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CDServer-HOWTO

Randolph J Tata

Talcon Information Systems

randy@talcon.com

v1.40 2002/01/10
Revision History                                                             
Revision v1.40            2002-01-10           Revised by: rjt               
Added description and link to cdtower shell script.                          
Revision v1.30            2002-01-08           Revised by: rjt               
Many additions and changes to markup in DocBook XML source and fix pubdate   
data.                                                                        
Revision v1.01            2002-01-07           Revised by: rjt               
Updated for 2.4 kernels. Added more References and links. Convert to DocBook 
XML 4.1.2 Change License from LDP boilerplate to GFDL.                       
Revision v1.00            2000-09-23           Revised by: rjt               
Conversion from Linuxdoc SGML to DocBook v3.1 SGML                           
Revision v0.10            2000-09-01           Revised by: rjt               
Conversion to Linuxdoc SGML from text/html, added kerneltweak (addloops)     
section                                                                      
Revision v0.01            2000-08-18           Revised by: rjt               
First version released in text and html.                                     


  The CD Server HOWTO describes the steps and commands you can use to setup
your own CD Server using Linux and some built-in Unix commands along with
other freely available software packages. The CD Server can then share the
CD's via the network to Windows and/or other client machines.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Intended Audience
    1.2. Things You'll Need
    1.3. Suggested Reading and References
    1.4. Copyright and License
    1.5. Disclaimer
    1.6. News
    1.7. Credits
    1.8. Translations
   
   
2. Procedure
    2.1. Creating the ISO Images
    2.2. Mounting the ISO Images
    2.3. Mounting the Image upon System Restart
    2.4. Sharing it on a Windows Network using Samba
    2.5. Sharing the Images on a Unix network using NFS
   
   
3. Adding Support for More Loop Devices
    3.1. Adding the Loop Module Option
    3.2. Appending to the Boot Prompt
    3.3. Tweaking the Kernel
    3.4. Creating the Loop Devices in /dev
   
   
4. More Information
    4.1. Frequently Asked Questions
    4.2. Other Instructions Available on the Web
    4.3. Under Future Consideration
   
   
A. GNU Free Documentation License
    0. PREAMBLE
    1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    2. VERBATIM COPYING
    3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    4. MODIFICATIONS
    5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    8. TRANSLATION
    9. TERMINATION
    10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    How to use this License for your documents
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Introduction

 With disk space becoming less expensive (100GB Western Digital 7200rpm
available for US $195 in January 2002), it is viable to use an Open Source
software-based CD Server solution, instead of paying $800-$4,000 for a
software, thin-server, or CD Jukebox solution.

 I've setup my CD Server on a Pentium 200 with 64MB RAM, using one of these
large drives.

 Any comments, suggestions, additions, or corrections can be sent to my email
address at [http://www.talcon.com/]  Talcon Information Systems: <
randy@talcon.com>.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. Intended Audience

 This HOWTO is specifically directed toward System Administrators and uses
Linux for the examples. It should work with other flavors of Unix provided
that they have a loop device or a method of mounting a CD image file within
the directory tree as a block device using the iso9660 file system.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Things You'll Need

 The commands and utilities needed to setup your own CD Server are already
included in most (if not all) Linux distributions.

 

��*�  A Linux Distribution (This HOWTO uses   Linux-Mandrake for the
    examples)
   
��*�  dd - Converts and copies a file (a standard Unix command)
   
��*�  mount - Mounts and Unmounts filesystems (a standard Unix command)
   
��*�  Samba - A Windows SMB/CIFS fileserver for Unix
   
��*�  NFS (optional for Unix) - Network File System (included in Linux
    distributions)
   
��*�  Netatalk (optional for Macs) - A package that lets a Unix machine
    supply Appletalk print and file services on a LAN.
   

Note
     Previous to the 2.4 kernels, the Linux-Mandrake distribution I was using
    only had support for 8 loop devices compiled into the kernel (see Section
    3 to increase this number). At that time, you were only be able to share
    8 CD's on a network with that default value, and to share more than 8,
    the loop block driver source code (loop.c) needed to be modified and a
    new kernel compiled.
   
    With the 2.4 kernels, that is no longer required. You can now set the
    number of loop devices dynamically via the max_loop module parameter, or
    by passing max_loop=[1-255] to the kernel on boot.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.3. Suggested Reading and References

  SMB HOWTO by: David Wood, dwood (at) plugged.net.au. Part of the Linux
Documentation Project. This document describes how to use the Server Message
Block (SMB) protocol, also called the Session Message Block, NetBIOS or
LanManager protocol, with Linux using Samba.

  Using Samba by: Robert Eckstein, David Collier-Brown, Peter Kelly 1st
Edition November 1999, O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. ISBN 1-56592-449-5,

  The Linux CD-ROM HOWTO by: Jeff Tranter, tranter (at) pobox.com. Part of
the Linux Documentation Project. How to install, configure, and use CD-ROM
drives under Linux. It lists the supported hardware and answers a number of
frequently asked questions. This HOWTO also gives some information on using
multi-platter CD-ROM drives with Linux.

  CD-Writing HOWTO by: Winfried Tr�mper, winni (at) xpilot.org. Part of the
Linux Documentation Project. This document explains how to write CD-ROMs
under Linux. This HOWTO also includes information on making 1:1 image copies
of CD-ROMs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Copyright and License

  CDServer-HOWTO, Copyright � 2000-2002, by [mailto:randy@talcon.com]
Randolph J. Tata, All Rights Reserved

  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license
is included in Appendix A entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Disclaimer

 Use the information in this document at your own risk. I disavow any
potential liability for the contents of this document. Use of the concepts,
examples, and/or other content of this document is entirely at your own risk.

 All copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically noted
otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting
the validity of any trademark or service mark.

 Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

 You are strongly recommended to make a backup of your system before major
installation and should make backups at regular intervals.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6. News

 As always, check the revision history at the top of this document.

 [http://www.talcon.com/projects/CDServer-HOWTO/CDServer-HOWTO.xml]  DocBook
XML source for this document is available. Any additions/changes should be
made to the DocBook XML source, not derivative formats.

 This documents home page is at the [http://talcon.com/cdserver-howto/]
CDServer-HOWTO site page in case you need the latest version, or there is a
problem with the page format you are viewing.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7. Credits

  My thanks go the readers of this HOWTO and those willing to share their
experiences and knowledge with me. I have the pleasure of acknowledging:


Mark F. Komarinski   markk (at) linuxdoc.org       LDP Author Guide          
Jorge Godoy          godoy (at) metalab.unc.edu    LDP Author Guide          
David C. Merrill     dcmerrill (at) mindspring.com LDP Author Guide          
Stein Gjoen          sgjoen (at) nyx.net           HOWTO-Template            
Gregory Leblanc      gleblanc (at) cu-portland.edu HOWTO-Template            
Greg Ferguson        gferg (at) sgi.com            HOWTO-Template            
Amar Chaouche        achaouche (at) linbox.com     mount unhide option       
Giblhauser Carl      mike (at) bawb.bmlf.gv.at     runoutblock i/o errors    
Michael                                                                      
Monte Milanuk        milanuk (at) yahoo.com        nfs help                  
Paul A. Sand         pas (at) unh.edu              loop module option        
                                                   max_loop                  
Tony Melia           Tony.Melia (at)               max_loop kernel boot      
                     downsmicro.com.au             parameter                 
Richard Black        Richard.Black (at) compaq.com more info and mknod script
Bradley Wendelboe    krakken (at) icehouse.2y.net  cdtower shell script      
James Mumm           dart (at) windeath.2y.net     cdtower shell script      

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.8. Translations

��*�  [http://kldp.org] Korean (html and sgml) at [http://www.ibiblio.org/pub
    /Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/korean/]   http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/
    Linux/docs/HOWTO/translations/korean/
   

 If you have the capacity it would be nice to make the CDServer-HOWTO
available in a number of formats and languages.

  If you've translated this document, please send to me:

��*�  Your name, email address, the language and URL to the translated
    document (preferred).
   
��*�  Or an email attachment of the work.
   

 Please send either to my email address at [http://www.talcon.com/]  Talcon
Information Systems: <randy@talcon.com>.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Procedure

 Summary of Steps

��*� Create a large partition to hold the CD Image Files.
   
��*� Copy the CD to an image file using the dd command.
   
��*� Mount the CD image file within the directory tree.
   
��*�  Share the directory on the network using Samba, NFS, etc.
   

  Also, make sure you've read Section 1 and Section 1.2.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. Creating the ISO Images

 Choose (or create) a file system with the largest available disk space on
it. Keep in mind that CD-ROM's can hold around 640MB of data, so if you want
to share 8 full CD's on your network, you'll need 5.1GB of space available.

 Login as root or "su" to root.

 
bash# df -h                                                                  
                                                                             
                                                                             
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on                       
/dev/hda5             1.4G   82M  1.3G   6% /                                
/dev/hda1              15M  827k   14M   6% /boot                            
/dev/hda7             2.4G 1008M  1.3G  43% /usr                             
/dev/hda8            23.6G 11.7G 11.7G  50% /home                            
                                                                             

  Here the /home filesystem has the most available space, so it is the most
suitable filesystem to use for dumping the CD images to.

 
bash# cd /home                                                               
bash# mkdir image                                                            
bash# cd image                                                               

 Now, copy the CD to an ISO image. You must know the device name of your
CD-ROM drive (usually /dev/cdrom, it could be /dev/scd0 for SCSI CD-ROM's)
I'll use the Mandrake distribution CD-ROM as an Example:

 
bash# dd if=/dev/cdrom of=mndrk81.iso                                        

Note
      The "if=" is the input file, the "of=" is the output file. You should
    see a message stating the number of records in and number of records out.
   
    If you see i/o errors, they will most likely be due to the lead-in and
    lead-out runoutblocks on the CD. If the number of records in and number
    of records out do not match you may have a problem, otherwise the image
    will most likely be alright, but you can never know if the errors
    happened while reading the ISO part of the CD or not (due to dust or
    scratches on the CD).
   
    Other utilities to read CD's exist, like readcd or sdd.
   
    More information about making 1:1 copies of CD's exists in the [
    CD-Writing-HOWTO], see Section 1.3.
   

 My thanks to Giblhauser Carl Michael for the runoutblock information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Mounting the ISO Images

 The next step is to mount the ISO image file. Let's create a directory under
/mnt to place the mounted file.

 
bash# cd /mnt                                                                
bash# mkdir iso                                                              
bash# cd iso                                                                 
bash# mkdir mndrk81                                                          

 Now mount the ISO image file to this newly created directory

 
bash# mount -o loop,unhide -t iso9660 -r /home/image/mndrk81.iso /mnt/iso/mndrk81 

Note
      The "-o loop" means use the option that mounts a file as a block
    device. The unhide option shows hidden files. The "-t iso9660" means that
    the file is in the iso9660 CD-ROM format. The "-r" means to mount
    read-only.
   

  Thanks to Amar Chaouche for pointing out the unhide option for the mount
command.

 Now you can:

 
bash# cd mndrk81                                                             
bash# ls -al                                                                 

  You should see a listing (ls) of the files and directories that are on the
actual CD (only now they're inside the ISO image file, and that's what you're
currently looking at!)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. Mounting the Image upon System Restart

 Now that we've manually mounted the image, and made sure it works, an entry
needs to made in the /etc/fstab file so that the image is remounted on the
next system startup. It's important to make the entry AFTER the entry for the
parent filesystem, e.g. /home (I use vim, but emacs, joe, pico or jed will
work just as well):

 
bash# vim /etc/fstab                                                         

 After the line that looks like the following (or whichever filesystem you've
placed your images):

 
/dev/hda8 /home ext2 defaults 1 2                                            

 Insert the following line with your text editor:

 
/home/image/mndrk81.iso /mnt/iso/mndrk81 iso9660 ro,loop,auto,unhide 0 0     
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Sharing it on a Windows Network using Samba

 You'll need to have Samba installed and working to perform the next steps
(that's outside the scope of this instruction, see Section 1.3). If it's not
yet installed, consult your Linux distribution's instructions for installing
the Samba package. Or you can visit the Samba website at [http://
us1.samba.org/samba/samba.html] http://us1.samba.org/samba/samba.html for
installation instructions, binaries, and/or the source code.

 To share your mounted CD's on a windows network, simply create a stanza in
the /etc/smb.conf file similar to the following:

 
[cdimages]                                                                   
  comment = All Shared CD Images                                             
  path = /mnt/iso                                                            
  public = yes                                                               
  writable = no                                                              

  This will share all the subdirectories under the /mnt/iso directory on the
network. To mount the share to a local drive (in this case the I: drive),
bring up an MS-DOS Prompt on the Windows machine and type the following:

 
C:\> net use I: \\yourlinuxmachine\cdimages                                  

 Each CD image will now appear as a subdirectory on the I: drive of your
Windows machine.

 To mount ONLY the Mandrake CD image to a drive letter (we'll use M:, the
root drive of which, will correspond exactly to the CD as if it was just
inserted in the CD-ROM drive), create the following stanza in the /etc/
smb.conf file.

 
[mndrk81]                                                                    
  comment = Mandrake Linux 8.1                                               
  path = /mnt/iso/mndrk81                                                    
  public = yes                                                               
  writable = no                                                              

 Then, at your MS-DOS Prompt, mount it with the following command:

 
C:\> net use m: \\yourlinuxmachine\mndrk81                                   

Warning
      The Samba smb.conf file stanzas presented here are simplified, and not
    secure. Many more options exist for a Samba share which limit who can
    mount the shares, control how user authentication is performed, and
    whether the share is even browseable through Network Neighborhood on the
    Windows machines.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.5. Sharing the Images on a Unix network using NFS

 Make sure that NFS is running and configured correctly on your Linux
machine, then add the following to the /etc/exports file using your own
preferred options:

 
# sample /etc/exports file                                                   
       /mnt/iso            (ro,insecure,nohide,all_squash)                   

Note
     The nohide option will allow you to mount a parent directory, without
    explicitly mounting all exported subdirectories beneath it.
   

 Now try running:

 
bash# exportfs -r                                                            

 This should re-export everything in your /etc/exports file.

  Now, when typing "showmount -e yourlinuxmachine" you should see that the /
mnt/iso directory is included in the exports list.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Adding Support for More Loop Devices

  Newer Linux kernels (2.4) allow you to add more loop devices easily by
editing /etc/modules.conf or through the use of a boot parameter.

  Older kernels (2.2 ?) only had support for 8 loop devices compiled into the
kernel. In short, you were only able to share 8 CD's on a network with this
default value. In order to support more than that default, you needed to
modify the kernel source and recompile a new kernel.

 Use the following methods to determine which version of the kernel you are
running.

 
bash# uname -a                                                               

 or

 
bash# cat /proc/version                                                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Adding the Loop Module Option

  Current kernels allow you to set the number of loop devices supported
without recompiling the kernel. One of these methods is to add an options
line to /etc/modules.conf. This method will only work if your loop support
has been configured as a loadable kernel module (which is how most major
Linux distributions come preconfigured now).

  Edit /etc/modules.conf and add the following line.

 
options loop max_loop=64                                                     

  After making the above change, simply reboot. Or you can try to use rmmod
and insmod to make the change on the fly - but this will not work if you
currently have any loop devices mounted (you'll get an error saying loop:
Device or resource busy).

Note
      If you do not have an /etc/modules.conf file, your module configuration
    file may be called /etc/conf.modules (this name is now deprecated).
   

  Continue with Section 3.4.

   Thanks to Paul A. Sand for pointing out the /etc/modules.conf option.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Appending to the Boot Prompt

  If your loop support has been compiled directly into the kernel (in other
words, it is not loaded as a module), you can append the number of loop
devices you would like to support at the linux boot prompt.

 
boot:  linux max_loop=64                                                     

  Or, if you are using LILO, you can edit your linux boot stanza in /etc/
lilo.conf and add/modify the append= line. Here is an example stanza showing
append= (note: only add or modify the append line, don't change your whole
stanza to look like this one or your system may not boot). For more
information about LILO, consult the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/
LILO.html] LILO mini-HOWTO at http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/LILO.html.

 
image=/boot/vmlinuz                                                          
        label=linux                                                          
        root=/dev/hdb5                                                       
        initrd=/boot/initrd.img                                              
                                                                             
        append=" max_loop=64"                                                
                                                                             
        vga=788                                                              
        read-only                                                            

  After changing /etc/lilo.conf, you need to run the lilo command for your
changes to take effect.
bash# lilo                                                                   
                                                                             
                                                                             
Added linux *                                                                
Added linux-nonfb                                                            
Added failsafe                                                               
Added windows                                                                
Added floppy                                                                 
                                                                             

  Next restart your system. After your system restarts, you can check your
boot command line by typing the following:

 
bash# cat /proc/cmdline                                                      

Note
      I am not sure if the loop module (compiled as a module) reads /proc/
    cmdline when the module is loaded, and therefore may not need an options
    line /etc/modules.conf. It's possible that it can (and if it doesn't, it
    should). To summarize: I have not tested this.
   

  Continue with Section 3.4.

   Thanks to Tony Melia for the boot prompt info.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Tweaking the Kernel

  If you have an older kernel (v. 2.2) or if you are completely comfortable
recompiling the kernel, you can increase the number of loop devices supported
by editing the /usr/src/linux/drivers/block/loop.c file.

Note
     If you find that the kernel sources are not installed on your machine,
    you'll need to consult your Linux Distribution's documentation on how to
    install them (the Kernel Sources come with all distributions - it's part
    of the GNU GPL licensing).
   

 Change the number in the following line to however many loop devices you'll
need.

 
#define MAX_LOOP 16                                                          

 Compile the new kernel or module as the case may be. If you need some help
getting started with this, read /usr/src/linux/README or consult [http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html]  The Linux Kernel HOWTO.

  Continue with Section 3.4.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. Creating the Loop Devices in /dev

  You should check how many /dev entries you have for loop devices.

 
bash# ls -l /dev/loop*                                                       

  The mknod command creates the devices in the /dev directory. The loop
devices have a major number of "7", and the minor numbers begin at "0". If
your MAX_LOOP was defined as "8" in /usr/src/linux/drivers/block/loop.c, you
should have /dev/loop0 through /dev/loop7. To create the /dev/loop8 device,
use the following command (subsitute the appropriate number you need for both
the "8's" in the example below).

 
bash# mknod -m660 /dev/loop8 b 7 8                                           

  Check Owner/Group & Permissions on the new file (using ls -l). You can
change the owner and group with the following command:

 
bash# chown root.disk /dev/loop8                                             

 You can change the permissions using the following command:

 
bash# chmod 666 /dev/loop8                                                   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. More Information

  Be sure to check the suggested reading in Section 1.3.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Frequently Asked Questions

 I finally had to create this section - Frequently Asked Questions. Although,
I sometimes think it should be called Frequently Answered Questions (at least
I try to answer them all).

Q: Can I copy CD contents to a directory and share it with SAMBA?
Q: Do any scripts or programs exist that automate this process?
Q: Do any web interfaces exist that automate this process?
Q: Can copy-protected CD's (e.g. laserlok) be shared in this way?

Q: Can I copy CD contents to a directory and share it with SAMBA?

A: In a word - Yes.

   
      There is nothing to keep you from doing that. However I'm not sure
    which arguments you would have to use with tar and which options to
    include in the SAMBA stanzas. Also, there could be problems with file
    name mangling (case sensitivity, spaces in file names), file attributes
    (read-only), etc. If anyone is doing this successfully, please send me
    examples of the commands you used for copying the contents of the CD, and
    your SAMBA stanzas for the shares.
   
      Here's some commands you can use to copy the contents:
   
     
    bash# cd /home                                                           
    bash# mkdir image                                                        
    bash# cd image                                                           
    bash# mkdir mndrk81                                                      
    bash# mount /mnt/cdrom                                                   
    bash# cd /mnt/cdrom                                                      
    bash# tar cvf - . | (cd /home/image/mndrk81; tar xvf -)                  
   
      Thanks to Giblhauser Carl Michael for this info
   
Q: Do any scripts or programs exist that automate this process?

A: Yes:

��*�Bradley Wendelboe and James Mumm wrote a shell script called CDTower -
    see Section 4.2.2 to download it.
   
    I have no independent test results of this script - use at your own risk.
   

Q: Do any web interfaces exist that automate this process?

A: Not yet. However there is much interest in this.

��*�Tony Melia [Tony.Melia (at) downsmicro.com.au] has announced that he is
    60% complete with a web interface, i.e. sucking CD's in, creating extra /
    dev/loop entries and seeing what space the CD's are taking up.
   
��*�I am planning on writing a module for Webmin to automate this process.
    That project is currently hosted on SourceForge at [http://
    sourceforge.net/projects/opencdserver]   http://sourceforge.net/projects/
    opencdserver
   

Q: Can copy-protected CD's (e.g. laserlok) be shared in this way?

A: To the best of my knowledge, No.

   
    Others have reported problems to me trying to share ISO images made from
    copy-protected CD's. It seems that even when using the "unhide" option
    with mount that files will remain hidden.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2. Other Instructions Available on the Web

  This section is devoted to instructional materials that others have written
or have sent to me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.1. Saving a CD-ROM to a File and Mounting it

  Richard Black (Compaq) has some good pages about Saving CD-ROM's to files
and mounting them in Red Hat Linux.

��*� [http://www.geocities.com/rlcomp_1999/cdimage.html] Saving a CD-ROM to a
    File and Mounting it
   
��*�  [http://www.geocities.com/rlcomp_1999/loop.html] Linux Loop Devices -
    This page also includes the script below for creating many loop device
    nodes at once in /dev.
   

 
Device nodes are required to access the loop devices. You already have loop0 - loop7.  
You can run the following loop to create the rest of the nodes (loop8 - loop255).      
You can type all of the following lines of code on one single line if you leave off    
the trailing "\" characters.                                                           
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
C=8; echo; echo "Creating loop device nodes."; \                                       
   while [ $C -lt 256 ]; do mknod /dev/loop$C b 7 $C; \                                
   echo -n .; C=`expr $C + 1`; done; echo;                                             
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
Note: the quoting around the expr section are called backtick's and they are located   
with the tilde character ("~") in the upper left hand corner of the keyboard. The      
character is not a single quote.                                                       

 Thanks to Richard Black for permission to add this info and for linking back
to this document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.2. CDTower v.06

 A script to automate the creation of ISO images and share them via Samba

 by Bradley Wendelboe [krakken (at) icehouse.2y.net] and James Mumm [dart
(at) windeath.2y.net]

 This software is covered under the GPL See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/
gpl.html]  http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html for details.

To view/download this script:
     [http://www.talcon.com/projects/CDServer-HOWTO/scripts/
    cdtower_v0.06.sh.txt]  http://www.talcon.com/projects/CDServer-HOWTO/
    scripts/cdtower_v0.06.sh.txt
   

Caution
    I have no independent test results of this script - use at your own risk.
   

 Thanks to Bradley Wendelboe for forwarding this script to me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Under Future Consideration

  These are things I'm currently looking into, trying to figure out, or
planning to get done.

��*�  Make more scripts available that others have sent to me, either within
    this howto, or by hosting them and linking to them from this document.
   
��*�  Sharing CD's to Apple and Netware clients (Appletalk and IPX).
   
��*�  Compressed ISO Images.
   
��*�  Changing CD Shares on the fly (hopefully transparent to users).
   
��*�  Adding a module to Webmin to automate the CDServer process.
   
��*�  Distribution specific instructions.
   
��*�  I have a volunteer for a German translation, hopefully it will be done
    soon.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

   
    Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite
    330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.
   
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0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
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1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics,
a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could
be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related
matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers
is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for
human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
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2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
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3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
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4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
    that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
    if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
    may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
    that version gives permission.
   
 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
   
 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
    the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
    License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
    required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
 I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an
    item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
    Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section
    entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year,
    authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
    add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
    sentence.
   
 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
    locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
    These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
    section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone
    of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
    therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
    text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
    title with any Invariant Section.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
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5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
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6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
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7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
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8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
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9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
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10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
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How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
      Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A
    copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
    Documentation License".
   
If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead
of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write
"no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise
for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.





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