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  Linux Apache SSL PHP/FI frontpage mini-HOWTO
  Marcus Faure,
  v1.1, July 1998

  This document is about building a multipurpose webserver that will
  support dynamic web content via the PHP/FI scripting language, secure
  transmission of data based on Netscape's SSL, secure execution of
  CGI's and M$ Frontpage Server Extensions

  Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

     1.1 Description of the components
     1.2 Working configurations
     1.3 History

  2. Component installation

     2.1 Preparations
     2.2 Adding PHP
     2.3 Adding SSL
     2.4 Adding frontpage

  3. Putting it all together

     3.1 Apache modules to try
     3.2 Giving CGI's more security
     3.3 Compiling and installing the server daemon
     3.4 Adding frontpage support to a web
     3.5 Starting the daemon
     3.6 Some considerations left
     3.7 Known bugs
     3.8 The final word


  1.  Introduction

  Before you start reading: I am not a native speaker, so there are
  probably spelling/grammatical errors in this document. Feel encouraged
  to inform me of mistakes.

  1.1.  Description of the components

  The webserver you hopefully will get after having read this howto is
  composed of several parts, the original apache sources with some
  (well, many) patches and some external executables. I recommend using
  the software versions I tried, they will probably compile without
  greater problems and result in a fairly stable daemon. If you are
  courageous, you can try to compile all the latest-stuff-with-tons-of-
  new-features, but  don't blame me if something fails ;-). However, you
  may report other working configurations to be included in future
  versions of this document. All of the steps were tested on a linux
  2.0.35 box, so the howto is somewhat linux-specific, but you should be
  able to use it for other unixes as well.

  You do not necesserily have to compile in all components. I tried to
  structure this howto so that you can skip the parts you are not
  interested in.

  The document is neither a user manual to Apache, SSL, PHP/FI nor
  frontpage.  Its prime intention is to save webservice providers some
  headaches when installing their server and to do my little
  contribution to the linux community.

  PHP is a scripting language that supports dynamic HTML pages. It is a
  bit like Apache's SSI, but by far more complex and has database
  modules for many popular dbs. The GD libraries are needed by PHP.

  SSL is an implementation of Netscape's Secure Socket Layer that allow
  secure connections over insecure networks, e.g. to transmit credit
  card numbers to web based forms.

  frontpage is a wysiwyg web authoring tool that makes use of some
  server-specific extensions called webbots. Some people think frontpage
  is cool because you can create feedback forms and discussion webs
  without having to know a bit about html or cgi. It even protects the
  designer from uploading his/her site via ftp by using a builtin
  publisher. If you wish to support frontpage but do not like to setup a
  windows server, the apache server extensions are your choice.

  1.2.  Working configurations

  Though this document has been downloaded some 100 times since I
  published it, I received only little feedback. In particular, noone
  told me of other working combinations. Combinations that work for me

  �  Linux 2.0.31, Apache 1.2.4, PHP 2.0.0, SSL 0.8.0, fp 98 3.0.3 (*)

  �  Linux 2.0.33, Apache 1.2.5, PHP 2.0.1, SSL 0.8.0, fp 98 3.0.3 (*)

  �  Linux 2.0.35, Apache 1.2.6, PHP 3, SSL 0.8.0, fp 98 3.0.4

     (*) version 3.0.3 is ``not recommended''

  1.3.  History

  v0.0/Apr 98:    Preview version

  v1.0/Jun 98:    Now using Apache 1.2.6, updated fp section, minor

  v1.1/Jul 98:    Sgmlized and restructered version

  You can find the latest version of this document at

  2.  Component installation

  2.1.  Preparations

  You will need:

  �  Apache 1.2.6  <>

  �  PHP/FI Extensions

  �  GD Library  <>

  �  SSL 0.8.0 <>

  �  SSL patch for Apache 1.2.6

  �  frontpage 98 server extensions and install script

  Get the sources you want. Untar apche, php, gd and ssl to /usr/src.
  Untar the SSL patch to /usr/src/apache_1.2.6.

  2.2.  Adding PHP

  cd to /usr/src/gd1.2 and type make. This will build the GD library
  libgd.a, that should be copied to /usr/lib.  Now cd to php-2.0.1 and
  run ./install.

  The relevant questions are:

  Would you like to compile PHP/FI as an Apache module? [yN] y
  Are you compiling for an Apache 1.1 or later server? [Yn] y
  Are you using Apache-Stronghold? [yN] y
  Does your Apache server support ELF dynamic loading? [yN] y
  Apache include directory (which has httpd.h)? [/usr/local/include/apache] /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src
  Would you like to build an ELF shared library? [yN] y
  Additional directories to search for .h files []: /usr/src/gd1.2
  Would you like the bundled regex library? [yN] n

  Like the frontpage extensions, phtml includes a security problem
  because it is run under the uid of the webserver. Be sure to turn on
  safe mode in src/php.h and restrict the search path to a save value.
  There are some other options in php.h you may want to edit. If you are
  very concerned about security, compile php as a cgi. However, this
  will be a performance loss and not as smart as the module version.

  Type make to build all files. When the compilation is done, copy
  mod_php.* and libphp.a to /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src Add a line

  Module php_module mod_php.o

  to the end of /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src/Configuration, add

  -lphp -lm -lgdbm -lgd

  to the EXTRA_LIBS in the same file,

  application/x-httpd-php phtml

  to Apache's mime.types and

  AddType  application/x-httpd-php .phtml

  to Apache's srm.conf.

  You may also want to add index.phtml to DirectoryIndex in that file so
  that a file index.phtml is automatically loaded when its directory is

  2.3.  Adding SSL

  cd /usr/src/SSL-0.8.0; ./Configure linux-elf; make; make rehash This
  will create libraries needed by apache. You may issue make test to
  verify the compilation.  You have to apply a patch to apache. It is
  important that you apply it before the frontpage patch, otherwise
  frontpage will not work.  cd to /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src and issue
  patch < /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/SSLpatch.  Set
  SSL_BASE=/usr/src/SSLeay-0.8.0 in Configuration. Make sure that Module
  proxy_module is disabled otherwise Apache won't compile. If you are in
  need of a proxy, go for Squid

  Now make certificate to generate SSLconf/conf/httpsd.pem.

  2.4.  Adding frontpage

  Rename the fp30.linux.tar.Z file to fp30.linux.tar.gz, otherwise the
  install script will not find it. Run ./fp_install to copy the
  extension files to /usr/local/frontpage. zcat can usually be invoked
  as /usr/bin/zcat.

  You now have to apply the FP patch. cd to /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src
  and type patch < /usr/src/frontpage/version3.0/apache-fp/fp-patch-
  apache_1.2.5 This will create the mod_frontpage.* files and do some
  modifications to Configuration etc. The 1.2.5 patch will work with
  both apache 1.2.5 and 1.2.6. Skip the part about installing webs, you
  can do that later

  3.  Putting it all together

  3.1.  Apache modules to try

  The modules I use besides SSL, PHP and frontpage are:

  Module env_module          mod_env.o
  Module config_log_module   mod_log_config.o
  Module mime_module         mod_mime.o
  Module negotiation_module  mod_negotiation.o
  Module dir_module          mod_dir.o
  Module cgi_module          mod_cgi.o
  Module asis_module         mod_asis.o
  Module imap_module         mod_imap.o
  Module action_module       mod_actions.o
  Module alias_module        mod_alias.o
  Module rewrite_module      mod_rewrite.o
  Module access_module       mod_access.o
  Module auth_module         mod_auth.o
  Module anon_auth_module    mod_auth_anon.o
  Module digest_module       mod_digest.o
  Module expires_module      mod_expires.o
  Module headers_module      mod_headers.o
  Module browser_module      mod_browser.o

  3.2.  Giving CGI's more security

  If you are an ISP (you probably are when you read this) you will want
  to improve security. The suexec utility allows you to do so; it will
  execute cgi's under the UID of the webowner instead of executing it
  under the webservers UID.  Go to /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/support and
  make suexec.  chmod 4711 suxec and copy it to the location specified
  in ../src/httpd.h which is /usr/local/etc/httpd/sbin/suexec by
  default. If the path seems a little cryptic to you - it did to me -
  edit httpd.h and set the path to a more comfortable value.

  3.3.  Compiling and installing the server daemon

  Enter /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/src and edit Configuration to set all the
  Modules you want to include in your Apache daemon. When done, run
  ./Configure and make. This is the last (and most complicated)
  compilation step, so cross your fingers. If it succeeds, cp httpsd to
  /usr/sbin. The daemon is somewhat big, consider this when assembling
  your webserver. Create the directory /var/httpd with subdirectories
  cgi-bin, conf, htdocs, icons, virt1, virt2 and logs. In
  /usr/src/apache_1.2.6/conf edit access.conf-dist, mime.types and
  srm.conf-dist to suit your needs and copy them to
  var/httpd/conf/access.conf, srm.conf and mime.types. Copy the
  httpsd.pem you created with make certificate to /var/httpd/conf. Use
  the following httpd.conf:

  ServerType standalone
  Port 80
  Listen 80
  Listen 443
  User wwwrun
  Group wwwrun
  ServerRoot /var/httpd
  ErrorLog logs/error_log
  TransferLog logs/access_log
  PidFile logs/
  MinSpareServers 3
  MaxSpareServers 20
  StartServers 3

  SSLCACertificatePath /var/httpd/conf
  SSLCACertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem
  SSLCertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem
  SSLLogFile /var/httpd/logs/ssl.log

  DocumentRoot /var/httpd/virt1
  ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/httpd/virt1/cgi-bin/
  ErrorLog logs/virt1-error.log
  TransferLog logs/virt1-access.log
  User virt1admin
  Group users

  DocumentRoot /var/httpd/virt1
  ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/httpd/virt1/cgi-bin/
  ErrorLog logs/virt1-ssl-error.log
  TransferLog logs/virt1-ssl-access.log
  User virt1admin
  Group users
  SSLCACertificatePath /var/httpd/conf
  SSLCACertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem
  SSLCertificateFile /var/httpd/conf/httpsd.pem
  SSLLogFile /var/httpd/logs/virt1-ssl.log
  SSLVerifyClient 0

  DocumentRoot /var/httpd/virt2
  ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/httpd/virt2/cgi-bin/
  ErrorLog logs/virt2-error.log
  TransferLog logs/virt2-access.log

  Depending on the modules compiled in, not all directives may be
  available.  You can retrieve a list of available directives with
  httpsd -h.

  3.4.  Adding frontpage support to a web

  Enter /usr/local/frontpage/version3.0/bin and load ./fpsrvadm. Choose
  install and apache-fp. The next questions should be answered the
  following way:

  Enter server config filename: /var/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
  Enter host name for multi-hosting []:
  Starting install, port:, web: ""
  Enter user's name []: virt2admin
  Enter user's password:
  Confirm password:
  Creating root web
  Recalculate links for root web
  Install completed.

  The user name must be the unix login of the webowner. The password
  does not necessarily have to match the system password.  You have to
  manually add sendmailcommand:/usr/sbin/sendmail %r to
  /usr/local/frontpage/, otherwise your users will
  not be able to send web-generated eMails.  kill -HUP your httpsd to
  make fp reread its config. You can now access with your
  frontpage client.

  Under some circumstances fpsrvadm complaints that a root web has to be
  installed first. This is pretty useless, but you should do so to
  silence fpsrvadm.

  3.5.  Starting the daemon

  Start Apache with httpsd -f /var/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. You can now
  access both through http and https which is pretty cool.
  Of course you have to pay for a real certificate if you want to offer
  webwide SSL or users might laugh at you.

  Copy one of the demo files from the php examples directory to virt1 to
  test phtml.

  3.6.  Some considerations left

  Do not use frontpage 97 extensions. They do not work, at least under
  Linux. When installing specific versions of the c++ libraries, they
  appear to work but your logs will soon fill with premature end of
  script headers and your mailbox will fill with complaints.  Do not use
  frontpage 98 extensions before version Do not be confused,
  version numbers are somewhat inheterogenous. When telnetting to port
  80, typing "get / http/1.0" and hitting return twice, you get a
  version number 3.0.4 for frontpage.

  You can find out the more specific version number by executing
  /usr/local/frontpage/currentversion/exes/_vti_bin/shtml.exe -version.
  Older versions have a nasty bug that requires httpd.conf to be
  writable by the gid of the webserver. This should make you scream if
  you are at all concerned about security.  Versions since
  are more usable.

  3.7.  Known bugs

  When touching Recalculate Links in the frontpage client, the server
  starts a process that consumes 99% cpu cycles and some 10 mb of
  memory. But even for medium-sized webs and fast machines, the client
  sometimes recieves a timeout message, though the calculation will be
  finished correctly. Inform frontpage users to be patient and not to
  hit Recalculate Links several times. Inform yourself to equip the
  server with at least 64MB.

  Please note that at the time of writing both SSL and frontpage work,
  but not at the same time, that means you can neither publish your web
  using ssl nor make use of the webbots through https. You can publish
  your web on port 80 and access it encrypted on port 443, but your
  counters etc. will be broken. I consider this a bug. This problem
  shall be fixed in SSL 0.9.0.

  3.8.  The final word

  For those who think the title of this howto is nearly as long as the
  document: Did you ever listened to Meat Loaf?

  O.K. readers, you're done for today. Feel free to send me your
  feedback, eternal gratitude, flowers, ecash, cars, oil sources etc.

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