitionname.
    dpart allows you to edit or list the partition table on a scsihd device
    (typically a disk).
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-a: Add a partition. When adding a partition, you need to specify the
        partition name (-N) and the partition range from the first block (-F)
        to the last block (-L).
    ��+�-d: Delete a named (-N) partition.
    ��+�-l: List all partitions.
    ��+�-m: Modify an existing partition. You will need to specify the
        partition name (-N) and BOTH it's first (-F) and last (-L)
        blocknumbers even if you are just modifying the last block number.
    ��+�-D file: Specify the partition file to be edited. Typically, this is
        the bindpoint/partition file.
    ��+�-N name: Specify the partition name.
    ��+�-F firstblock: Specify the first block number of the partition.
    ��+�-L lastblock: Specify the last block number of the partition.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: scsihd

3.9.17��DUP - open file descriptor device

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k dup bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: The dup device makes a one level directory with an entry in
    that directory for every open file descriptor of the invoking K9 process.
    These directory "entries" are the numbers. Thus a typical process
    (script) binding a dup device would at least make these files in the
    namespace: "bind_point/0", "bind_point/1" and "bind_point/2". These would
    correspond to its open standard in, standard out and standard error file
    descriptors. A dup device allows other K9 processes to access the open
    file descriptors of the invoking process. To do this the other processes
    simply "open" the required dup device directory entry whose name (a
    number) corresponds to the required file descriptor.

3.9.18��ECHO - display a line of text

��*�SYNOPSIS: echo [string ...]
��*�DESCRIPTION: echo writes each given string to the standard output, with a
    space between them and a newline after the last one. Note that all the
    string arguments are written in a single write kernel call. The following
    backslash-escaped characters in the strings are converted as follows:
   
    \b backspace
   
    \c suppress trailing newline
   
    \f form feed
   
    \n new line
   
    \r carriage return
   
    \t horizontal tab
   
    \v vertical tab
   
    \\ backslash
   
    \nnn the character whose ASCII code is nnn (octal)
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: cat

3.9.19��ENV- environment variables file system

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k env bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: env file system associates a one level directory with the
    bind_point in the K9 namespace. Each file name in that directory is the
    name of the environment variable while the contents of the file is that
    variable's current value. Conceptually each process sees their own copy
    of the env file system. This copy is either empty or inherited from this
    process's parent at spawn time (depending on the flags to spawn).

3.9.20��ENVIRON - RaidRunner Global environment variables - names and effects

��*�DESCRIPTION: The RaidRunner uses GLOBAL environment variables to control
    the functionality of automatic actions. GLOBAL environment variables are
    saved in the Raid configuration area so they retain their values between
    reboots/power downs. Certain RaidRunner internal run-time variables can
    also be set as a GLOBAL environment variables. See the internals manual
    entry for details. The table below describes those GLOBAL environment
    variables that are used by the RaidRunner in it's normal operation.
    ��+�RebuildPri
       
        This variable, if set, controls the priority used when drive
        reconstruction occurs via the rebuild program. If the variable is not
        set then the default rebuild priority would be used. The variable is
        to be a comma separated list of raid set names and their associated
        rebuild priorities and sleep periods (colon separated). The form is
       
        Rname_1:Pri_1:Sleep_1,Rname_2:Pri_2:Sleep_2,...,Rname_N:Pri_N:Sleep_N
       
        where Pri_1 is to be the priority the rebuild program runs with when
        run on raid set Rname_1, Sleep_1 is the period, in milliseconds, to
        sleep between each rebuild action on the raid set, Pri_2 is to be the
        priority for raid set Rname_2, and so forth. For example, if the
        value of RebuildPri is
       
        R:5:30000
       
        then if a rebuild occurs (via replace, repair or autorepair) on raid
        set R then the rebuild will run with priority 5 (via the -p rebuild
        option) and will sleep 30000 milliseconds (30 seconds) between each
        rebuild action (specified via the -S rebuild option). The priority
        given must be valid for the rebuild program.
       
       
    ��+�BackendRanks
       
        On certain RaidRunner's where multiple controllers may exist, you can
        restrict a controller's access to the backend ranks of devices
        available. For example, you may have 2 controllers and 4 ranks of
        backend devices. You can specify that the first controller can only
        access the first two ranks and the second controller, the second two
        ranks. This variable along with other associated commands allows you
        to set up this restriction. Additionally, you may only have a single
        controller RaidRunner which is in an enclosure with multiple ranks.
        By default the controller will attempt to probe for all devices on
        all ranks. If you have only populated the RaidRunner with say, half
        it's possible compliment of backend devices, then the RaidRunner will
        still probe for the other half. Setting this variable appropriately
        will prevent this un-needed (and on occasion time consuming) process.
        This variable takes the form
       
        controller_id:ranklist controller_id:ranklist ...
       
        where controller_id is the controller number (from 0 upwards) and
        ranklist is a comma list of backend ranks which the given controller
        will access. Note that the backend rank is the scsi-id of that rank.
        For example, on a 2 rank (rank 1 and 2 - i.e scsi id 1 for the first
        rank and scsi id 2 for the second), 1 controller
       
        This variable takes the form
       
        For example, on a 2 rank (rank 1 and 2 - i.e scsi id 1 for the first
        rank and scsi id 2 for the second), 1 controller RaidRunner where
        only the first rank has devices you could prevent the controller from
        attempting to access the (empty) second rank by setting BackendRanks
        to
       
        0:1
       
        Typically, you would not set this variable directly, but use
        supporting commands to set it. These commands are pranks and sranks.
        See these manual entries for details.
   
   
��*�RAIDn_reference_PBUFS
   
    Raid types 3, 4 and 5 all make use of memory for temporary parity buffers
    when they need to create parity data. This memory is in addition to that
    allocated to a raid set's cache. When a raid set is created, it will also
    create a default number of parity buffers (which are the same size is a
    raid set's iosize). Sometimes, if the iosize of the raid set is large
    there will not be enough memory to create this default number of parity
    buffers. To overcome this situation, you can set GLOBAL environment
    variables to over-ride the default number of parity buffers that all raid
    sets of a particular type or a specific raid set will use. You need to
    set these variables before you define the raid set via agui and if you
    delete them and not the raid set, then the effect raid sets may not boot
    and hence will not be accessible by a host. The variables are of the form
    RAIDn_reference_PBUFS where n is the raid type (3, 4 or 5), and reference
    is the raid set's name or the string 'Default' You use the reference of
    'Default' to specify all raid sets of a particular type. For example, to
    over-ride the number of parity buffers for a raid 5 named
   
        :�raid�;�setenv�RAID5_FRED_PBUFS�64
   
    To over-ride the number of parity buffers for ALL raid 3's (and set only
    72 parity buffers) set
   
        :�raid�;�setenv�RAID3_Default_PBUFS�128
   
    If you set a default for all raid sets of a particular type, but want ONE
    of them to be different then set up a variable for that particular raid
    set as it's value will over-ride the default. In the above example, where
    all Raid Type 3 will have 128 parity buffers, you could set the variable
   
        :�raid�;�setenv�RAID3_Dbase_PBUFS�56�
   
    which will allow the raid 3 raid set named 'Dbase' to have 56 parity
    buffers, but all other raid 3's defined on the RaidRunner will have 128.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: setenv, printenv, rconf, rebuild, internals

3.9.21��EXEC - cause arguments to be executed in place of this shell

��*�SYNOPSIS: exec [ arg ... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: exec causes the command specified by the first arg to be
    executed in place of this shell without creating a new process.
    Subsequent args are passed to the command specified by the first arg as
    its arguments. Shell redirection may appear and, if no other arguments
    are given, causes the shell input/output to be modified.

3.9.22��EXIT - exit a K9 process

��*�SYNOPSIS: exit [string]
��*�DESCRIPTION: exit has an optional string argument. If the optional
    argument is given the current K9 process is terminated with the given
    string as its exit value. (If the string has embedded spaces then the
    whole string should be a quoted_string). If no argument is given then the
    shell gets the string associated with the environment variable "status"
    and returns that string as the exit value. If the environment variable
    "status" is not found then the "true" exit status (i.e. NIL) is returned.
��*�SEE ALSO: true, K9exit

3.9.23��EXPR - evaluation of numeric expressions

��*�SYNOPSIS: expr numeric_expr ...
��*�DESCRIPTION: expr evaluates each numeric_expr command line argument as a
    separate numeric expression. Thus a single expression cannot contain
    unescaped whitespaces or needs to be placed in a quoted string (i.e.
    between "{" and "}"). Arithmetic is performed on signed integers
    (currently numbers in the range from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647).
    Successful calculations cause no output (to either standard out/error or
    environment variables). So each useful numeric_expr needs to include an
    assignment (or op-assignment). Each numeric_expr argument supplied is
    evaluated in the order given (i.e. left to right) until they all evaluate
    successfully (returning a true status). If evaluating a numeric_expr
    fails (usually due to a syntax error) then the expr command fails with
    "error" as the exit status and the error message is written to the
    environment variable "error".
��*�OPERATORS: The precedence of each operator is shown following the
    description in square brackets. "0" is the highest precedence. Within a
    single precedence group evaluation is left-to-right except for assignment
    operators which are right-to-left. Parentheses have higher precedence
    than all operators and can be used to change the default precedence shown
    below.
   
    UNARY OPERATORS
   
    +
   
    Does nothing to expression/number to the right.
   
    -
   
    negates expression/number to the right.
   
    !
   
    logically negate expression/number to the right.
   
    ~
   
    Bitwise negate expression/number to the right.
   
    BINARY ARITHMETIC OPERATORS
   
    *
   
    Multiply enclosing expressions [2]
   
    /
   
    Integer division of enclosing expressions
   
    %
   
    Modulus of enclosing expressions.
   
    +
   
    Add enclosing expressions
   
    -
   
    Subtract enclosing expressions.
   
    <<
   
    Shift left expression _left_ by number in right expression. Equivalent
    to: left * (2 ** right)
   
    >>
   
    Shift left expression _right_ by number in right expression. Equivalent
    to: left / (2 ** right)
   
    &
   
    Bitwise AND of enclosing expressions
   
    ^
   
    Bitwise exclusive OR of enclosing expressions. [8]
   
    |
   
    Bitwise OR of enclosing expressions. [9]
   
    BINARY LOGICAL OPERATORS
   
    These logical operators yield the number 1 for a true comparison and 0
    for a false comparison. For logical ANDs and ORs their left and right
    expressions are assumed to be false if 0 otherwise true. Both logical
    ANDs and ORs evaluate both their left and right expressions in all case
    (cf. C's short-circuit action).
   
    <=
   
    true when left less than or equal to right. [5]
   
    >=
   
    true when left greater than or equal to right. [5]
   
    <
   
    true when left less than right. [5]
   
    >
   
    true when left greater than right. [5]
   
    ==
   
    true when left equal to right. [6]
   
    !=
   
    true when left not equal to right. [6]
   
    &&
   
    logical AND of enclosing expressions [10]
   
    ||
   
    logical OR of enclosing expressions [11]
   
    ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS
   
    In the following descriptions "n" is an environment variable while
    "r_exp" is an expression to the right. All assignment operators have the
    same precedence which is lower than all other operators. N.B. Multiple
    assignment operators group right-to-left (i.e. same as C language).
   
    =
   
    Assign right expression into environment variable on left.
   
    *=
   
    n *= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n * r_exp
   
    /=
   
    n /= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n / r_exp
   
    %=
   
    n %= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n % r_exp
   
    +=
   
    n += r_exp is equivalent to: n = n + r_exp
   
    -=
   
    n -= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n - r_exp
   
    <<=
   
    n <<= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n << r_exp
   
    >>=
   
    n >>= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n >> r_exp
   
    &=
   
    n &= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n & r_exp
   
    |=
   
    n |= r_exp is equivalent to: n = n | r_exp
   
   
��*�NUMBERS: All number are signed integers in the range stated in the
    description above. Numbers can be input in base 2 through to base 36.
    Base 10 is the default base. The default base can be overridden by:
     1. a leading "0" : implies octal or hexadecimal
     2. a number of the form _base_#_num_
    Numbers prefixed with "0" are interpreted as octal. Numbers prefixed with
    "0x" or "0X" are interpreted as hexadecimal. For numbers using the "#"
    notation the _base_ must be in the range 2 through to 36 inclusive. For
    bases greater then 10 the letters "a" through "z" are utilised for the
    extra "digits". Upper and lower case letters are acceptable. Any single
    digit that exceeds (or is equal to) the base is consider an error. Base
    10 numbers only may have a suffix. See suffix for a list of valid
    suffixes. Also note that since expr uses signed integers then "1G" is the
    largest magnitude number that can be represented with the "Gigabyte"
    suffix (assuming 32 bit signed integers, -2G is invalid due to the order
    of evaluation).
   
   
��*�VARIABLES: The only symbolic variables allowed are K9 environment
    variables. Regardless of whether they are being read or written they
    should never appear preceded by a "$". Environment variables that didn't
    previous exist that appear as left argument of an assignment are created.
    When a non-existent environment variable is read then it is interpreted
    as the value 0.
��*�EXAMPLES: Some simple examples:
   
        expr�{n�=�1�+�2}�#�create�n
       
        echo�$n
   
        3
   
        expr�{n*=2}�#�3�*�2�result�back�into�n
       
        echo�$n
   
        6
   
        expr�{�k�=�n�>�5�}�#�6�>�5�is�true�so�create�k�=�1
       
        echo�$k
   
        1
   
   
��*�NOTE: expr is a Husky "built-in" command. See the "Note" section in "set"
    to see the implications.
��*�SEE ALSO: husky, set, suffix, test

3.9.24��FALSE - returns the K9 false status

��*�SYNOPSIS: false
��*�DESCRIPTION: false does nothing other than return a K9 false status. K9
    processes return a pointer to a C string (null terminated array of
    characters) on termination. If that pointer is NULL then a true exit
    value is assumed while all other returned pointer values are interpreted
    as false (with the string being some explanation of what went wrong).
    This command returns a pointer to the string "false" as its return value.
��*�EXAMPLE: The following script fragment will print "got here" to standard
    out:
   
    if false then
   
    echo impossible
   
    else
   
    echo got here
   
    end
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: true

3.9.25��FIFO - bi-directional fifo buffer of fixed size

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�bind -k {fifo size} bind_point
    ��+�cat bind_point
    ��+�bind_point/data
    ��+�bind_point/ctl
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: fifo file system associates a one level directory with the
    bind_point in the K9 namespace with a buffer size of size bytes.
    bind_point/data and bind_point/ctl are the data and control channels for
    the fifo. Data written to the bind_point/data file is available for
    reading from the same file in a first-in first-out basis. A write of x
    bytes to the bind_point/data file will either complete and and transfer
    all the data, or will transfer sufficient bytes until the fifo buffer is
    full then block until data is removed from the fifo buffer by reading. A
    read of x bytes from the bind_point/data file will transfer the lessor of
    the current amount of data in the fifo buffer or x bytes. A read from the
    bind_point/ctl will return the size of the fifo buffer and the current
    usage. The number of opens (# Opens) is the number of processes that
    currently have the bind_point/data file open.
��*�EXAMPLE
   
        >�/buffer
       
        bind�-k�{fifo�2048}�/buffer
       
        ls�-l�/buffer
       
        /buffer:
       
        /buffer/ctl���������������������fifo����2�0x00000001����1�0
       
        /buffer/data��������������������fifo����2�0x00000002����1�0
       
        cat�/buffer/ctl
       
        Max:�2048�Cur:�0,�#�Opens:�0
       
        echo�hello�>�/buffer/data
       
        cat�/buffer/ctl
       
        Max:�2048�Cur:�6,�#�Opens:�0
       
        dd�if=/buffer/data�bs=512�count=1
       
        hello
       
        0+1�records�in
       
        0+1�records�out
       
        cat�/buffer/ctl
       
        Max:�2048�Cur:�0,�#�Opens:�0
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: pipe

3.9.26��GET - select one value from list

��*�SYNOPSIS: get number [ value ... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: get uses the given number to select one value from the given
    list. Indexing is origin 0 (e.g. "get 0 aaa bb c" returns "aaa"). If the
    number is out of range for an index on the given list of values then
    nothing is returned.

3.9.27��GETIV - get the value an internal RaidRunner variable

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�getiv
    ��+�getiv name
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: getiv prints the current value of an internal RaidRunner
    variable or prints a list of all variables. When a variable name is given
    it's current value is printed. If no value is given the all available
    internal variables are listed.
��*�NOTES: As different models of RaidRunners have different internal
    variables see your RaidRunner's Hardware Reference manual for a list of
    variables together with the meaning of their values. These variables are
    run-time variables and hence revert to their default value whenever the
    RaidRunner is booted.
��*�SEE ALSO: setiv

3.9.28��HELP - print a list of commands and their synopses

��*�SYNOPSIS: help or ?
��*�DESCRIPTION: help or the question mark character - ?, will print a list
    of all commands available to the command interpreter. Along with each
    command, it's synopsis is printed.

3.9.29��HUSKY - shell for K9 kernel

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�husky [-c command] [ file [ arg ... ] ]
    ��+�hs [-c command] [ file [ arg ... ] ]
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: husky and hs are synonyms. husky is a command language
    interpreter that executes commands read from the standard input or from a
    file. husky is a scaled down model of Unix's Bourne shell (sh). One major
    difference is that husky has no concept of current working directory. If
    the "-c" switch is present then the following command is interpreted by
    husky in a newly thrown shell nested in the current environment. This
    newly thrown shell exits back to the current environment when the command
    finishes. Otherwise if arguments are given the first one is assumed to be
    a file containing husky commands. Again a new shell is thrown to execute
    these commands. husky script files can access their command line
    arguments and the 2nd and subsequent arguments to husky (if present) are
    passed to the file for that purpose. If no arguments are given to husky
    then commands are read from standard in (and the shell is considered
    interactive).
��*�RETURN STATUS: husky places the K9 return status of a process (NIL if ok,
    otherwise a string explaining the error) in the file "/env/status"
   
    An example:
   
        dd�if=/xx
       
        dd:�could�not�open�/xx
       
        cat�/env/status
       
        open�failed
       
        cat�/env/status
   
    # empty because previous "cat" worked
   
    As the file "/env/status" is an environment variable the return status of
    a command is also available in the variable $status. The exit status of a
    pipeline is the exit status of the last command in the pipeline.
   
   
��*�SIGNALS If an interactive shell receives an interrupt signal (i.e.
    K9_SIGINT - usually a control-C on the console) then the shell exits. The
    "init" process will then start a new instance of the husky shell with all
    the previously running processes (with the exception of the just killed
    shell) still running. This allows the user to kill the process that
    caused the previous shell problems. Alternatively a process that is acci�
    dentally run in foreground is effectively put in the background by
    sending an interrupt signal to the shell. Note that this is quite
    different to Unix shells which would forward the signal onto the
    foreground process.
��*�QUOTES, ESCAPING, STRING CONCATENATION, ETC: A quoted_string (as defined
    in the grammar) commences with a "{" and finishes with the matching "}".
    The term "matching" implies that all embedded "{" must have a
    corresponding embedded "}" before the final "}" is said to match the
    original "{". A quoted_string can be spread across several lines. No
    command line substitution occurs within quoted_strings. The character for
    escaping the following character is "\". If a "{" needs to be interpreted
    literally then it can be represented by "\{". If a string containing
    spaces (whitespaces) needs to be interpreted as a single token then space
    (whitespace) can be escaped (i.e. "\ "). If a "\" itself needs to be
    interpreted literally then it can be represented by "\\". The string
    concatenation character is "^". This is useful when a token such as "/d4"
    needs to built up by a script when "/d" is fixed and the "4" is derived
    from some variable:
   
    set n 4
   
    > /d^$n
   
    This example would create the file "/d4".
   
    The output of another husky command or script can be made available
    inline by starting the sequence with "`" and finishing it with a "'". For
    example:
   
    echo {ps output follows:
   
    } `ps'
   
    This prints the string "ps output follows:" followed on the next line by
    the current output from the command "ps". That output from "ps" would
    have its embedded newlines replaced by whitespaces.
   
   
��*�COMMAND LINE FILE REDIRECTION:
    ��+�Redirection should appear after a command and its arguments in a line
        to be interpreted by husky. A special case is a line that just
        contains "> filename" which creates the filename with zero length if
        it didn't previously exist or truncates to zero length if it did.
    ��+�Redirection of standard in to come from a file uses the token "<"
        with the filename appearing to its right. The default source of
        standard in is the console.
    ��+�Redirection of standard out to go to a file uses the token ">" with
        the filename appearing to its right. The default destination of
        standard out is the console.
    ��+�Redirection of standard error to go to a file uses the token ">[2]"
        with the filename appearing to its right. The default destination of
        standard error is the console.
    ��+�Redirection of writes from within a command which uses a known file
        descriptor number (say "n") to go to a file uses the token ">[n]"
        with the filename appearing to its right.
    ��+�Redirection of read from within a command which uses a known file
        descriptor number (say "n") to come from a file uses the token "<[n]"
        with the filename appearing to its right.
    ��+�Redirection of reads and writes from within a command which uses a
        known file descriptor number (say "n") to a file uses the token "<>
        [n]" with the filename appearing to its right. In order to redirect
        both standard out and standard error to the one file the form " >
        filename >[2=1]" can be used. This sequence first redirects standard
        out (i.e. file descriptor 1) to filename and then redirects what is
        written to file descriptor 2 (i.e. standard error) to file descriptor
        1 which is now associated with filename.
   
��*�ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES: Each process can access the name it was invoked by
    via the variable: "arg0" . The command line arguments (excluding the
    invocation name) can be accessed as a list in the variable: "argv" . The
    number of elements in the list "argv" is place in "argc". The get command
    is useful for fetching individual arguments from this list. The pid of
    the current process can be fetched from the variable: "pid". When a
    script launches a new process in the background then the child's pid can
    be accessed from the variable "child". The variable "ContollerId" is set
    to the RaidRunner controller number husky is running on. Environment
    variables are a separate "space" for each process. Depending on the way a
    process was created, its initial set of environment variables may be
    copied from its parent process at the "spawn" point.
��*�SEE ALSO: intro

3.9.30��HWCONF - print various hardware configuration details

��*�SYNOPSIS: hwconf [-D] [-M] [-I] [-d [-n]] [-f] [-h] [-i -p c.s.l] [-m]
    [-p c.s.l] [-s] [-S] [-t] [-T] [-P] [-W]
��*�DESCRIPTION: hwconf prints details about the RaidRunner hardware and
    devices attached.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-h: Print the number of controllers, host interfaces per controller,
        the number of disk channels per controller, number of ranks of disks
        and the details memory (in bytes) on each controller. Four memory
        figures are printed, the first is the total memory in the controller,
        next is the amount of memory at boot time, next is the amount
        currently available and lastly is the largest available contiguous
        area of memory. This is the default option.
    ��+�-f: Print the number of fans in the RaidRunner and then the speed for
        each fan in the system. The speeds values are in revolutions per
        minute (rpms). The fans in the system are labeled in your hardware
        specification sheet for your RaidRunner. The first speed printed from
        this command corresponds to fan number 0 on your specification sheet,
        the second is for fan 1, and so forth.
    ��+�-d: Print out information on all the disk drives on the RaidRunner.
        For each disk on the RaidRunner, print out - the device name, in the
        format c.s.l where c is the channel, s is the SCSI ID (or rank) and l
        is the SCSI LUN of the device, the manufacturer's name (vendor id),
        the disk's model name (product id), the disk's version id, the disk
        serial number, the disk geometry - number of cylinders, heads and
        sectors, and the last block number on the disk and the block size in
        bytes. the disk revolution count per minute (rpm's), the number of
        notches/zones available on the drive (if any)
    ��+�-n: Print out the disk drive notch/zone tables if available. This is
        a sub-option to the -d option. Not all disks appear to correctly
        report the notch/zone partition tables. For each notch/zone,
    ��+�the following is printed: the zone number, the zone's starting
        cylinder, the zone's starting head, the zone's ending cylinder, the
        zone's ending head, the zone's starting logical block number, the
        zone's ending logical block number, the zone's number of sectors per
        track
    ��+�-D: Print out the device names for all disk drives on the system.
    ��+�-I: Initialize back-end NCR SCSI chips. This flag may be used in
        conjunction with any other option and will done first. It has an
        effect only the first call to hwconf that has not yet used a -d, -D
        or -I options, or on those chips that have not yet had a -p on the
        channel associated with that chip.
    ��+�-m: Print out major flash and battery backed-up ram addresses (in
        hex). Additionally print out the size of the RaidRunner configuration
        area. Eight (8) addresses are printed in order RaidRunner
        configuration area start and end addresses (FLASH RAM), RaidRunner
        Husky Scripts area start and end addresses (FLASH RAM), RaidRunner
        Binary Image area start and end addresses (FLASH RAM), RaidRunner
        Battery Backed-up area start and end addresses. And the size of the
        RaidRunner configuration area (in bytes) is then printed.
    ��+�-p c.s.l: Probe a single device specified by the given channel, SCSI
        ID (rank) and SCSI LUN provided in the format "c.s.l". The output of
        this command is the same as the "-d" option but just for the given
        device. If the device is not present then nothing will be output and
        the exit status of the command will be 1.
    ��+�-i -p c.s.l: Re-initialize the SCSI device driver specified by the
        given channel, SCSI ID (rank) and SCSI LUN provided in the format
        "c.s.l". Typically this command is used when, on a running
        RaidRunner, a new drive is plugged in, and it will be used prior to
        the RaidRunner's next reboot.
    ��+�-M: Set the boottime memory. This option is executed internally by
        the controller at boot time and has no function (or effect) executed
        at any other time.
    ��+�-s: Print the 12 character serial number of the RaidRunner.
    ��+�-S: Issue SCSI spin up commands to all backends as quickly as
        possible. This option is intended for use at power-on stage only.
    ��+�-t: Probe the temperature monitor returning the internal temperature
        of the RaidRunner in degrees Celsius.
    ��+�-T: Print the temperatures being recorded by the hardware monitoring
        daemon (hwmon).
    ��+�-P: For both AC and DC power supplies, print the number of each
        present and the state of each supply. The state will be printed as ok
        or flt depending on whether the PSU is working or faulty.
    ��+�-W: This option will wait until all possible backends have spun up.
        It is used in conjunction with
   
��*�NOTES : The order of printing the disk information is by SCSI ID (rank),
    by channel, by SCSI LUN.

3.9.31��HWMON - monitoring daemon for temperature, fans, PSUs.

��*�SYNOPSIS: hwmon [-t seconds] [-d]
��*�DESCRIPTION: hwmon is a hardware monitoring daemon. It periodically
    probes the status of certain elements of a RaidRunner and if an
    out-of-band occurrence happens, will cause the alarm to sound or light up
    fault leds as well as saving a message in the system log. Depending on
    the model of RaidRunner, the elements monitored are temperature, fans and
    power supplies. When an out-of-band occurrence is found, hwmon will
    reduce the time between probes to 5 seconds. If a buzzer is the alarm
    device, then the buzzer will turn on for 5 seconds then off for 5 seconds
    and repeat this cycle until the buzzer is muted or the occurrence is
    corrected.
   
    If the RaidRunner model supports a buzzer muting switch, then the buzzer
    will be muted if the switch is pressed during a cycle change as per the
    previous paragraph. When hwmon recognizes the mute switch it will beep
    twice.
   
    Certain out-of-band occurrences can be considered to be catastrophic,
    meaning if the occurrence remains uncorrected, the RaidRunner's hardware
    is likely to be damaged. Occurrences such as total fan failure and
    sustained high temperature along with total or partial fan failure are
    considered as catastrophic. hwmon has a means of automatically placing
    the RaidRunner into a "shutdown" or quiescent state where minimal power
    is consumed (and hence less heat is generated). This is done by the
    execution of the shutdown command after a period of time where
    catastrophic out-of-band occurrences are sustained. This process is
    enabled, via the AutoShutdownSecs internal variable. See the internals
    manual for use of this variable. hwmon can be prevented from starting at
    boot time by creating the global environment variable NoHwmon and setting
    any value to it. A warning message will be stored in the syslog.
   
   
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�t seconds: Specify the number of seconds to wait between probes of
        the hardware elements. If this option is not specified, the default
        period is 300 seconds.
    ��+�-d: Turn on debugging mode which can produce debugging output.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: hwconf, pstatus, syslogd, shutdown, internals

3.9.32��INTERNALS - Internal variables used by RaidRunner to change dynamics
of running kernel

��*�DESCRIPTION: Certain run-time features of the RaidRunner can be
    manipulated by changing internal variables via the setiv command. The
    table below describes each changeable variable, it's effect, it's default
    value and range of values it can be set to. The variables below are
    run-time features of a RaidRunner and hence are always set to their
    default values when a RaidRunner boots. Certain variables can be stored
    as a global environment variable and will over-ride the defaults at boot
    time. If you create a global environment variable of that variable's name
    with an appropriate value, it's default value will be over-ridden the
    next time the RaidRunner is re-booted. Note, that the values of these
    variables ARE NOT CHECKED when set in the global environment variable
    tables and, if incorrectly set, will generate errors at boot until
    deleted or corrected. In the table below, any variable that can have a
    value stored as a global environment variable is marked with (GEnv)
��*�write_limit: This variable is the maximum number of 512-byte blocks the
    cache filesystem will buffer for writes. If this limit is reached all
    writes to the cache filesystem will be blocked until the cache filesystem
    has written out (to it's backend) enough blocks to reach a low water mark
    - write_low_tide. This variable cannot be changed if battery backed-up
    RAM is available as it is tied to the amount of battery backed-up RAM
    available. The value of this variable is calculated when the cache is
    initialized. It's value is dependant on whether battery backed-up RAM is
    installed in the RaidRunner. If installed, the number of blocks of data
    that can be saved into the battery backed-up RAM is calculated. If no
    battery backed-up RAM is present, it's value is set to 75% of the
    RaidRunner's memory (expressed in a count of 512 byte blocks) then
    adjusted to reflect the amount of cache requested by configured raid
    sets. When write_limit is changed then both write_high_tide and
    write_low_tide are automatically changed to there default values (a
    function of the value of write_limit).
��*�write_high_tide: This variable is a high water mark for the number of
    written-to 512-byte blocks in the cache. When the number of data blocks
    exceeds this value, to avoid the cache filesystem from blocking it's
    front end, the cache flushing mechanism continually flushes the cache
    buffer until the amount of unwritten (to the backend) cache buffers is
    below the low water mark (write_low_tide). This value defaults to 75% of
    write_limit. This variable can have values ranging from write_limit down
    to write_low_tide. It is recommended that this variable not be changed.
��*�write_low_tide: This variable is a low water mark for when the cache
    flushing mechanism is continually flushing data to it's backend. Once the
    number of written-to cache blocks yet to be flushed equals or is less
    than this value, the sustained flushing is stopped. This value defaults
    to 25% of write_limit. This variable can have values ranging from
    write_high_tide-1 down to zero (0). It is recommended that this variable
    not be changed.
��*�cache_nflush: This variable is the number of cache buffers (not 512-byte
    data blocks) that the cache flushing mechanism will attempt to write out
    in one flush cycle. Adjusting this value may improve performance on
    writes depending of the size of the cache buffers and type of disk drives
    used in the raid set backends. The default value is 128. It's value can
    range from 2 to 128.
��*�cache_nread: This variable is the number of cache buffers (not 512-byte
    data blocks) that the cache reading mechanism will attempt to read out in
    one read cycle. Adjusting this value may improve performance on reads
    depending of the size of the cache buffers and type of disk drives used
    in the raid set backends. The default value is 128. It's value can range
    from 2 to 128.
��*�cache_wlimit: This variable is the number of cache buffers (not 512-byte
    data blocks) that the cache flushing mechanism will attempt coalesce into
    a single sequential write. It is different to cache_nflush in that
    cache_nflush is the total number of cache buffers that can be written in
    a single cache flush cycle and these buffers can be non sequential
    whereas cache_wlimit is a limit on the number of sequential cache
    buffer's that can be written with one write. Adjusting this value may
    improve performance on writes depending of the size of the cache buffers
    and type of disk drives used in the raid set backends. The default value
    is 128. It's value can range from 2 to 128.
��*�cache_fperiod (GEnv): By default, the cache flushes any data to be
    written every 1000 milliseconds (unless it's forced to by the fact that
    the cache is getting full and then it flushes the cache and resets the
    timer). You can vary this flushing period by setting this variable. Given
    you have a large number of sustained reads and minimal writes, then you
    may want to delay the writes out of cache to the backends as long as
    possible. Note, that by setting this to a high value, you run the risk of
    loosing what you have written. The default value is 1000 milliseconds
    (i.e 1 second). It's value can range from 500ms to 300000ms.
��*�scsi_write_thru (GEnv): By default all writes (from a host) are buffered
    in the RaidRunner's cache and are flushed to the backend disks
    periodically. When battery backed-up RAM is available then this results
    in the most efficient write throughput. If no battery backed-up RAM is
    available or you do not want to depend on writes being saved in battery
    backed-up RAM in event of a power failure you can force the RaidRunner to
    write data straight thru to the backends prior to returning an OK status
    to the host. This essentially provides a write-thru cache. The default
    value of this variable is 0 - write-thru mode is DISABLED. The values
    this variable can take are
    ��+�0 - DISABLE write-thru mode, or
    ��+�1 - ENABLE write-thru mode.
   
��*�scsi_write_fua (GEnv): This variable effects what is done when the FUA
    (Force Unit Access) bit is set on a SCSI WRITE-10 command. When this
    variable is enabled and a SCSI WRITE-10 command has the FUA bit set is
    processed then the data is written directly thru the cache to the backend
    disks. If the variable is disabled, then the setting of the FUA bit on
    SCSI WRITE-10 commands is ignored. The default value for this variable is
    disabled (0) if battery backed-up RAM is present, or enabled (1) if
    battery backed-up RAM is NOT present. The values this variable can take
    are
    ��+�0 - IGNORE FUA bit on SCSI WRITE-10 commands, or
    ��+�1 - ACT on FUA bit on SCSI WRITE-10 commands.
   
��*�scsi_ierror (GEnv): This variable controls what is done when the
    RaidRunner receives a Initiator Detected Error message on a SCSI host
    channel. If set (1), cause an Check Condition, If NOT set (0), follow the
    SCSI-2 standard and re-transmit the Data In / Out phase. The default
    value is 0. The values this variable can take are
    ��+�0 - follow SCSI-2 standard
    ��+�1 - ignore the SCSI-2 standard and cause a Check Condition.
   
��*�scsi_sol_reboot (GEnv): Determines whether to auto-detect a Solaris
    reboot and the clear any wide mode negotiations. If set (1), detect a
    Solaris reboot and clear wide mode. If NOT set (0), follow the SCSI-2
    standard and not clear wide mode. The default value is 0. The values this
    variable can take are
    ��+�0 - follow SCSI-2 standard
    ��+�1 - ignore the SCSI-2 standard and clear wide mode.
   
��*�scsi_hreset (GEnv): Determines whether to issue a SCSI bus reset on host
    ports after power-on. If set (1), then a SCSI bus reset is done on the
    host port when starting the first smon/stargd process on that port. If
    NOT set (0), nothing is done. The default value is 0. The values this
    variable can take are
    ��+�0 - don't issue SCSI bus resets on power-on.
    ��+�1 - issue SCSI bus resets on power-on when the first smon/stargd
        process is started.
   
��*�scsi_full_log (GEnv): Determines whether or not stargd reports, via
    syslog, a Reset Check condition on Read, Write, Test Unit Ready and Start
    Stop commands. This reset check condition is always set when a RaidRunner
    boots or the raid detects a scsi-bus reset. Note that this variable only
    suppresses the logging of this Check condition into syslog, it does not
    effect the response to the host of this and any Check condition. If set
    (1), then all stargd detected reset Check condition error messages are
    logged. If NOT set (0), these messages are suppressed The default value
    is 0. The values this variable can take are
    ��+�0 - suppress logging these messages
    ��+�1 - log all messages.
   
��*�scsi_ms_badpage (GEnv): Determines whether or not stargd reports, via
    syslog, that it has received a non-supported page number in a MODE SENSE
    or MODE SELECT command it receives from a host. Note that stargd will
    issue the appropriate Check condition to the host ("Invalid Field in
    CDB") irrespective of the value of this variable. If set (1), then all
    stargd detected non-supported page numbers in MODE SENSE and MODE SELECT
    commands will be logged. If NOT set (0), these messages are suppressed
    The default value is 0. The values this variable can take are
    ��+�0 - suppress logging these messages
    ��+�1 - log all messages.
   
��*�scsi_bechng (GEnv): Determines whether or not the raid reports backend
    device parameter change errors. In a multi controller environment,
    backends are probed and some of their parameters are changed by a booting
    controller. This will generate parameter change mode sense errors. If
    cleared (0), then all parameter change errors will NOT be logged. If set
    (1), these messages are logged like any other backend error. The default
    value is 0. The values this variable can take are
    ��+�0 - suppress logging these messages
    ��+�1 - log all messages.
   
��*�scsi_dnotch (GEnv): Some disk drives take an inordinate amount of time to
    perform mode select commands. One set of information a RaidRunner will
    obtain from a device backend are the disk notch pages (if present). As
    this is for information only, then to reduce the boot time of a
    RaidRunner you can request that disk notches are not obtained. If cleared
    (0), backend disk notch information is not probed for. If set (1), then
    backend disk notch information is probed for. The default value is 1. The
    values this variable can take are:
    ��+�0 - don't probe for notch pages
    ��+�1 - probe for notch pages
   
��*�scsi_rw_retries (GEnv): Specify the number of read or write retries to
    perform on a device backend before effecting an error on the given
    operation. Note that ALL retries are reported via syslog. The default
    value is 3. It's value can range from 1 to 9.
��*�scsi_errpage_r (GEnv): Specify the number of internal read retries that a
    disk backend is to perform before reporting an error (to the raid).
    Setting this variable causes the Read Retry Count field in the Read-Write
    Error Recovery mode sense page. A value of -1 will cause the drive's
    default to be used. The default value is -1. It's value can range from -1
    (use disk's default) or from 0 to 255.
��*�scsi_errpage_w (GEnv): Specify the number of internal write retries that
    a disk backend is to perform before reporting an error (to the raid).
    Setting this variable causes the Write Retry Count field in the
    Read-Write Error Recovery mode sense page. A value of -1 will cause the
    drive's default to be used. The default value is -1. It's value can range
    from -1 (use disk's default) or from 0 to 255.
��*�BackFrank: Specify the SCSI-ID of the first rank of backend disks on a
    RaidRunner. This variable should never be changed and is for informative
    purposes only. The default value is dependant on the model of RaidRunner
    being run. The values this variable can take are
    ��+�0 - the first rank SCSI-ID will be 0
    ��+�1 - the first rank SCSI-ID will be 1
   
��*�raid_drainwait (GEnv): Specify the number of milliseconds a raidset is to
    delay, before draining all backend I/O's when a backend fails. Setting
    this variable to a lower value will speed up the commencement of any
    error recovery procedures that would be performed on a raid set when a
    backend fails. The default value is 500 milliseconds. It's value can
    range from 50 to 10000 milliseconds.
��*�EnclosureType: Specify the enclosure type a raid controller is running
    within. This variable should never be changed and is for informative
    purposes only. The default value is dependant on the model of RaidRunner
    being run. The values this variable can take are integers starting from
    0.
��*�fmt_idisc_tmo (GEnv): Specify the SCSI command timeout (in milliseconds)
    when a SCSI FORMAT command is issued on a backend. Disk drives take
    different amounts of time to perform a SCSI FORMAT command and hence a
    timeout is required to be set when the command is issued. As certain
    drives may take longer to format than the default timeout you can change
    it. The default value is 720000 milliseconds. It's value can range from
    200000 to 1440000 milliseconds.
��*�AutoShutdownSecs (GEnv): Specify the number of seconds the RaidRunner
    should monitor catastrophic hardware failures before deciding to
    automatically shutdown. A catastrophic failure is one which will cause
    damage to the RaidRunner's hardware if not fixed immediately. Failures
    like all fans failing would be considered catastrophic. A value of 0
    seconds (the default) will disable this feature, that is, with the
    exception of logging the errors, no action will occur. See the shutdown
    and hwmon for further details. The default value is 0 seconds. It's value
    can range from 20 to 125 seconds.
��*�SEE ALSO: setiv, getiv, syslog, setenv, printenv, hwmon, shutdown

3.9.33��KILL - send a signal to the nominated process

��*�SYNOPSIS: kill [-sig_name] pid
��*�DESCRIPTION: kill sends a signal to the process nominated by pid. If the
    pid is a positive number then only the nominated process is signaled. If
    the pid is a negative number then the signal is sent to all processes in
    the same process group as the process with the id of -pid. The switch is
    optional and if not given a SIGTERM (software termination signal) is
    sent. If the sig_name switch is given then it should be one of the
    following (lower case) abbreviations. Only the first 3 letters need to be
    given for the signal name to be recognized. Following each abbreviation
    is a brief explanation and the signal number in brackets:
   
    null - unused signal [0]
   
    hup - hangup [1]
   
    int - interrupt (rubout) [2]
   
    quit - quit (ASCII FS) [3]
   
    kill - kill (cannot be caught or ignored) [4]
   
    pipe - write on a pipe with no one to read it [5]
   
    alrm - alarm clock [6]
   
    term - software termination signal [7]
   
    cld - child process has changed state [8]
   
    nomem - could not obtain memory (from heap) [9]
   
    You cannot kill processes whose process id is between 0 and 5 inclusive.
    These are considered sacrosanct - hyena, init and console reader/writers.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: K9kill

3.9.34��LED- turn on/off LED's on RaidRunner

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�led
    ��+�led led_id led_function
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: led uses the given led_id to identify the LED to manipulate
    based on the led_function. When no arguments are given, an internal LED
    register is printed along with the current function the onboard LEDS,
    led1 and led2 are tracing. If a undefined led_id is given, the led
    command silently does nothing and returns NULL. If an incorrect number of
    arguments or invalid led_function is given a usage message is printed.
    Depending on the RaidRunner model the led_id can be one of
    ��+�led1 - LED1 on the RaidRunner controller itself
    ��+�led2 - LED2 on the RaidRunner controller itself
    ��+�Dc.s.l - Device on channel c, scsi id s, scsi lun l
    ��+�status - the status LED on the RaidRunner
    ��+�io - the io LED on the RaidRunner
    and led_function can be one of
    ��+�on - turn on the given LED
    ��+�off - turn off the given LED
    ��+�ok - set the given LED to the defined OK state
    ��+�faulty - set the given LED to the defined FAULTY state
    ��+�warning - set the given LED to the defined WARNING state
    ��+�rebuild - set the given LED to the defined REBUILD state
    ��+�tprocsw - set the given LED to trace kernel process switching
    ��+�tparity - set the given LED to trace I/O parity generation
    ��+�tdisconn - set the given LED to trace host interface disconnect
        activity
    ��+�pid - set the given LED to trace the process pid as it runs
    Different models of RaidRunner have various differences in number of
    LED's and their functionality. Depending on the type of LED, the ok,
    faulty, warning and rebuild functions perform different functions. See
    your RaidRunner's Hardware Reference manual to see what LED's exist and
    what different functions do.
   
   
��*�NOTES: Tracing activities can only occur on the `onboard` leds (LED1,
    LED2).
��*�SEE ALSO: lflash

3.9.35��LFLASH- flash a led on RaidRunner

��*�SYNOPSIS: lflash led_id period
��*�DESCRIPTION: lflash uses the given led_id to identify the LED to flash
    every period seconds. If a undefined led_id is given, the led command
    silently does nothing and returns NULL. Depending on the RaidRunner model
    the led_id can be one of:
   
    led1 - LED1 on the RaidRunner controller itself
   
    led2 - LED2 on the RaidRunner controller itself
   
    Dc.s.l - Device on channel c, scsi id s, scsi lun l
   
    status - the status LED on the RaidRunner
   
    io - the io LED on the RaidRunner
   
   
��*�NOTE: The number of seconds must be greater than or equal to 2.
��*�SEE ALSO: led

3.9.36��LINE - copies one line of standard input to standard output

��*�SYNOPSIS: line
��*�DESCRIPTION: line accomplishes the one line copy by reading up to a
    newline character followed by a single K9write.
��*�SEE ALSO: K9read, K9write

3.9.37��LLENGTH - return the number of elements in the given list

��*�SYNOPSIS: llength list
��*�DESCRIPTION: llength returns the number of elements in a given list.
��*�EXAMPLES: Some simple examples:
   
        set�list�D1�D2�D3�D4�D5�#�create�the�list
       
        set�len�`llength�$list'�#�get�it's�length
       
        echo�$len
       
        5
       
        set�list�{D1�D2�D3�D4�D5}�{D6�D7}��#�create�the�list
       
        set�len�`llength�$list'�#�get�it's�length
       
        echo�$len
       
        2
       
        set�list�{}�#�create�an�empty�list
       
        set�len�`llength�$list'�#�get�it's�length
       
        echo�$len
       
        0
   
   
3.9.38��LOG - like zero with additional logging of accesses

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k {log fd error_rate tag} bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: log is a special file that when written to is a infinite
    sink of data (i.e. anything can be written to it and it will be disposed
    of quickly). When log is read it is an infinite source of zeros (i.e. the
    byte value 0). The log file will appear in the K9 namespace at the
    bind_point. Additionally, ASCII log data is written to the file
    associated with file descriptor fd. error_rate should be a number between
    0 and 100 and is the percentages of errors (randomly distributed) that
    will be reported (as an EIO error) to the caller. Each line written to fd
    will have tag appended to it. There is one line output to fd for each IO
    operation on the log special file. The first character output is "R" or
    "W" indicating a read or write. The second character is blank if no error
    was reported and "*" if one was reported. Next (after a white space) is a
    (64 bit integer) offset into the file of the start of the operation,
    followed by the size (in bytes) of that operation. The line finishes with
    the tag.
��*�EXAMPLE: Bind a log special file at "/dev/log" that writes log
    information to standard error. Each line written to standard error has
    the tag string "scsi" appended to it. Approximately 30% of reads and
    writes (i.e. randomly distributed) return an EIO error to the caller.
    This is done as follows:
   
        bind�"log�2�30�scsi"�/dev/log
       
        dd�if=/dev/zero�of=/dev/log�count=5�bs=512
       
        W��0000000000�512��������scsi
       
        W��0000000200�512��������scsi
       
        W��0000000400�512��������scsi
       
        W*�0000000600�512��������scsi
       
        Write�failed.
       
        4+0�records�in
       
        3+0�records�out
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: zero

3.9.39��LRANGE - extract a range of elements from the given list

��*�SYNOPSIS: lrange first last list
��*�DESCRIPTION: lrange returns a list consisting of elements first through
    last of list. 0 refers to the first element in the list. If first is
    greateR THAN last then the list is extracted in reverse order.
��*�EXAMPLES: Some simple examples:

    set�list�D1�D2�D3�D4�D5�#�create�the�list
   
    set�subl�`lrange�0�3�$list'�#�extract�from�indices�0�to�3
   
    echo�$subl
   
    D1�D2�D3�D4
   
    set�subl�`lrange�3�1�$list'�#�extract�from�indices�3�to�1
   
    echo�$subl
   
    D4�D3�D2
   
    set�subl�`lrange�4�4�$list'�#�extract�from�indices�0�to�3
   
    echo�$subl�#�equivalent�to�get�4�$list
   
    D5
   
    set�subl�`lrange�3�100�$list'
   
    echo�$subl
   
    D4�D5

3.9.40��LS - list the files in a directory

��*�SYNOPSIS: ls [ -l ] [ directory... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: ls lists the files in the given directory on standard out.
    If no directory is given then the root directory (i.e. "/") is listed.
    Each file name contained in a directory is put on a separate line. Each
    listing has a lead-in line stating which directory is being shown. If
    there is more than one directory then they are listed sequentially
    separated by a blank line. If the "-l" switch is given then every listed
    file has data such as its length and the file system it belongs to shown
    on the same line as its name. See the stat command for more information.
    ls is not an inbuilt command but a husky script which utilizes cat and
    stat. The script source can be found in the file "/bin/ps".
��*�SEE ALSO: cat, stat

3.9.41��LSEARCH - find the a pattern in a list

��*�SYNOPSIS: lsearch pattern list
��*�DESCRIPTION: lsearch returns the index of the first element in list that
    matches pattern or -1 if none. 0 refers to the first element in the list
��*�EXAMPLES: Some simple examples:

    set�list�D1�D2�D3�D4�D5�#�create�the�list
   
    set�idx�`lsearch�D4�$list'�#�get�index�of�D4�in�list
   
    echo�$idx
   
    3
   
    set�idx�`lsearch�D1�$list'�#�get�index�of�D1�in�list
   
    echo�$idx
   
    0
   
    set�idx�`lsearch�D8�$list'�#�get�index�of�D8�in�list
   
    echo�$idx�#�equivalent�to�get�4�$list
   
    -1

3.9.42��LSUBSTR - replace a character in all elements of a list

��*�SYNOPSIS: lsubstr find_char replacement_char list
��*�DESCRIPTION: lsubstr returns a list replacing every find_ch character
    found in any element of the list with the replacement_char character.
    replacement_char can be NULL which effectively deletes all find_char
    characters in the list.
��*�EXAMPLES: Some simple examples:

    set�list�D1�D2�D3�D4�D5�#�create�the�list
   
    set�subl�`lsubstr�D�x�$list'�#�replace�all�D's�with�x's
   
    echo�$subl
   
    x1�x2�x3�x4�x5
   
    set�subl�`lsubstr�D�{}�$list'�#�delete�all�D's
   
    echo�$subl
   
    1�2�3�4�5
   
    set�list�-L�-16�#�create�a�list�with�embedded�braces
   
    set�subl�`lsubstr�{}�$list'�#�delete�all�open�braces
   
    set�subl�`lsubstr�{}�$subl'�#�delete�all�close�braces
   
    echo�$subl
   
    -L�16

3.9.43��MEM - memory mapped file (system)

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k {mem first last [ r ]} bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: mem allows machine memory to be accessed as a single K9 file
    (rather than a file system). The host system's memory is used starting at
    the first memory location up to and including the last memory location.
    Both first and last need to be given in hexadecimal. If successful the
    mem file will appear in the K9 namespace at the bind_point. The stat
    command will show it as a normal file with the appropriate size (i.e.
    last - first + 1). If the optional "r" is given then only read-only
    access to the file is permitted. In a target environment mem can usefully
    associate battery backed-up RAM (or ROM) with the K9 namespace. In a Unix
    environment it is of limited use (see unixfd instead). In a DOS
    environment it may be useful to access memory directly (IO space) but for
    accessing the DOS console see doscon. When mem is associated with the
    partition of Flash RAM that stores the husky scripts, which is stored
    compressed, reading from that page will automatically decompress and
    return the data as it is read. When mem is associated with the writable
    partitions of Flash RAM (configuration partition, husky script partition
    and main binary partition) a write to the start of any partition will
    erase that partition.
��*�SEE ALSO: ram
��*�BUGS: Only a single file rather than a file system can be bound.

3.9.44��MDEBUG - exercise and display statistics about memory allocation

��*�SYNOPSIS: mdebug [off|on|trace|p|m size|f ptr|c nel elsize|r ptr size]
��*�DESCRIPTION: mdebug can be used to directly allocate and free memory.
    mdebug will also print (to standard output) information about the current
    state of memory allocation. With out any given options a brief five line
    summary of memory usage is printed, e.g.
   
        :�raid;�mdebug
       
        Mdebug�is�off
       
        nreq-nfree=87096-82951=4145(13905745)
       
        size=15956672/16150000
       
        waste=1%/2%
       
        list=4251/8396
       
        :�raid;
   
    The first line indicates the debug mode, either off, on or trace. The
    second line indicates the number times a request for memory is made (to
    Mmalloc() or Mcalloc() and related functions) and the number of times the
    memory allocator is called to free memory (via Mfree()). The difference
    between these first two numbers is the total number of currently
    allocated blocks of memory, with the number between the '(' and ')' being
    the total memory requested. Note that the amount of memory actually
    assign may be more than requested.
   
    The third line indicates the amount of memory being managed. The second
    number is the total memory man aged (i.e. left over after loading the
    statically allocated text, data and bss space). The first number is that
    left over after various memory allocation tables have been subtracted out
    from that afore mention number. The fourth line is the total amount of
    extra memory assigned to requests in excess of the actual requested
    memory as compared with the totals on line 3.
   
    The fifth line relates to the list of currently allocated memory. The
    first number is the number of free entries left and the second is the
    maximum table size. Note that the number of currently allocated blocks
    (third number on line 2) when added to the first number on line 5 gives
    the second number on line 5.
   
   
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�p: Prints the above mentioned five line summary and then the free
        list.
    ��+�P: Prints all the above plus dumps the list of currently allocated
        memory.
    ��+�PP: Prints all the above plus the free bitmap.
    The above three options can generate copious output and require a
    detailed knowledge of the source to understand their meaning.
    ��+�off: Turns off memory allocation debugging. This is the default
        condition after booting.
    ��+�on: Turns on memory allocation assertion checking.
    ��+�trace: Turns on memory allocation assertion checking and traces every
        memory allocation / deallocation.
    ��+�m: Uses Mmalloc() to allocate a block of memory of size bytes.
    ��+�f: Uses Mfree() to de-allocate a block of memory addressed by ptr.
    ��+�c: Uses Mcalloc() to allocate a contiguous block of memory consisting
        of nel elements each of size bytes.
    ��+�r: Uses Mrealloc() to re-allocate a block of previously allocated
        memory, ptr, changing the allocated size to be size bytes.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: Unix man pages on malloc()

3.9.45��MKDIR - create directory (or directories)

��*�SYNOPSIS: mkdir [ directory_name ... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: mkdir creates the given directory (or directories). If all
    the given directories can be created then NIL is returned as the status;
    otherwise the first directory that could not be created is returned (and
    this command will continue trying to create directories until the list is
    exhausted). A directory cannot be created with a file name that
    previously existed in the enclosing directory.

3.9.46��MKDISKFS - script to create a disk filesystem

��*�SYNOPSIS: mkdiskfs disk_directory_root disk_name
��*�DESCRIPTION: mkdiskfs is a husky script which is used to perform all the
    necessary commands to create a disk filesystem given the root of the disk
    file system and the name of the disk.
��*�OPTIONS :
    ��+�disk_directory_root: Specify the directory root under which the disk
        filesystems are bound. This is typically /dev/hd.
    ��+�disk_name: Specify the name of the disk in the format Dc.s.l where c
        is the channel, s is the scsi id (or rank) and l is the scsi lun of
        the disk.
    After parsing it's arguments mkdiskfs creates the disk filesystem's bind
    point and binds in the disk at that point. set.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf, scsihdfs

3.9.47��MKHOSTFS - script to create a host port filesystem

��*�SYNOPSIS: mkhostfs controller_number host_port host_bus_directory
��*�DESCRIPTION: mkhostfs is a husky script which is used to perform all the
    necessary commands to create a host port filesystem on the given
    RaidRunner controller given the root of the host port file systems and
    the host port number.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�controller_number: Specify the controller on which the host port
        filesystem is to be created.
    ��+�host_port: Specify the host port number to create the filesystem for.
    ��+�host_bus_directory: Specify the directory root under which host
        filesystems are bound. This is typically /dev/hostbus. After parsing
        it's arguments mkhostfs finds out what SCSI ID the host port is to
        present (see hconf and then binds in the host filesystem. set.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: hconf, scsihpfs

3.9.48��MKRAID - script to create a raid given a line of output of rconf

��*�SYNOPSIS: mkraid `rconf -list RaidSetName'
��*�DESCRIPTION: mkraid is a husky script which is used to perform all the
    necessary commands to create and enable host access to a given Raid Set.
    The arguments to mkraid is a line of output from a rconf -list command.
    After parsing it's arguments mkraid checks to see if a reconstruction was
    being performed when the RaidRunner was last operating, and if so, notes
    this. It then creates the raid filesystem (see mkraidfs) and adds a cache
    frontend to the raid filesystem. It then creates the required host
    filesystems (see mkhsotfs) and finally, if a reconstruction had been
    taking place when the RaidRunner was last operating, it restarts a
    reconstruction.
��*�NOTE: This husky script DOES NOT enable target access (stargd) to the
    raid set it creates.
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf, mkraidfs, mkhostfs

3.9.49��MKRAIDFS - script to create a raid filesystem

��*�SYNOPSIS: mkraidfs -r raidtype -n raidname -b backends [-c chunk] [-i
    iomode] [-q qlen] [-v] [-C capacity] [-S]
��*�DESCRIPTION: mkraidfs is a husky script which is used to perform all the
    necessary commands to create a Raid filesystem.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-r raidtype: Specify the raid type as raidtype for the raid set. Must
        be 0, 1, 3 or 5.
    ��+�-n raidname: Specify the name of the raid set as raidname.
    ��+�-b backends: Specify the comma separated list of the raid set's
        backends in the format used by rconf.
    ��+�-c iosize: Optionally specify the IOSIZE (in bytes) of the raid set.
    ��+�-i iomode: Optionally specify the raid set's iomode - read-write,
        read-only, write-only.
    ��+�-q qlen: Optionally specify the raid set's queue length for each
        backend.
    ��+�-v: Enable verbose mode which prints out the main actions (binding,
        engage commands) as they are performed.
    ��+�-C capacity: Optionally specify the raid set's size in 512-byte
        blocks.
    ��+�-S: Optionally specify that spares pool access is required should a
        backend fail.
    After parsing it's arguments mkraidfs creates the Raid Set's backend
    filesystems, typically, disks (see mkdisfs) taking care of failed
    backends. It then binds in the raid filesystem and engages the backends
    into the filesystem. If spares access is requested, it enables the
    autorepair feature of the raid set.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf, mkraidfs, mkhostfs, mkdiskfs, raid[0135]fs

3.9.50��MKSMON - script to start the scsi monitor daemon smon

��*�SYNOPSIS: mksmon controllerno hostport scsi_lun protocol_list
��*�DESCRIPTION: mksmon is a husky script which is used to perform all the
    necessary commands to start the scsi monitor daemon smon given the
    controller number, hostport, scsi lun, and the block protocol list.
    Typically, mksmon, is run with it's arguments from the output of a mconf
    -list command.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�controllerno: Specify the controller on which the scsi monitor daemon
        is to be run.
    ��+�hostport: Specify the host port through which the scsi monitor daemon
        communicates.
    ��+�scsi_lun: Specify the SCSI LUN the scsi monitor daemon is to respond
        to.
    ��+�protocol_list: Specify the comma separated block protocol list the
        scsi monitor daemon is to implement.
    After parsing it's arguments mksmon checks to see if it's already running
    and issues a message if so and exits. Otherwise, it creates the host
    filesystem (mkhostfs), creates a memory file and set of fifo's for smon
    to use and finally starts smon set.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: smon, mconf, mkhostfs, fifofs

3.9.51��MKSTARGD - script to initialize a scsi target daemon for a given raid
set

��*�SYNOPSIS: mkstargd `rconf -list raidname'
��*�DESCRIPTION: mkstargd is a husky script which is used to perform all the
    necessary commands to start and initialize the scsi target daemon stargd
    for a given raid set. Typically, mkstargd, is run with it's arguments
    from the output of a rconf -list command. After parsing it's arguments
    mkstargd checks to see if it's already running and issues a message if so
    and exits. Otherwise, it creates the host filesystem (mkhostfs), then
    starts the scsi target daemon (stargd) for the given raid set. stargd is
    started in a mode that responds to non-medium access SCSI commands and
    sets a state of "spinning up". Typically stargd's are started as soon as
    possible but do not allow medium access commands until the underlying
    raid sets have been created and then are flagged as "spun up" (via
    mstargd -o command) which allows medium access.
��*�SEE ALSO: stargd, rconf, mkhostfs

3.9.52��MSTARGD - monitor for stargd

��*�SYNOPSIS: mstargd [-a] [-d level] [-h] [-hr] [-hw] [-l] [-m] [-n] [-o
    offset] [-R] [-s] [-t] [-v] [-W] [-z] [-Z spinstate] [-U] [-irgap nblks]
    pid
��*�DESCRIPTION: mstargd modifies the state or prints out information about
    the stargd daemon with the given pid. If such a process exists and no
    optional switches are given then the current debug level of that stargd
    daemon is printed to standard out by this call.
   
    mstargd works by looking for file named "/mon/stargd/pid". If it is not
    found or the pid does not represent an existing process then mstargd
    exits with an appropriate error message. If it is found then it is
    assumed to contain a reference into the associated stargd process's state
    (and statistics) structure. The "reference" for target hardware such as
    the raid (without memory management) is a memory address. The "reference"
    for Unix machines could be a shared memory identifier or a memory address
    (depending on how K9 processes are mapped to Unix processes).
   
    mstargd performs its monitoring (or modifying) task then exits
    immediately. A sanity check is performed on the associated stargd
    process's state (and statistics) structure before it is used. Operations
    that take a little time (e.g. "-h", "-s" and "-t") take an internal copy
    of this state structure. mstargd is designed to have no detrimental
    effect on a running stargd daemon. Note that the 3 modifying operations
    (i.e. "-o", "-d" and "-z") have no adverse effect either.
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�-a: This option has the same effect as giving mstargd the options,
        "-h -l -m -s -t".
    ��+�-d level: This option will change the debug level of the nominated
        stargd daemon to the given level. The debug levels are:
        ��o�0 = no debug messages
        ��o�1 = debug messages on all non-read/write commands
        ��o�2 = debug messages on all commands
       
    ��+�-h: This option will output a histogram for reads and a separate one
        for writes. The histogram currently consists of a header line
        followed by multiple lines. Each line has the number of blocks in its
        1st column, the number of invocations in the 2nd column and the
        cumulative time in the SCSI data phase in the 3rd column. Only lines
        with non-zero invocations are output. Block number 257 (if present)
        will be the last line and records all commands requesting 257 or more
        blocks.
    ��+�-hr: This option only prints out the histogram for reads.
    ��+�-hw: This option only prints out the histogram for writes.
    ��+�-l: This option prints out the stargd read lookahead statistics.
    ��+�-m: This option prints out the moniker (i.e name) of the raid set
        indicated by the given pid.
    ��+�-n: This option toggles the collection of statistics by the indicated
        stargd process.
    ��+�-o offset: This option informs the daemon that reads and writes into
        it's store are to be offset by the given number of blocks. The
        default value for offset is 0. The given offset must be in the range
        0 to (2**32 - 1). The typical block size is 512 bytes. To simplify
        writing out large numbers certain suffixes can be used, see suffix.
        Additionally, this option informs the daemon that it's store is now
        available for access by setting it's spin state to 1. See "-Z" option
        below.
    ��+�-R: This option sets the write-protect flag which will result in any
        write command issued to the stargd process (as indicated by the given
        pid) to return a check condition with the sense key set to "DATA
        PROTECT" and the additional sense key set to "WRITE PROTECT".
    ��+�-s: This option prints the current state of the SCSI command state
        machine.
    ��+�-t: This option prints a row each for read(6), read(10), write(6),
        write(10) and others. These 5 rows represent a categorization of all
        incoming SCSI commands. Each row contains the number of invocations
        and the number of errors detected. Errors are divided into 2
        categories: type 1 for situations when a "Check Condition" status is
        returned, and type 2 when some other failed status is returned (e.g.
        "Command terminated" or "Reservation conflict").
    ��+�-v: This option prints out the histogram (-h, -hw, -hr) and SCSI
        command� summary (-t) in vector (or line) form.
    ��+�-U: This option clears any SCSI-2 reservations set on the scsi target
        specified by the given pid. WARNING this clearance "controller system
        wide".
    ��+�-W: This option clears the write-protect flag which enables write
        commands issued to the stargd process (as indicated by the given pid)
        to write data.
    ��+�-z: This option zeroes the internal tables used by the histograms.
    ��+�-irgap nblks: Specify the inter-read gap, nblks, (in blocks). When
        sequential reads arrive from a host there may be a small gap between
        successive reads. Normally the lookahead algorithm will ignore these
        gaps providing they are no larger than the average length of the
        group of sequential reads that have occurred. By specifying this
        value, you can increase this gap.
    ��+�-Z spinstate: This option will change the spin state of the nominated
        stargd daemon to the given spinstate. The spin states are (State,
        Description, ASC,ASCQ):
        ��o�0, LOGICAL UNIT IS IN PROCESS OF BECOMING READY, 0x04, 0x01
        ��o�1, Logical unit is ready - medium access commands allowed, -, -
        ��o�2, LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY, MANUAL INTERVENTION REQUIRED, 0x04,
            0x03
        ��o�3, LOGICAL UNIT HAS NOT SELF-CONFIGURED YET, 0x3e, 0x00
        ��o�4, LOGICAL UNIT HAS FAILED SELF-CONFIGURATION, 0x4c, 0x00
        ��o�stargd's spin state is used to describe the condition of the tar�
            get whilst is is NOT READY. When stargd is not ready to accept
            SCSI-2 medium access commands it returns a CHECK CONDITION status
            to all medium access commands, sets the mode sense key to NOT
            READY and the additional mode sense code and code qualifier to
            values depending in the spin state value. Typically, when a
            RaidRunner boots it requires time to create the configured Raid
            Sets, although it needs to start the scsi target daemons (stargd)
            as soon as possible. It does start all the required stargds and
            set's their spin state to 0. Once the raid sets have been built
            and are linked to their stargds, the spin state is set to 1
            meaning it will allow and process SCSI-2 medium access commands.
            (See the "-o" option above). The additional spin states of 2, 3
            and 4 can be used by systems with intelligent SCSI drivers in
            high availability environments.
       
   
��*�SEE ALSO: stargd

3.9.53��NICE - Change the K9 run-queue priority of a K9 process

��*�SYNOPSIS: nice pid priority
��*�DESCRIPTION: nice will change the run-queue priority of the process given
    by pid to priority.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�pid: This is the process identifier of the K9 process whose run-queue
        priority is to change.
    ��+�priority: This the the priority to set. Priorities range from 0
        (lowest) to 9 (highest).
   
��*�SEE ALSO: K9setpriority

3.9.54��NULL- file to throw away output in

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k null bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: null is a special file that when written to is a infinite
    sink of data (i.e. anything can be written to it and it will be disposed
    of quickly). When null is read it is an infinite source of end-of-files.
    The null file will appear in the K9 names- pace at the bind_point.
��*�EXAMPLE Husky installs a null special file as follows:
   
    bind null /dev/null
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO zero, log

3.9.55��PARACC - display information about hardware parity accelerator

��*�SYNOPSIS: paracc
��*�DESCRIPTION: paracc will print (to standard output) information about the
    hardware parity accelerator, if installed. The main output line of
    interest to all except those debugging the RaidRunner is the first line
    which displays, in bytes, the size of the memory on the hardward parity
    accelerator. IE
   
    Parity Memory available : 1048576
   
    PAccLock@0xBF368{own=-1,cnt=1,pvt=0x0,nwait=0,name="PAc"}
   
    Request failures: 0, Max Usage: 2, Alloc: 1, Free: 31
   
    have_paracc is 1.
   
    Req Fails: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
   
    All other lines are only informative for debugging purposes. If there is
    no accelerator present, then the Parity Memory available will be 0.

3.9.56��PEDIT - Display/modify SCSI backend Mode Parameters Pages

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�pedit page_code c.s.l
    ��+�pedit page_code c.s.l byte_modifier_list
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: pedit will either report the SCSI pages of mode parameters
    for a given page - page_code on a given SCSI backend device c.s.l and or
    allow you to change the mode parameters. In it's first form, pedit, for a
    given page code, will print five lines. The first is a header for ease of
    reading, the second will be the DEFAULT mode parameters, the second will
    be CHANGEABLE bitmask values, the third will be the CURRENT mode
    parameters and the last will be the SAVED mode parameters. In it's second
    form, pedit, for a given page code and device, will print the page codes
    but also will apply the byte_modifier_list to either the CURRENT or SAVED
    mode parameters. The supported SCSI pages are
   
    0x1 ERROR RECOVERY page
   
    0x2 DISCONNECT page
   
    0x3 FORMAT page
   
    0x4 GEOMETRY page
   
    0x8 CACHE page
   
    0xc NOTCH page
   
    0xa CONTROL page
   
   
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�page_code: Specify the SCSI Page Code in hex.
    ��+�c.s.l: Identify the disk device to select by specifying it's channel,
        SCSI ID (rank) and SCSI LUN provided in the format "c.s.l"
    ��+�byte_modifier_list: The byte_modifier_list is of the form
       
        C|Sbyte_no:set_val: clr_val,byte_no:set_val:clr_val,...
       
        where the C or S prefix specifies whether you want to change the
        CURRENT or SAVED mode pages respectively. This prefix is followed by
        a comma separated list of byte modifiers in the form byte_no:set_val:
        clr_val where byte_no is the byte number to change, set_val is a mask
        of which bits within that byte to SET (to 1) and clr_val is a mask of
        which bits within that byte to CLEAR (to 0).
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: The mode sense page references in the relevant product manual
    for the disks used in the RAID.

3.9.57��PIPE - two way interprocess communication

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�bind -k pipe bind_point
    ��+�cat bind_point
    ��+�bind_point/data
    ��+�bind_point/ctl
    ��+�bind_point/data1
    ��+�bind_point/ctl1
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: pipe file system associates a one level directory with the
    bind_point in the K9 namespace. This device allocates two streams which
    are joined at the device end. bind_point/data and bind_point/ctl are the
    data and control channels for one stream while bind_point/data1 and
    bind_point/ctl1 are the data and control channels for the other stream.
    Data written to one channel is available for reading at the other. Write
    boundaries are preserved: each read terminates when the read buffer is
    full or after reading the last byte of a write, whichever comes first.

3.9.58��PRANKS - print or set the accessible backend ranks for the current
controller

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�pranks
    ��+�pranks rank1 [rank2 ... rankn]
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: pranks, without any arguments will print which backend ranks
    of devices the controller, on which the command is executed, can access.
    If a rank is not accessible, then a "-1" is printed in place of the rank
    number (i.e scsi id of that rank). If you wish to set which rank id's a
    controller is allowed to access then execute this command with those rank
    id's as it's arguments.
   
    When you execute this command to set access to certain (or all) ranks,
    then the access restrictions (if any) are effective immediately.
    Additionally, the GLOBAL environment variable BackendRanks is either
    defined or modified and when you next boot the RaidRunner, the settings
    you have just created will be set again automatically.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE: Assume you have a RaidRunner system with four ranks of backend
    devices (rank 1, 2, 3 and 4) but you want to restrict the controller's
    access to the first two as you don't have any devices installed in the
    third and forth ranks. You would execute pranks 1 2
��*�SEE ALSO: environ, sranks

3.9.59��PRINTENV - print one or all GLOBAL environment variables

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�printenv
    ��+�printenv name [name ...]
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: printenv prints the value (or list of values) associated
    with the GLOBAL environment variable name. If multiple GLOBAL environment
    variables are given, each value is printed on a line of it's own. When a
    GLOBAL environment variable is a list of values, each value is printed on
    a line of it's own. When printenv is called with no arguments, all GLOBAL
    environment variables and their associated value(s) are printed, one per
    line. If a value is a list then each element of the list is separated
    with the vertical bar () character.
��*�NOTE: A GLOBAL environment variable is one which is stored in a non
    volatile area on the RaidRunner and hence is available between successive
    power cycles or reboots. These variables ARE NOT the same as husky
    environment variables. The non volatile area is co-located with the
    RaidRunner Configuration area. If the given variable name is not a GLOBAL
    environment variable nothing is printed and no error status is set.
��*�SEE ALSO: setenv, unsetenv, rconf
��*�PROC - the process file system (device)
��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�bind -k proc bind_point
    ��+�cat bind_point
    ��+�cat bind_point/0
    ��+�cat bind_point/1
    ��+�...
    ��+�cat bind_point/N
    ��+�signal
    ��+�sigpgrp
    ��+�status
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: The proc device creates a two level directory below its
    bind_point. The first level entries are the numbers of the processes that
    are known currently to K9. The second level entries are the filenames:
    "signal", "sigpgrp" and "status". It is an error to read from the second
    level directory files "signal" and "sigpgrp". When "status" is read it
    returns an ASCII string containing the following fields:
    ��+�process name
    ��+�process identifier (i.e. its pid)
    ��+�this process's parent's pid
    ��+�pid of process group leader
    ��+�process state
    ��+�process priority
    ��+�maximum stack utilization as % of available stack
    ��+�milliseconds of CPU time registered
    ��+�semaphore id (if any) this process is waiting on
    These fields have an appropriate number of spaces between them so they
    look "reasonable" when output by ps. The process states are listed below:
    ��+�I interrupted
    ��+�R currently running (or has yielded control)
    ��+�S stirred (signaled while waiting)
    ��+�W waiting on a semaphore
    ��+�Z terminated and parent not waiting
    It is an error to write to the second level directory file "status". A
    signal number or signal name (see kill for a list of signal names - which
    cannot be abbreviated in this case) may be written to the file "signal".
    This action will send a signal to the associated process. If a signal
    number or name is written to the file "sigpgrp" then all the processes in
    the process group which this process belongs to will receive the signal.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: ps, kill

3.9.60��PS - report process status

��*�SYNOPSIS: ps
��*�DESCRIPTION: ps prints information about all running K9 processes on
    standard out. The information output includes the process name, its
    process identification number (PID), its parent's PID, process group,
    process state, the maximum percentage utilization of its stack and the
    milliseconds of CPU time its has used. The process states are listed
    below:
    ��+�I interrupted
    ��+�R currently running (or has yielded control)
    ��+�S stirred (signaled while waiting)
    ��+�W waiting on a semaphore
    ��+�Z terminated and parent not waiting
   
��*�Currently ps is implemented as a K9 Husky script (rather than a built in
    command). The script source can be found in the file "/bin/ps". The
    script utilizes the file system proc.
��*�EXAMPLE:

    :�raid;�ps
   
    NAME____________________PID__PPID__PGRP_S_P_ST%_TIME(ms)__SEMAPHORE+name
   
    hyena�������������������0������0�����0�R�9��18�385930�����deadbeef
   
    init��������������������1������0�����1�W�0���9�90���������8009b1a8���pau
   
    SCN2681_reader����������4������1�����4�W�0���0�0����������800702a4���2rd
   
    SCN2681_writer����������5������1�����5�W�0���0�0����������8007029c���2wr
   
    SCN2681_putter����������6������1�����6�W�0���0�0����������800702ac���2tp
   
    DIO_R_drive3_q0��������391�����1���391�W�0���4�40120������8021a828���Ard
   
    DIO_R_drive0_q0��������397�����1���397�W�0���4�13420������8007ac64���Ard
   
    DIO_R_drive1_q0��������404�����1���404�W�0���5�25570������8007b224���Ard
   
    husky������������������28������1�����1�W�0��10�50���������8013a138���pau
   
    cache_flusher����������424�����1���424�W�0��23�17700������8030c2c4���Cfr
   
    CIO_R_q0���������������426�����1���426�W�0��96�2320�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q1���������������427���426���426�W�0��96�2420�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q2���������������428���426���426�W�0��96�2410�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q3���������������429���426���426�W�0��96�2430�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q4���������������430���426���426�W�0��96�2240�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q5���������������431���426���426�W�0��96�2130�������80c37540���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q6���������������432���426���426�W�0��96�2300�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    CIO_R_q7���������������433���426���426�W�0��96�2180�������8030d6f4���Ard
   
    smon��������������������65�����1�����1�W�0���5�30���������8008d5e4���Nsl
   
    DIO_R_drive2_q0��������326�����1���326�W�0���5�27680������8007b7e4���Ard
   
    /bin/ps����������������871����28�����1�W�0���8�40���������80cfd020���pau
   
    stargd�����������������107�����1�����1�R�0��48�23990������8007a648���Nsl
   
    starg_107_L_R����������119���107���119�W�0���0�0����������8018c608���pau
   
   
��*�The fields are: process name, process identifier (i.e. its pid), this
    process's parent's pid, pid of process group leader, process state,
    process priority, maximum stack utilization as % of available stack,
    milliseconds of CPU time registered, semaphore id (if any) this process
    is waiting on along with the internal name of the semaphore. If a process
    is waiting on a semaphore then the last number is the address of the
    number it is waiting on.
��*�SEE ALSO: proc

3.9.61��PSCSIRES - print SCSI-2 reservation table for all or specific
monikers

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�pscsires
    ��+�pscsires moniker
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: pscsires looks up the Global SCSI-2 Reservation table for a
    given moniker (see smon or stargd) and prints is current SCSI-2
    reservation state. When no moniker is given, all entries in the Global
    SCSI-2 Reservation table are printed. For each table entry to be
    displayed, the moniker and four integers are printed - the controller
    number, host port number, reserved scsi id and reservor scsi id. The
    combination of controller number, host port number, and reservor scsi id
    can uniquely identify which host system issued the SCSI-2 Reserve
    command. The reserved scsi id field is used when a Third-Party
    reservation has been requested by the host system identified by the other
    three integers. If all four integers are -1, then no scsi target daemon
    (smon or stargd) on any controller or host port has reserved the moniker.
��*�SEE ALSO: smon, stargd, mstargd, SCSI-2 Reserve and Release Command
    Documentation

3.9.62��PSTATUS - print the values of hardware status registers

��*�SYNOPSIS: pstatus
��*�DESCRIPTION: pstatus will print the names and values of various hardware
    status registers. Each value is printed on a lineof it's own. Typical
    hardware status registers are BCDSW_0, BCDSW_1. Values of BCD host port
    SCSI ID selector switches
    ��+�FANS: Value of Fan status register
    ��+�AC_PWR: Value of AC Power supply status
    ��+�DC_PWR: Value of DC Power supply status
   
��*�NOTE: Not all RaidRunner models support the same status registers, so
    consult you RaidRunner model's hardware reference manual to see which are
    supported and what their values imply.

3.9.63��RAIDACTION- script to gather/reset stats or stop/start a raid set's
stargd

��*�SYNOPSIS: raidaction raidname up|down|getstats|getastats|zerostats
��*�DESCRIPTION: raidaction is a husky script which is used to either start
    or stop a raid set's scsi target daemon(s) (stargd) or gather/reset
    statistics about the raid set.
��*�OPTIONS :
    ��+�raidset: Specify the raid set to perform the action on.
    ��+�up: Start all the scsi target daemons associated with this raid set.
    ��+�down: Stop all the scsi target daemons associated with this raid set.
    ��+�getstats: Print the current statistics stored for the given raid set.
        The first line of output is prefixed with the string "RAIDSET:" and
        is the output of the stats command with arguments -r raidname -g. The
        second line of output is prefixed with the string "CACHE:" and is the
        output of the stats command with arguments -c raidname -g. The next
        line(s) are prefixed with the string "STARG: c.h.l" and is the output
        of the mstargd command with arguments -d 0 -v -h -H stargd_pid which
        stargd_pid is the process id of the scsi target daemon on controller
        c, host port h with scsi lun l. A line of this type is printed for
        each scsi target daemon belonging to this raid set.
    ��+�getastats: Print the current statistics stored for the given raid set
        then zero all the stored statistics. By zeroing the stored statistics
        one can, through repeated timed calls to this code, form an average
        based on the gathered statistics. The output is the same as for the
        getstats option.
    ��+�zerostats: Zero all statistics stored for the given raid set.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: stats, mstargd

3.9.64��RAID0 - raid 0 device

��*�SYNOPSIS:
   
    bind -k {raid0 nbackends} bind_point
   
    echo moniker name=raid_set_name > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo engage drive=driveNum qlen=queueLen fd=aFdNum blksize=blockSize name
    =backendname
   
    <>[aFdNum] backEnd > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo disengage drive=driveNum > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-write > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum write-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum offline > bind_point/ctl
   
    cat bind_point
   
    ctl
   
    data
   
    repair
   
    stats
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: raid0 implements a raid 0 device. It has 1 "frontend" (i.e.
    bind_point/data) and typically multiple "backends" (i.e. one defined by
    each "engage" message with a new drive number). To associate an internal
    name (or moniker) with the raid device, send the message "moniker name=
    internal_name" to the device's control file, bind_point/ctl. This
    implementation of raid 0 uses nbackends files in its backend. Read and
    write operations to the frontend (i.e. bind_point/data) must be in
    integral units of blockSize. Each write of blockSize bytes is written on
    1 backend file. The backend "files" referred to here will typically be
    disks. The name argument allows associates the given backendname string
    with the appropriate backend. This string will be used in reporting
    errors on the running raid.
   
    The queueLen argument must be 1 or greater and sets the maximum number of
    requests that can be put in a queue associated with each backend file. A
    daemon is spawned for each backend file to service this queue called
    async_io. Each backend file first needs to be identified to the raid0
    device via the "engage" string sent to bind_point/ctl. If required a file
    can have its association with this device terminated with a "disengage"
    string. Once a backend file is engaged its access level can be varied
    between "read-write", "read-only", "write-only" and "offline" as
    required. The default is "offline" so in most initialization situations
    an "access read-write" string needs to be sent to this device. When the
    file bind_point/ctl is read then a line is output for every engaged
    backend file indicating its access status (e.g. "drive 3: engaged,
    read-write"). Also backend files that have been disengaged and not
    "re-"engaged output a line (e.g. "drive 5: disengaged").
   
    When the file bind_point/stats is read then a line is output which shows
    the cumulative number of reads and writes performed (including failures)
    for each backend of the raid device. The format of this line is D0 r0_cnt
    r0_fails w0_cnt w0_fails; D1 r1_cnt r1_fails w1_cnt w1_fails; ... which
    indicates that backend 0 (typically the drive0) has made r0_cnt reads,
    w0_cnt writes, r0_fails read failures and w0_fails write failures and
    that backend 1 (drive 1) has made r1_cnt reads, w1_cnt writes, r1_fails
    read failures and w1_fails write failures and so forth for each backend
    in the raid set.
   
    If the string "zerostats" is written to the file bind_point/stats then
    all cumulative read and write counts for each backend of the raid set are
    zeroed.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE:
   
        >�/raid0
       
        bind�-k�{raid0�6}�/raid0
       
        echo�moniker�name=R_0�>�/raid0/ctl
       
        echo�engage�drive=0�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D0
       
        <>[7]�/d0/data�>�/raid0/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=0�read-write�>�/raid0/ctl
       
        ...
       
        echo�engage�drive=5�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D5
       
        <>[7]�/d5/data�>�/raid0/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=5�read-write�>�/raid0/ctl
   
    This example creates the file "/raid0" as a bind point and then binds the
    raid0 device on it. The first echo command establishes the internal raid
    device name as R_0. The subsequent echo commands are shown in pairs for
    each backend file: one sending an "engage" string and the other sending
    an "access" string to the file "/raid0/ctl". Each "engage" string
    associates a backend file (via file descriptor 7) with a block size of
    8192 bytes and a maximum queue length of 8. The following "access" string
    adjusts the access level of the backend file from "offline" (the default)
    to "read-write". This is a six disk raid set.
   
   
��*�NOTES: The size of the resultant raid set will be the size of the
    smallest backend multiplied by the number of data backends adjusted
    downwards to align to be a multiple of the raid set's blocksize
    (blockSize).
��*�SEE ALSO: raid1, raid3, raid4, raid5

3.9.65��RAID1 - raid 1 device

��*�SYNOPSIS:
   
    bind -k raid1 bind_point
   
    echo moniker name=raid_set_name > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo engage drive=driveNum qlen=queueLen fd=aFdNum blksize=blockSize name
    =backendname
   
    <>[aFdNum] backEnd > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo disengage drive=driveNum > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-write > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum write-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum offline > bind_point/ctl
   
    cat bind_point
   
    ctl
   
    data
   
    repair
   
    stats
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: raid1 implements a raid 1 device. Raid 1 is also known as
    "mirroring". It has 1 "frontend" (i.e. bind_point/data) and 2 "backends"
    (i.e. one defined by each "engage" message with a new drive number). To
    associate an internal name (or moniker) with the raid device, send the
    message "moniker name=internal_name" to the device's control file,
    bind_point/ctl. Read and write operations to the frontend (i.e.
    bind_point/data) must be in integral units of blockSize. Each write of
    blockSize bytes is written on both backend files. A read of blockSize
    bytes needs only to read 1 backend file (unless there is a problem). The
    backend file chosen to do the read is the one calculated to have its
    heads closer to the required block. The backend "files" referred to here
    will typically be disks.
   
    The "logical" block size is currently 512 bytes and the given blockSize
    must be a power of 2 times 512 (i.e. 2**n * 512 bytes). If, for example,
    the blockSize was 8 Kb then a write of 8 Kb would cause both backend
    files to have that 8 Kb written to them. An 8 Kb read would cause the
    file calculated to have its "heads" closer to be read. If this file was
    marked "offline", "write-only" or reported an IO error then the other
    file would be read.
   
    The queueLen argument must be 1 or greater and sets the maximum number of
    requests that can be put in a queue associated with each backend file. A
    daemon is spawned for each backend file to service this queue called
    async_io. The name argument allows associates the given backendname
    string with the appropriate backend. This string will be used in
    reporting errors on the running raid.
   
    Each backend file first needs to be identified to the raid1 device via
    the "engage" string sent to bind_point/ctl. If required a file can have
    its association with this device terminated with a "disengage" string.
    Once a backend file is engaged its access level can be varied between
    "read-write", "read-only", "write-only" and "offline" as required. The
    default is "offline" so in most initialization situations an "access
    read-write" string needs to be sent to this device.
   
    When the file bind_point/ctl is read then a line is output for every
    engaged backend file indicating its access status (e.g. "drive 3:
    engaged, read-write"). Also backend files that have been disengaged and
    not "re-"engaged output a line (e.g. "drive 5: disengaged").
   
    When the file bind_point/stats is read then a line is output which shows
    the cumulative number of reads and writes performed (including failures)
    for each backend of the raid device. The format of this line is:
   
    D0 r0_cnt r0_fails w0_cnt w0_fails; D1 r1_cnt r1_fails w1_cnt w1_fails;
   
    which indicates that backend 0 (typically the drive0) has made r0_cnt
    reads, w0_cnt writes, r0_fails read failures and w0_fails write failures
    and that backend 1 (drive 1) has made r1_cnt reads, w1_cnt writes,
    r1_fails read failures and w1_fails write failures.
   
    If the string "zerostats" is written to the file bind_point/stats then
    all cumulative read and write counts for each backend of the raid set are
    zeroed.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE
   
        >�/raid1
       
        bind�-k�raid1�/raid1
       
        echo�moniker�name=R_1�>�/raid1/ctl
       
        echo�engage�drive=0�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D1
       
        <>[7]�/d0/data�>�/raid1/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=0�read-write�>�/raid1/ctl
       
        echo�engage�drive=1�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D5
       
        <>[7]�/d5/data�>�/raid1/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=1�read-write�>�/raid1/ctl
   
    This example creates the file "/raid1" as a bind point and then binds the
    raid1 device on it. The first echo command
   
    establishes the internal raid device name as R_1. The subsequent echo
    commands are shown in pairs for both backend files: one sending an
    "engage" string and the other sending an "access" string to the file "/
    raid1/ctl". Each "engage" string associates a backend file (via file
    descriptor 7) with a block size of 8192 bytes and a maximum queue length
    of 8. The following "access" string adjusts the access level of the
    backend file from "offline" (the default) to "read-write".
   
   
��*�NOTES: The size of the resultant raid set will be the size of the
    smallest backend multiplied by the number of data backends (here just 1
    as we are a mirror) adjusted downwards to align to be a multiple of the
    raid set's blocksize (blockSize).
��*�SEE ALSO: raid0, raid3, raid4, raid5

3.9.66��RAID3 - raid 3 device

��*�SYNOPSIS
   
    bind -k {raid3 nbackends} bind_point
   
    echo moniker name=raid_set_name > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo engage drive=driveNum qlen=queueLen fd=aFdNum blksize=blockSize name
    =backendname
   
    <>[aFdNum] backEnd > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo disengage drive=driveNum > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-write > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum write-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum offline > bind_point/ctl
   
    cat bind_point
   
    ctl
   
    data
   
    repair
   
    stats
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: raid3 implements a raid 3 device. It has 1 "frontend" (i.e.
    bind_point/data) and typically multiple "backends" (i.e. one defined by
    each "engage" message with a new drive number).
   
    To associate an internal name (or moniker) with the raid device, send the
    message "moniker name=internal_name" to the device's control file,
    bind_point/ctl.
   
    This implementation of raid 3 uses at least 3 files in its backend. Read
    and write operations to the frontend (i.e. bind_point/data) must be in
    integral units of blockSize. Each write of blockSize bytes is striped
    (i.e. divided evenly) across (nbackends - 1) files with the "parity" on
    the other file. Subsequent writes will NOT rotate the file being used to
    store parity. [This rotation is a slight extension of the original raid 3
    definition.] The backend "files" referred to here will typically be
    disks.
   
    The "logical" block size is currently 512 bytes and the given blockSize
    must be an integral multiple of (nbackends - 1) * 512 If, for example,
    the blockSize was 8 Kb and there were 5 backends then a write of 8 Kb
    would cause 4 backend files to have 2 Kb written on them and the other
    backend file to have 2 Kb of parity written on it. An 8 Kb read would
    cause the 4 files known to hold the data (as distinct from the parity) to
    be read. If any one of these files was marked "offline", "write-only" or
    reported an IO error then the 5th file containing the parity would be
    read and the 8 Kb block reconstructed.
   
    The queueLen argument must be 1 or greater and sets the maximum number of
    requests that can be put in a queue associated with each backend file. A
    daemon is spawned for each backend file to service this queue called
    async_io.
   
    The name argument allows associates the given backendname string with the
    appropriate backend. This string will be used in reporting errors on the
    running raid.
   
    Each backend file first needs to be identified to the raid3 device via
    the "engage" string sent to bind_point/ctl. If required a file can have
    its association with this device terminated with a "disengage" string.
    Once a backend file is engaged its access level can be varied between
    "read-write", "read-only", "write-only" and "offline" as required. The
    default is "offline" so in most initialization situations an "access
    read-write" string needs to be sent to this device. When the file
    bind_point/ctl is read then a line is output for every engaged backend
    file indicating its access status (e.g. "drive 3: engaged, read-write").
    Also backend files that have been disengaged and not "re-"engaged output
    a line (e.g. "drive 5: disengaged").
   
    When the file bind_point/stats is read then a line is output which shows
    the cumulative number of reads and writes performed (including failures)
    for each backend of the raid device. The format of this line is
   
    D0 r0_cnt r0_fails w0_cnt w0_fails; D1 r1_cnt r1_fails w1_cnt w1_fails;
    ...
   
    which indicates that backend 0 (typically the drive0) has made r0_cnt
    reads, w0_cnt writes, r0_fails read failures and w0_fails write failures
    and that backend 1 (drive 1) has made r1_cnt reads, w1_cnt writes,
    r1_fails read failures and w1_fails write failures and so forth for each
    backend in the raid set.
   
    If the string "zerostats" is written to the file bind_point/stats then
    all cumulative read and write counts for each backend of the raid set are
    zeroed.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE:
   
        >�/raid3
       
        bind�-k�{raid3�5}�/raid3
       
        echo�moniker�name=R_3�>�/raid3/ctl
       
        echo�engage�drive=0�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D0
       
        <>[7]�/d0/data�>�/raid3/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=0�read-write�>�/raid3/ctl
       
        ...
       
        echo�engage�drive=5�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D5
       
        <>[7]�/d5/data�>�/raid3/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=5�read-write�>�/raid3/ctl
   
    This example creates the file "/raid3" as a bind point and then binds the
    raid3 device on it. The first echo command establishes the internal raid
    device name as R_3. The subsequent echo commands are shown in pairs for
    each backend file: one sending an "engage" string and the other sending
    an "access" string to the file "/raid3/ctl". Each "engage" string
    associates a backend file (via file descriptor 7) with a block size of
    8192 bytes and a maximum queue length of 8. The following "access" string
    adjusts the access level of the backend file from "offline" (the default)
    to "read-write". This is a 6 disk raid set.
   
   
��*�NOTES: The size of the resultant raid set will be the size of the
    smallest backend multiplied by the number of data backends adjusted
    downwards to align to be a multiple of the raid set's blocksize
    (blockSize).
��*�SEE ALSO: raid0, raid1, raid4, raid5

3.9.67��RAID4 - raid 4 device

��*�SYNOPSIS:
   
    bind -k {raid4 nbackends} bind_point
   
    echo moniker name=raid_set_name > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo engage drive=driveNum qlen=queueLen fd=aFdNum blksize=blockSize name
    =backendname
   
    <>[aFdNum] backEnd > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo disengage drive=driveNum > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-write > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum write-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum offline > bind_point/ctl
   
    cat bind_point
   
    ctl
   
    data
   
    repair
   
    stats
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: raid4 implements a raid 4 device. It has 1 "frontend" (i.e.
    bind_point/data) and typically multiple "backends" (i.e. one defined by
    each "engage" message with a new drive number). To associate an internal
    name (or moniker) with the raid device, send the message "moniker name=
    internal_name" to the device's control file, bind_point/ctl. This
    implementation of raid 4 uses at least 3 files in its backend. Read and
    write operations to the frontend (i.e. bind_point/data) must be in
    integral units of blockSize. Each write of blockSize bytes is written on
    1 backend file. Its neighboring (nbackends - 2) files need to be read at
    the same offset to calculate a new parity block which needs to be re-
    written. The nbackends blocks at the same offset on the nbackends backend
    files are called a slice. The parity block is, like in raid3, fixed as
    the last backend. A read of blockSize bytes needs only to read 1 backend
    file (unless there is a problem). The backend "files" referred to here
    will typically be disks.
   
    The "logical" block size is currently 512 bytes and the given blockSize
    must be an integral multiple of (nbackends - 1) * 512 If, for example,
    the blockSize was 8 Kb then a write of 8 Kb would cause 1 backend file to
    have that 8 Kb written to it with the other (nbackends - 2) non-parity
    files in that slice having 8 Kb read from them in order to generate a new
    8 Kb parity block which is then written to the parity file in this slice.
    An 8 Kb read would cause the file known to hold the data (as distinct
    from the parity) to be read. If this file was marked "offline",
    "write-only" or reported an IO error then the other ((nbackends - 1)
    files in the slice (i.e. (nbackends - 2) data and 1 parity) would be read
    and the 8 Kb block reconstructed.
   
    The queueLen argument must be 1 or greater and sets the maximum number of
    requests that can be put in a queue associated with each backend file. A
    daemon is spawned for each backend file to service this queue called
    async_io.
   
    The name argument allows associates the given backendname string with the
    appropriate backend. This string will be used in reporting errors on the
    running raid.
   
    Each backend file first needs to be identified to the raid5 device via
    the "engage" string sent to bind_point/ctl. If required a file can have
    its association with this device terminated with a "disengage" string.
    Once a backend file is engaged its access level can be varied between
    "read-write", "read-only", "write-only" and "offline" as required. The
    default is "offline" so in most initialization situations an "access
    read-write" string needs to be sent to this device.
   
    When the file bind_point/ctl is read then a line is output for every
    engaged backend file indicating its access status (e.g. "drive 3:
    engaged, read-write"). Also backend files that have been disengaged and
    not "re-"engaged output a line (e.g. "drive 5: disengaged").
   
    When the file bind_point/stats is read then a line is output which shows
    the cumulative number of reads and writes performed (including failures)
    for each backend of the raid device. The format of this line is
   
    D0 r0_cnt r0_fails w0_cnt w0_fails; D1 r1_cnt r1_fails w1_cnt w1_fails;
    ...
   
    which indicates that backend 0 (typically the drive0) has made r0_cnt
    reads, w0_cnt writes, r0_fails read failures and w0_fails write failures
    and that backend 1 (drive 1) has made r1_cnt reads, w1_cnt writes,
    r1_fails read failures and w1_fails write failures and so forth for each
    backend in the raid set.
   
    If the string "zerostats" is written to the file bind_point/stats then
    all cumulative read and write counts for each backend of the raid set are
    zeroed.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE
   
        >�/raid4
       
        bind�-k�{raid4�5}�/raid4
       
        echo�moniker�name=R_4�>�/raid4/ctl
       
        echo�engage�drive=0�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D0
       
        <>[7]�/d0/data�>�/raid4/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=0�read-write�>�/raid4/ctl
       
        ...
       
        echo�engage�drive=5�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D5
       
        <>[7]�/d5/data�>�/raid4/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=5�read-write�>�/raid4/ctl
   
    This example creates the file "/raid4" as a bind point and then binds the
    raid4 device on it. The first echo command establishes the internal raid
    device name as R_4. The subsequent echo commands are shown in pairs for
    each backend file: one sending an "engage" string and the other sending
    an "access" string to the file "/raid4/ctl". Each "engage" string
    associates a backend file (via file descriptor 7) with a block size of
    8192 bytes and a maximum queue length of 8. The following "access" string
    adjusts the access level of the backend file from "offline" (the default)
    to "read-write". This is a six disk raid set.
   
   
��*�NOTES: The size of the resultant raid set will be the size of the
    smallest backend multiplied by the number of data backends adjusted
    downwards to align to be a multiple of the raid set's blocksize
    (blockSize).
��*�SEE ALSO: raid0, raid1, raid3, raid5

3.9.68��RAID5 - raid 5 device

��*�SYNOPSIS
   
    bind -k {raid5 nbackends} bind_point
   
    echo moniker name=raid_set_name > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo engage drive=driveNum qlen=queueLen fd=aFdNum blksize=blockSize name
    =backendname
   
    <>[aFdNum] backEnd > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo disengage drive=driveNum > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-write > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum read-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum write-only > bind_point/ctl
   
    echo access drive=driveNum offline > bind_point/ctl
   
    cat bind_point
   
    ctl
   
    data
   
    repair
   
    stats
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: raid5 implements a raid 5 device. It has 1 "frontend" (i.e.
    bind_point/data) and typically multiple "backends" (i.e. one defined by
    each "engage" message with a new drive number).
   
    To associate an internal name (or moniker) with the raid device, send the
    message "moniker name=internal_name" to the device's control file,
    bind_point/ctl.
   
    This implementation of raid 5 uses at least 3 files in its backend. Read
    and write operations to the frontend (i.e. bind_point/data) must be in
    integral units of blockSize. Each write of blockSize bytes is written on
    1 backend file. Its neighboring (nbackends - 2) files need to be read at
    the same offset to calculate a new parity block which needs to be
    re-written. The nbackends blocks at the same offset on the nbackends
    backend files are called a slice. The parity block is rotated from one
    slice to the next. A read of blockSize bytes needs only to read 1 backend
    file (unless there is a problem). The backend "files" referred to here
    will typically be disks.
   
    The "logical" block size is currently 512 bytes and the given blockSize
    must be an integral multiple of (nbackends - 1) * 512 If, for example,
    the blockSize was 8 Kb then a write of 8 Kb would cause 1 backend file to
    have that 8 Kb written to it with the other (nbackends - 2) non-parity
    files in that slice having 8 Kb read from them in order to generate a new
    8 Kb parity block which is then written to the parity file in this slice.
    An 8 Kb read would cause the file known to hold the data (as distinct
    from the parity) to be read. If this file was marked "offline",
    "write-only" or reported an IO error then the other ((nbackends - 1)
    files in the slice (i.e. (nbackends - 2) data and 1 parity) would be read
    and the 8 Kb block reconstructed.
   
    The queueLen argument must be 1 or greater and sets the maximum number of
    requests that can be put in a queue associated with each backend file. A
    daemon is spawned for each backend file to service this queue called
    async_io.
   
    The name argument allows associates the given backendname string with the
    appropriate backend. This string will be used in reporting errors on the
    running raid.
   
    Each backend file first needs to be identified to the raid5 device via
    the "engage" string sent to bind_point/ctl. If required a file can have
    its association with this device terminated with a "disengage" string.
    Once a backend file is engaged its access level can be varied between
    "read-write", "read- only", "write-only" and "offline" as required. The
    default is "offline" so in most initialization situations an "access
    read-write" string needs to be sent to this device.
   
    When the file bind_point/ctl is read then a line is output for every
    engaged backend file indicating its access status (e.g. "drive 3:
    engaged, read-write"). Also backend files that have been disengaged and
    not "re-"engaged output a line (e.g. "drive 5: disengaged").
   
    When the file bind_point/stats is read then a line is output which shows
    the cumulative number of reads and writes performed (including failures)
    for each backend of the raid device. The format of this line is
   
    D0 r0_cnt r0_fails w0_cnt w0_fails; D1 r1_cnt r1_fails w1_cnt w1_fails;
    ...
   
    which indicates that backend 0 (typically the drive0) has made r0_cnt
    reads, w0_cnt writes, r0_fails read failures and w0_fails write failures
    and that backend 1 (drive 1) has made r1_cnt reads, w1_cnt writes,
    r1_fails read failures and w1_fails write failures and so forth for each
    backend in the raid set.
   
    If the string "zerostats" is written to the file bind_point/stats then
    all cumulative read and write counts for each backend of the raid set are
    zeroed.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE
   
        >�/raid5
       
        bind�-k�{raid5�5}�/raid5
       
        echo�moniker�name=R_5�>�/raid5/ctl
       
        echo�engage�drive=0�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D0
       
        <>[7]�/d0/data�>�/raid5/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=0�read-write�>�/raid5/ctl
       
        ...
       
        echo�engage�drive=5�qlen=8�fd=7�blksize=8192�name=D1
       
        <>[7]�/d5/data�>�/raid5/ctl
       
        echo�access�drive=5�read-write�>�/raid5/ctl
   
    This example creates the file "/raid5" as a bind point and then binds the
    raid5 device on it. The first echo command establishes the internal raid
    device name as R_5. The subsequent echo commands are shown in pairs for
    each backend file: one sending an "engage" string and the other sending
    an "access" string to the file "/raid5/ctl". Each "engage" string
    associates a backend file (via file descriptor 7) with a block size of
    8192 bytes and a maximum queue length of 8. The following "access" string
    adjusts the access level of the backend file from "offline" (the default)
    to "read-write". This is a six disk raid set.
   
   
��*�NOTES: The size of the resultant raid set will be the size of the
    smallest backend multiplied by the number of data backends adjusted
    downwards to align to be a multiple of the raid set's blocksize
    (blockSize).
��*�SEE ALSO: raid0, raid1, raid3, raid4

3.9.69��RAM - ram based file system

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k ram bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: The ram file system uses memory on the target system's heap
    to support an hierarchical file system. Typically ram is the root file
    system in a husky environment. Unlike a normal file system ram lacks
    persistence. Therefore (assuming the heap resides in _non_ battery backed
    up RAM) when the target system loses power, the contents of the ram file
    system are lost. This is similar to the way the "/tmp" file system works
    in Unix.
��*�SEE ALSO: mem

3.9.70��RANDIO - simulate random reads and writes

��*�SYNOPSIS: randio -d device -n nop [-b cnt] [-f fill_ch] [-i init_ch] [-o
    offset] [-s size] [-G grp_size] [-S seed] [-X xfer_size] [-M rdwr|rdonly]
    [-T seq|ran] [-vBDON]
��*�DESCRIPTION: randio defines a range on the device from the start of the
    device to it's end, or for a length of size IN 512-byte BLOCKS, if
    specified, in which to perform. nop random write then read operations.
    All reads and writes are in multiples of 512 byte blocks. First, every
    block in the given range is initialized with a specific pattern. Then for
    each operation, a random location in the range is chosen and a random
    number of blocks are written with a specific data pattern. Once nop write
    operations have occurred, nop reads are performed at the appropriate
    locations and lengths to verify the previously written data. Lastly, all
    data on the device is verified. That is, any unwritten block should have
    only the initialization pattern and any block that was written to should
    have the appropriate data pattern. When a write of a given length occurs,
    each 512 byte block within the write has a header containing the
    operation number, the start of the write location, the length of write
    and the data fill pattern. The rest of each 512 byte block is initialized
    with a fill pattern. The output of this command provides the I/O transfer
    rates in Megabytes (MB) and million bytes (Mb) for the three phases of I/
    O, that is sequential� writes, random writes then reads, and finally
    sequential reads. The size and offset values may have a suffix.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-b cnt: Restrict all read and write operations to be multiples of cnt
        x 512 blocks. The default is 1.
    ��+�-f fill_ch: The data fill pattern used in writes should be fill_ch.
        fill_ch must be specified as a hex number. The default is 0x7F.
    ��+�-i init_ch: The fill pattern used when initialising the device should
        be init_ch. fill_ch must be specified as a hex number. The default is
        0x00.
    ��+�-o offset: All reads and writes are to be performed offset 512-byte
        BLOCKS into the device. All reported values will be relative to this
        offset. The default is 0 i.e the start of the device.
    ��+�-s size: The size, in 512-byte BLOCKS, of the range upon which we
        perform the io.
    ��+�-v: Run in verbose mode printing out initialization information, and
        the final verification of the whole specified range on the device. If
        a second -v is given then details of individual read and write
        operations are printed.
    ��+�-B: Align all random write locations to be a multiple of cnt x 512.
        Where cnt is specified by the -b option. This is useful when writing
        to raw raid devices which require both a fixed write size multiple
        and an aligned "start of write" address.
    ��+�-G grp_siz: Normally, randio performs nop writes then nop reads. The
        -G option can change this to perform grp_siz writes then grp_siz
        reads looping until nop operations have occurred. The default "group
        size" if nop operations. If grp_siz is negative, then a random group
        size is chosen.
    ��+�-M rdwr|rdonly: By default, a destructive read-write test is
        performed (-M rdwr). To run randio in a non-destructive way, specify
        this option with the sub-option of rdonly. This will result in randio
        only performing reads.
    ��+�-N: By default, data read is always compared against what was
        written. By specifying this option, the comparison will not be made.
        This option is usefull when you are only concerned with performing
        random reads and writes and not if the data corrupts.
    ��+�-O: By default, the random write locations and sizes are chosen so
        that they overlap. By specifying this option, overlapped writes can
        NOT occur. By careful when using this option if your device is small.
    ��+�-S seed: Specify a seed for the random number generators.
    ��+�-T ran|seq: By default, randio performs a sequence of sequential
        writes, random writes then reads and finally sequential reads. To
        have only the sequential activity performed, use the -T seq option.
        The default is -T ran.
    ��+�-X xfer_size: Restrict the maximum write size to be xfer_size
        512-byte BLOCKS. The default is 256 blocks - 128K bytes.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: speedtst, suffix

3.9.71��RCONF, SPOOL, HCONF, MCONF, CORRUPT-CONFIG - raid configuration and
spares management

��*�SYNOPSIS :
    ��+�rconf -add -type raidtype -name raidname -size raidsize -iomode
        read-write|read-only|write-only -iosize raid- chunksize -hostif mflag
        controller host_port scsi_lun -backendsize backends_size -backends
        backend1,backend2,...,backendn [-boot auto|manual] [-cache
        raidcachesize] [-state active|inactive] [-usespares on|off]
        [-usezoneio on|off] [-qlen nqueues] [-stargs {xstargd_args}] [-hostif
        mflag controller host_port scsi_lun]
    ��+�rconf -delete raidname
    ��+�rconf -list [raidname] [-v]
    ��+�rconf [-v]
    ��+�rconf -mkfaulty -name raidname -drive drive_no
    ��+�rconf -modify -name raidname [-iomode read-write|read-only|
        write-only] [-newname newraidname] [-hostif mflag controller
        host_port scsi_lun] [-boot auto|manual] [-cache raidcachesize]
        [-state active|inactive] [-usespares on|off] [-usezoneio on|off]
        [-qlen nqueues] [-stargs {xstargd_args}]
    ��+�rconf -rebuild -name raidname -drive drive_no [-spare spare_backend]
    ��+�rconf -repair -name raidname -drive drive_no -action start|finish
        [-depth value]
    ��+�rconf -replace -name raidname -backend backendn -action start|finish
        [-depth value]
    ��+�rconf -unrepair -name raidname -backend backendn -drive drive_no
        -depth value
    ��+�rconf -init
    ��+�rconf -fullinit
    ��+�rconf -check
    ��+�rconf -maxiochunk
    ��+�rconf -validate
    ��+�rconf -syslog
    ��+�rconf -size
    ��+�spool -add -name backend -backendsize backends_size -type hot|warm
        [-ctlr controller_number]
    ��+�spool -delete -name backend
    ��+�spool -list
    ��+�spool
    ��+�hconf -delete controller hostport
    ��+�hconf -list [controller hostport]
    ��+�hconf
    ��+�hconf -modify controller hostport scsi_id
    ��+�mconf -add controller hostport scsi_lun [blkprotocol]
    ��+�mconf -delete controller hostport scsi_lun
    ��+�mconf -sml
    ��+�mconf -smldelete controller hostport
    ��+�mconf -list [controller]
    ��+�mconf [-C] [-c] corrupt-config
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: rconf, hconf, mconf and spool manipulate raid set
    definitions, host port connections and the spares pool on a RaidRunner.
    All information is stored the RaidRunner configuration area which is
    stored in the file /dev/flash/conf and duplicated on every disk (/dev/hd
    /.../rconfig) on the RaidRunner. The corrupt-config command will corrupt
    the configuration areas and immediately reboot the RaidRunner.
    ��+�Raid Sets: A Raid Set has the following attributes
        ��o�Type : the Raid Type - either 0 (stripped backends), 1 (mirrored
            backends), 3 (stripped backends with parity on one backend), 5
            (stripped backends with parity spread across all backends).
        ��o�Name : the Raid Set's unique name used to make identification and
            access easier. A Raid Set's name must start with an alphabetic
            character and then have alphanumeric elsewhere. The maximum
            length of the name is 32 characters.
        ��o�IOmode: the mode of access to the Raid Set. Access modes can be
            either read-write, read-only or write-only.
        ��o�Size: the size (in 512 byte blocks) of the raid set if it's to be
            less than the calculated size. Normally a raid set's size is a
            function of the size of the raid set's backends (i.e type 0 - sum
            of backends, 1 - size of one backend, 3/5 - sum of backends less
            one). The Size must be a multiple of of the IOsize.
        ��o�IOsize: the size (in bytes) of io for read and write operations
            to the raid set. This is commonly called the chunksize.
        ��o�Cachesize: the size (in bytes) of any cache that will front-end
            the raid set. The cache size must be a minimum of 256K bytes
            (quarter megabyte). The cache size must also be a multiple of the
            raid set's IOsize.
        ��o�Host Interface(s): the interfaces to use for access by a host. A
            raid set can be either single-ported or multi-ported. That is to
            say, a raid set can present different scsi disks all directed at
            itself. Naturally, the host(s) that access these disks must
            co-operate to ensure data integrity. Each host interface is a
            quartet of - a master/slave access flag, the controller number,
            the host port on that controller and lastly the SCSI LUN that the
            raid set should propagate on the host port. The master/slave
            access flag is used at boot time to configure the Host
            Interface's SCSI target daemon into either a full access (and
            hence spun up) master SCSI target or a minimal access (and hence
            spun down) slave SCSI target. See details on the -Z option on the
            mstargd command. This master/slave concept can be used by
            co-opera- tive hosts to share access to a single raid set via
            multiple SCSI target daemons. A raid set can only be multi-ported
            within a controller.
        ��o�Backends: the list of the raid set's backends. Backends can
            either be disks or other raid sets.
        ��o�Backendsize: the size (in 512 byte blocks) of the raid set
            backends
        ��o�Bootmode: the boot mode of the raid set. It can either be
            autoboot or manual. For the former, when the RaidRunner boots,
            the raid set is automatically made available on the host
            interface specified and in the later case, it must be manually
            made available.
        ��o�State : this is the State of the raid set. The state of a raid
            set can either be active or inactive. If active, then the raid
            set's data is available for access. If inactive, then data on the
            raid set is not avail- able and hence the raid set is in a
            quiescent state.
        ��o�ZoneioUsage: this is a flag to indicate to the cache filesystem
            that all I/O to this raid set be optimized for backend reads and
            writes based on the backends zone (notch) pages.
        ��o�SparesUsage: this is a flag to indicate whether the raid set is
            to use spares. It's value can be either on or off.
        ��o�QueueLen: this is the maximum number of requests than can be put
            in an io queue associated with each backend of the raid set. It's
            value must be 1 or greater.
       
    ��+�Spares Pool: A spares pool can be established on a RaidRunner which
        provides a pool of disks for use by running raid sets which suffer a
        backend (disk) failure. Each disk in the spool may be either hot or
        warm. Hot disks are those that are immediately available i.e spun up.
        Warm disks are those that require spinning-up prior to use. As
        different raid sets may use different backend (disk) sizes, the
        spares pool must know the size of each disk in the pool. If the
        RaidRunner has more than one controller, then the usage of a spare
        can be restricted to a specific controller. Given a spare is
        available to a given controller, then the spare is allocated (rconf
        -repair command based on the following priority - hot spares of the
        same size on the same rank, hot spares of the same size on another
        rank, warm spares of the same size on the same rank, warm spares of
        the same size on another rank, hot spares of a larger size on the
        same rank, etc.
    ��+�The rank is the SCSI ID of the device.
    ��+�Host Port SCSI ID Assignment: On each controller in a RaidRunner
        there are a number of Host Ports through which data on the RaidRunner
        is accessed. As this host port is effectively a SCSI device then it
        has to have a SCSI ID assigned to it. There are two methods to assign
        a SCSI ID to a host port. The first uses a physical selector switch
        (usually providing selections from 0 to 16) and the second is to
        internally configure the host port's SCSI ID in the non-volatile raid
        configuration area - the hconf configuration command performs this
        assignment.
    ��+�SCSI Monitor: On each controller in a RaidRunner one or more Monitors
        (smon) can be set up to run on a specified host port. This monitor
        allows a program on a host system to send RaidRunner commands which
        will be executed in a husky subshell as well as transfer of files to
        and from the RaidRunner. This monitor simulates a 32K "disk" on a
        given SCSI ID (as set up by the hconf command or selector switch) and
        SCSI LUN (which is set up using the mconf command). Execution of
        commands and file transfers are effected by reading from and writing
        to specific block locations on the "disk". The reads and writes are
        to follow a specific protocol based on the block locations and order
        of the reads and writes. See the smon for details of this protocol.
        As different systems use specific blocknumbers for their own internal
        use (eg block number 0 is typically used for disk labelling) writes
        to any block not used by the protocol are preserved for subsequent
        reads. Up to 16 blocks are preserved in the raid configuration area
        and are re-read by smon at boot time so data is preserved. If more
        than 16 blocks are written to, then this data is silently discarded.
        The block numbers used in the smon protocol can be changed to suit
        different systems which may use the default protocol block numbers.
       
        By default, the SCSI monitor will always start at boot time, even if
        the raid configuration area has just been initialized or is corrupt.
        RaidRunner model specific defaults for the host port, SCSI ID and
        SCSI LUN for the monitor are compiled into the RaidRunner binary. To
        prevent the scsi monitor from automatically executing at boot time
        the monitor will have to be specifically deleted from the controller
        using the mconf -delete option.
       
       
    ��+�Manual Backend Reconstruction: Raid types 1, 3 and 5 are resistant to
        a single backend device failure. That is, the raid set's data is
        still available even if one of it's backends fail. Should a
        subsequent failure occur on a different backend then the raid set's
        data will be inaccessible. When a backend device does fail, the
        RaidRunner disengages that device from the raid set. To replace a
        failed backend of a type 1, 3 or 5 raid set, first physically correct
        the failure (eg replace and test the faulty disk), then engage the
        backend in write-only mode and read the entire raid set from the
        repair entry point. This will result in the reconstruction raid set's
        data and parity (if appropriate) onto the replaced backend. We engage
        the backend in write-only access mode to prevent the raid set from
        reading from this drive during the reconstruction process as data on
        this backend is incomplete. Once we have reconstructed the data on
        the replaced backend (i.e the read has completed), we then set the
        backend's access mode to be the access mode of the raid set and thus
        we now have a "complete" raid set. This reconstruction of data is
        passive, in that the raid set is still "running" during the
        reconstruction, although it will be running slowly.
    ��+�Automatic Backend Reconstruction: In the case of either a type 1, 3
        or 5 raid set, a single backend device failure can result in the
        automatic replacement of the failed backend and subsequent
        reconstruction of the raid set. This is accomplished by specifying a
        husky script to execute when a backend failure occurs - see
        autorepair. When a backend failure occurs, the backend is disengaged
        from the raid set, and the husky script, if specified, is executed.
        The script typically allocates a disk from the spares pool, engages
        it to the raid set in write-only access mode, then reads the entire
        raid set (from the repair entry point) which reconstructs the raid
        set incorporating the new disk. Once complete, the disk's access mode
        is set to the access mode of the raid set.
    ��+�If, during the reconstruction phase (read of whole raid set) the
        newly engaged backend fails, the raid set's data is still available.
        All the RaidRunner will do, is disengage the backend and execute the
        script again. It will continue to do this until no more spares are
        available. Alternately, if another backend fails during the
        reconstruction, the raid set will fail.
    ��+�Configuration Areas: Typically the RaidRunner stores multiple copies
        of the raid configuration area. Copies are stored on all disks (in /
        dev/hd/c.s.l/rconfig) that can be written to and in a section of
        flash ram (/dev/flash/conf) on the RaidRunner controller board
        itself. This is done for redundancy. Whenever the raid configuration
        area is updated, copies are written to each disk (in chip, scsi id
        (rank), lun order) then lastly to flashram. When the raid
        configuration is read, it groups, all configuration sources with
        identical configurations then works out the most "correct"
        configuration based on the following rules -
         1. If all sources are unreadable or corrupt then we used the
            compiled default scsi host id's and scsi monitor configurations.
         2. If all sources are the same (i.e one group) then this is the
            normal configuration.
         3. If we have two groups of configurations, then the group with the
            highest number of identical areas is used. If both groups have
            the same number of identical areas then we pick the group with
            the highest revision. If both groups have the same number of
            areas and the same revision, the first group is chosen.
         4. If we have three groups we choose the group with the highest
            number of identical areas. If two groups (or all three) meet this
            criteria we use the defined master configuration area - FLASH
            RAM.
         5. If we have more than three groups, we use the master
            configuration area - FLASH RAM. The rconf -check option is used
            to re-read all configuration areas has per the above rules, and
            if there is differences (more than 1 group) it selects the most
            "correct" configuration and re-writes it out to all areas. When
            the RaidRunner initially boots it typically only has access to
            the flashram (as the disks have not been bound into the
            filesystem yet), so it uses the configuration stored in flashram
            to start (in a spun-down state) the scsi monitor(s) and scsi
            target daemons (stargd's). It then binds in all disks and
            executes a rconf -check command and if it had to re-write the
            configuration AND flashram was not in the "correct" group it may
            reboot the RaidRunner (as now we can assume than the flashram
            area is now correct).
       
   
��*�OPTIONS - all commands
    ��+�-C: This option checks to see if any significant configuration change
        has been made since boot time to any raid set, host port, scsi
        monitor or spares pool configuration. An appropriate message is
        printed and a return status ($status) of 1 is returned if a change
        has occurred, else 0 for no change. Any modification, addition,
        deletion is considered to be a significant change. The only
        NON-significant change is the changing of state of a raid set.
    ��+�-c: This option checks to see if any significant configuration change
        has been made since boot time to the relevant configuration area
        depending on the command invoked - rconf - raid sets, hconf - host
        ports (if not using physical selectors), etc. The return status is as
        per the -C option.
   
��*�OPTIONS - mconf
    ��+�Specifying no options is the same as specifying the -list option.
    ��+�-delete: Delete the scsi monitor given controller number, hostport
        and SCSI LUN. This option takes three values, the controller number,
        host port and the SCSI LUN. The deletion of a monitor will not take
        effect until next boot of the RaidRunner.
    ��+�-list: Print the controller/hostport assigned monitor SCSI LUN. If
        the optional controller number argument is given then print out the
        controller, hostport and assigned monitor SCSI LUNs for that
        controller. If a controller has no assigned monitor SCSI LUN, then a
        minus (-) character will be printed in place of the SCSI LUN. If an
        error occurs whilst opening or reading the RaidRunner configuration
        area, a RaidRunner model specific default with be listed.
    ��+�-add: Set the monitor SCSI LUN on the given controller's host port.
        This option takes three mandatory values and one optional value. The
        first is the controller, the second the host port on that controller
        and the last is the SCSI LUN to assign the monitor. If the host port
        has not been assigned a SCSI ID, then the monitor will not be
        executed at boot. The optional value is a comma separated list of
        nine (9) numbers which change the default block protocol blocknumbers
        used by the SCSI monitor. See smon for details.
    ��+�-sml: Print each scsi monitor's stored label information. The
        information is printed as follows - controller number, hostport
        number, number of stored blocks, followed by a colon, then the block
        addresses stored. Block number 0's at the end of this list mean that
        those available blocks have not been written to.
   
��*�OPTIONS - hconf
    ��+�Specifying no options is the same as specifying the -list option.
    ��+�-delete: If the controller does not have a physical SCSI ID selector
        switch, specifying this option will delete the controller/hostport
        assigned SCSI ID. This option takes two values, the controller number
        and host- port. By deleting an assigned scsi id, no other program (eg
        scsi monitor or raid set) can appear on this host port.
    ��+�-list: Print the controller/hostport assigned SCSI ID. If the
        optional controller and hostport arguments are given then print out
        the controller, hostport and assigned scsi id for that pair. If no
        arguments are given, then for each host port on each controller in
        the RaidRunner, print out the controller number, host port and SCSI
        ID assigned to that host port. If the controller does not have host
        port SCSI ID selector switches, then if a host port has not had a
        SCSI ID assigned to it, a minus (-) character will be printed in
        place of the SCSI ID. For example (of a RaidRunner with two
        controllers each of which have two host ports)
       
        0 0 2
       
        0 1 3
       
        1 0 -
       
        1 0 6
       
        Which shows that on the first controller (0), the first host port (0)
        has been assigned SCSI ID 2, the second port (1) has been assigned
        SCSI ID 3. The second controller (1) has NO SCSI ID assigned to it's
        first host port, and SCSI ID 6 assigned to it's port. If an error
        occurs whilst opening or reading the RaidRunner configuration area, a
        RaidRunner model specific default with be listed.
       
       
    ��+�-modify: If the controller does not have a physical SCSI ID selector
        switch, specifying this option will set the SCSI ID on the given
        controller's host port. This option takes three values. The first is
        the controller, the second the host port on that controller and the
        last is the SCSI ID to assign. You cannot set a host port's SCSI ID
        if any raid set which uses that port is active.
   
��*�OPTIONS - rconf
    ��+�Any size sub-options (i.e raidsize, cache, iosize, backendsize) can
        use the suffix values. Specifying no options is the same as
        specifying the -list option.
    ��+�-add: Add a raid set on the RaidRunner. Sub-options are -
    ��+�-type: Specify the raid type. This option takes values of either 0,
        1, 3 or 5.
    ��+�-name: Specify the raid name. A name must be alphanumeric, with a
        maximum of 32 characters and start with an alphabetic character.
    ��+�-iomode: Specify the raid set's io mode. This option takes values of
        either RW, RD or WR for read-write, read-only or write-only
        respectively.
    ��+�-size Specify the raid set's size. This is the size of the raid set
        in 512 byte blocks. It must be a multiple of the -iosize value. If it
        is not then it will be automatically adjusted to be so and a message
        (not error) will be printed. In the case of raid type 3 the size must
        be a multiple of the -iosize value multiplied by the number of data
        backends in the raid set.
    ��+�-iosize: Specify the raid set's chunksize in bytes. All reads and
        writes on the raid set will be in multiples of this size. When cache
        is used, this is also the size of the cache buffers created (for Raid
        type 3 the cache buffer size is the number of data backends times
        this value). The RaidRunner establishes a maximum number of 512-byte
        blocks that can be written to at any instant - see the write_limit
        internal variable (internals). Accordingly iosize is limited to
        ensure that at least two of these buffers will fit into this
        "writable" portion of cache.
    ��+�-hostif: Specify the raid set's host interface(s). The host interface
        is the device though which the raid set's data is externally
        accessed. A host interface is defined by the quartet - master/slave
        flag (mflag), controller, hostport and scsi lun. Where
        ��o�mflag: is a target access flag - master(M): full access, slave
            (S): limited access
        ��o�controller: is the controller on which the raid set is to run
        ��o�hostport: is the host port a raid set's IO is to be directed
        ��o�scsilun: is the scsi lun that the raid set propagates out the
            hostport
        The master/slave flag is either M for master, or S for slave mode.
        Multiple host interfaces are added by repeating this option.
       
       
    ��+�-backendsize: Specify the size of the raid set's backends. This is
        the size, in 512 byte blocks, of the raid set's backends. This value
        is used when searching for backends in the spares pool.
    ��+�-backends: Specify the raid set's backend devices in a comma
        separated list. A backend device of a raid set can be a disk or the
        frontend of another raid set. If it is a disk then it will have the
        format Dc.s.l where c is the channel, s is the scsi id (or rank) and
        l is the scsi lun of the disk. If it is a raid set, then it will have
        the format Rraidsetname where raidsetname is the name of the raid
        set.
    ��+�-boot: Specify the raid set's boot mode. Values can either be auto or
        manual for autobooting or manual booting raids. This option is
        optional and the default bootmode is auto.
    ��+�-cache: Specify the size, in bytes, of cache that should front-end
        the raid set. The default size is 0, which means that no cache will
        be used. The cache size must be a multiple of the raid set's iosize.
    ��+�-stargs: Specify additional arguments to the stargd process when it
        is created for the given raid set. The arguments are to be enclosed
        in braces - {}, IE {-L 16 -I 512}
    ��+�-state: Specify the initial state of the raid set. Values can either
        be active or inactive. This option is optional and default state is
        inactive.
    ��+�-usezoneio: Set the zone io usage flag to either on or off. If on,
        then the cache filesystem will fragment write and read requests to
        suit the zone (notch) partitions on the backend disks.
    ��+�-usespares: Set the spares usage flag to either on or off. If on,
        then a running raid set (1, 3 or 5) will, on an I/O error, attempt
        automatic spares allocation and reconstruction.
    ��+�-qlen: Specify the maximum number of io requests that can be queued
        to a backend. The minimum is 1 and the default is 8.
    ��+�-delete: Delete a specified raid set from the RaidRunner. The raid
        set must be inactive.
    ��+�raidsetname: Specify the name of the raid set to delete.
    ��+�-list: Print raid set configuration. If a raidsetname name is not
        specified, all raid set configurations are printed, one per line in
        the form (if verbose mode is not set (-v) - name type flags size
        iosize cachesize iomode qlen nhostifs hostifs backendsize backends
        [optional backend status]. Where the flags is a comma separated list
        from "Active", "Inactive", "Used", "Unused", "Autoboot", "Manboot"
        and "Usespares". When a raid set is first flagged to be active, then
        the "Used" flag is per- manently set. This knowledge that a raid set
        has been used at some time is used by other programs and utilities on
        the RaidRunner. nhostifs is the number of host interfaces to present
        hostifs is a comma separated list of host interface quartets of
        master/slave flag, controller, host port and scsi lun (each separated
        by a period). For example M0.0.4,S0.1.0 means two host interfaces -
        both on controller 0, one on port 0 with a scsi LUN of 4 and the
        other on port 1 with a scsi LUN of 0. The first is to be a master
        target which provides full access by the host, and the second is to
        be a slave which will advise on any host access that the target is
        spun down. The backends are a comma separated list of backends. If a
        backend has failed then a "- the spare back-end will also be
        suffixed. If multiple spare backends have been used (i.e the spares
        failed) then each failed backend will be suffixed with a (-)
       
            D0.2.0-,D1s2l0,D2.2.0,D3.2.0,D4.2.0
       
        means that the backend D0.2.0 has failed and does not have a spare
        and the other backends are
       
            D1s2l0,D2.2.0,D3.2.0,D4.2.0.
           
            D0.2.0-D5.2.0,D1s2l0,D2.2.0,D3.2.0,D4.2.0
       
        means that the backend D0.2.0 has failed and the spare backend,
        D5.2.0, has replaced it and the other backends are
        D1s2l0,D2.2.0,D3.2.0,D4.2.0.
       
            D0.2.0-D5.2.0-,D1s2l0,D2.2.0,D3.2.0,D4.2.0
       
        means that the backend D0.2.0 has failed and the spare backend,
        D5.2.0, which replaced it has also failed and the other backends are
        D1.2.0,D2.2.0,D3.2.0,D4.2.0.
       
       
    ��+�raidsetname: Print the configuration for only the specified raid set.
    ��+�-modify: This command allows one to change the raid set's state,
        name, bootmode, iomode, host interface, spares usage, extra stargd
        args, cachesize or QueueLen. When specifying a state change, then no
        other modifications are allowed. To modify any of the preceding raid
        set attributes (except state), the raid set must be inactive.
        Sub-options are
    ��+�-name: The name of the raid set to modify
    ��+�-newname: The new name for the raid set. This new name must still be
        unique amongst the other defined raid sets.
    ��+�-boot: Change the raid set's boot mode. Values can either be auto or
        manual for autobooting or manual booting raids.
    ��+�-cache: Change the size, in bytes, of cache that should front-end the
        raid.
    ��+�-hostif: Change the raid set's host interface(s). The host interface
        is the device though which the raid set's data is externally
        accessed. A host interface is defined by the quartet - master/slave
        flag (mflag), controller, hostport and scsi lun. Where mflag is a
        target access flag - master(M): full access, slave(S): limited access
        controller is the controller on which the raid set is to run hostport
        is the host port a raid set's IO is to be directed scsilun is the
        scsi lun that the raid set propagates out the hostport The master/
        slave flag is either M for master, or S for slave mode. Multiple host
        interfaces are added by repeating this option. Note you must specify
        all host interfaces required in the one command. Thus to delete a
        host interface you modify without that host interface option.
    ��+�-iomode: Change the raid set's io mode. This option takes values of
        either RW, RD or WR for read-write, read-only or write-only
        respectively.
    ��+�-qlen: Change the maximum number of io requests that can be queued to
        a backend.
    ��+�-stargs: Specify additional arguments to the stargd process when it
        is created for the given raid set. The arguments are to be enclosed
        in braces - {}, IE {-L 16 -I 512}
    ��+�-state: Change state of the raid set. Values can either be active or
        inactive.
    ��+�-usespares: Set the spares usage flag to either on or off.
    ��+�-rebuild: The rebuild option is used when a stored raid set
        configuration has been corrupted and that raid set had faulty
        backends optionally supplemented with spares. Normally, if the stored
        raid set configuration was corrupted in some way and it did not have
        any faulty drives then one would just delete the raid set and then
        add it. If any of the backends were faulty then we need to store this
        information in the newly re-created raid set configuration. The
        rebuild option does this. If the faulty backend did not use any
        spares, then the -rebuild option will just mark that backend faulty.
        If it did use spares, then repeated invocations of this command (with
        the -spare sub-option) will add spares as appropriate, marking the
        backend faulty and any previously configured spares faulty also. The
        last invocation with the -spare sub-option will add the spare as in
        use but not faulty. If the last spare was also faulty, then a final
        invocation without the -spare sub-option will mark that last spare
        faulty.
    ��+�-name: The name of the raid set.
    ��+�-drive: Specify the backend to rebuild. The backend specification
        takes the form of the index of the backend in the list of backends.
        The first backend in a raid set has the index 0.
    ��+�-spar:e Optionally specify the spare device which is to be configured
        onto a backend. This device should already be in the spares pool and
        be unused. If no spares have been assigned to the backend, then the
        backend is marked faulty and the spare is added and marked as in use.
        If spares have been assigned to the backend, then the last spare is
        marked faulty and the additional spare is added and marked as in use.
    ��+�-mkfaulty: The mkfaulty option is used to mark a particular backend
        as faulty. When a backend of a raid set which does not use spares
        fails, we need to update the RaidRunner configuration of this fact.
        This command's sub-options are the same (and have the same effect) as
        the rebuild command's sub-options excluding the -spare sub-option.
    ��+�-repair: Reconfigure a raid set to replace a backend with a spare
        backend allocated from the spares pool. When the -action option is
        start then the depth of the new spare and the spare device name is
        printed. The depth is the number of spares allocated to that backend.
        When the first spare is allocated, then the depth will be 1. When the
        second is allocated then the depth is 2 and so on. The depth is used
        when re-engaging a spare which has just been reconstructed. If the
        depth is different after the reconstruction has occurred then we know
        that the spare has failed and another spare has been allocated so we
        wont attempt the re-engage.
    ��+�-name The name of the raid set.
    ��+�-drive Specify the backend to replace. The backend specification
        takes the form of the index of the backend in the list of backends.
        The first backend in a raid set has the index 0.
    ��+�-action: Specify the repair action. Values are either start or
        finished. Normally, when a spare is allocated, the next steps are to
        reconstruct the data on that spare then re-engage the spare. If a
        failure occurs on the spare during reconstruction, then the spare
        should not be re-engaged. Thus, a raid set should know that a
        reconstruction is in process. Once the reconstruction is complete
        then the reconstruction knowledge is cleared. The start value will
        print out the depth of the newly allocated spare and the spare's
        device name. If no spares are available an error will be printed and
        the depth of the last spare for the backend will be printed only. The
        finished action checks the current depth of spares against a given
        depth and clears the reconstruction flag if the depth is the same
        (that is, the spare reconstructed correctly).
    ��+�-depth: Specify the depth of the spare device when performing a
        finished action. A check is made to ensure the current depth of the
        backend is the same is the specified one. This essentially checks to
        see if another spare has been allocated on this backend during the
        reconstruction.
    ��+�-replace: This command is used when we have physically repaired (or
        replaced) the original failed backend and we wish to re-integrate it
        back into the raid set. This is done by deallocating the current
        running spare and reconstructing the raid on the replaced original
        backend. This command is similar to the -repair: command except that
        the working spare is deallocated from the backend and returned to the
        spares pool PRIOR to the reconstruction. This way, if the newly
        replaced drive fails, we have a spare to reallocate.
    ��+�-name: The name of the raid set.
    ��+�-backend: The name of the backend device that is being re-integrated.
    ��+�-action: Specify the replacement action. Values are either start or
        finished. When the start action is specified, the last spare on the
        backend is returned to the spares pool if it is in a working state.
        Then the current depth of spares on the backend and the backend's
        index into the last of backends (the raid set's drive number) is
        printed out. If a failure occurs on the backend during
        reconstruction, then the backend should not be re-engaged. Thus, a
        raid set should know that a reconstruction is in process. Once the
        reconstruction is complete then the reconstruction knowledge is
        cleared. The finished action checks the current depth of spares
        against the given depth and clears the reconstruction flag if the
        depth is the same (that is, the spare reconstructed correctly) and
        then releases any spares back to the spares pool (all these spares
        will be faulty). If the depth is different then the reconstruction
        has failed and an error message is printed and the spares are left
        alone. -depth Specify the depth of the spare devices when per-
        forming a finished action. A check is made to ensure the current
        depth of spares of the backend is the same is the specified one. This
        essentially checks to see if a spare has been allocated on this
        backend during the reconstruction.
    ��+�-unrepair: Typically, when we repair a raid set using spares, we
        modify the raid set's configuration to indicate the faulty drive, the
        allocation of a spare and it's state of "under construction". We then
        perform the reconstruction, and on success we re-modify the
        configuration to clear the "under construction" state. IE a sequence
        of commands like -
       
        rconf -repair .. -action start ...
       
        rebuild the raid set
       
        rconf -repair .. -action finish ...
       
        Now, if the spare we allocated is faulty or the reconstruction fails,
        we need to turn off the "under construction" state, deallocate the
        spare and re-mark the original failing drive as faulty (as well as
        the spare drive if it was faulty). The -unrepair option does this.
        The options are similar to the
       
       
    ��+�-repair: options with the addition of the name of the originally
        faulty backend.
    ��+�-name: The name of the raid set.
    ��+�-drive: Specify the backend to unrepair. The backend specification
        takes the form of the index of the backend in the list of backends.
        The first backend in a raid set has the index 0.
    ��+�-backend: The name of the backend device that is being un-repaired.
    ��+�-depth: Specify the depth of the spare device as allocated in the
        original rconf -repair -action start command. This essentially checks
        to see if another spare has been allocated on this backend during the
        failed reconstruction or spare testing.
    ��+�-init: Initialize the RaidRunner configuration area. With this option
        all raid set, host port, scsi monitor and spares spool configurations
        are initialized. The GLOBAL environment variables, and scsi monitor
        (smon) data blocks which are located in the Raid configuration area,
        will NOT be deleted. To enable at least one scsi monitor to come up,
        the scsi monitor lun and it's associated host port scsi id is
        initialized to a RaidRunner model specific default. Use this option
        with caution.
    ��+�-fullinit: Initialize the RaidRunner configuration area. This option
        performs the same function as the -init option and additionally
        clears all GLOBAL environment variables and the scsi monitor (smon)
        data blocks.
    ��+�-check: Cause the multiple configuration areas to be all re-read and,
        if different, re-written as per the raid configuration area multiple
        source rules. If more than one raid configuration area differs to the
        others AND the "correct" area does not include flashram, then rconf
        returns a non-zero exit status, if all areas are the same or all
        areas are unreadable (or corrupt) then rconf returns a zero exit
        status.
    ��+�-validate: Perform a consistency check on the current raid sets,
        spares etc and print out any inconsistencies. If any inconsistencies
        occur messages will be printed and the return status of rconf will be
        1. If no inconsistencies are present, then nothing will be printed
        and the return status will be NULL.
    ��+�-size: Print the number of bytes actually used in the raid
        configuration store.
    ��+�-syslog: Print any syslog entries stored in the configuration area.
        Notes that these entries will be deleted on an rconf -init or
        -fullinit.
    ��+�-maxiochunk: Search through all raid sets currently configured and
        print, in 512-byte blocks, the maximum IO Chunk size of all raid
        sets.
    ��+�-v: Set the verbose option. This option only effects the listing of
        Raid Sets. It prints additional detail when listing the Raid Sets.
   
��*�OPTIONS - spool
   
    Specifying no options is the same as specifying the -list option.
    ��+�-add: Add a disk to the spares pool of the RaidRunner. Sub-options
        are -
    ��+�-name the name of the disk. If the disk is already used by a raid set
        or is already in the spares pool, an error will be printed.
    ��+�-backendsize: the size (in 512 byte blocks) of the added disk. This
        value can be in the form specified by suffix.
    ��+�-type: the type of the spare. Spare devices can either be hot (spun
        up) or warm (spun down).
    ��+�-delete: delete the specified spare from the spares pool. A check is
        made to see that the spare is not in use.
    ��+�-list: Print out the current state of each spare in the pool. The
        format is
    Backend BackendSize hot|warm controller_no|Any Used|Unused Faulty|Working
    comments
    ��+�Configuration Corruption: Under certain conditions, it is necessary
        to corrupt the RaidRunner configuration area. An example of this is a
        RaidRunner that has been configured in such a way that all memory is
        consumed and the RaidRunner will not respond to any commands either
        on the console or via the scsi monitor. Given there is not enough
        memory to delete raid sets or even execute the reboot process (or any
        other for that matter), then a command which corrupts all the
        RaidRunner configuration areas (and hence will prevent the automatic
        creation of raid sets at reboot - i.e the consumer of memory) and
        then immediately reboot's without using any additional memory will
        allow the user to reconfigure the RaidRunner when it has re-booted.
        The corrupt-config command performs this task.
   
��*�RETURN VALUES: If an error occurs, the $status environment variable is
    set to 1, else null. When the configuration change options (-C or -c) are
    given, the return value ($status) will be 1 if a configuration has
    changed since boot else 0.
��*�BUGS: Currently, if you duplicate sub-options within a command, the last
    occurrence will be the value set. For example if the command rconf
    -modify -name F -newname B -newname C -cache 1M -cache 2M is executed
    then the newname will be "C" and the cache size set to 2M (2 megabytes).
��*�SEE ALSO: husky, autorepair, replace, suffix, setenv, unsetenv, printenv,
    smon

3.9.72��REBOOT - exit K9 on target hardware + return to monitor

��*�SYNOPSIS: reboot [-i] [-s] rboot [-i] [-s] rbootimed
��*�DESCRIPTION: reboot abruptly leaves the K9 kernel (on target hardware)
    and either re-enters the underlying hardware monitor or re-initializes
    the K9 kernel. Aside from flushing the write cache and initialising the
    battery backed-up ram no cleanup is performed on K9 processes (no
    signals, no nothing). If no options are given then the reboot will NOT do
    any memory tests prior re-initialising the K9 kernel.
   
    If the -s option is given then memory tests will be performed prior to
    re-initialising the K9 kernel. During these memory tests, a spinning - is
    displayed on the RaidRunner's console. This indicates the memory test is
    executing. If you press the space key during this test, then you will
    drop into the underlying RaidRunner monitor. If the -i option is given
    then all I/O to the back-end drives will inhibited. That is, no spun-down
    drives will be started and no attempt to flush the cache is performed.
   
    rboot is an alias for reboot.
   
    rbootimed provides a special entry-point into the reboot process and is
    equivalent to calling reboot with the -i option. Unlike reboot, which is
    executed as a sub-process, rbootimed is interpreted via husky and
    immediately commences the reboot process and hence does not use any extra
    memory. This is useful when the RaidRunner has run out of memory and you
    need to reboot the RaidRunner into single user state.
   
    On simulation platforms such as Unix this command is not implemented (but
    typically the Unix "interrupt" signal has the similar effect of killing
    the Unix process containing the K9 simulation).

3.9.73��REBUILD - raid set reconstruction utility

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�rebuild -d file -s size -b bufsize -D dno -R rname -n nbends -r rtype
        [-p pri] [-v] [-S sleep_period]
    ��+�rebuild -d file -l [-v]
    ��+�rebuild -L [-v]
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: To reconstruct data onto a newly incorporated drive in a
    raid set, the raid set's repair entry point is to be completely read.
    Additionally the read must be in multiples of the raid set's bufsize and
    the last read must align to the end of the raid set (i.e cannot attempt
    to read past the end of the raid set). The rebuild utility performs this
    reconstruction. When rebuild starts, it allocates an internal buffer
    whose size is maximized to the available memory and which is a multiple
    of the given buffer size. The raid set's repair entry point is read via
    these large buffers and the last read is guaranteed to align to the end
    of the raid set. As rebuild reads from the raid set's repair entry point,
    a check is made to see if the backend that is being rebuilt is still
    engaged to the raid set, and if the backend has failed (disengaged from
    raid set) rebuild prints a message and returns an exit status of 2. If
    the raid set fails during reconstruction (a second backend fails) then
    rebuild prints a message and returns an exit status of 1.
   
    Rebuilds, by default, consume large amounts of RaidRunner resources which
    would result in a large reduction in RaidRunner I/O throughput (to the
    host). A priority can be given to the rebuild program to reduce this
    demand on resources. This priority ranges between 0 (use minimal
    resources) and 9 (use maximum resources available). Naturally by
    specifying a low priority, the time to complete a rebuild will increase.
    The current state of any completed or "in-progress" rebuild is recorded
    for informative uses. Up to 10 of these records are kept at any one time.
    If a new rebuild is requested and we have already used all 10 records, we
    find the first "inactive" (or completed) record and re-use that one. If
    all 10 records are currently marked "active" (which means that we
    currently have 10 rebuilds currently in progress), then no record of the
    new rebuild will be kept. These records are initialized at boot time.
   
   
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�-d file: Specify the file to read. This is typically the repair entry
        point of the raid set.
    ��+�-s size: Specify the raid set's size, in 512-byte blocks.
    ��+�-b bufsize: Specify the raid set's IO chunksize - bufsize, in
        512-byte blocks. In the case of a raid type 3, this should be the
        number of data drives times the size of the IO chunksize.
    ��+�-n nbends: Specify the number of backends in the raid set. This is
        needed along with the bufsize option to ensure that the raid set's
        repair device is read in multiples of the raid set's stripe size.
    ��+�-D dno: Specify the backend index (within the raid set) that is being
        rebuilt.
    ��+�-R rname: Specify the name of the raid set that is being rebuilt.
        Specify the raid type of the raid set being rebuilt. Must be 1, 3 or
        5.
    ��+�-p pri: Specify a priority at which the rebuild is to be run at. The
        priority, pri, must be a number between 0 (lowest) and 9 (highest).
        When rebuild is executed by automatic or manual scripts an
        environment vari- able, RebuildPri, is checked to see what priority a
        raid set should be re-built. If this variable is not set, then the
        default priority is 5. See environ for details.
    ��+�-S sleep_period: Specify a number of milliseconds to sleep between
        each reconstruct access of the raidset. The period, sleep_period,
        must be a number between 0 (no sleep) and 60000 (60 seconds). When
        rebuild is executed by automatic or manual scripts an environment
        variable, RebuildPri, is checked to see what sleep period a raid set
        should use. If this variable is not set, then the default period for
        the given priority is used. See environ for details.
    ��+�-v: Set verbose mode. When rebuilding, if verbose mode is set, the
        current number of reads and total expected number of reads is printed
        for every 10 percent of the reconstruction completed. When printing
        the state a specific or all rebuilds, verbose mode will produce a
        long listing of the rebuild status.
    ��+�-l: Print the current state of the specified rebuilding (-d) file.
        ��o�By default the following colon separated fields are printed
        ��o�the rebuild file (entry point to raid set repair device)
        ��o�the size of the file (raid set) in 512 byte blocks
        ��o�the IO chunksize of the file (raid set) in 512 byte blocks
        ��o�the size of the buffer (in 512 byte blocks) being used for
            reading
        ��o�the total number of reads needed to read the whole file
        ��o�the current number of reads performed so far,
        ��o�the priority of the rebuild
        ��o�the number of milliseconds between each access to sleep
        ��o�the state of the rebuild - either "active" or "complete" the
            error message that this rebuild failed on - set to "none" if the
            rebuild successfully completed.
        When verbose mode (-v) is set, the above is printed with appropriate
        labels.
       
       
    ��+�-L: Print the rebuild status of ALL rebuilds in progress or completed
        (in the same form as for the -l option).
   
��*�PRIORITY: The speed at which a rebuild occurs and impact it has on the
    system is determined by the priority and optional sleep period between
    accesses. When rebuild allocates the buffer to use it will limit this
    buffer's size to the maximum available contiguous memory segment or 2
    Megabytes which ever is the lessor. The memory will then be scaled by pri
    + 1 / 10. That is, if you specify a priority of 0 then the buffer will be
    one tenth of the maximum buffer siz, if you specify a priority of 4 then
    it will be half. This resultant buffer size is then trimmed to ensure it
    is a multiple of a raid set's stripe size. Between each read/write access
    of the raid set's repair device, rebuild may sleep for a given period of
    milliseconds to reduce the overhead of the rebuild process. This sleep
    period may be given on the command line. If, not then the priority value
    is used to work out the period. The table below specifies what period is
    associated with which priority.
   
        0:�2000�milliseconds�(2.00�seconds)
       
        1:�1750�milliseconds�(1.75�seconds)
       
        2:�1500�milliseconds�(1.50�seconds)
       
        3:�1250�milliseconds�(1.25�seconds)
       
        4:�1000�milliseconds�(1.00�seconds)
       
        5:��750�milliseconds�(0.75�seconds)
       
        6:��500�milliseconds�(0.50�seconds)
       
        7:��250�milliseconds�(0.25�seconds)
       
        8:��100�milliseconds�(0.10�seconds)
       
        9:����0�milliseconds�(no�sleep)
   
   
��*�EXIT STATUS
   
    The following exit values are returned:
    ��+�0: Successful completion.
    ��+�1: The raid set failed reconstruction. This means that the raid set
        has failed.
    ��+�2: The raid set's backend that is being rebuilt has failed. This
        means that the raid set is still valid.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: raid1, raid3, raid5, repair, replace, environ

3.9.74��REPAIR - script to allocate a spare to a raid set's failed backend

��*�SYNOPSIS: repair raidsetname backend
��*�DESCRIPTION: repair is a husky script which is used to allocate a spare
    drive to a failed backend of a raid set. This is typically done when a
    raid set has a failed backend and no spares were available at the time of
    failure and now you want to allocate the spare (as opposed to fixing the
    failed backend). After parsing it's arguments repair get's a spare
    backend (of appropriate type) from the spares pool. The spare drive is
    then engaged in write-only access mode in the raid set and a reconstruct
    of the raid occurs (read of the whole raid set). This read is from the
    raid file system repair entrypoint. Reading from this entrypoint causes a
    read of a block immediately followed by a write of that block. The read/
    write sequence is atomic (i.e is not interruptible). On successful
    completion of the reconstruction, the spare is then engaged in the
    correct iomode for the raid set. The process that reads the repair
    entrypoint is rebuild.
   
    This device reconstruction will take anywhere from 10 minutes to one and
    a half hours depending on both the size and speed of the backends and the
    amount of activity the host is generating. During device reconstruction,
    pairs of numbers will be printed indicating each 10% of data
    reconstructed. The pairs of numbers are separated by a slash character,
    the first number being the number of blocks reconstructed so far and the
    second being the number number of blocks to be reconstructed. Further
    status about the rebuild can be gained from running rebuild. Checks are
    made to ensure that the raid set is running, the spare works, and that
    there is no failure of the spare during reconstruction.
   
   
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�raidsetname: The name of the raid set.
    ��+�backend: The name of the failed backend which is being replaced by a
        spare.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf, rebuild

3.9.75��REPLACE - script to restore a backend in a raid set

��*�SYNOPSIS: replace raidsetname backend
��*�DESCRIPTION: replace is a husky script which is used to reconfigure back
    in a physically repaired backend of a type 3 or 5 raid set. After parsing
    it's arguments replace does a quick read/write test of the specified
    backend to ensure it's working. If a working spare is currently running
    in place of the backend, it disengages it and returns it back to the
    spares pool. The backend drive is then engaged in write-only access mode
    in the raid set and a reconstruct of the raid occurs (read of the whole
    raid set). This read is from the raid file system repair entrypoint.
    Reading from this entrypoint causes a read of a block immediately
    followed by a write of that block. The read/write sequence is atomic (i.e
    is not interruptible). On successful completion of the reconstruction,
    the backend is then engaged in the correct iomode for the raid set and
    any other faulty spare backends that were associated with that backend
    are returned to the spares pool. The process that reads the repair
    entrypoint is rebuild. This device reconstruction will take anywhere from
    10 minutes to one and a half hours depending on both the size and speed
    of the backends and the amount of activity the host is generating. During
    device reconstruction, pairs of numbers will be printed indicating each
    10% of data reconstructed. The pairs of numbers are separated by a slash
    character, the first number being the number of blocks reconstructed so
    far and the second being the number number of blocks to be reconstructed.
    Further status about the rebuild can be gained from running rebuild.
    Checks are made to ensure that the raid set is running, the backend
    works, and that there is no failure of the backend during reconstruction.
��*�OPTIONS
    ��+�raidsetname: The name of the raid set.
    ��+�backend: The name of the backend which is being restored.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf, rebuild

3.9.76��RM - remove the file (or files)

��*�SYNOPSIS: rm [-f] [ file ... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: rm remove the named file (or files). [A directory is
    considered to be a file.] If all the given files can be removed then NIL
    (i.e. true) is returned as the status; otherwise the first file name that
    could not be removed is returned (and this command will continue trying
    to remove files until the list is exhausted).
   
    If the -f option is given, then files that could not be removed are
    ignored and NIL (i.e. true) is returned as the status.
��*�BUGS: The use of rm on non-empty directories orphans those child files.

3.9.77��RMON - Power-On Diagnostics and Bootstrap

��*�SYNOPSIS
   
    v1.0
   
    DRAM: 010 Mb
   
    Batt: B0000008-B007FFFC
   
    PWROK 1:BAD 2:OK
   
    0:720seE 1:720seE 2:720seE 3:720seE 4:720seE 5:720seE 6:770B 7:770B
   
    S/N: ABC-12345 B
   
    -
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: rmon will normally perform a power-on diagnostics and then
    bootstrap the main raid code. By typing a space before the count-down has
    finished rmon will abort the power-on diagnostics and prompt for a
    command to be entered from the console serial port.
   
    The first line printed by rmon is it's version number. The second line is
    the size (in hexa-decimal) of DRAM. The next line indicates the type and
    usage of Battery-Backup SRAM found. This can be a variety of values and
    if there are two hexa-decimal values printed, this is then the range of
    inclusive addresses upon which the power-on diagnostics will test Battery
    Backed-up SRAM. If there is only one value this indicates the size of
    Battery Backed-up SRAM, but no power-on diagnostics will performed upon
    it. All possible values are :-
   
        ���������Batt:�00000000����������No�Battery�Backed-up�SRAM�present.
       
        Batt:�B0000000-B007FFFC�512Kb�SRAM,�B0000004==0�(No�data).
       
        Batt:�B0000008-B007FFFC�512Kb�SRAM,�B0000004==1�(No�data).
       
        ���������Batt:�B00XXXXX-B007FFFC�512Kb�SRAM,�B0000004==2�(Saved�data,
       
        ���������������������������������B0000000==
        B00XXXXX,�where�B00XXXXX�is
       
        ���������������������������������start�of�unused�data).
       
        ���������Batt:
        �B0080000����������512Kb�SRAM�present,�but�the�contents�of
       
        ���������������������������������SRAM�is�not�one�of�the�above,�or�could
       
        ���������������������������������be�B0000004==2�and�B0000000==
        B0080000.
       
        ���������������������������������No�pon�testing�done�on�it.
       
        �
       
        ���������Batt:�B0000000-B03FFFFC�4Mb�SRAM,�B0000004==0�(No�data).
       
        ���������Batt:�B0000008-B03FFFFC�4Mb�SRAM,�B0000004==1�(No�data).
       
        ���������Batt:�B0XXXXXX-B03FFFFC�4Mb�SRAM,�B0000004==2�(Saved�data,
       
        ���������������B0000000==B0XXXXXX,�where�B0XXXXXX�is�start�of�unused�
       
        ���������������data).
       
        ���������Batt:
        �B0400000����������4Mb�SRAM�present,�but�the�contents�of
       
        ���������������������������������SRAM�is�not�one�of�the�above,�or�could
       
        ���������������������������������be�B0000004==2�and�B0000000==
        B0400000.
       
        ����������������������������No�pon�testing�done�on�it.
   
    Note the case where location B0000004 has a value of 2 (Saved data
    present), but where B0000000 (the start of unused data) points to a word
    address just past the last byte of Battery Backed-up SRAM. This latter
    case will cause a single value (say B0080000, for 512Kb Battery Backed-up
    SRAM) to be printed. This case does not indicate that any contents of
    Battery Backed-up SRAM is deemed incorrect, but that Battery Backed-up
    SRAM is full of data and that no power-on diagnostics will be performed
    upon Battery Backed-up SRAM.
   
    The DRAM memory sizing algorithm will cater for between 8Mb and 256Mb of
    DRAM, and there need be only 30 bits out of 32 bits words in each DRAM
    set that need work properly, for the sizing to function properly. The
    DRAM consists of two banks of memory, A and B, each of two slots. When
    using a bank of memory both slots of that bank must be occupied with a
    Simm of the same type and size. If only one bank is to be used, then it
    must be Bank A. The type of Simm memory may be single or double sided.
    Placing two double sided Simms (which, as mentioned above must be both
    the same size) into Bank A is equivalent to populating all four slots
    with single sided Simms of a size that is exactly one half of the double
    sided Simms size. The Bank B in such a case cannot contain any Simms.
    Each bank can potentially be using single sided Simms of different sizes,
    but the first bank must have the larger sized Simms.
   
        ������������DRAM�Size�DRAM�last�address
       
        ������������Hex�Dec���Cached����Uncached
       
        ������������008��8����7FFFFF����A07FFFFF
       
        ������������010��16���FFFFFF����A0FFFFFF
       
        ������������020��32���1FFFFFF���A1FFFFFF
       
        ������������040��64���3FFFFFF���A3FFFFFF
       
        ������������080��128��7FFFFFF���A7FFFFFF
       
        ������������100��256��FFFFFFF���AFFFFFFF
   
    On the fourth line is the power supply status. This will be one of two
    variations. The first for single power supply systems, the power supply
    summary status is printed at PWROK (for good) or PFAIL if this is not
    good. The second is for multi-power supply systems, the summary status
    will be followed by the individual status of each power supply. A PFAIL
    will be printed if any of the power supplies are faulty. At this point on
    non-pseudo-static DRAM systems the monitor will hang if the summary
    status is PFAIL. A pseudo-static DRAM system will never print this line
    or any of the preceding lines (i.e. version line, DRAM size or Battery
    Backed-up SRAM size) and always immediately hang.
   
    On the fifth line is summary of the SCSI chips used in the system. Each
    item in this report consists of the index No. for that chip (from 0 to
    7), followed by a ':' then a string of text indicating the model. This
    model consisting of it's chip type and revision level. A summary of the
    known part No.s vs the model is :-
   
        ����Bits�7�to�4�of
       
        �������������Model����Part�No.����MACNTL�CTEST3
       
        ��������������720B���609-0391071���0000���0001
       
        ��������������720C���609-0391324���0000���0010
       
        ��������������720E���609-0391955���0000���0100
       
        ������������720seE���609-0391949���0001���0100
       
        ��������������770A���609-0392179���0010���0000
       
        ��������������770B���609-0392393���0010���0001
   
    There maybe a sixth indicating the serial number of the unit. If the last
    12 bytes of the FlashRam boot partition is left in an unblown state (all
    ones), then this line will not be appear. Otherwise these last 12 bytes
    will be printed. These 12 bytes may include trailing blanks. The four
    bytes of FlashRam preceding the serial no. contain 26 bits representing
    the revision level of the board. If any of these bits are cleared and
    there is a serial no. present then the revision level from A to Z will be
    printed.
   
    After printing the above configuration information, the DRAM and Battery
    Backed-up SRAM (if any found), will have a Knaizuk-Hartmann memory test
    performed upon them. This memory test does a quick non-exhaustive check
    for stuck-at faults in both the address lines as well as the data
    locations. This test is disabled on the following conditions :-
    ��+�If the upper 17 bits of first location, contain the hex bit pattern
        0x3C1A0000 and there are no parity errors on thence reading all of
        the rest of DRAM. Such a condition will result in the code starting
        at the first location to subsequently executed.
    ��+�If no DRAM is found. The monitor will not autoboot the main raid
        code, but print a monitor prompt and wait for a monitor command (see
        below).
    By typing a space, any memory tests that may have been started will be
    aborted. The monitor will print a prompt and wait for a monitor command
    (see below).
   
    All other conditions will result in the main raid code to be read from
    FlashRam and started. Whilst the memory test is in progress a sequence of
    -, /, | and characters are printed on the console giving the appearance
    of a rotating bar. On-board LED 1 will be flashed every 10ms and LED 2
    will change state between each phase of the test. As noted above these
    tests can be abort by typing a space on the console. When rmon is in
    command mode a variety of commands may be issued. These mostly relate to
    various diagnostics that can be performed, or to how flash RAM may be
    upgraded with new firmware.
   
   
��*�GENERAL COMMANDS: All values and addresses used in the monitor are to be
    in hexadecimal. Commands must start at the beginning of a line and are
    case sensitive. Commands must be separated by semi-colons ';' or a
    newline. If a command syntax error occurs, then that command's usage line
    will be printed. If a command (e.g. command_name) is not recognized, the
    message unknown command: command_name will be printed.
   
    Note that any command that attempts to modify regions of memory that are
    occupied by the monitor will cause unpredictable results. Currently the
    monitor uses locations from CPU addresses 801E0000 to 801FFFFF inclusive.
    ��+�?: This command, will print out a summary of the more generally
        useful commands available in the monitor.
    ��+�{ some comment }: will ignore all text from the leading open-brace to
        the first closing - brace. This allows you to comment your monitor
        scripts (set of monitor commands) prior to downloading. Please NOTE
        that comments cannot be nested, that is there can only be one
        opening-brace and closing-brace on a line.
    ��+�* count commands ...: will repeat all commands up to the newline
        count times.
    ��+�( commands ): will execute the sequence of commands from the opening
        parentheses to the closing parentheses (or new- line) as though they
        were on a line by themselves. For example to nest repeat (*) commands
        one could enter the line
       
        * 20 (* 8 pb 5F 0); (* 10 pb 6F 1)
       
        which will put the byte 0 into memory location 5F eight times, then
        put the byte 1 into memory location 6F ten times, and repeat both
        these put byte commands 20 times. Thus the location 5F will have the
        byte value 0 written into it a total of 160 times and the location 6F
        will have the byte value 1 writ- ten into it a total of 200 times.
       
       
    ��+�b: The command will boot the main raid code.
    ��+�ba: The command will auto-boot the main raid code, as if from power
        up.
    ��+�g <address>: Go to (jump to) a code address and start execution at
        that address.
    ��+�l: Download a program or data over the serial port. The data is
        expected in Motorola Packed S format. If an error occurs during
        download then the message Unrecoverable error in S-format loader.
    ��+�lg: Download a program over the serial port and commence execution of
        the program. The program data is expected in Motorola Packed S
        format. After the data or program has been downloaded successfully,
        then commence execution at the load address (specified within the
        downloaded file). If an error occurs during download then the message
        "Unrecoverable error in S-format loader". will be printed and the
        program will not be executed.
   
��*�MEMORY COMMANDS: The following commands are used to display, change or
    test memory. Most of these commands have three forms depending on the
    size of memory access. These forms are - a byte form (8-bit), a short
    word form (16-bit) and long word form (32-bit). When using the short or
    long word form, any addresses used must be short word (16-bit) or long
    word (32-bit) aligned. If an unaligned address is given, the error
    message
   
    cmd: bad address alignment
   
    is printed. To differentiate between the three forms of memory access,
    the suffixes b, w and l are used for byte, short word and long word
    respectively.
    ��+�db|dw|dl start_address [end_address]: These commands display the
        contents of the specified memory location or memory range. Memory can
        be displayed in byte, short word or long word sizes using the db, dw
        and dl commands respectively. If no ending address is given, then
        only the contents of the first address is displayed. Each line of
        output from these commands have the format: address: contents
        contents .... contents. Where up to 16 bytes are printed on each
        line. For example
   
        {rmon}�db�60�7F
       
        00000060:�A0�9F�9E�9D�9C�9B�9A�99�98�97�96�95�94�93�92�91
       
        00000070:�90�8F�8E�8D�8C�8B�8A�89�88�87�86�85�84�83�82�81
       
        {rmon}�dw�60�7F
       
        00000060:�FFA0�FF9E�FF9C�FF9A�FF98�FF96�FF94�FF92
       
        00000070:�FF90�FF8E�FF8C�FF8A�FF88�FF86�FF84�FF82
       
        {rmon}�dl�60�7F
       
        00000060:�FFFFFFA0�FFFFFF9C�FFFFFF98�FFFFFF94
       
        00000070:�FFFFFF90�FFFFFF8C�FFFFFF88�FFFFFF84
   
    ��+�pb|pw|pl address value ....: These commands put the given value(s)
        into the specified memory location. Memory can be addressed in byte,
        short word or long word sizes using the pb, pw and pl commands
        respectively. If more than one value is given, then the first value
        is put into the specified memory location, the next value is put into
        the next aligned memory location, and so forth. For example, the
        commands
       
        {rmon} pb 60 1 2
       
        {rmon} pw 70 04F2 002F
       
        {rmon} pl 80 8000FF04 8000FF0F 80FFFFFF
       
        will put the value 01 into location 00000060 and 02 into the location
        00000061, put the value 04F2 into location 00000070 and 002F into
        location 00000072, and put the value 8000FF04 into location 00000080,
        8000FF0F into location 00000084 and 80FFFFFF into location 00000088
        respectively
       
       
    ��+�fb|fw|fl start_address end_address value: These commands fill the
        memory given by the start and end address with the given value.
        Memory can be addressed in byte, short word or long word sizes using
        the fb, fw and fl commands respectively. The start and ending
        addresses must be aligned to the given memory sizes. For example, the
        commands
       
            {rmon}�fb�60�70�8F
           
            {rmon}�fw�60�70�FF8F
           
            {rmon}�fl�80�90�00FFFF11
       
        will put the value 8F into all bytes (inclusive) between locations
        00000060 and 00000070, put the value FF8F into all short words
        (inclusive) between locations 00000060 00000070, and put the value
        00FFFF11 into all long words (inclusive) between locations 00000080
        and 00000090.
       
       
    ��+�sb|sw|sl start_address end_address value: These commands search the
        memory given by the start and end addresses for the first occurrence
        of the given value and will print out the address where the value was
        found and the value. If the given value is not found, then nothing
        will be printed. Memory can be addressed in byte, short word or long
        word sizes using the sb, sw and sl commands respectively.
    ��+�cb|cw|cl start_address end_address value: These commands compare
        successive memory locations given by the start and end addresses with
        the given value and will print out the address and it's contents of
        the end_address, if all the memory was the same, or the address of
        the first location where the value was different to the given value
        along with the different value. Memory can be addressed in byte,
        short word or long word sizes using the cb, cw and cl commands
        respectively.
    ��+�tb|tw|tl start_address end_address seed: These commands generate
        pseudo-random values and store these values in successive memory
        locations given by the start and end addresses. When all the memory
        has been filled, the memory is read and it's contents is compared
        with what was written. Memory can be addressed in byte, short word or
        long word sizes using the tb, tw and tl commands respectively. The
        given seed will initialize the pseudo-random number generator. If
        successive executions of this command use the same seed, then the
        random values will always be the same. When the random values are
        being written, a dot ('.') will be printed for each location. When
        the read is being performed, a dot ('.') will be printed if the data
        equals what was written, else an 'X' will be printed. For example
       
        {rmon} tw 60 70 7B
       
        Writing:
       
        Checking:
       
        {rmon}
       
       
    ��+�m start_address end_address mask: This command will run low level
        memory tests on the given memory range. The start and end addresses
        must be long word aligned. If the test passes the message Passed.
        will be printed, and if it fails the message Failed. will be printed.
        The given mask will determine what type of tests are run. The table
        below shows what each mask will do. The tests essentially write to
        memory and then read from memory comparing what was read with what
        was written. The first twelve tests below first write to all the
        memory specified and then reads all the memory specified, the next
        twelve tests do an immediate read after the write. The masks can be
        or'd together to run multiple tests.
       
        0x0001 Fill each byte with 0x00
       
        0x0002 Fill each byte with 0xFF
       
        0x0004 Fill alternate bytes with 0x55 then 0xAA
       
        0x0008 Fill each byte with the two's complement of it's address
       
        0x0010 Fill each word with 0x0000
       
        0x0020 Fill each word with 0xFFFF
       
        0x0040 Fill alternate words with 0x5555 then 0xAAAA
       
        0x0080 Fill each word with the two's complement of it's address
       
        0x0100 Fill each long word with 0x00000000
       
        0x0200 Fill each long word with 0xFFFFFFFF
       
        0x0400 Fill alternate long words with 0x55555555 then 0xAAAAAAAA
       
        0x0800 Fill each long word with the two's complement of it's address
       
        0x0001000 Fill each byte with 0x00
       
        0x0002000 Fill each byte with 0xFF
       
        0x0004000 Fill alternate bytes with 0x55 then 0xAA
       
        0x0008000 Fill each byte with the two's complement of it's address
       
        0x0010000 Fill each word with 0x0000
       
        0x0020000 Fill each word with 0xFFFF
       
        0x0040000 Fill alternate words with 0x5555 then 0xAAAA
       
        0x0080000 Fill each word with the two's complement of it's address
       
        0x0100000 Fill each long word with 0x00000000
       
        0x0200000 Fill each long word with 0xFFFFFFFF
       
        0x0400000 Fill alternate long words with 0x55555555 then 0xAAAAAAAA
       
        0x0800000 Fill each long word with the two's complement of it's
        address
       
        0x1000000 Fill alternate long words with 0x00000000 then 0xFFFFFFFF
       
       
    ��+�r start_address end_address read_size:: This command will generate
        and print a 32-bit Cyclic-Redundancy-Check value for the block of
        memory extending from start_address to end_address using reads of the
        size specified by read_size which can either be 1, 2 or 4 for byte,
        word or long word reads respectively. The start and end addresses
        must be long word aligned.
   
��*�FLASH MEMORY COMMANDS: The Flash RAM used is AMD's Am29F040, a 4Mb (512k
    x 8bit) device that is comprised of 8 equi-sized sectors with each sector
    of 64Kb. The board may potentially have a second Flash RAM chip. The
    total storage, regardless of the number of Flash RAM chips is divided
    into 4 regions, the first 3 are each 1 (64kB) sector and contain the
    Bootstrap, Raid Configuration and Husky Scripts at the CPU addresses of
    BFC00000, BFC10000 and BFC20000 respectively. The Main region contains 5
    64Kb sectors (starting at BFC30000) and optionally all 8 64Kb sectors of
    the second FLASHram (starting at BFC80000). If this second chip is
    present there is then a total of 13 64Kb sectors for the main raid code.
    The Manufacture ID and Device ID for the AMD Am29F040 is 01 and A4
    respectively. Thus the text "Flash: 01A4" is printed on either of the E
    command or the W command accessing this device. Attempting to erase or
    write to the Boot sector will always cause an "Illegal Flash RAM address
    range".
    ��+�E sector_address: An entire region can be bulk erased by the 'E'
        command by specifying an address in that region, the main region will
        erase all sectors starting with that sector containing the nominated
        address and erase to the end of that region, but not crossing a chip
        boundary. Thus the 'E BFC40000' command will erase the last 4 sectors
        of the first chip. The 'E BFC30000; E BFC8000' commands will erase
        the last 5 sectors of the first chip and then erase the entire second
        Flash RAM chip (if it is present). Attempting to erase a non-existent
        second chip cannot report an error, however a negative number is
        printed to indicate other errors, as described in the following
        table.
    Error Fault Description
   
    -1 Illegal Flash RAM address range.
   
    -2 A sector within given range that is Write Protected.
    ��+�W sector_address source_address byte_count: This command will copy
        byte_count bytes of data from source_address to EEPROM locations
        starting at sector_address. The number of bytes copied or on error, a
        negative number will be printed. The negative error numbers are
        described in the table below. Optionally a W command may appear
        without any arguments, in this case the sector_address will be that
        specified by a previous E command and the source_address and
        byte_count will be that given to and that printed by, respectively, a
        previous T command (see below). This command, unlike the E command,
        will modify the contents of the second Flash RAM chip, if it is
        implied by sector_address plus byte_count being equal or greater than
        the CPU address BFC80000. An attempt to write with a byte_count of 0
        is not an error, and will cause only the Manufacturer and Device ID
        to be printed.
       
        Error Fault Description
       
        -1 Illegal Flash RAM address range
       
        -2 A sector within the address range that is Write Protected
       
        -3 On a failed Byte Program command
   
   
��*�NETWORK COMMANDS: The second RS232 port on the RaidRunner can be used to
    download programs and data into memory from a host. This port can run the
    TCP/IP SLIP protocol and the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is
    available for file transfer. Three variable are available to effect
    download file transfers from a remote host. These are the remote host IP
    address, the local IP address (of the RaidRunner) and the name of the
    file on the remote host that is to be downloaded. These variables have
    default values of C02BC60E (192.43.198.14), C02BC6FD (192.43.198.253) and
    /usr/raid/lib/raid.bin where are the remote host IP address, local IP
    address and remote host's file to down- load respectively. These default
    values are dynamic in that, if you change them, they will revert back to
    their default values at power-on or whenever the boot monitor is started.
    The following commands manage these variables and file transfers.
    ��+�A [remote_ip_address [local_ip_address]]: With no arguments, this
        command prints, in hexadecimal, the dynamic remote and local IP
        addresses used by TFTP and SLIP. To change the remote IP address,
        execute this command with only one argument - the IP address (in
        hexadecimal) of the remote host. To change the local IP address (of
        the RaidRunner), the execute this command with two arguments, the
        first being the IP address of the remote host and the second being
        the IP address of the RaidRunner. Remember both addresses must be in
        hexadecimal.
    ��+�F [filename]: With no arguments, this command prints the filename of
        the file to download from the remote host. To change the filename,
        specify it as the argument to this command. Remember, the permissions
        on this file on the remote machine, must be set to allow remote TFTP
        access by the RaidRunner.
    ��+�P: This command will ping (send an ICMP ECHO request packet and time
        the response) the remote internet host. If the remote host responds,
        the message
       
            Sending�echo�request...
           
            Got�response�after�0x0000nn�ms
       
        will be printed. nn is the number of milliseconds it took for the
        remote host to respond. If the remote host does not respond within 10
        seconds, the message
       
            Sending�echo�request...
           
            timeout�after�10�seconds
       
        will be printed.
       
       
    ��+�T start_address end_address: This command will transfer from the
        remote host the stored filename into a block of memory starting at
    ��+�start_address and limited to end_address. The number of bytes that
        will be transferred will be either the size of the remote file or the
        value computed by end_address - start_address + 1, whichever is the
        lessor. Whilst the data is being transferred, a dot ('.') will be
        printed for each packet of data transferred. At the end of a
        successful transfer, the number of bytes transferred will be printed.
        If the transfer fails, an appropriate error message will be printed.
       
        The following two examples show the transfer of the raid binary and
        the transfer of the RaidRunner's /bin directory from a remote host.
        The remote host's IP address is 192.43.198.101 (C02BC665), the
        RaidRunner's IP address is 192.43.198.200 (C02BC6C8) and the two
        files concerned will be /usr/raid/lib/raid.bin and /usr/raid/lib/
        raid.rc (raid binary and /bin directory respectively). The raid.bin
        file will be written into the bank of flash ram starting at address
        bfc10000 and the raid.rc file will be written into the two
        consecutive banks of flash ram at address bfc08000 and bfc0c000.
       
            {rmon}�{first�transfer�the�raid�binary�-�/usr/raid/lib/raid.bin}
           
            {rmon}�F�/usr/raid/lib/raid.bin
           
            {rmon}�A�C02BC665�C02BC6C8
           
            {rmon}�P
           
            Sending�echo�request...
           
            Got�response�after�0x000013�ms
           
            {rmon}�T�80300000�803fffff
           
            {rmon}�E�bfc10000;�
            {erase�the�Flash�EEPROM�address�for�raid.bin�to�be�stored}
           
            **
           
            70000
           
            {rmon}�W�bfc10000�80300000�5BDA0;�
            {copy�downloaded�raid.bin�into�flash}
           
            5BDA0
           
            {rmon}
           
            {rmon}�{now�transfer�the�raid�/bin�directory�-�/usr/raid/lib/
            raid.rc}
           
            {rmon}�F�/usr/raid/lib/raid.rc
           
            {rmon}�A�C02BC665�C02BC6C8
           
            {rmon}�P
           
            Sending�echo�request...
           
            Got�response�after�0x000013�ms
           
            {rmon}�T�80300000�803fffff
           
            {rmon}�E�bfc08000;�
            {erase�the�two�consecutive�blocks�of�flash�ram�where�raid.rc}
           
            4000
           
            {rmon}�E�bfc0c000;�{is�to�be�stored}
           
            4000
           
            {rmon}�W�bfc08000�80300000�4000;�{copy�the�first�0x4000�bytes}
           
            4000
           
            {rmon}�W�bfc0c000�80304000�4000;�{copy�the�next�0x4000�bytes}
           
            4000
           
            {rmon}
           
           
       
    ��+�Sno ABC-12345: Prints / sets the serial number. Without an argument
        the current serial number will be printed, if no serial number has
        been set then nothing is printed. If there any trailing characters
        after 'Sno' command, then this will indicate that these characters
        are to be set permanently as a serial number. A serial number may
        only be set once, there after any attempt to set another one will be
        ignored and the current serial number printed. If the serial number
        has to be re-set then the flashram needs to be reblown as if it were
        brand new. Note that when setting the the serial number for the first
        time, the exact format of the command is very important. There will
        be exactly one space after the the command 'Sno', after which the
        next 12 printable characters are taken as the serial number. If there
        are less than 12 characters (before the carriage return), then blank
        characters are padded on the right-hand side.
       
        It is suggested that a serial number be no greater than 10 characters
        and consist of upper case letters, decimal digits and only a limited
        number of special characters such as '-' or '.' characters. The main
        raid code will truncate the serial number to 10 characters if a
        revision level is present. The main raid code will, if the revision
        level is present, append the revision level immediately after the
        serial number and present the combined string as the serial number in
        an inquiry command.
       
       
    ��+�Rev A: Prints / sets the board revision level. Without an argument
        the current revision level will be printed as an upper case letter
        (from 'A' to 'Z'). If immediately following the 'Rev' command there
        is a space and a single upper case letter then this will indicate
        that this revision level is to set permanently. The revision level
        can be increased (e.g. from 'A' to 'B' to 'C' etc.), but can not ever
        be decreased.
   
��*�DIAGNOSTICS:
   
    x000 General form of a diagnostic command it that is it preceded by an x
    and then immediately followed by a hexi-decimal no. Most diagnostics will
    loop permanently requiring a power off/on cycle to stop the diagnostic.
    ��+�x000 chip: Will continually assert / de-assert most SCSI bus signals.
        These include DB0-15, I/O, REQ, C/D, SEL, MSG, RST, ACK, BSY, ATN.
        The DP0 and DP1 (i.e. parity bits) can not be assert / de-asserted in
        this fashion.
    ��+�x001 chip: Will continually assert / de-assert most SCSI bus signals
        in such a fashion as to indicate the number of the SCA connector that
        this pin would be connected to. This count is w.r.t. to the LED1 and
        LED2 when used to trigger a scope (on the falling edge). Each
        complete group of ten counts are coalesced to facilitate counting on
        a scope. The counts are:-
       
            7��-�DB11�������14�-�SEL���������21�-�DB7��������28�-�DB0
           
            8��-�DB10�������15�-�MSG���������22�-�DB6��������29�-�DP1�(*2)
           
            9��-�DB9��������16�-�RST�(*1)����23�-�DB5��������30�-�DB15
           
            10�-�DB8��������17�-�ACK���������24�-�DB4��������31�-�DB14
           
            11�-�I/O��������18�-�BSY���������25�-�DB3��������32�-�DB13
           
            12�-�REQ��������19�-�ATN���������26�-�DB2��������33�-�DB12
           
            13�-�C/D��������20�-�DP0�(*2)����27�-�DB1
           
           
        Note that the RST line (marked *1 above) is pulsed only once after
        the last pin is pulsed (i.e after DB12) and that the parity lines
        (marked as *2 above) can not be pulsed.
       
       
    ��+�x002 dst_addr src_addr length: Calls the C library routine memcpy
        with three arguments of destination address, source address and
        length (all in hex).
    ��+�x003 200000 ffffff and x004 200000 ffffff: Two commands are used to
        exercise Battery Backed-up DRAM. The x003 command will set the memory
        range as suggested above. The value of 200000 is one location past
        the last used flash monitor memory location, ffffff is the last
        memory location of 8Mb of DRAM (this latter figure can be varied
        according to available DRAM memory). The DRAM starting at 0 will be
        modified to contain :-
       
            00:�0x3C1A9FC0���[�lui�k0,0x9fc0�]
           
            04:�0x3C1B3C1A���[�lui�k1,0x3c1a�]
           
            08:�0xAC1B0000���[�sw��k1,(zero)�]
           
            0C:�0x3C01A000���[�lui�at,0xa000�]�
       
        Location 0 is the start of the restart pseudo interrupt handler. The
        x004 command is then used after restoring power to check for this bit
        pattern. It is important that the arguments given to x003 are exactly
        the same as those given to x004. Any words detected that are
        different are printed, if there are no differences then nothing (but
        the next prompt) is printed.
   
   
��*�NOTE: As a side effect of the above executing the above restart pseudo
    interrupt handler on restoring power, location 0 will be patched with
    0x3C1A0000 to prevent memory tests and autobooting the main raid code.
    This feature can be re-enabled by depositing 0 into location 0 (i.e `pl 0
    0`).

3.9.78��RRSTRACE - disassemble scsihpmtr monitor data

��*�SYNOPSIS: rrstrace -f monitor_file [-b bcnt] [-v]
��*�DESCRIPTION: rrstrace will disassemble the monitoring data collected by
    scsihpmtr which has been transferred to a host via ssmon. rrstrace will
    additionally analyze all scsi reads and look for sequences of reads and
    report them. This repeating sequence is referred to as a 'natural read'.
    This data can be then used for a more optimal configuration of the raid.
    The natural reads are reported via a starting block size followed by the
    total length (in blocks) of the natural read, how many reads made up the
    natural read and finally how many times it occurred. At the end the
    number of natural reads found are printed along with how many were looked
    for and how many actually existed. By default up to 256 different natural
    reads can be scanned for, but if more are required then the -b bcnt
    option can be given to allocate a deeper search. Note that a natural read
    that occurs only once is recorded but not printed out.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-f monitor_file: Specify the name of the file from which the data is
        to be read
    ��+�-b bcnt: Specify a larger natural read analysis count
    ��+�-v: Turn on verbose mode and hence print out every scsi instruction.
        In verbose mode, each line of output from rrstrace is of the form
        time chipno lun ssid msg_id tag command, where:
        ��o�time: is the time the command occurred
        ��o�chipno: is the chip number (hostport) upon which the command came
            in
        ��o�lun: is the target lun the command was directed to
        ��o�ssid: is the scsi id of the initiator (i.e host)
        ��o�msg_id: is the scsi message id of the command
        ��o�tag : is the scsi tag number of the command or -1 if no tag is
            associated
        ��o�command: is the scsi command itself in text or if unknown to
            rrstrace the 12 byte scsi command block will be printed. In the
            case of read and write commands, the block address and length is
            printed along with the block address of the next sequential read/
            write command if the next command were to be sequential (this
            address is parenthesized). If the command has the 'Force Unit
            Access' bit set, then FUA is appended to the line. The scsi
            Read_6, Write_6, Read_10 and Write_10 commands will be printed as
            R6, W6, R10 and W10 respectively.
       
   
��*�SEE ALSO: ssmon, scsihpmtr

3.9.79��RSIZE - estimate the memory usage for a given raid set

��*�SYNOPSIS: rsize type cachesize iosize nbackends
��*�DESCRIPTION: rsize prints an estimate of the amount of memory (in bytes)
    a running raid set will use, given the raid set type, the amount of cache
    allocated to it, the raid set iosize and the number of backends in the
    raid set.
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf

3.9.80��SCN2681 - access a scn2681 (serial IO device) as console

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k {scn2681 [ value ]} bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: scn2681 allows the target hardware using the SCN2681 serial
    IO chip to be accessed via the bind_point in the K9 namespace. If no
    optional argument is given channel A in the chip is used. If value is 0
    then channel A (serial port) is used. If value is 1 then channel B
    (serial port) is used. If value is 2 then the input port (parallel) is
    used. If value is 3 then the output port (parallel) is used. The special
    file scn2681 is only available when the target is special hardware
    (containing a SCN2681).
��*�SEE ALSO: cons

3.9.81��SCSICHIPS - print various details about a controller's scsi chips

��*�SYNOPSIS: scsichips
��*�DESCRIPTION: scsichips prints details about the RaidRunner scsi chips.
��*�OPTIONS: Three sets of numbers are printed. The first two numbers are the
    number of hostports (chips) and the number of backend channels (chips).
    The rest of the numbers printed are the hostport then backend channel
    chip indexes. The chip addresses can be used in binding them to a
    entrypoint in the kernel.
��*�EXAMPLES:
   
    For a RaidRunner controller with one hostport and six backend channels
    scsichips will print
   
        1�6�6�0�1�2�3�4�5
   
    which says that there is 1 hostport chip, 6 backend channels, the address
    of the hostport chip is 6 and the addresses of the backend channel chips
    are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
   
    For a RaidRunner controller with two hostports and six backend channels
    scsichips will print
   
        2�6�6�7�0�1�2�3�4�5�
   
    which says that there are 2 hostport chips, 6 backend channels, the
    addresses of the hostport chips are 6 and 7 and the addresses of the
    backend channel chips are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: hwconf, scsihpfs, scsihdfs

3.9.82��SCSIHD - SCSI hard disk device (a SCSI initiator)

��*�SYNOPSIS
   
    bind -k {scsihd chipNumber scsiTargetId
   
    [scsiTargetLUN]} bind_point
   
    cat bind_point
   
    ctl
   
    raw
   
    partition
   
    data
   
    rconfig
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: scsihd is a SCSI hard disk device. In SCSI jargon it is
    called the "initiator" while the disk it is talking to is referred to as
    the "target". The disk is known in SCSI as a "direct access device".
    Currently this device adopts the SCSI id 7 and attempts to access a disk
    with a SCSI id of scsiTargetId. The "logical unit number" (LUN) within
    the scsiTargetId that is accessed is scsiTargetLUN (or LUN 0 if not
    given). Multiple SCSI buses are supported (with typically one device per
    bus) and are distinguished by the chipNumber.
   
    The SCSI disk device is bound into the namespace at bind_point. A one
    level directory is made at the bind_point containing the files: "raw",
    "data", "partition", "rconfig" and "ctl". The "partition" file is a small
    portion at the end of the disk used for storing partition information (in
    plain ASCII). The "ctl" and "rconfig" files are for internal RaidRunner
    use. (The "rconfig" file will be a backup copy of the RaidRunner
    configuration area). The "data" file is the usable part (i.e. the vast
    majority) of the space available on the SCSI disk connected to the SCSI
    bus on which this device is an initiator. The file "raw" addresses the
    whole disk less the partition block.
   
    The current raid hardware has six fast wide SCSI-2 buses numbered 0 to 5
    and two fast wide buses num- bered 6 and 7. Usually the first six fast
    wide SCSI-2 buses are set up as initiators (i.e. bind scsihd) while the
    two fast wide SCSI buses are set up as targets (i.e. bind scsihp).
   
    Current implementations make the device name hd synonymous with scsihd.
    Therefore:
   
    bind -k {hd chipNumber scsiTargetId
   
    [scsiTargetLUN]} bind_point has the same effect as the similar line in
    the synopsis.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: scsihp

3.9.83��SCSIHP - SCSI target device

��*�SYNOPSIS
   
    bind -k {scsihp chipNumber scsiid} bind_point
   
    cat bind_point
   
    scsiid # this device's scsi id
   
    cat bind_point/scsiid
   
    0
   
    ... # this device's LUN within SCSI id scsiid
   
    7
   
    cat bind_point/scsiid/0
   
    data # scsi data channel for SCSI id scsiid LUN 0
   
    cmnd # scsi command channel for SCSI id scsiid LUN 0
   
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: scsihp is a SCSI target device. A "target" in SCSI jargon
    performs commands issued by an "initiator" which is usually a general
    purpose computer. Normally a SCSI target is an integral part of a "direct
    access device" (i.e. a disk) but in a raid, the controller needs to look
    like a target to external users. Multiple SCSI buses are supported (with
    typically one device per bus) and are distinguished by the chipNumber.
   
    The SCSI target device is bound into the namespace at bind_point. A three
    level directory is made at the bind_point. The first level is the SCSI id
    (as specified by scsiid) for this device. The second level is the LUN
    within that scsi id. The third level contains the files: "data" and
    "cmnd" which are used for SCSI data phases and command/status phases
    respectively.
   
    A scsi target command interpreter called stargd is designed to "mate"
    with this device.
   
    The current raid hardware has six fast narrow SCSI buses numbered 0 to 5
    and two fast wide buses num- bered 6 and 7. Usually the six fast narrow
    SCSI buses are set up as initiators (i.e. bind scsihd) while the two fast
    wide SCSI buses are set up as targets (i.e. bind scsihp).
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: scsihd, stargd

3.9.84��SET - set (or clear) an environment variable

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�set name
    ��+�set name value ...
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: set allows the value (or list of values) associated with an
    environment variable to be changed. When no value is given then the
    environment variable name has its value set to NIL. When one value is
    given then the environment variable name is set to that value. When
    multiple values are given then the environment variable name is set to
    that list of values.
��*�NOTE: set is a "built-in" in the Husky shell. This means a new shell is
    _not_ thrown to execute this command unless some other action forces it.
    Setting an environment variable in a sub-shell has no effect once the sub
    shell exits to its parent shell. This is why throwing a sub-shell to
    execute set would be pointless. Operations such as command substitution
    (i.e. `set ...') and command line file redirection force a command to be
    executed in a sub-shell and hence defeat the purpose of set. Hence the
    set command (or at least "built-in") should appear in a simple expression
    to avoid surprises.

3.9.85��SCSIHPMTR - turn on host port debugging

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�scsihpmtr -c portnumber storage_size
    ��+�scsihpmtr -b
    ��+�scsihpmtr -d
    ��+�scsihpmtr -e
    ��+�scsihpmtr -p count
    ��+�scsihpmtr -r
    ��+�scsihpmtr -w
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: scsihpmtr, if enabled in the RaidRunner kernel, will create
    a volatile internal store and save details of all scsi commands which
    come in on a specified host port or set of host ports. This data can then
    be uploaded to the host via the scsi monitor (ssmon) and analyzed as
    appropriate.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-c portnumber storage_size: Specify and allocate a volatile storage
        area of storage_size bytes and monitor and save all scsi commands
        that appear on the given portnumber. The portnumber is the chip
        number of the host port on the raid controller. If you specify a port
        number of 8, then all host ports will be monitored.
    ��+�-b: Perform natural read analysis for use in possible reconfiguration
        of RaidRunner.
    ��+�-d: Delete any volatile storage containing monitored data and hence
        stop monitoring.
    ��+�-e: Temporarily disable the monitoring (and hence storage) of scsi
        commands. Monitoring must be disabled BEFORE uploading the monitored
        data to the host via ssmon.
    ��+�-p count: Print out both details of what is being monitored and the
        first count stored scsi commands. The details printed are the total
        number of commands that can be recorded, the current number of
        recorded commands, the current monitoring state (0 disabled, 1
        enabled) and the monitored host port number. Each line of scsi
        commands printed will time the command occurred a hex word containing
        lower 3 bits the chip number (hostport) the command was on next 3
        bits the scsi id of the command initiator (i.e host) next byte is the
        scsi message id of the command next two bytes is the scsi tag number
        of the command a 12 byte scsi command header block
    ��+�-r: Reset the monitoring of scsi commands. This will cause all
        previously monitored data to be lost.
    ��+�-s: Re-enable the monitoring (and hence storage) of scsi commands.
    ��+�-w: Enable wrap around mode. By default, scsihpmtr will stop
        recording scsi commands once it has used all the storage area
        allocated. If wrap around mode is enable, then scsi commands will
        continue to be recorded, wrapping round the storage area.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: smon, ssmon, SCSI Standards for formats of scsi commands.

3.9.86��SETENV - set a GLOBAL environment variable

��*�SYNOPSIS: setenv name value ...
��*�DESCRIPTION: setenv allows the value (or list of values) associated with
    a GLOBAL environment variable to be changed (or created). When one value
    is given then the GLOBAL environment variable name is set to that value.
    When multiple values are given then the GLOBAL environment variable name
    is set to that list of values.
��*�NOTE: A GLOBAL environment variable is one which is stored in a non
    volatile area on the RaidRunner and hence is available between successive
    power cycles or reboots. These variables ARE NOT the same as husky
    environment variables. The non volatile area is co-located with the
    RaidRunner Configuration area.
��*�SEE ALSO: printenv, unsetenv, rconf

3.9.87��SDLIST - Set or display an internal list of attached disk drives

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�sdlist
    ��+�sdlist -p
    ��+�sdlist backend_triplett_list
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: sdlist maintains a list of disk backends, in rank, chip,
    scsi lun form for a RaidRunner. This list is used by various commands to
    save those commands from continuously probing for all possible backends.
    When run without arguments, sdlist zero's the internal list and probes
    for all disk backends rebuilding the list. Typically, sdlist will be run
    with a list provided to it by way of it's arguments. For example, on a
    RaidRunner with one rank (at scsi id 1) and six disks with all luns at
    zero the following would be run.
   
        sdlist�`hwconf�-D'
   
    which would equate to
   
        sdlist�0.1.0�1.1.0�2.1.0�3.1.0�4.1.0�5.1.0
   
    and those six tripletts would be stored in the list, with sdlist having
    already deleted any already stored list. To see what this internal list
    contains, the -p option can be given and the list will be printed. This
    command is typically executed during autoboot and would not be executed
    interactively unless the user is performing unusual backend manipulations
    and is debugging the process.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: rconf

3.9.88��SETIV - set an internal RaidRunner variable

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�setiv
    ��+�setiv name value
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: setiv allows the value of an internal RaidRunner variable to
    be changed or lists all changeable internal variables (no argument). When
    a value is given then the internal RaidRunner variable name is set to
    that value. If no value is given the all settable internal variables are
    listed.
��*�NOTES: As different models of RaidRunners have different settable
    internal variables see your RaidRunner's Hardware Reference manual for a
    list of variables together with the effect of changing them. These
    variables are run-time variables and hence must be set each time the
    RaidRunner is booted.
��*�SEE ALSO: getiv

3.9.89��SHOWBAT - display information about battery backed-up ram

��*�SYNOPSIS: showbat [-a] [-n] [-s] [-t]
��*�DESCRIPTION: showbat will print (to standard output) information about
    the installed battery backed-up ram.
��*�OPTIONS :
    ��+�-a: Print address information about battery backed-up ram. The
        addresses printed are the base address, start of tag address, start
        of reserved area address, start of cache data address and the first
        unused byte address.
    ��+�This is the default if no options are given.
    ��+�-n: Print the number of tags in battery backed-up ram.
    ��+�-s: Print the status of the battery backed-up ram.
    ��+�-t: For each tag in battery backed-up ram, print it's value and the
        location of it's data along with details of the cache range it
        belongs to. If the cache filesystem has not been created and the
        ranges added then this option will only print out the tag addresses
        and inform you that no ranges are available. If the data associated
        with the tag has partially written data in it, the tag will be
        flagged in the list.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: cachedump, cacherestore, cacheflush

3.9.90��SHUTDOWN - script to place the RaidRunner into a shutdown or
quiescent state

��*�SYNOPSIS: shutdown
��*�DESCRIPTION: shutdown is a husky script which is used to place the
    RaidRunner into the "shutdown" or quiescent state. The "shutdown state"
    is one in which the raid sets configured cannot be accessed by a host and
    all devices (disks) attached to the RaidRunner are in a low power usage
    state (i.e spun down). shutdown first set's all stargd's to a spin state
    of 2 which means that all host scsi medium-access commands will result in
    a CHECK CONDITION status and set the mode sense key to NOT READY and the
    additional mode sense code and code qualifier to "LOGICAL UNIT NOT READY,
    MANUAL INTERVENTION REQUIRED". It will then flush the cache and finally
    spin down all backend devices attached. Note that the scsi monitors -
    smon, are not effected.
��*�SEE ALSO: stargd, mstargd, cache, spind

3.9.91��SLEEP - sleep for the given number of seconds

��*�SYNOPSIS: sleep seconds
��*�DESCRIPTION: sleep causes the current K9 process to "sleep" for the given
    number of seconds. The argument seconds may be any integer or a fixed
    point number (e.g. 1.5). The resolution of timing is one clock tick
    (which varies according to the target hardware). If the sleep is
    interrupted before it completes then a "sleep interrupted" status message
    is returned otherwise NIL (i.e. true) is returned.
��*�SEE ALSO: K9sleep

3.9.92��SMON - RaidRunner SCSI monitor daemon

��*�SYNOPSIS: smon [-b blkprotocol] [-d debug_level] -m moniker -h hport [-n]
    [-r] [-1 stdout_fifo_file] [-2 stderr_fifo_file] [-3 status_file] -s
    capacity device id lun
��*�DESCRIPTION: smon is a daemon process that simulates a SCSI-2 disk with
    modified Read and Write SCSI commands that implement a simple protocol
    which provides file transfer to and from the RaidRunner and remote
    command execution on the RaidRunner. The protocol is based on the SCSI
    Read and SCSI Write starting block addresses. smon usually works closely
    with a special device (file system) that does the hardware interfacing
    and message interpretation for a SCSI-2 target (see scsihp).
   
    smon has 3 mandatory switches, 8 optional switches and 3 mandatory
    positional arguments. The mandatory switches are the -s switch which
    specifies the size of the SCSI-2 monitor store, the -m switch which
    specifies the moniker (name) of the target and the -h switch which
    specifies the controller host port the monitor will communicate over.
   
    The 3 mandatory positional arguments are device, id and lun. These
    arguments are concatenated together to make the filename of the low level
    SCSI target device driver. The second argument is the SCSI identifier
    number this target will respond to while the third argument is the
    logical unit number (LUN) within that SCSI identifier which the target
    represents. An error will occur during daemon initialization unless the
    following files (with appropriate characteristics) are found:
    ��+�device/id/lun/cmnd
    ��+�device/id/lun/data
   
��*�OPTIONS
   
    The optional switches may appear in any order but if present must be
    before the positional arguments.
   
   
��*�-b blkprotocol: Change the block numbers used in the protocol (see
    below). By default the block numbers used in the protocol are 7, 8, 9 10,
    11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 for protocol elements BLK_STDOUT, BLK_STDERR,
    BLK_STATUS, BLK_ENDPROC, BLK_UPLOAD, BLK_STDIN, BLK_MONITOR BLK_RESET and
    BLK_RCONFIG respectively. To change this default list of block numbers,
    specify a comma separated list of nine(9) unique block numbers.
��*�-d debuglevel: This switch is a debug flag. When given the command line
    arguments and other information derived during initialization are echoed
    back to standard out and the debug level is set to 1. The debug levels
    are:
    ��+�0 no debug messages (default when "-d" not given)
    ��+�1 debug messages on all non-read/write commands
    ��+�2 debug messages on all commands
   
��*�Debug messages are typically a single line per command and are sent to
    standard out. Serious errors are reported to standard error irrespective
    of the current debug level. If the error is related to incoming data
    (from the SCSI initiator) then the daemon will continue. If the error
    cannot be recovered from, then the daemon terminates with an error
    message as its exit status. The debug level can be changed during the
    execution of a smon daemon by using the "-d" option on mstargd.
��*�-m moniker: This switch associates the moniker (i.e name) with the scsi
    monitor that smon is about to execute on. It provides a method of naming
    scsi monitors. The moniker can be a maximum of 32 characters. This switch
    is mandatory.
��*�-h hport: This switch advises smon which controller host port number it
    will be communicating over. This switch is mandatory.
��*�-n: This switch stops statistics being gathered. The default action is to
    collect statistics.
��*�-r: This switch is for restarting the daemon with as little disturbance
    to the initiator as possible. Usually the SCSI Unit attention condition
    is set on reset (and when this daemon commences). When this switch is
    given the daemon starts in the idle state. Use with care. The default
    action (i.e. when the "-r" is not given) is to set a SCSI Unit attention
    condition so that the first SCSI command received will have its status
    returned as "Check condition" (as required by the SCSI-2 standard).
��*�-1 stdout_fifo_file: Specify the name of the fifo data file where the
    standard output of any executed commands is to be sent (and read from).
��*�-2 stderr_fifo_file: Specify the name of the fifo data file where the
    standard error output of any executed commands is to be sent (and read
    from).
��*�-3 status_file: Specify the name of the fifo data file where the exit
    status of any executed command is to be written to (and read from).
��*�-s capacity: This mandatory switch informs the daemon what the size in
    blocks this SCSI target will represent. The value for capacity effects
    the response this target makes to the SCSI Read Capacity and Mode Sense
    (page 4) commands. To simplify writing out large numbers certain suffixes
    can be used, see suffix.
��*�PROTOCOL: smon appears as a disk with the given capacity, scsi id and
    scsi lun to a host computer. By reading and writing to specific block
    locations on this disk, the host computer can send and have executed
    husky commands on the RaidRunner and read back the command's standard
    output, error and status. Additionally files can be both downloaded from
    the host onto the RaidRunner and uploaded from the RaidRunner onto the
    local host computer.
   
    All reads and writes by the host need to be in multiples of 512 byte
    blocks with null padding as appropriate. When WRITEing (from the host) to
    smon, the data, depending on the block number, contained in the write
    will be treated as follows -
    ��+�BLK_ENDPROC: Will kill any processes, started by smon, currently
        running on the RaidRunner. The contents of the write's data will be
        read but ignored.
    ��+�BLK_RESET: Will terminate any file transfers, kill any process(s)
        (started by smon) currently running on the RaidRunner, close any
        files opened by smon and reset smon to it's initial state. The
        contents of the write's data will be read but ignored.
    ��+�BLK_STDIN: If smon is in DOWNLOAD file transfer mode, the contents of
        the write's data will be written out to the download file on the
        RaidRunner. If not in DOWNLOAD file transfer mode, will
        asynchronously execute the contents of the write as a husky command.
        Before execution of the command, the command is checked to see if it
        is an internal file transfer smon command, and if so, will initialize
        for file transfer.
    ��+�Any other: Will perform the write to the internal store. Up to 16
        blocks of data will be stored in the raid configuration area.
    ��+�When READing (by the host) from smon, the data, depending on the
        block number, contained in the read will be treated as follows -
    ��+�BLK_STDOUT: This read will return the currently available standard
        output from the previously executed command. If the number of bytes
        of stan� dard output is less than the size of the read's data the
        data will be padded with NULL's ('\0'). If the number of bytes of
        standard output is more than the size of the read, then subsequent
        reads from BLK_STDOUT will transfer the rest of the standard output.
        Normally one would loop reads from BLK_STDOUT until the last
        character in the read buffer is NULL. If the previous command was a
        write to start a download, then a read of one block will next be
        expected and will return either a block of NULL's or an error message
        indicating a problem with the initialization of the download.
    ��+�BLK_STDERR: This read will return the currently available standard
        error out� put from the previously executed command in the same
        manner as BLK_STDOUT.
    ��+�BLK_ENDPROC: If the previously executed command (write to block
        BLK_STDIN) has not completed this read will return with it's buffer
        starting with "Process not finished" and NULL padded. If the command
        has completed then it will return a NULL filled buffer.
    ��+�BLK_STATUS: A read from this block will return the command's husky
        exit status (the $status variable).
    ��+�BLK_UPLOAD: Will first return either the UPLOAD handshake command
        (response to a UPLOAD write command) which is of the form UPLOAD
        nbytes where nbytes is the number of bytes in the file that has just
        been requested to be uploaded from the RaidRunner or an error
        message, then all reads from this block onwards will contain the next
        buffer from the uploaded file.
    ��+�BLK_MONITOR: Will first return either the MONITOR handshake command
        (response to a MONITOR write command) which is of the form MONITORSIZ
        nbytes where nbytes is the number of bytes of monitor data that will
        need to be transferred up to the host OR an error message if there is
        no monitoring data. All subsequent reads will upload the monitoring
        data.
    ��+�BLK_RCONFIG: Successively reading in data from this block will return
        successive data from the in-core raid configuration area. When a
        BLK_RESET is written, the internal smon index into the in-core raid
        configuration area is reset (set to 0). When a number of blocks from
        BLK_RCONFIG are this internal index is incremented by the amount of
        data read. If more data is read than is available in the in-core raid
        configuration area, then the index is reset to 0.
    ��+�Any other: Will perform the read from the internal store.
    ��+�Internal Store: Typically, a host computer stores labels, boot and
        disk partition information on all disks. On most host computers, they
        usually only store this information in a few blocks either at the
        start of the disk and/or near the end of the disk. Rather than smon
        reserving this space as a continuous piece of memory, most of which
        would not be used, an internal store of 16 512-byte blocks is created
        and maintains a mapping of host block addresses to the store. This
        store is copied to the raid configuration area noting the controller
        number and host port number smon is running on. If the store fills as
        a host computer writes many blocks to the smon disk, the additional
        data is discarded. If a host computer attempts to read blocks that
        have not been stored, then null fill data is returned.
   
��*�SIGNALS:
   
    Two K9 signals are interpreted specially by smon.
    ��+�If the signal K9_SIGINT is received then smon will check to see
        whether there is a command in progress and if so terminate it with a
        "Check condition" status and set the associated sense key to "Command
        aborted". smon will then return to its command (waiting) mode.
    ��+�If the signal K9_SIGTERM is received then smon will do the same as it
        does for K9_SIGINT except it will exit the process rather than going
        to command (waiting) mode.
    The SCSI initiator should interpret a sense key of "Command aborted" as
    the target unilaterally aborting a command in progress. The SCSI-2
    standard suggests the initiator should retry the aborted command.
   
   
��*�EXAMPLE
   
        smon�-s�2080�-h�1�-m�SMON167�/dev/hostbus/1�6�7
   
    This line will invoke this daemon and try and open the following files:
   
        /dev/hostbus/1/6/7/cmnd
   
    and
   
        /dev/hostbus/1/6/7/data
   
    The "-s 2080" switch instructs this daemon to tell SCSI initiators that
    it is a 1040K disk.
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: scsihp, suffix, mstargd, stargd, mconf

3.9.93��SOS - pulse the buzzer to emit sos's

��*�SYNOPSIS: sos [count]
��*�DESCRIPTION: sos will sound the buzzer in a plaintif "SOS" in Morse. If a
    count is given, it will repeat count times. The default count is 3.
��*�SEE ALSO: buzzer, warble

3.9.94��SPEEDTST - Generate a set number of sequential writes then reads

��*�SYNOPSIS: speedtst -d device -n io_cnt -X bufsize [-o offset] [-STRW]
��*�DESCRIPTION: By default speedtst will perform io_cnt sequential writes of
    size bufsize bytes onto the device from the start of the device. It will
    then do io_cnt sequential reads of size bufsize bytes from the start of
    the device device. By default reads and writes are not checked for
    success. The output of this command provides the I/O transfer rates in
    Megabytes (MB) and million bytes (mb) for both the write and read
    sequences. The bufsize and offset values may have a suffix.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-o offset: All reads and writes are to be performed offset bytes into
        the device. All reported values will be relative to this offset. The
        default is 0 i.e the start of the device.
    ��+�-r drives: The bufsize (set by -X bufsize) is expected to be to
        iosize of a Raid 5 raid set where drives is the number of data and
        parity drive. A single bufsize operation is performed to a drive in
        each strip of the raidset in such a fashion that either the data
        drive and the parity drive (the only two drives written too in a
        write operation) will not be the same drives as would have been
        written too, if the previous operation on the previous stripe had
        been a write. The default value is 0, causing normal sequential
        operations. This option is used to simulate random operations on a
        raidset without the penalty of significant seek overheads.
    ��+�-R: By default speedtst will perform a write test then a read test.
        Specifying this option, the write test will NOT be performed.
    ��+�-S: Normally the device, device, is opened in a default manner which
        may allow the host operating system to provide buffers when writing
        data to it. This may result in incorrect I/O through put rates. By
        setting this option, the device is opened in such a way to ensure
        that writes do not use any buffering and the individual write system
        calls do not return until the data is on the device.
    ��+�-T: Normally the read and write operations are NOT checked for
        success, that is the return values for the read and write system
        calls are not checked for errors. To ensure each read and write is
        checked for any system error, use this flag.
    ��+�-W: By default speedtst will perform a write test then a read test.
        Specifying this option, the read test will NOT be performed.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: randio, suffix

3.9.95��SPIND - Spin up or down a disk device

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�spind up c.s.l
    ��+�spind down c.s.l
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: spind will either spin down or spin up a nominated disk
    drive via the SCSI-2 START command.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�up: Spin up the disk drive. If the drive is already spun up nothing
        will occur.
    ��+�down: Spin down the disk drive. If the drive is already spun down
        nothing will occur.
    ��+�c.s.l: Identify the disk device by specifying it's channel, SCSI ID
        (rank) and SCSI LUN provided in the format "c.s.l"
   
��*�SEE ALSO: Product manual for disk drives used in your RaidRunner.

3.9.96��SPINDLE - Modify Spindle Synchronization on a disk device

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�spindle -c -p c.s.l [-o rpl_offset]
    ��+�spindle -m|M -p c.s.l [-o rpl_offset]
    ��+�spindle -s -p c.s.l [-o rpl_offset]
    ��+�spindle -g -p c.s.l
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: spindle will either modify or report on a disk device's
    spindle synchronization. This command will set or clear the Rotational
    Position Locking (RPL) bits in the disk device's GeometryParameter's mode
    sense page. If spindle correctly modifies the device's RPL bits, it will
    print out the resultant RPL bits and the Rotational Offset byte of the
    device's Geometry Parameter mode sense page.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-p c.s.l: Identify the disk device to modify by specifying it's
        channel, SCSI ID (rank) and SCSI LUN provided in the format "c.s.l"
    ��+�-c: Clear the RPL bits.
    ��+�-s: Set the RPL bits to 01b (0x1) which typically sets the device to
        operate as a synchronized-spindle slave.
    ��+�-m: Set the RPL bits to 10b (0x2) which typically sets the device to
        operate as a synchronized-spindle master.
    ��+�-M: Set the RPL bits to 11b (0x3) which typically sets the device to
        operate as a synchronized-spindle master control.
    ��+�-g: Get and print the current RPL bits and the Rotational Offset byte
        from the device's Geometry Parameters Page.
    ��+�-o rpl_offset: When clearing (-c) or setting (-m, -M, -s) spindle
        synchronization additionally set the rotational off- set to the given
        value. Must be in range from 0 to 256. This value is the numerator of
        a fractional multiplier that has 256 as it's denominator (eg a value
        of 128 indicates a one-half revolution skew). A value of zero (0)
        indicates that rotational offset shall not be used.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: The mode sense geometry page references in the relevant product
    manual for the disks used in the RaidRunner.

3.9.97��SRANKS - set the accessible backend ranks for a controller

��*�SYNOPSIS: sranks controller_id:ranklist [controller_id:ranklist]
��*�DESCRIPTION: sranks allows you to set backend rank restrictions, as
    specified by the arguments, for controller on which the command is set.
    Each argument is of the form
   
    controller_id the id of the controller (0, 1, ...).
   
    ranklist a comma separated list of rank id's (scsi id's) for which the
    given controller is to have access. sranks will check each argument
    looking for the controller id corresponding to the controller it's
    running on and set the backend rank access as per the ranklist.
    Typically, this command is executed with the output of the BackendRanks
    GLOBAL environment variable at boot time.j
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: environ, pranks

3.9.98��STARGD - daemon for SCSI-2 target

��*�SYNOPSIS: stargd [-c] [-d] -m moniker -h hport -s capacity [-n] [-r] [-L
    cnt] [-P nprocs] [-R] [-S sectorsize] [-nr nrread:nrlen] [-C]
    [-stripesize stripesize] [-irgap nblks] [-stripe stripe_args] device id
    lun store [store2]
��*�DESCRIPTION: stargd is a daemon process that interprets SCSI-2 commands
    as a "target". [In simple SCSI configurations the host computer is a SCSI
    "initiator" while its disk is a SCSI "target".] stargd usually works
    closely with a special device (file system) that does the hardware
    interfacing and message interpretation for a SCSI-2 target (see scsihp).
    When stargd first starts, it's "spin state", is set to indicate that
    thestore file has yet to "spin-up" and hence is NOT READY. This means
    that until the spin state is changed to be marked as READY (via mstargd
    "-o" option ) all supported SCSI-2 medium-access commands will result in
    a CHECK CONDITION with the sense key set to "NOT READY" and additional
    sense information set to "LOGICAL UNIT IN PROCESS OF BECOMMING READY"
    When the spin state is marked as READY all supported SCSI-2 medium-access
    commands are processed correctly. Additional NOT READY states can be set
    by mstargd's -Z option.
��*�OPTIONS: stargd has 3 mandatory switches, 8 optional switches and 4
    mandatory positional arguments and an optional trailing positional
    argument. The mandatory switches are the -m switch which associates the
    moniker (i.e name) with the raid set that stargd is about to execute on
    (this provides a method of naming raid sets), the -c switch which
    specifies the capacity of the backend and the -h switch which advises
    stargd which controller host port it will be communicating over. The 4
    mandatory positional arguments are device, id, lun and store. The first 3
    are concatenated together to make the filename of the low level SCSI
    target device driver.
    ��+�The second argument is the SCSI identifier number this target will
        respond to while the third argument is the logical unit number (LUN)
        within that SCSI identifier which the target represents. An error
        will occur during daemon initialization unless the following files
        (with appropriate characteristics) are found:
       
        device/id/lun/cmnd
       
        device/id/lun/data
       
       
    ��+�The fourth positional argument is store. It will typically be a cache
        device although it could be a single disk or a raid level. The
        trailing optional positional argument is store2. If the filename
        store2 can be opened and the "-c" argument is _not_ given then writes
        to store are echoed to store2. The SCSI commands that cause writes at
        this level are Write_6 and Write_10. If store2 cannot be opened (for
        writing) or the "-c" argument is given then a warning message is
        output during stargd initialization and it continues as if store2 had
        not been given.
    ��+�All switches may appear in any order but if present must be before
        the positional arguments.
    ��+�The "-L cnt" switch indicates that stargd is to implement a lookahead
        process for SCSI-2 reads (Read_6 and Read_10) which pre-fetches data
        into the cache based on the last cnt SCSI-2 reads. The default is a
        readahead of 16 reads (i.e -L 16). The minimum readahead is 2 and the
        maximum is 63. You can specify readahead to be 0 which turns off all
        lookahead. This switch can only be used when cache (-c) is being
        used. The "-nr nread:nrlen" is used to specify 'natural read'
        information to stargd. Some applications may perform reads of a
        certain size which is greater than the largest read the host
        operating system will allow. In this case, the host operating system
        will break the application's read up into smaller reads. stargd can
        trigger on a certain discontinuous read (by specifying a size in
        blocks - nread) and will prefetch prefetch the rest of the
        application read (nrlen). For example, if an application performs a
        read of 304 blocks on a host operating system which has a maximum
        read size of 128 blocks, then you could set the -nr arguments nread:
        nrlen to 128:304 which will cause stargd to, when it sees a
        discontinuous read of size 128 blocks, service the read and also
        prefectch into cache, the next 304 - 128 = 176 blocks of data. See
        scsihpmtr for analysis of host operating system reads.
    ��+�The "-stripesize stripesize" switch informs stargd the stripe size of
        the raid set which stargd is fronting. If the additional -C switch
        toggles whether this value (stripesize) will be used to calculate a
        cylinder size (heads x sectors per track) that ensures that a
        cylinder is a multiple of the given stripe size. If the stripe size
        is such that there is no multiple of heads and sectors that, when
        multiplied together, is not a multiple of the stripe size, then the
        default head and sectors per track sizes are used - currently 16
        head, 128 sectors per track.
    ��+�The "-stripe stripe_args" switch informs stargd that a number of host
        ports will be concurrently accessing this raid set. This switch is
        only usefull when the host based disk access software can "stripe" io
        to N different devices and each access (read or write) is always less
        than a set stripesize.
    ��+�The stripe_args are of the form N:S:I=c.h.l,I=c.h.l, where: N is the
        number of stripes (or host ports) that will be concurrently accessing
        the raid set, S is the stripe size (in 512-byte blocks) that the host
        will perform i/o in, I is an index or "stripe number" specifier
        ranging from 0 to N. c.h.l is the controller, host port, lun triplet,
        associated with the given index. For example, if we have two host
        ports and the given stripe-size from the host is, say, 1368 blocks,
        we would then have the following raid:
        set additions (in agui form)
        Host Interfaces (2): M 0.0.0 M 0.1.0
        Additional stargd args: -stripe 2:1368:0=0.0.0,1=0.1.0
        NOTE: that it has to be guaranteed that the host stripe software will
        send block 0 (size 1368 or less) to controller, host port, lun
        triplet 0.0.0 and block 1 (size 1368 or less) controller, host port,
        lun triplet 0.1.0, block 2 (size 1368 or less) to controller, host
        port, lun triplet 0.0.0, and so forth.
       
    ��+�The "-C" switch is used to toggle whether stargd calculates a
        cylinder size such that it is a multiple of the given stripe size.
        The default is to calculate a cylinder size based on the given stripe
        size.
    ��+�The "-irgap nblks" switch, specifies the inter-read gap, nblks, (in
        blocks). When sequential reads arrive from a host there may be a
        small gap between successive reads. Normally the lookahead algorithm
        will ignore these gaps providing they are no larger than the average
        length of the group of sequential reads that have occurred. By
        specifying this value, you can increase this gap. This switch has no
        meaning if the lookahead feature is turned off (i.e specifying "-L
        0").
    ��+�The "-R" switch indicates that store should have read-only access. If
        this switch is NOT present, then the store is assumed to have
        read-write access.
    ��+�The "-c" switch indicates that store is a cache (rather than a disk
        or something else remote). This knowledge decreases the number of
        internal copies this daemon needs to do so it is a performance
        enhancement. The default (i.e. when this switch is not present) is to
        do the extra copy which is the safe course if the exact identity of
        the store is uncertain.
    ��+�The "-d" switch is a debug flag. When given the command line
        arguments and other information derived during initialization are
        echoed back to standard out and the debug level is set to 1. The
        debug levels are:
        ��o�0 no debug messages (default when "-d" not given)
        ��o�1 debug messages on all non-read/write commands
        ��o�2 debug messages on all commands
        Debug messages are typically a single line per command and are sent
        to standard out. Serious errors are reported to standard error
        irrespective of the current debug level. If the error is related to
        incoming data (from the SCSI initiator) then the daemon will
        continue. If the error cannot be recovered from, then the daemon
        terminates with an error message as its exit status. The debug level
        can be changed during the execution of a stargd daemon by using the
        "-d" option on mstargd.
       
       
    ��+�The "-m" switch associates the moniker (i.e name) with the raid set
        that stargd is about to execute on. It provides a method of naming
        raid sets. The moniker can be a maximum of 32 characters. This switch
        is mandatory.
    ��+�The "-h" switch informs stargd which controller host port it will be
        communicating over. This switch is mandatory.
    ��+�The "-n" switch toggles statistics being gathered. The default action
        is to collect statistics.
    ��+�The "-r" switch is for restarting the daemon with as little
        disturbance to the initiator as possible. Usually the SCSI Unit
        attention condition is set on reset (and when this daemon commences).
        When this switch is given the daemon starts in the idle state. Use
        with care. The default action (i.e. when the "-r" is not given) is to
        set a SCSI Unit attention condition so that the first SCSI command
        received will have its status returned as "Check condition" (as
        required by the SCSI-2 standard).
    ��+�The "-s capacity" switch informs the daemon what the size in blocks
        this SCSI target will represent. The value for capacity effects the
        response this target makes to the SCSI Read Capacity and Mode Sense
        (page 4) commands. This switch is mandatory. To simplify writing out
        large numbers certain suffixes can be used, see suffix.
    ��+�The "-P nprocs" switch causes the daemon to spawn off nprocs copies
        of it self to allow concurrent processing of SCSI commands. If not
        specified, the default number of stargd processes created is 4. This
        value can range from 1 to 8 inclusive. The additional processes will
        not be created until the first access from the host port. The "-S
        sectorsize switch informs the daemon what sector size, in bytes, this
        SCSI target will present. The value defaults to 512 - the typical
        disk block size. To simplify writing out large numbers certain
        suffixes can be used, see suffix.
   
��*�SIGNALS: Two K9 signals are interpreted specially by stargd.
    ��+�If the signal K9_SIGINT is received then stargd will check to see
        whether there is a command in progress and if so terminate it with a
        "Check condition" status and set the associated sense key to "Command
        aborted". stargd will then return to its command (waiting) mode.
    ��+�If the signal K9_SIGTERM is received then stargd will do the same as
        it does for K9_SIGINT except it will exit the process rather than
        going to command (waiting) mode.
    ��+�The SCSI initiator should interpret a sense key of "Command aborted"
        as the target unilaterally aborting a command in progress. The SCSI-2
        standard suggests the initiator should retry the aborted command.
   
��*�EXAMPLE:
   
        stargd�-c�-s�2M�-m�RS�-h�1�/dev/hostbus/1�6�0�/cache/data
   
    This line will invoke this daemon and try and open the following files:
   
        /dev/hostbus/1/6/0/cmnd
   
    and
   
        /dev/hostbus/1/6/0/data
   
    The file "/cache/data" will be used as store. The "-c" switch identifies
    this file id as a cache to stargd. The "-s 2M" switch instructs this
    daemon to tell SCSI initiators that it is a 1 GigaByte disk (i.e. 2
    MegaBlocks).
   
   
��*�SUPPORTED SCSI-2 COMMANDS: The table below lists the supported SCSI-2
    commands (Code and Name) and their action under stargd.

00: Test Unit Ready If backend is ready returns GOOD Status, else sets Sense
Key to Not Ready and returns CHECK CONDITION Status

    01:�Rezero�Unit������Does�nothing,�returns�GOOD�Status
   
    03:�Request�Sense����Sense�data�held�on�a�per�initiator�basis�
    (plus�extra�for�bad�
   
    ���������������������LUN's)
   
    04:�Format�Unit������Does�nothing,�returns�GOOD�Status
   
    07:�Reassign�Blocks��Consumes�data�but�does�nothing,�returns�GOOD�Status
   
    08:�Read_6�����������DPO,�FUA�and�RelAdr�not�supported
   
    0a:�Write_6����������DPO,�FUA�and�RelAdr�not�supported
   
    0b:�Seek_6�����������Does�nothing,�returns�GOOD�Status
   
    12:�Inquiry����������Only�standard�36�byte�data�format�supported�
    (not�vital�product�
   
    ���������������������data�pages)
   
    15:�Mode�Select������Support�pages�1,�2,�3,�4,�8�and�10�
    (but�none�writable)
   
    16:�Reserve����������Doesn't�support�extents�+�3rd�parties
   
    17:�Release����������Doesn't�support�extents�+�3rd�parties
   
    1a:�Mode�Sense�������Support�pages�1,�2,�3,�4,�8�and�10.
   
    1b��Start�Stop�������If�Start�is�requested�and�the�Immediate�bit�is�0�then�waits�for�
   
    ���������������������backend�to�become�ready,�else�does�nothing�and�returns�GOOD�
   
    ���������������������Status.�If�backend�does�not�become�ready�within�20�seconds�set�
   
    ���������������������Sense�Key�to�Not�Ready�and�returns�CHECK��CONDITION�Status
   
    1d��Send�Diagnostics�Returns�GOOD�Status�when�self�test�else�complains�
    (does�nothing�
   
    ���������������������internally)
   
    25��Read�Capacity����RelAdr,�PMI�and�logical�address�>
    �0�are�not�supported
   
    28��Read_10����������Same�as�Read_6
   
    2a��Write_10���������Same�as�Write_6
   
    2b��Seek_10����������Does�nothing,�returns�GOOD�Status
   
    2f��Verify�����������Does�nothing,�returns�GOOD�Status
   
    55��Mode�Select_10���Same�as�Mode�Select�����
   
    5a��Mode�Sense_10����Same�as�Mode�Sense
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: scsihp, suffix, mstargd

3.9.99��STAT - get status information on the named files (or stdin)

��*�SYNOPSIS: stat [-b] [file...]
��*�DESCRIPTION: stat gets status information on each given file, or the
    standard input when a file named `-' is given, and sends it to the
    standard output. For files that are found a line with 6 columns is
    output. The meaning of each column is summarized below:
    ��+�1st filename
    ��+�2nd type of file system containing this file
    ��+�3rd instance of the containing file system
    ��+�4th unique (internal) file identifier
    ��+�5th version number of this file
    ��+�6th length of this file (in bytes)
   
��*�If the -b option is given, then the length of each file (6th field) is
    printed in 512-byte blocks. Only whole blocks are reported, so files with
    lengths less than 512-byte blocks will report is having a block size of
    zero (0).
��*�EXAMPLE

    :�raid;�stat�/bin/ps
   
    ps�������������������������������ram����0�0x00049049����2�144
   
    :�raid;

��*�SEE ALSO: K9getstat, intro

3.9.100�� � STATS - Print cumulative performance statistics on a Raid Set or
Cache Range

��*�SYNOPSIS: stats [-c cache_moniker] [-r raid_set] [-g] [-z]
��*�DESCRIPTION: stats is a process that will print and or zero the
    cumulative performance statistics which Raid Set's and Cache Ranges
    maintain.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-c cache_moniker: Zero (-z) and or print (-g) the cache statistics of
        the cache range specified by cache_moniker which was set in the add
        moniker=cache_moniker first= ... command (see cache). The statistics
        printed are the number of cache hits, cache misses, cache probes per
        hit and probes per miss. Output is in the form
    moniker : hits+misses hits misses hit+miss_probes hit_probes miss_probes
    ��+�r raidset_name: Zero (-z) and or print (-g) the raid set statistics
        of the raid set specified by raidset_name. When printing (-g)
        statistics, for each backend in the raid set, the cumulative number
        of reads, writes, raid failures and write failures to that backend
        are printed. Output is in the form
    D0 r0_cnt r0_fails w0_cnt w0_fails; D1 r1_cnt r1_fails w1_cnt w1_fails;
    D...;
   
   
��*�GENERAL: When gathering (or zeroing) a Cache Range's statistics, a
    special system call to the RaidRunners cache is made. When gathering (or
    zeroing) a Raid Set's statistics, a read or write (of the control string
    "zerostats" is made to the raid_bind_point/stats control file.
��*�SEE ALSO: cache, raid0, raid1, raid3, raid5

3.9.101�� � STRING - perform a string operation on a given value

��*�SYNOPSIS: string option value
��*�DESCRIPTION: string provides various string type operations on the given
    value which is treated as a string. Options are length, range and split.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�length string: The length option returns the number of characters in
        the given string.
    ��+�range string first last: The range option returns the substring from
        the given string that lies between the indices given by first and
        last. An index of 0 refers to the first character in the string. If
        last is beyond the length of the string, then it becomes the index of
        the last character in the string. If first is less than last then the
        substring is extracted backwards.
    ��+�split string split_ch: The split option will replace each occurrence
        of the character split_ch in the given string with a space.
   
��*�EXAMPLES: Some simple examples:

    set�string�ABCDEFGHIJ��������������#�create�the�string
   
    set�subs�`string�length�$string'���#�get�it's�length
   
    echo�$subs
   
    10
   
    set�subs�`string�range�$string�2�2'�����#�extract�character�at�index�3
   
    echo�$subs
   
    C
   
    set�subs�`string�range�$string�3�6'�����#�extract�from�indices�3�to�6
   
    echo�$subs
   
    DEFG
   
    set�subs�`string�range�$string�6�3'�����#�backwards
   
    echo�$subs
   
    GFED
   
    set�subs�`string�range�$string�4�70'����#�extract�from�index�4�to�70�
    (or�end)
   
    echo�$subs
   
    EFGHIJ
   
    set�string�D1,D2,D4,D8�������������#�create�the�string
   
    set�subs�`string�split�$string�,'��#�split�the�string
   
    echo�$subs
   
    D1�D2�D4�D8�

3.9.102�� � SUFFIX - Suffixes permitted on some big decimal numbers

��*�DESCRIPTION: In some commands that can take big decimal numbers as
    arguments certain suffixes are allowed. The suffix is a single
    alphabetical character that must follow immediately after the decimal
    number it is qualifying. The alphabetical character may be upper or lower
    case. Negative numbers cannot have suffixes.
   
    The accepted suffixes are:
    ��+�w: multiply number by 2
    ��+�b: multiply number by 512
    ��+�k: multiply number by 1024
    ��+�m: multiply number by 1048576
    ��+�g: multiply number by 1073741824
    The resulting number must fit in a 32 bit unsigned number which means
    "3G" can be represented (== 3,221,225,472) but "4G" cannot. "0G" is
    allowable and is interpreted as zero.
   
   
��*�COMMANDS USING SUFFIXES: dd, stargd

3.9.103�� � SYSLOG - device to send system messages for logging

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k syslog bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: The syslog file system provides user level entry of messages
    into the system logging facility (see syslogd). Writes to this device
    will be time-stamped and stored with a message class of "NOTICE" in the
    system log. Reads from this device will return EOF. By default the system
    logging device is bound at /dev/syslog.
��*�EXAMPLE:
   
        >�/dev/syslog
       
        bind�-k�syslog�/dev/syslog
       
        ls�-l�/dev/syslog
       
        /dev/syslog�������������������syslog����0�0x00000000����0�0
       
        echo�{Some�important�message}�>�/dev/syslog
       
        syslogd
       
        1:�INFO:�RaidRunner�Syslog�Boot
       
        10:�NOTICE:�Some�important�message
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: syslogd

3.9.104�� � SYSLOGD - initialize or access messages in the system log area

��*�SYNOPSIS: syslogd [-I] [-p cnt]
��*�DESCRIPTION: syslogd either initialize the system message logging area or
    print stored messages from that area.
��*�OPTIONS:
��*�-I: Initialize the system message logging area. This command is usually
    executed at boot time and is not normally invoked by the user.
��*�-p cnt: Print the last cnt messages stored in the system message logging
    area. /nr This is the default if no options are given and cnt is set to
    20.
   
    Messages are printed in the format -
   
    timestamp: message class: message
   
    where timestamp is the time the message was logged recorded as the number
    of seconds from the time the RaidRunner was booted, message class is the
    type of message logged indication the importance (or class) of the
    message. message is the message itself
   
   
��*�MESSAGE CLASS
   
    There are currently nine (9) message classes
     1. EMERG: messages of an extremely serious nature from which the
        RaidRunner cannot recover
     2. ALERT: messages of a serious nature from which the RaidRunner can
        only partially recover
     3. CRIT: messages of a serious nature from which the RaidRunner can
        almost fully recover
     4. ERR: messages indicating internal errors
     5. WARNING: messages of a serious from which the RaidRunner can fully
        recover, for example automatic allocation of hot spare to Raid 1, 3
        or 5 file system.
     6. NOTICE :messages logged via writes to syslog device
     7. INFO: informative messages
     8. DEBUG: debugging messages options are given and cnt is set to 20.
     9. REPEATS: Indicates that the previous message has been repeated N
        times every S seconds since it's initial entry.
   
��*�SYSLOG OUTPUT: When messages are logged, they are stored in the system
    message logging area. If the global environment variable, SYSLOG_CONF, is
    set to a value of 'C' or is not set at all then messages will be printed
    to the console as well. If the message has a suffix of RPT N/S then this
    message has been logged N times every S seconds since it's initial entry
    into the system message logging area.
��*�SEE ALSO: syslog, setenv

3.9.105�� � TEST - condition evaluation command

��*�SYNOPSIS: test expr
��*�DESCRIPTION: test evaluates the expr and if its value is true then it
    returns a K9 status of NIL which is equivalent to the true command.
    Alternatively if test evaluates the expr and if its value is false then
    it returns a K9 status of "false" which is equivalent to the false
    command. If no arguments are given then a K9 status of "false" is
    returned. If the expression doesn't obey the syntax given below then an
    error message is written to standard error and returned as the K9 status.
    Note that any non-NIL K9 status is interpreted as false by husky
    condition logic (e.g. "if"). The basic expressions use by test fall into
    3 categories: file tests, string tests and numeric tests. These basic
    expressions can be modified or combined into larger expressions by a 4th
    category called operators.
��*�FILE TESTS: The following file tests are supported:
    ��+�-d file: True if file exists and is a directory.
    ��+�-f file: True if file exists.
    ��+�-s file: True if file exists and is non-zero length.
   
��*�STRING TESTS: The command "test {}" is syntactically correct and has the
    value "false" because "{}" is an empty string. The command "test" by
    itself has the value "false". The commands "test hello" and "test -z"
    both have the value "true". The following string tests are supported:
    ��+�-n str: True if the length of str is non-zero.
    ��+�-z str: True if the length of str is zero.
    ��+�str1 = str2: True if str1 and str2 are identical. Spaces surrounding
        "=" are required.
    ��+�str1 != str2: True if str1 and str2 are not identical. Spaces
        surrounding "!=" are required.
    ��+�str: True if str is not a null (empty) string
   
��*�NUMERIC TESTS: These numeric arguments are evaluated as signed integers.
    Currently an internal 32 bit integer representation is used limiting the
    range of valid integers from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 (inclusive).
    Thus fixed point and floating point numbers cannot be compared. The
    spaces surrounding the numeric comparison tokens (e.g. "-eq") are
    required. Instead of a number an expression of the form "-l str" can be
    given. This evaluates to the number of characters in the string str. The
    following numeric tests are supported:
    ��+�n1 -eq n2: True if n1 and n2 are numerically equal
    ��+�n1 -ge n2: True if n1 is greater than or equal to n2
    ��+�n1 -gt n2: True if n1 is greater than n2
    ��+�n1 -le n2: True if n1 is less than or equal to n2
    ��+�n1 -lt n2: True if n1 is less than n2
    ��+�n1 -ne n2: True if n1 is not equal to n2
   
��*�OPERATORS: The following operators are supported:
    ��+�!: Unary negation operator. Appears to the left of the expression it
        is negating.
    ��+�-a: Binary AND operator. Appears between the 2 expressions it is
        logically combining.
    ��+�-o: Binary OR operator. Appears between the 2 expressions it is
        logically combining.
    ��+�( expr ): Parentheses are used to group expressions. Since
        parentheses are husky special characters they need to be quoted or
        escaped.
    ��+�The relative precedence of these operators from high to low is: () !
        -a -o. Thus the expression:
       
            test�!�-f�/bin/ls�-a�-d�/env
       
        is the same as:
       
            test�{(}�!�-f�/bin/ls�{)}�-a�-d�/env
       
        The "!" operator should appear to the left of other unary operators.
        Basic binary operators have higher precedence than "-a" and "-o".
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: husky

3.9.106�� � TIME - Print the number of seconds since boot (or reset of clock)

��*�SYNOPSIS: time
��*�DESCRIPTION: time will print the time in seconds since the RaidRunner was
    booted or since the clock was last reset.

3.9.107�� � TRAP - intercept a signal and perform some action

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�trap
    ��+�trap n ...
    ��+�trap {} n ...
    ��+�trap arg n ...
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: trap allows signals directed at this process to intercept
    signals and potentially take some special action. When trap is used with
    no arguments then all current (non- default) traps for this process are
    printed. When the first argument is a number (optionally followed by
    other numbers) then this number is interpreted as a signal number whose
    action is to be set to the default for that signal (extra numbers are
    treated in a similar fashion). When the first argument is an empty string
    (i.e. {}) then the signals nominated by the following numbers are
    ignored. When the first argument is a non-empty string then if the
    signals nominated by the following numbers occur, then "arg" will be
    executed. N.B. Signal number 4 (kill) can be neither caught nor ignored.
   
    The following table maps signal numbers to an explanation:
    ��+�0 unused signal
    ��+�1 hangup
    ��+�2 interrupt (rubout)
    ��+�3 quit (ASCII FS)
    ��+�4 kill (cannot be caught or ignored)
    ��+�5 write on a pipe with no one to read it
    ��+�6 alarm clock
    ��+�7 software termination signal
    ��+�8 child process has changed state
    ��+�9 process could not obtain memory (from heap)
   
��*�SEE ALSO: kill

3.9.108�� � TRUE - returns the K9 true status

��*�SYNOPSIS: true
��*�DESCRIPTION: true does nothing other than return the K9 true status. K9
    processes return a pointer to a C string (null terminated array of
    characters) on termination. If that pointer is NULL then a true exit
    value is assumed while all other returned pointer values are interpreted
    as false (with the string being some explanation of what went wrong).
    This command returns a NULL pointer value as its return value. Returning
    a NULL pointer value is sometimes referred to as returning NIL. The husky
    shell interprets the token ":" to have the same meaning as true.
��*�SEE ALSO: false

3.9.109�� � STTY or TTY - print the user's terminal mount point or terminfo
status

��*�SYNOPSIS:
    ��+�tty
    ��+�stty [ttyname]
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: tty examines the device on which the it is running, and if
    the device is on a DUART, then the mount point of the device is printed.
    If the device is not a DUART, then an appropriate message is printed.
   
    stty prints the terminfo structure associated with either the terminal
    device that stty is being executed from or the given terminal device -
    ttyname. If an invalid device name is given or the device stty is being
    executed from is not a DUART, an appropriate message is printed. This
    command is mainly useful for debugging the RaidRunner kernel.
   
   
��*�RETURN STATUS: On success a return code of 0 is returned, else 1 is
    returned.

3.9.110�� � UNSET - delete one or more environment variables

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�unset name
    ��+�unset name name ...
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: unset removes the given environment variable(s). This is
    done by removing the given variable(s) from the /env file system.
��*�SEE ALSO: set, env

3.9.111�� � UNSETENV - unset (delete) a GLOBAL environment variable

��*�SYNOPSIS: unsetenv name [name ...]
��*�DESCRIPTION: unsetenv deletes the GLOBAL environment variable name along
    with it's contents. If multiple names are given, then each GLOBAL
    environment variable is deleted. If the given name is not GLOBAL
    environment variable then nothing is done and no error status is set.
��*�NOTE: A GLOBAL environment variable is one which is stored in a non
    volatile area on the RaidRunner and hence is available between successive
    power cycles or reboots. These variables ARE NOT the same as husky
    environment variables. The non volatile area is co-located with the
    RaidRunner Configuration area.
��*�SEE ALSO: printenv, setenv, rconf

3.9.112�� � VERSION - print out the version of the RaidRunner kernel

��*�SYNOPSIS: version
��*�DESCRIPTION: version prints out the version of the RaidRunner code which
    comprises the version number, date of creation and creator.

3.9.113�� � WAIT - wait for a process (or my children) to terminate

��*�SYNOPSIS: wait [pid]
��*�DESCRIPTION: wait either waits for the given pid (process identifier) to
    terminate or, if no argument is given, waits for all the children of this
    process to terminate. When a pid is given then the exit status of that
    process is returned by this command. When no pid is given then this
    command returns a NIL status (when all children have terminated).
��*�SEE ALSO: K9wait, K9kill

3.9.114�� � WARBLE - periodically pulse the buzzer

��*�SYNOPSIS: warble period count
��*�DESCRIPTION: warble will save the current state of the buzzer (on or
    off), then turn the buzzer on for period milliseconds, then off for
    period/2 and repeat this for count times.
��*�SEE ALSO: buzzer, sos

3.9.115�� � XD- dump given file(s) in hexa-decimal to standard out

��*�SYNOPSIS: xd [ file ... ]
��*�DESCRIPTION: xd dumps each given file in hexadecimal format to standard
    out. If no file is given (or it is "-") then standard in is used.

3.9.116�� � ZAP - write zeros to a file

SYNOPSIS: zap [-b blockSize] [-f byteVal] count offset <>[3] store

DESCRIPTION: zap writes count * 8192 bytes of zeros at byte position offset *
8192 into file store (which is opened and associated with file descriptor 3).
Both count and offset may have a suffix. The optional "-b" switch allows the
block size to be set to blockSize bytes. The default block size is 8192
bytes. The optional "-f" switch allows the fill character to be set to
byteVal which should be a number in the range 0 to 255 (inclusive). The
default fill character is 0 (i.e. zero). Every 100 write operations the
current count is output (usually overwriting the previous count output).
Errors on the write operations are ignored.

SEE ALSO: suffix

3.9.117�� � ZCACHE - Manipulate the zone optimization IO table of a Raid
Set's cache

��*�SYNOPSIS: zcache -c cache_moniker [-E extents] [-P portion] [-W 0|1] [-p]
��*�DESCRIPTION: zcache is a utility that will print and or modify the zone
    optimized IO table of a given cache range.
��*�OPTIONS:
    ��+�-c cache_moniker: Specify the cache range, cache_moniker, to print
        the zone table or modify it's contents. cache_moniker, is the name
        which was set in the add moniker=cache_moniker first= ... command
        (see cache). If no other options are given the zone table is printed.
        When the zone table is printed it is in the form of
    n state z1_lo..z1_hi@z1_blks z2_lo..z2_hi@z2_blks ...
    zn_lo..zn_hi@zn_blks
    ��+�where n is the number of IO optimized zones, state is either "on" for
        zone optimized IO, "off" for no zone optimized IO or "none" if no
        zones are available. z1_lo..z1_hi@z1_blks ... zn_lo..zn_hi@zn_blks
        lists the starting and ending blocks and the optimized block count
        for each zone.
    ��+�-E extents: Specify the number of data drives in the Raid Set for
        which the cache range exists.
    ��+�-P portion: Specify the percentage, limited to be between 50 and 300,
        that the optimized block count for each zone is to be adjusted. That
        is, if you need to reduce the optimized block count for each zone by
        say 10% you would set portion to 90.
    ��+�-W 0|1: Turn on (1) or off (0) zone IO optimizations for the given
        cache range.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: cache

3.9.118�� � ZERO - file when read yields zeros continuously

��*�SYNOPSIS: bind -k {zero [ # ]} bind_point
��*�DESCRIPTION: zero is a special file that when written to is an infinite
    sink of data (i.e. anything can be written to it and it will be disposed
    of quickly). When zero is read it is an infinite source of zeros (i.e.
    the byte value 0). The zero file will appear in the K9 namespace at the
    bind_point. If the optional "#" is given then the zero file still is an
    infinite sink of data. However, when read, each 512 bytes is viewed as a
    block (starting at block 0 at the beginning of the file). Each block
    contains 128 4 byte integers ("unsigned long" in C) each of which contain
    the current block number. This option is meant as a debugging aid.
��*�EXAMPLE: Husky installs a zero special file as follows:
   
        bind�-k�zero�/dev/zero
       
        Example�of�use�to�make�32�Kilobyte�file�(called�"/fill")
        �full�of�zeros.
       
        dd�if=/dev/zero�of=/fill�bs=8k�count=4
   
   
��*�SEE ALSO: null, log

3.9.119�� � ZLABELS - Write zeros to the front and end of Raid Sets

��*�SYNOPSIS
    ��+�zlabels -a
    ��+�zlabels raidset [raidset .... ]
   
��*�DESCRIPTION: zlabels is a husky script which writes zeros to both the
    front and end of either all configured raid sets or to given raid sets.
    Typically a host operating system will write label(s) onto a disk. Nearly
    all operating systems write a few blocks at the start of a disk and some
    write copies at the end of the disk as well. As this label contains
    formatting and modified disk geometry information a change to a raid set
    that effects the geometry of it's offered disk drive will conflict with
    any labels written before. zlabels writes zero's at the start of a raid
    set and also at the end. The number of blocks zeroed is dependant on the
    raid set type and io chunksize. Typically 50 io chunk size blocks are
    written at the start and 49 at the end. In the case of a raid type 3, the
    number of data drives times 50 (and 49) are written.
��*�OPTIONS :
    ��+�-a: All configured raid sets will be zeroed.
    ��+�raidset: The named raid set, or raid sets, are zeroed.
   
��*�SEE ALSO: dd

3.10��Advanced Topics: SCSI Monitor Daemon (SMON)

Another way of communicating with the onboard controller from the host
operating system is using the SCSI Monitor (SMON) facility. SMON provides an
ASCII communication channel on an assigned SCSI ID and LUN. The commands
discussed in section 7 may also be issued over this channel to manipulate the
RAID configuration and operation. This mechanism is utilized under Solaris to
provide a communication channel between an X Based GUI and the RAID
controller. It is currently un-utilized under Linux. See the description of
the smon daemon in the 5070 command reference above.

3.11��Further Reading

��*�The Linux software-RAID-HOWTO by Linas Vepstas
��*�The Plan9 pages at AT&T Bell Labs: http://plan9.bell-labs.com/plan9/
    index.htm

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    This document was translated from LATEX by HEVEA.





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