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  Linux Chinese HOWTO English Version
  Chih-Wei Huang
  Cd Chen
  v1.04, 2 June 1998

  This document demonstrates how to implement Chinese available on Linux
  system, including those common problems encountered on Linux/UNIX sys-
  tem while using Chinese, the ways to obtain, and shows how to install
  and setup a variety of different Chinese softwares. Finally, we would
  like to take a bit little glance at the work for making a complete
  Chinese environment with Linux system.

  Table of Contents

  1. Foreword

     1.1 Introduction
     1.2 Awareness
     1.3 Newest Version
     1.4 Copyright and Announcement
     1.5 Goal
     1.6 Acknowledgement
     1.7 Words from The Translator--Frank J.S. Chen

  2. Difficulties of Using Chinese on Linux System

  3. Where to Get Chinese Softwares?

     3.1 Websites for Chinese softwares
     3.2 Using Archie

  4. Display and Input Chinese

     4.1 xcin+crxvt
        4.1.1 Getting the software
        4.1.2 Installation of xcin
     4.2 yact
     4.3 bcs16
     4.4 chdrv
        4.4.1 Getting chdrv
        4.4.2 Installation of chdrv
     4.5 cxterm
        4.5.1 Getting cxterm
        4.5.2 Installation of cxterm
        4.5.3 Color patch of CXterm
     4.6 XA (Xcin Anywhere)
     4.7 New Added Inputs
        4.7.1 xcin
        4.7.2 yact & bcs16
        4.7.3 chdrv
        4.7.4 cxterm
     4.8 Problems coming with input

  5. Chinese X Window System

     5.1 CXWin
        5.1.1 How to get it?
        5.1.2 Patches
        5.1.3 Installation
     5.2 Installation of Chinese fonts
        5.2.1 Where to get these fonts?
        5.2.2 Installation of X fonts
        5.2.3 Transformations from other fonts to X fonts
     5.3 TaBE & B5LE

  6. Printing for Chinese

     6.1 cnprint
        6.1.1 Where to get it?
        6.1.2 Setting up cnprint
        6.1.3 Installing HBF fonts
        6.1.4 Code Transformation
     6.2 ps2cps
     6.3 bg2ps
        6.3.1 Installing bg2ps
        6.3.2 Installing nps2cps
     6.4 gb2ps
        6.4.1 How to get gb2ps?
        6.4.2 Installing gb2ps

  7. Chinese Printing Softwares

     7.1 LaTeX + CJK
        7.1.1 Getting this software
        7.1.2 Installation
        7.1.3 Tests
        7.1.4 Adding New Fonts
        7.1.5 Creating CJK Documents
     7.2 ChiTeX
        7.2.1 Obatining it
        7.2.2 Installing
        7.2.3 Installing fonts
        7.2.4 Tests
     7.3 Dtop
        7.3.1 How to Get it?
        7.3.2 Installing
     7.4 ChinesePower
     7.5 EasyFlow

  8. Useful Chinese Softwares

     8.1 cjoe - Joe's Own Chinese Editor
     8.2 celvis
     8.3 cvim
     8.4 he
     8.5 hztty
     8.6 ktty
     8.7 Cemacs and CChelp For Emacs
     8.8 Mule
        8.8.1 Obtaining Mule-2.3 and patch for Linux
        8.8.2 Compiling and Installation
        8.8.3 Using Chinese in Mule-2.3
     8.9 hc
     8.10 ctin
     8.11 Some Other Toys

  9. Related Chinese Problems with Others

     9.1 Netscape Navigator
     9.2 sendmail
     9.3 procmail
     9.4 telnet
     9.5 less
     9.6 pine
     9.7 samba
     9.8 lynx
     9.9 minicom
     9.10 fingerd
     9.11 tintin++

  10. Chinese Linux

     10.1 Chinese Linux Documentation's Projects
     10.2 Chinese Linux Project
     10.3 Chinese websites of Linux
     10.4 Discussed groups of Linux

  11. FAQs

     11.1 Why Can't I Enter Chinese?
     11.2 I have got the NTU TTF fonts, but how can I decompress it?
     11.3 Netscape's title and tag cannot see Chinese?
     11.4 My Netscape cannot see Chinese?
     11.5 How to enter Chinese in Netscape?
     11.6 What's the difference between ChiTeX and CJK? Can I install them at the same time?

  12. Appendix - Chinese Softwares of FTP.IFCSS.ORG


  1.  Foreword

  1.1.  Introduction

  NOTE: I write the document to help novices. However, if it didn't,
  that's your problem, not mime! Don't complain that I WASTE your time,
  because nobody has to answer your questions, and nobody has to write
  documents to help you! You have been warned.

  This is a document, as a part of ``Chinese Linux Documentation
  Projects'', introduces the progress in fulfilling Chinese on Linux.
  The special point different from the other CLDP documents is that this
  HOWTO document, in turn, will be the first one and also the only one
  written in Chinese first and then translated into English later.^_^

  I have been made my best effort to ensure the exactness of this
  document, though; however, I couldn't give a guarantee for myself that
  all the operations and configurations can execute exactly and smoothly
  on your system. If any problems or losses have happened to your own
  system because of the executable examples issued in this document,
  which you have been followed, the authors, us, won't be in charge of
  any responsibility.

  The basic purpose carried with this document is to enormously reduce
  the questions repeated again and again, just like "Why can't I
  input/see Chinese?", "Why can't I set xxx up?" and so forth, occurred
  on Internet.  In fact, it is impossible as I knew it...

  1.2.  Awareness

  The shell program used in this document will be sh/bash. If other
  system(such as csh/tcsh) is your choice, you need to pay attention to
  the differences amongst them. On the configuration of environment
  variables, for instance, usage for sh/bash will be,

       # export TERM=vt100

  whereas for csh/tcsh ,

       # setenv TERM vt100

  1.3.  Newest Version

  Simultaneously, I provide the following various formats of different
  versions due to the mechanism of SGML document formats.

  o  Plain Text

  o  HTML

  o  PostScript

  o  SGML

     You can download these formats from the ftp

  Also, you may read directly the newest version of this document on

  o  <

  o  HomePage for Chinese Linux Documentation Projects

  English version could be obtained from:

  o  <>

  o  <

  Japanese translation is also available at(thanks to

  o  <

  o  <>

  1.4.  Copyright and Announcement

  The copyright of this Chinese HOWTO document belongs to Chih-Wei Huang
  <>.  You can make any copies, distributions and
  spread all or parts of this document. Acyually, you are encouraged
  very much to fulfill that statement real so that more and more netters
  could get some helps from it under the use with non-business. (DO NOT
  remove my name out of it, please.)  For business, contact the authors
  first.  The trademarks or packages mentioned in this document belong
  to the companies or the personal, respectively.

  1.5.  Goal

  I wish this document can offer a complete and self-sufficient
  explanation in the aspect of using Chinese on Linux system. What
  matters concerned with implementations of Chinese on Linux will put it
  all together here!  However, limited to the intelligence and private
  ability, the ultimate goal of my willingness is almost a "mission
  impossible"; therefore, if there are losses or drawbacks in it, please
  let me know it.

  1.6.  Acknowledgement

  I want to thank to Hong Zhang <> for being the
  original founder of this Chinese HOWTO document and for his papers of
  being the foundation of this new version.  Also, I need to thank to Cd
  Chen <> for completing the section``Display
  and Input Chinese''.

  The translator, Frank_J.S._Chen <>, also deserved
  the acknowledgments for translating this document into English.

  Here, there are many people ought to be acknowledged much better for
  the reasons of devoting their efforts to make Linux more reliable in
  Chinese. Because of their hard works, we can nowadays enjoy ourselves
  on a comfortable Chinese environment of Linux.

  1.7.  Words from The Translator--Frank J.S. Chen

  This work begins on 1/8/98 and ends on 1/11/98, which I call the
  version of 0.1, as I always did for the initial states of anything. I
  appreciate the hard work of Chinese version  for its delicate
  statements and not leaving out any detail in the field of Chinese
  practices. The more I translated, the more I learned.  After examining
  all the sentences I've made, there are definitely many of them won't
  like real American-English, or the so called Chinese-styled English.
  Well, if you are skilled in this field of translation or are
  interested in the circle of computers science, anything about this
  English article, just like grammar, writing, internationalization of
  locale with Linux, translation, programming with C/C++, and so forth,
  will be sincerely grateful and excessively welcome, too.(1/11/98,
  modified on 6/2/98) This is the secondary modification of it, focusing
  on the falses of typing, incorrect grammar, and correcting the
  meanings of ambiguous words(maybe a little research on sematics, just
  for this document:-)). I have no ideal about the translating quality
  of this paper, if you feel something strange or ill while reading,
  please let me know about it in my real heart. Pointing out the bad
  parts will be marvelous in spreading out this howto.  As far as I
  know, English version of it had been translated into several foreign
  languages including Japanese, Swedish, etc. If you want to do another
  one, just go ahead, but we suggest you to inform anyone of us about

  2.  Difficulties of Using Chinese on Linux System

  This section makes an attempt to do a general description for the
  possible obstacles in using Chinese on Linux; then you could find the
  key points out much easier as you meet with these problems. As a
  matter of fact, the shortcomings described here not only appear on
  Linux but also the other system. Even more, we can say that the whole
  computers environments are concerned. If this section is not suited
  for your tastes or you are eager to act directly, then you can jump
  onto the section``Display and Input Chinese''!

  A Chinese word is composite of two bytes in computers, as we all know.
  The most popular encoding methods includes BIG5 codes available in the
  area of Taiwan and GB codes available in the mainland China. The first
  byte of each word is almost bigger than numeric values 128, which is
  what we called the non-ASCII codes.(The ASCII codes means codes
  smaller than 128.)

  Yes! Then so what? Here are the points! Because of different kinds of
  reasons, in the early days, many programs didn't consider the
  possibility of non-ASCII codes as a part of entering data.

  These kinds of programs always assume that the data prepared to
  manipulation are all limited in the range of ASCII codes, and the most
  worst is that when they meet with non-ASCII codes, an assumption of
  their non-existence and a truncation of the 8th bit is the most
  frequent method they took.  This is the so called 8-bit clean problem.

  Your program, for example, always take it for granted that your inputs
  are all the 7-bit-width ASCII codes. When you enter Chinese words, it
  will erase the 8th bit so that the inputs under circumstances of
  Chinese will become disturbed codes all the way.
  Communication programs on Internet are usually could only transmit
  7-bit data. A notorious substance is the earlier sendmail program.
  sendmail could only send and receive 7-bit mails, causing that the
  strategies of many odd encoding methods, ``Encoding'' which made the
  receivers an excessive disturbance, are recognized as sending out
  Chinese mails(like uuencode, base64, QP and so on).  (Frequently, I
  thought by myself that if the founders of emails could have put much
  foresight on it, then we could have little problems nowadays perhaps.)

  This problem seems to be more complicated on Internet. Even you and
  your receivers all have the machines installed with sendmail program
  which might manipulate with Chinese mails, the receiver might get
  disturbed mails in any way.  This is because this mail before its
  arrival at the target may travel over several hosts settled on
  Internet, if one of the hosts' sendmail cuts the 8th bit off, then
  things go down.  For the programs with the architecture of
  client/server, the problem may be on the end of client, or on the end
  of server; otherwise both of them are.

  Applications which are incapable of identifying the Chinese encoding
  are also a major problem, apart from being unable to deal with non-
  ASCII codes' data. That is, most programs(even if they can deal with
  8-bit data accurately) all take a Chinese word as two individual
  bytes. This won't cause problems under some conditions, but it will
  show an unfortunate disaster under some spots.

  The most obvious matter is that, for instance, even if you can input
  Chinese words properly, but when you hit the backspace key a time
  trying to delete a complete word, the whole word will be split into
  wto parts meaning that only one byte(column) can backspace on monitor
  and the redundant half one then become a disturbed code.  More over
  than that, you might change new line at the second byte of a Chinese
  word in some text editors and then disturbed codes occurred. Besides,
  these text editors might think that a long Chinese sentence as a long
  English sentence without changing to a new line, making the picture of
  screen ugly and chaotic.

  There are more worse matters, too ! Some Chinese words contain special
  codes which correspond to some particular meaning for some
  applications and might make these programs producing severe faults
  while meeting with that codes or just collapse.

  Here below will try to propose some resolved methods but segmental,
  incomplete and also unsatisfactory.  Only when all softwares can fit
  with Chinese, then the problems could really resolve  perhaps.

  However, more and more programs have noticed the significance of
  internationalization, for example, most hosts' ``sendmail'' programs
  now can cope with 8-bit mails exactly --- Not only transmitting
  Chinese mails need 8-bit, but also many multi-media mails need 8-bit.
  ``Lots of softwares'' already don't need to modify at all or just open
  some special options for the purpose of using Chinese.
  Simultaneously, there are more and more persons devoting to the birth
  of Chinese softwares. Let's us wait and expect for it.

  3.  Where to Get Chinese Softwares?

  3.1.  Websites for Chinese softwares

  Most of the Chinese softwares issued in this document can get from
  these sites below:

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  3.2.  Using Archie

  There are usually some ordinary questions such as "Where can I find
  xxx...?" appeared on Internet. Actually, there was an excellent
  utility named archie could help you to search softwares you needed.
  Make a link to, and then enter the
  name of softwares that you want.  If you have a desire to use xcin,
  for instance, just input xcin can you get all these softwares
  concerned with xcin displayed on screen. Then, choose the nearest site
  to download those softwares. More illustrations in detail can be found
  on the archie's homepage for self-reference.

  You can use text mode, too.  telnet and login as archie,
  then type prog FILENAME and press ENTER key, for instance,

       Archie > prog xcin-2.1d.tar.gz
       # Search type: sub.
       # Your queue position: 1
       # Estimated time for completion: 5 seconds.
       working... =

       Host    (
       Last updated 08:47 27 Nov 1997

           Location: /packages/chinese/xcin
             FILE    -rw-r--r-- 1106789 bytes  08:58 25 Jul 1997  xcin-2.1d.tar.gz

  4.  Display and Input Chinese

  For environments of Chinese system under DOS or of Windows 95 for
  Chinese that you have been always using to get through Linux hosts,
  there is no doubt that you don't need to take a good look at this
  section. However, when your local host is Linux-based system,
  configurations for Chinese system are definitely necessary.

  4.1.  xcin+crxvt

  It is truly suggested that you can take the combinations of xcin and
  crxvt as a pathway to solve the problems of Chinese I/O if the X
  Window System is acquainted with you.

  Xcin, with a contraction of X Window Chinese INput, is a Chinese Input
  System executed under the X mode. Because xcin is utilizing the
  architecture of client/server, all you have to do is just to start one
  xcin window so that you can manipulate with many crxvt virtual
  terminals under the same window, which can exhaust much little
  resources.  Also, it offers some wise programs of input, like Wang-
  Hsing Input or Natural Input, which can select the matching phases by
  themselves. In the early age, in order to convert fonts and inputs
  table to fit with xcin, you need the ETen Chinese System mounted first
  before the installation of xcin. After the man, Tung-Han Hsieh,
  <> became responsible for the voluntary
  maintenance of xcin, this terrible problem had been resolved!

  The newest version is 2.3.02 now. But this one is just a version of
  beta. For the more stable one, I advise you to fetch the xcin-2.1d for
  a suggestion in my mind.

  4.1.1.  Getting the software

  Download the sources of xcin from this ftp site below:

  4.1.2.  Installation of xcin

  You need the xcin-2.3.02.tar.gz file at hand first to setup xcin of
  version 2.3.02 and untar and unzip it under any certain directory.

       # tar xzvf xcin-2.3.02.tar.gz
       # cd xcin-2.3.02
       # ./configure (Follow the instructions on screen to modify the options you picked up in turn.)
       # make
       # make install

  So, you have finished the setup of xcin of version 2.3.02 from now on.

  You can also get the same sort of xcin, named xcin-2.3.02.i386.rpm,
  maintained by Cd Chen for RedHat Linux System.

  Install it by

       # rpm -Uvv xcin-2.3.02-3.i386.rpm

  4.2.  yact

  yact is the system of displaying and inputing Chinese running under
  the terminal mode. The most different point from chdrv is that yact
  uses your computers' displaying card through svgalib library. Without
  the information of your video card contained in the svgalib, you may
  not probably make yact work on your Linux.

  The most admirable point for yact is that the fonts are scanned with
  24x24 on the monitor and are more beautiful than other terminal
  Chinese input system. And it is more smooth than the others in dealing
  with scrolling pages. The newest version of yact is yact-p4 now.

  You can get yact here below,

  The ways to setup yact are simple, too. After getting the sources of
  yact, decompress it and examine whether the Makefile file is correct
  or not, then type make all install directly on shell prompt to com-
  plete the installation of bits files.  Read the README file for more
  detailed information.

  Next is the step of fonts' setup. yact uses the HBF fonts, but you
  can't find the fonts in the packages of yact, which means you need to
  take extra actions to make it available. Having ETen Chinese System
  mounted is an original recommendation from the founder for its fonts.
  Copy the HBF fonts' description file et24.hbf under the fonts
  directory of sources of yact to the directory /usr/local/lib/yact and
  rename it as hzfont.hbf. Then copy STDFONT.24, SPCFSUPP.24, SPCFONT.24
  and ASCFONT.24 fonts files to the directory /usr/local/lib/yact and
  rename ASCFONT.24 as 12x24.

  The free HBF fonts are available, too. Change names of these 256 ASCII
  fonts as 12x24 and names of the HBF fonts' description file as
  hzfont.hbf. Put both of description files and fonts files into
  /usr/local/lib/yact, then everything will be ok.

  4.3.  bcs16

  Because yact needs the svgalib 1024x768 mode to work, many netters
  without ET4000 series cards cannot get well supports from it, causing
  their sickness of this excellent Chinese system.  The bcs16 is
  modified from yact according to this drawbacks. It needs only 640x480
  and can work very well on most video cards.

  Get bcs16 from this site:


  o  Decompress and compile it to setup

     # tar zxvf bcs007a.tgz
     # cd bcs16
     # make
     # cp bcs16 /usr/local/bin

  o  bcs16 take yact's input table as default and this is the reason
     that you must setup yact first before bcs16 can work. However,
     version of v0.05 or laters have been emerged with the support of
     individual Boshiamy input, so if you don't need other inputs
     provided from yact, you don't need to install yact first.  Just
     fetch Boshiamy input table,, of DOS version and put it
     into the directory /usr/local/lib/yact .

  o  Put files under directory data into /usr/local/lib/yact and all the
     legal fonts files, namely spcfont.15, spcfsupp.15, andstdfont.15 ,
     are need to put together in the same place, too.

  o  If you want to see GB codes or Japanese or Korean, get fonts
     cclib.16.gz cclib.16a.gz, jis.16.gz, ksc.16.gz from the site below
     and decompress them into /usr/local/lib/yact.

  o  If you have the files of creating fonts or sets of Sea-Fonts, you
     can copy them to the directory /usr/local/lib/yact/usrfont.15m too.

  o  Execute bcs16. Pressing Alt-H can get more advanced explanations of

  The founder of bcs16

  4.4.  chdrv

  chdrv is a Chinese emulator program displaying and entering Chinese
  through console. Because chdrv access the tty device directly, it must
  be activated by the root. Now, chdrv is maintained by Yu-Chung Wang
  <> and the newest one is chdrv-1.0.10.

  4.4.1.  Getting chdrv

  You can get it from

  Get the source package, chdrv-1.0.10.tar.gz, binary package,
  chdrvbin-1.0.10.tar.gz, and fonts package, chdrvfont.tar.gz, respec-

  4.4.2.  Installation of chdrv

  Unzip and untar the compressed binary file,

       # tar xvzf chdrvbin-1.0.10.tar.gz
       # mv chdrvfont.tar.gz chdrv-1.0.10/
       # cd chdrv-1.0.10

  Read the illustrations for installation in file INSTALL.1.0 to modify
  file install. If you want your shadow password to works, you need to
  change the settings in chinese.conf. Erase the following comments off,

  LOGINPROGRAM /bin/telnet

  Freeze this line into remarks,

  LOGINPROGRAM /bin/login

  Now, you can execute the installation script.

  # ./installbin

  4.5.  cxterm

  cxterm is a Chinese virtual terminal running under X Window System,
  and is the oldest Chinese displaying and inputing virtual terminal,
  which is provided various codes for Chinese, including BIG5 codes, GB
  codes, HZ codes and so on.  Because each cxterm opened needs to load
  Chinese data into the main memory, system resources are exhausted
  quite largely for it.

  4.5.1.  Getting cxterm

  The newest one is version of 5.0.p3 named cxterm5.0.p3.tar.gz, which
  contains both of cxterm codes and Chinese fonts. You can get it from
  here below,

  Or the rpm at cxterm-color-5.0p3-1.i386.rpm, cxterm-
  color-big5-5.0p3-1.i386.rpm, cxterm-color-gb-5.0p3-1.i386.rpm.

  4.5.2.  Installation of cxterm

  Decompress the packed,

       # tar -xvzf cxterm5.0.p3.tar.gz

  The upper instruction will produce a new directory cxterm-5.0, and
  then invoke instructions as follows:

       # cd cxterm-5.0
       # ./

  You need login as root to execute ``./'' if you wish all
  users on your computer can use cxterm well, then you can finish the
  steps of setup following the descriptions below:

    0. Read COPYRIGHT Notice
    1. Compile, Install, and Configure "CXTERM 5.0" in One Step

    2. Compile cxterm (not to install)
    3. Install cxterm (after successful compilation in 2)
    4. Install additional Chinese font(s) for your X window
    5. Configure your account for using cxterm (after installation in 3)

    x. Exit
  Please choose (0/1/2/3/4/5/x) :

  If you wish all things going through automatically, please choose 1,
  and then enter the name of directory where to store the cxterm. If
  asking me, I will suggest this place, /usr/local/chineseD There are
  two kinds of Chinese fonts coming with the packed package, choosing 1
  and 3 will make the procedure of installation all automatic.  In
  addition, you can select 4 to install some extra fonts, too. After
  achieving this setup, you need to put cxterm and CXterm into the path
  of searching directory.

       # export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/chinese/bin

  CXterm is just a shell script to load the resources of X and cxterm
  in.  For using GB codes, invoke this following command,

       # CXterm -gb

  For BIG5 codes, invoke this following command,

       # CXterm -big5

  4.5.3.  Color patch of CXterm

  On the website, there is
  a color patch for cxterm as well. Using this patch can make cxterm
  showing colors of ANSI.  Assuming that you put the original files of
  cxterm under the /tmp/cxterm-5.0, then

       # cp cxterm-5.0.p3-color.patch.gz /tmp
       # gzip -d cxterm-5.0.p3-color.patch.gz
       # patch < cxterm-5.0.p3-color.patch
       # cd cxterm-5.0
       # ./

  4.6.  XA (Xcin Anywhere)

  XA is a small tool of an abbreviation for Xcin Anywhere, which can let
  you enter Chinese words with xcin under any common X-based softwares.
  If making XA coordinating with CXWin(or XA+CV), you can get an
  environment of accessing Chinese for softwares not supported with
  Chinese. Thus, the xterm will become cxterm-like naturally. Cool,
  doesn't it?  XA is now extremely unstable as though, and you have to
  take charge of all risks if you want to explore it. As most things do,
  before working with XA, you must make xcin installed first. You can
  pick XA up into your pocket from here below:

  Decompress the packed. Run ./configure to produce mk and config.h on
  account for the compilation by using ./mk.  If it works, key in ./mk
  test xterm next to see if the xcin can be called out and enter Chinese
  under xterm to test.  If there is no problem, copy to
  /usr/local/lib/ following the syntax below:

       # LD_PRELOAD=/usr/local/lib/ netscape &

  Then, just follow the general method of using xcin.

  Founder of XA

  4.7.  New Added Inputs

  At present, there are two common formats of input table, namely tit
  and cin, which both are plain text of formats. (That's means you can
  edit them directly from text editors.)  However, most Chinese Systems
  almost provide utilities for the purpose of exchanging pure text of
  formats into special binary of formats in order to speed up searching
  method.  Before you setup some certain input, you must own it's tit ,
  cin, or formats after transformation first .

  I will take the Bo-Shia-My input as an example to show how to add it
  under each kind of Chinese system.  The input tables mentioned here
  can be found at

  Other tit files are also available at

  4.7.1.  xcin

  Make use of utility cin2tab provided from xcin to transform the cin
  table into tab one.

       # cin2tab boshiamy.cin

  It will produce the two files: and Put
  them into the directory of xcin and activate xcin next:

  # xcin -in9

  To use Bo-Shia-My input, press the combination keys CTRL-ALT-9.

  4.7.2.  yact & bcs16

  yact takes the use of cit of version 2, and the same as cxterm. You
  can use the tool tit2cit accompanied with yact to make transformation
  available between boshiamy.tit and cit.

  Move boshiamy.cit into /usr/local/lib/yact and establish a symbol link
  for it:

       # ln -s boshiamy.cit 9

  Like xcin does, Hit CTRL-ALT-9 for calling Bo-Shia-My input.

  4.7.3.  chdrv

  At first, put boshiamy.tbl into /usr/local/lib/chinese.  Secondly,
  modify /etc/chinese.conf, adding the follow section INPUT into it.

  PHONETIC /usr/local/lib/chinese/phone.def
  MULTI /usr/local/lib/chinese/boshiamy.tbl

  Finally, use utility chconfig of chdrv to make the contents of
  /etc/chinese.conf effective.

  4.7.4.  cxterm

  Change boshiamy.tit into cit or citnf with the utility tit2cit of
  cxterm, then modify .Xdefaults to set a combination key for acting Bo-
  Shia-My input. Please refer to the technical document coming with
  cxterm for more information about installation and implementation in

  4.8.  Problems coming with input

  After you accomplished the establishments of Chinese System, you have
  already been able to display Chinese on your Linux through monitors.
  However, as using a Chinese editor, you will find that the Linux
  system can only display Chinese but cannot accept the input of
  Chinese.  You have to modify two spots, by yourself, to make Linux
  system becoming acceptable with output and input of Chinese if you
  want to improve these problems At beginning, you need to add the
  locale setting to the shell profile file (Referring to the locale
  mini-HOWTO when concerning with locale).  Additionally, adding sets
  about inputs for the .inputrc file under your home directory is
  necessary too. (Please create it yourself if .inputrc didn't ever
  exist.)  Here are the configurations concerning with shell profile
  file and .inputrc file which are distributing on public domain(just as
  a reference, though):

  Bash Shell: Appending the following contents into /etc/profile,

  stty cs8 -istrip
  stty pass8
  export LANG=C
  export LC_CTYPE=iso-8859-1

  Tcsh Shell: Appending the following contents into /etc/csh.login or in
  /etc/csh.cshrc, please.

  stty cs8 -istrip
  stty pass8
  setenv LANG C
  setenv LC_CTYPE iso-8859-1

  $HOME/.inputrc file for setup lists as follows:

  set convert-meta off
  set output-meta on

  Eventually, prepare a text file contained with Chinese words by
  yourself, and use tool grep to search it. If it can find something
  exact, this means that your Linux system can work with Chinese words

  5.  Chinese X Window System

  X Window System is a software with powerful environment of graphical
  user interface under UNIX System. XFree86 is a modified version from
  MIT X Window System and also freely distributed.

  5.1.  CXWin

  The Chinese X, abbreviated with CXWin, is really a patch of XFree86,
  making it can show Chinese words under X Window System.  Founder of it
  is srlee <>.  CXWin only support BIG5
  code at present, and can let you be possessed of Chinese pop-up menus,
  of Chinese titles of windows, and of showing Chinese under a variety
  of window managers and applications.

  5.1.1.  How to get it?

  You can get CXWin 3.3 from this ftp site below:

  If you use XFree86 3.2, you can get the Linux ELF format of version

  All you need is to get the corresponding X server. For example, if
  your video card is matched with XF86_SVGA, just take XF86_SVGA.gz
  home.  XF86_SVGA.gz should work properly on most video cards.

  If you system is compatible with rpm, you can get the newest CXWin
  3.3.1 of rpm.

  5.1.2.  Patches

  You can get the patches at the same place to compile to binary files
  by yourself if you've got the sources of XFree86.

  5.1.3.  Installation

  Make sure that you have these shared libraries if your choice is CXWin
  3.3 (You can use ldconfig -p for an observation): => /lib/ => /lib/ => /lib/

  If your choice is CXWin 3.2, then you need the libc of version 5.2.18
  or newer.

  First, unzip the compressed files of gzip.

       # gzip -d XF86_SVGA.gz

  Duplicate the original X server as a copy as the root identification.

       # cd /usr/X11R6/bin
       # mv XF86_SVGA XF86_SVGA_BACKUP

  Put the decompressed CXWin into the exact place and create the decent
  symbolic link:

  # mv /tmp/XF86_SVGA /usr/X11R6/bin
  # chown root.bin XF86_SVGA
  # chmod 4755 XF86_SVGA
  # ln -sf XF86_SVGA X

  If your choice is rpm, then everything is more simple and more

       # rpm -Uvv XFree86-SVGA-3.3.1-1c.i386.rpm

  CXWin needs the following four BIG5 fonts to work normally: taipei15,
  taipei16, taipeik20 and taipeik24.  Install these Chinese fonts in
  accordance with the method of next section.

  5.2.  Installation of Chinese fonts

  5.2.1.  Where to get these fonts?

  Maybe you have already installed some Chinese fonts; for GB fonts, you
  can find them out through the next way:

       # xlsfonts | grep gb
       -isas-fangsong ti-medium-r-normal--0-0-72-72-c-0-gb2312.1980-0
       -isas-fangsong ti-medium-r-normal--16-160-72-72-c-160-gb2312.1980-0
       -isas-song ti-medium-r-normal--0-0-72-72-c-0-gb2312.1980-0
       -isas-song ti-medium-r-normal--16-160-72-72-c-160-gb2312.1980-0
       -isas-song ti-medium-r-normal--24-240-72-72-c-240-gb2312.1980-0

  The last five fonts are the previous five ones' aliases. To check the
  installed BIG5 fonts, using

       # xlsfonts | grep big5

  You can take all of it from this ftp site
  ware/fonts/ if you haven't installed any of them or if you want more
  of them. The gb/bdf/ amongst them is a GB font while the big5/bdf is a
  BIG5 font.

  5.2.2.  Installation of X fonts

  Assuming that you have already got a BIG5 font, eb5-24k2.bdf.gz, and a
  GB font, gb24st.bdf.gz. What you have to do first is that changing
  them into the format of .pcf.

       # gzip -cd eb5-24k2.bdf.gz | bdftopcf -t > eb5-24k2.pcf
       # gzip -cd gb24st.bdf.gz | bdftopcf -t > gb24st.pcf
       # compress *.pcf

  Then install them under /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc

       # mv *.pcf.Z /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/
       # cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc
       # mkfontdir .

  Now it should contain the following two lines in fonts.dir:

       eb5-24k2.pcf.Z -kc-kai-medium-r-normal-fantizi-24-240-75-75-c-240-big5.eten.3.10-1
       gb24st.pcf.Z -isas-song ti-medium-r-normal--24-240-72-72-c-240-gb2312.1980-0

  You can create other aliases for these fonts for the advantages of
  saving typing time when using Chinese softwares.  Add the two lines in

       gb24st    "-isas-song ti-medium-r-normal--24-240-72-72-c-240-gb2312.1980-0"
       taipeik24 "-kc-kai-medium-r-normal-fantizi-24-240-75-75-c-240-big5.eten.3.10-1"

  Next, tell X Server to reload these fonts,

       # xset fp rehash

  If everything is fine, you can use the new fonts now:

       # cxterm -GB -fn 12x24 -fh gb24st &

  You can put these fonts into another directory, too, for instance,
  /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/chinese.  If this works, you have to add this
  line /etc/XF86Config to the Section "Files",

           FontPath    "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/chinese/"

  So, when you start X next time, you can use these fonts without any

  5.2.3.  Transformations from other fonts to X fonts

  There is a TTF2BDF program, written by lwj, can let you transform the
  TTF fonts of Windows into BDF fonts. You can get it from here below:

  This is a Win32 program, thus you must execute it on Windows 95 or NT.

  Next step is that change BDF into PCF, then you can use it under X.
  (You can use BDF directly under X; but that BDF carried with bigger
  sizes means PCF will be a better choice though.)

       # bdftopcf -t < ming.bdf > ming.pcf

  You may change HBF into BDF and PCF fonts, too. Here is the ftp site
  for the utility of transformation.

       # hbftobdf ccfs24.hbf > ccfs24.bdf
       # bdftopcf -t < ccfs24.bdf > ccfs24.pcf

  Other nice font conversion programs are available at:

  5.3.  TaBE & B5LE

  TaBE and B5LE(Big5 Locale Environment) are projects both based on
  locale for solving the Chinese ability under X.  If we can finish
  them, then the problems coming with Chinese I/O under X can be
  resolved thoroughly.

  The TaBE author, shawn, has been taken for the military service in
  Taiwan, and the homepage of TaBE had been removed either(so awfully?),
  so this project has been dead from that time.
  Author of B5LE is Thinker <>. However, the
  major platform is FreeBSD , though. If someone install B5LE
  successfully on Linux platform, please let me know about it. The
  concerned homepage is listed as follows:


  6.  Printing for Chinese

  This section will teach you how to print Chinese documents, but
  without the demonstrations of how to set up your printer; that you
  have to make it all ready by yourself.  Tools introduced in this
  section are all for transformations to PostScript format; hence, you
  need to set your printer up in order to print PostScript files. If
  your printer doesn't support PostScript directly, you can install
  ghostscript instead.  Please refer to Printing HOWTO.

  6.1.  cnprint

  cnprint is a printing tool for the purpose of changing Chinese text
  files into PostScript format, of which commands are the same as the
  standard ones. It supports GB, HZ, and BIG5 codes simultaneously.

  6.1.1.  Where to get it?

  Download it from, of which
  name is cnprint280.tar.gz.

  6.1.2.  Setting up cnprint

  cnprint280.tar.gz contains only five files.

       # ls
       cnprint.1          cnprint.cmd        cnprint280.README

  Compile it through this way below:

       # gcc cnprint.c -o cnprint
       # mv cnprint /usr/local/bin
       # mv cnprint.1 /usr/local/man/man1

  6.1.3.  Installing HBF fonts

  HBF fonts includes both description files and fonts files. A .hbf is
  the header file describing fonts, with a texture of plain text,
  recording the file names of its fonts files.  Both of two files must
  be installed yourself. You can find them at

  If you want to use ccfs24.hbf, for example, which is a sort of
  simplified Sung-imitated style font, you must obtain these three
  following files: ccfs24.hbf, cclib.n24 and ccsym.24.  In the ifcss
  fonts directory, 00index.txt lists all HBF fonts' filenames.
  Establish a specific directory to store HBF fonts, just like
  /usr/local/lib/chinese/HBF/, for instance. Put all HBF description
  files and fonts files you've got together under this directory, then
  export the complete directory pathname for HBF out of environmental

       # export HBFPATH="/usr/local/lib/chinese/HBF/"

  This file cnprint.cmd contains some default values for cnprint, that
  you have to fix them up to point to the HBF fonts you have installed,
  and then export it to $HBFPATH.

       # cp cnprint.cmd $HBFPATH

  Now, you can use ``cnprint -w FILENAME'' to change Chinese text files
  into PostScript files well. For more information in detail, take a
  look at man cnprint yourself.

  6.1.4.  Code Transformation

  The cnprint 2.80 has been added a great deal of splendid abilities
  such as transformations amongst various code formats, for example,
  BIG5 <=> GB <=> HZ.  For BIG5 <=> GB, you need another tabulation for
  installing, though, which can be found from this following site:

  Put it under the fonts directory of HBF, and modify cnprint.cmd,
  adding this

       DEFAULT_GBB5_TABLEFILE: /usr/local/lib/chinese/HBF/

  Not only, for BIG5 into GB codes, can the transformation of cnprint
  2.80 against words to words be done, but also the work against phases
  to phases. However, cnprint itself didn't offer the dictionary for
  transformations, that means that you have to create a dictionary
  yourself if you need one. Please refer to man cnprint for more

  6.2.  ps2cps

  The purpose of this small program is to make PostScript files, which
  could not pork Chinese out to output devices, available for Chinese
  output.  For example, when Netscape is printing files, it will
  transport files into PostScript formats first; however, the outputs of
  PostScript won't load Chinese fonts so that the original parts of
  Chinese words will become disturbed codes to output.  This program can
  read PostScript in, and replace the disturbed codes with corresponding
  words; afterwards pork the results out to the standard output devices,
  which the output data can send to the printer that can print
  PostScript documents.

  Pick ps2cps up from this site:

  Untar and unzip this file, and modify Makefile according to your

           BINPATH    : Installing pathname for binary ps2cps
           PS2CPSPATH : Resources files' pathname for PS2CPS
           PS2CPSRC   : Filename of resources files for PS2CPS

  Next step is make all install.

  You have to install HBF Chinese fonts first according to the previous
  section, and then modify your ps2cpsrc file:

           HBF_PATH:      Define the directory pathname of HBF fonts
           HBF_NAME:      Define filenames of HBF fonts(NOT including pathname)
           CH_WORD_SHIFT: Define shift of Chinese fonts

  The last item is used for adjustment of Chinese fonts' locations. Some
  Chinese fonts and the original English fonts may probably not locate
  on the same horizontal level line, so you can set this variable, of
  which numeric values ranging from -1.0 to +1.0, activated to adjust it
  up or down.

  So, you can use that examples made from the founder to do some tests:

       # ps2cps >

  Use ghostview to see whether you can see Chinese words or not.

  However, this program is still under beta, there are so many problems
  waitting for resolving. If you have any questions or recommendations,
  you can send messages to the author directly: Tung-Han Hsieh

  6.3.  bg2ps

  This is another program which can transform BIG5-based Chinese files
  into PostScript available for printing(the same as cnprint).  But
  because it uses the TrueType fonts, the output is more beautiful than
  others. In addition, it has a script which can transform PostScript
  out of Netscape into Chinese.  The author is Chen-Shan Chin

  Get this software from this web site:


  6.3.1.  Installing bg2ps

  Decompress and compile it:

       # mkdir bg2ps
       # cd bg2ps
       # tar xzvf bg5ps.tgz
       # gcc -O2 ttf2psm.c -o ttf2psm

  Install TrueType fonts next. You can install it under the same
  directory of bg2ps or can assign another directory for use. Refer to
  ``Installing TTF fonts'' for more explanations.  Then create a
  .bg5ps.conf under the directory, and you can pick directly up the
  sample file coming with this program to modify.  The most important is
  to assign the directory where you installed the TrueType fonts to
  chineseFontPath, and rename the content of fontName to the fonts name
  you used.

  Test the sample coming with it, and view the output as ghostview or

       # ./bg5ps -if test.big5 -of
       # ghostview

  6.3.2.  Installing nps2cps

  The nps2cps has no extra configuration files. You need to modify
  yourself  chineseFontPath and fontName in nps2cps script.

  Test nps2cps:

       # nps2cps < >
       # ghostview

  6.4.  gb2ps

  The gb2ps program is another tool for printing GB and HZ codes.

  6.4.1.  How to get gb2ps?




             csong24.ccf     ckai24.ccf
             cfang24.ccf     chei24.ccf

  Put the fonts under certain self-established directory, just like

  6.4.2.  Installing gb2ps

  Change the settings in Makefile before compiling gb2ps.


  Then type these commands and hit return key,

       # make
       # cp gb2ps /usr/local/bin

  7.  Chinese Printing Softwares

  7.1.  LaTeX + CJK

  TeX/LaTeX is a set of printing softwares, of which excellent and
  elegant output quality have been admiring and adopting out of the
  academic circles for several years. The CJK is a LaTeX2e macro
  package, which can let you use CJK (Chinese/Japanese /Korean) literal
  codes in TeX documents.

  You need install TeX/LaTeX first on your Linux system; many Linux
  distributions have been included teTeX/LaTeX already. If haven't, you
  could install it by yourself. Please link to teTeX HOWTO for more

  7.1.1.  Getting this software

  Obtain CJK 4.1.3 from this site:

  Bring the demanded TTF fonts home:

  7.1.2.  Installation

  You must have an clear ideal about the teTeX/LaTeX installing
  directory, $TEXMF, for example, /usr/lib/texmf.  And I assume that you
  will use the ntu_kai.ttf font; if doesn't, make a change to match it.

  o  Put the downloaded fonts, after ``decompression'', into the

  o  Unzip and untar CJK-4.1.3.src.tar.gz, and mv the sub-directory
     texinput to $TEXMF/tex/latex, and rename it to CJK, and create the
     fonts directory.

       # cd 4_1.3/; mv ./texinput $TEXMF/tex/latex/CJK
       # mkdir -p $TEXMF/fonts/tfm/chinese/ntukai
       # mkdir $TEXMF/ttf2pk
       # mkdir $TEXMF/hbf2gf

  o  To come immediately, it will probably be the most difficult step.
     You need to invoke patch command to append *.diff under
     4_1.3/doc/teTeX upon these following files:


  For instance:

       # cd /usr/bin
       # patch -s < 4_1.3/doc/teTeX/MakeTeXPK.diff

  According to the enormous TeX versions, your action with patch may
  fail perhaps. If so, you need to do it manually by yourself to patch
  these parts of failure( the portions of failure will record in .rej).
  If you don't understand the theory of patch well, you had better get
  someone experienced to help you.

  o  Compiling and installing bg5conv

       # cd 4_1.3/utils/Bg5conv; gcc -o bg5conv bg5conv.c
       # chmod 755 bg5latex
       # cp bg5conv bg5latex /usr/local/bin/
       # gzip bg5conv.1; cp bg5conv.1.gz /usr/local/man/man1/

  Because there are some codes in BIG5 TeX documents may contain {, }, &
  and so forth, which are the specific tokens to TeX , the bg5conv can
  change this codes into certain format that can let TeX manipulate.

  o  Compile and install ttf2pk, which can change TrueType fonts into
     TeX's pk fonts.

       # cd 4_1.3/utils/ttf2pk/src
       # make all OS=unix
       # cp ttf2pk /usr/local/bin/
       # cd ..
       # cp config/ttf2pk.cfg  $TEXMF/ttf2pk/
       # gzip ttf2pk.1; cp ttf2pk.1.gz /usr/local/man/man1/
       # cp c00kai.fd $TEXMF/tex/latex/CJK/Bg5/
       # cp MakeTTFPK /usr/local/bin

  o  If you want to print documents vertically, you have to edit a
     c00kair.fd file under $TEXMF/tex/latex/CJK/Bg5/:


     % traditional Chinese characters in Big 5 encoding scheme.

     % font shape: kai
     % ntu_kai.ttf is Kai3 Shu1 (&quotmodel book")


     \DeclareFontShape{C00}{kair}{m}{n}{<-> CJK * ntukar}{}
     \DeclareFontShape{C00}{kair}{bx}{n}{<-> CJKb * ntukar}{\CJKbold}


  o  Execute texconfig:

       # texconfig rehash
       # texconfig hyphen

  7.1.3.  Tests

  o  Horizontal printing tests:

  # cd 4_1.3/examples
  # bg5latex Big5.tex          (See if there is a Big5.dvi appeared ?)
  # xdvi Big5.dvi              (Can you see Chinese? Of course, in X mode)
  # dvips Big5.dvi -o  (Change to PostScript format)
  # ghostview          (View it as ghostview)
  # lpr                (Send it to printers, see if there are Chinese printed.)

  o  Vertical printing tests: You can use the Big5vert.tex file under
     examples to repeat those previous procedures.

  7.1.4.  Adding New Fonts

  For example, if you want to change to the Ming style font ntu_mm.ttf,

  o  put your TrueType fonts under $TEXMF/fonts/truetype/chinese.

  o  And then add the two lines in $TEXMF/ttf2pk/ttf2pk.cfg:

       ntumm:  -e Big5 $TEXMF/fonts/truetype/chinese/ntu_mm.ttf
       ntummr: -r 1 -e Big5 $TEXMF/fonts/truetype/chinese/ntu_mm.ttf

  o  Create the c00ming.fd file:

       # cd 4_1.3/utils/ttf2pk
       # cp c00ming.fd $TEXMF/tex/latex/CJK/Bg5/

  o  Execute the texconfig again.

  o  Change kai to ming in file 4_1.3/examples/Big5.tex, and then repeat
     this steps, bg5latex, xdvi, dvips and so on, to see if the results
     correct or not.

  o  If you want to print files vertically, redo this section's
     installation and create the c00mingr.fd file listed as follows, and
     then change kair to mingr in Big5vert.tex file, and repeat tests



     \DeclareFontShape{C00}{mingr}{m}{n}{<-> CJK * ntummr}{}
     \DeclareFontShape{C00}{mingr}{bx}{n}{<-> CJKb * ntummr}{\CJKbold}


  7.1.5.  Creating CJK Documents

  The dominant difference between Chinese CJK TeX documents and general
  LaTeX ones is that:

  o  There should exist the \usepackage{CJK} command in the preamble
     (\documentclass to \begin{document}^section, that means you must
     have CJK.sty loaded.

  o  Chinese words must be under the circumstances of CJK or CJK*.

  o  If you want to change fonts, you can use \CJKfamily command, for
     example, the command \CJKfamily{fs} will change the following fonts
     as Song-imitated fonts( Certainly, the fs fonts' name must be
     defined in c00fs.fd).

     This is a demonstration for CJK document:


           \section{first section}
           \section{second section}
           Paragraphs, sections, pictures, tables, references and so forth...


  7.2.  ChiTeX

  Developed by professor Chen Hung-Yih <>.
  Operations with the ChiTeX are easy enough just like the English TeX,
  apart from some special instructions.

  7.2.1.  Obatining it

  From here, you can find its vestige:

  7.2.2.  Installing

  You should know what's the version of TeX installed on your Linux.. On
  older system, the installed one usually is NTeX while on newer one, it
  will be always teTeX .  How to tell which TeX you've installed, teTeX
  or NTeX, on your Linux System. Just run the TeX. If the monitor

       This is TeX, Version 3.14159

  , then it is teTeX. Otherwise,

       This is TeX, Version 3.1415N

  It is NTeX.  Download the exact ChiTeX corresponding to your version
  of TeX.

  It is simple to install ChiTeX. Just put chitex60.tgz(teTeX) or
  chitexN.tgz(NTeX) and fonts1.tgz, fonts2.tgz under /usr/local.  And
  decompress chitex60.tgz to execute setup program csetup.

       # tar zxvf chitex60.tgz
       # cd chitex60
       # ./csetup

  If you are using Red Hat 5.0, you may install the rpm package I made:

  7.2.3.  Installing fonts

  You can install Chinese TrueType fonts for ChiTeX.

  o  Put TrueType fonts under $TEXMF/fonts/chinese/ttf.

  o  Modify $TEXMF/tex/chinese/chitex.fdf, and add a new line:


  In it, the filename is the fonts' names erased the .ttf part, and
  \fontname is the macro that you can use for this font in your docu-
  ment.  For example, if you want to use a font named avntmv.ttf, put a
  line \choosechfont{ming}{avntmv}, and use the macro \ming to use the
  font avntmv.ttf.

  o  In chitex.fdf, there were several fonts defined; thus, if you want
     to install these fonts, you don't have to change chitex.fdf any

        \kai    ---->  ntukai.ttf
        \li     ---->  ntuli.ttf
        \mr     ---->  ntumr.ttf
        \fs     ---->  ntufs.ttf

  7.2.4.  Tests

  Now, you can take the samples enclosed with ChiTeX to test:

       # chilatex math2.tex        (Compiling)
       # xdvi math2                (pre-viewing)
       # dvips math2               (Changing to PostScript file)
       # ghostview        (Using ghostview to view the output)

  You can also write a small document to test the new installed fonts:

     This is a test(You should type these words in Chinese).

  For more information, please refer to the homepage of professor Chen.

  7.3.  Dtop

  The Dtop is a Chinese printing software for the UNIX platform,
  developed by the Behavior Design Corporation <>.
  In early November, 1995, it released the version of v1.4, which was
  composite of five various platforms, simultaneously. The Linux beta
  version provided the users with a trial of free and endless
  expiration, which has created another nice Chinese environment for
  Linux fans. However, the formal version is late for publishing until
  now due to the tiny scope of business market. It seems that this had
  been ceased to develop.

  7.3.1.  How to Get it?

  The beta version of Dtop for Linux can download from each school's ftp

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  There are three sub-directories saying respectively,

        Storage for binary files and data files of Dtop, which can
        divide into three major files. After decompressing all files,
        the disk space demanded is about 40MB.

        Storage for related documents of Dtop, which are stored as the
        file format defined by Dtop. Users can read this papers through
        this beta version directly.

        Storage of references for X version of Dtop, which are stored as
        the file format defined by Dtop. The X version can access
        through Linux, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Sun 4.1.x, and Solaris directly.

  7.3.2.  Installing

  The hardware required is something like this: CPU 486 DX-33 or later,
  RAM 16MB or larger, 50MB disk space or so. If there is no enough
  memory on your system, you will get nuts someday.

  Decompress all the files under dtop.linux to a self-selected
  directory, for example, /usr/local/dtop.

  Before implementing it, you must first set environment variable
  $DTOPHOME, which is the directory that preparing to install Dtop. The
  $DTOPTMP is a temporary directory for Dtop, which is usually /tmp. The
  XAPPLRESDIR is the directory for resources files of Dtop, which is set
  at $DTOPHOME/user .

       # export DTOPHOME=/usr/local/dtop
       # export DTOPTMP=/tmp
       # export XAPPLRESDIR=DTOPHOME/user

  You need to set the Chinese fonts directory used by Dtop.

       # xset fp+ $DTOPHOME/pcf.chn

  Finally, you have to configure the Keysym matching table caused by the
  matching between Keysym and Keycode under X different from
  workstations. The Keysyms of BackSpace and Delete, for example, are
  all matching to the same Keycode under X, regarding the behavior of
  BackSpace as the Delete's in reality . To solve this problem, the Dtop
  creates a Keysym file, locating under $DTOPHOME/user of which filename
  is dtop_keysym.linux. After starting X, invoke the command,

       # xmodmap dtop_keysym.linux

  Another solution is that invoke commands directly on shell:

       # xmodmap -e "keycode 22 = BackSpace"
       # xmodmap -e "keycode 107 = Delete"

  When everything is ready, you can execute Dtop.

       # $DTOPHOME/bin/dtop14

  You may read all the on-line references enclosed in Dtop for more
  detailed introductions.

  7.4.  ChinesePower

  The ChinesePower is a Far-East Editor running under X, which is easy
  and classified as WYSIWYG.  It supports BIG5, GB, Japanese and Korean
  mixed inputs, and the printing and displaying PostScript format. It
  can generate GIF graphics of seven colors for documents, which is
  adequate for Chinese homepages. ChinesePower uses HBF or TTF fonts.

  You can get it from,

  To compile Chinese Power, you will need HBF fonts and Motif libraries.
  At first, modify Makefile to fit your system, then

       # make

  After making step, it will generate binary executable files.  Then
  export environment variables:

       # export HBFPATH=/usr/local/lib/chinese/HBF/
       # export TTFPATH=/usr/local/lib/chinese/TTF/
       # export HZINPUTDIR=/usr/local/lib/chinese/dict/
       # export CHPOWERPATH=path_of_chinesepower

  7.5.  EasyFlow

  This is developed by wycc <> , which can make
  simple printing for Chinese documents. Relative information is
  locating at


  8.  Useful Chinese Softwares

  8.1.  cjoe - Joe's Own Chinese Editor

  JOE is a free and professional ASCII codes' editor operated on UNIX
  platform, which is just like other text editors on IBM PC.  To use
  Chinese in JOE, you have to modify .joerc under your home directory.
  Refer to the homepage for details:


  CJOE is a Chinese version of JOE. Get it from here below:

  It is very simple to compile and install. Unless you want to change
  locations of binary or man page files, or just follows the steps

       # make
       # make install

  8.2.  celvis

  Celvis is a vi/ex-like editor on UNIX, which is almost supporting all
  instructions that vi/ex has.  You can edit articles including Chinese
  and English by using Celvis. Simultaneously, it also supports
  GB2312-80 and BIG5 codes.

  You can get it from here below,

  Decompress it,

       # tar zxvf celvis-1.3.tar.gz
       # cd celvis

  You need to change tmp.c, erasing 93-95 lines.

  #if OS9
                    if we don't have write permission...

  Then you can continue to compile it.

       # cp Makefile.s5 Makefile
       # make install

  Because its Makefile is not for Linux particularly, you may see many
  warning message while compiling and linking; however, don't mention
  it, just keep it away.  After it is done, the celvis will be installed
  under /usr/local/bin.
  8.3.  cvim

  cvim is a Chinese patch program out of vim-4.2, including some
  features like vi but has no track in celvis-1.3, such as line number,
  circling lines and large files' editions.  You can take
  vim-4.2-Chinese-patch and vim-4.2.tar.gz: from here,

  Untar and unzip following the steps below:

       # tar -xvzf vim-4.2.tar.gz
       # cd vim-4.2/src
       # patch < ../../vim-4.2-Chinese-patch

  Change vim-4.2/src/feature.h to fit your requires. It is simple to
  compile and install, that is,

       # make
       # make install

  8.4.  he

  he was a famous editor on DOS, and is a diversion of Linux version.
  But this is a shareware program, limited with a hundred lines'

  Obtain it from here,


  Login as root,

       # cd /
       # decompress he_linux.tar.Z
       # tar xvf he_linux.tar

  Refer to /usr/lib/he/notes2.2, /usr/lib/he/chap15 and
  /usr/lib/he/appendix for more simple illustrations.

  8.5.  hztty

  Hztty can make transformations among various Chinese codes. Decompress
  hztty-2.0.tar.gz first.

  # tar -xvzf hztty-2.0.tar.gz
  # cd hztty-2.0
  # make linux

  After compilation, move the binary file hztty to the directory bin,
  and move man pages to the directory man.

       # mv hztty /usr/local/bin
       # chmod 555 /usr/local/bin/hztty
       # cp hztty.1 /usr/local/man/man1
       # chmod 444 /usr/local/man/man1/hztty.1

  Please refer to the on-line manual of hztty to use it.

  8.6.  ktty

  This is another tool, like hztty, using for reading Chinese on kterm
  or pxvt.  Get it at this site:

  However, it cannot be compiled on Linux, that you need use the
  ``tty.c'' in hztty-2.0.tar.gz  and add the two lines to it.


  Then, you can make it work.

       # make linux

  8.7.  Cemacs and CChelp For Emacs

  Cemacs, using the GNU Emacs to show and edit Chinese files, has to run
  Emacs under Chinese virtual terminals while CCHELP is a system of
  providing Chinese assistant messages. After installed CCHELP, you can
  slip mouse to any Chinese word and click it without loosing, then
  there coming out with the messages about that word , including its
  pronunciation, English explanation and so forth. It supports both GB
  and BIG5 codes.

  You can get them from this site:

  Install cemacs and cchelp in accordance with the README file.

  8.8.  Mule

  The MULE is an abbreviation of MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs.
  In simplicity, it adds some materials to GNU Emacs to make it dealing
  with multi-languages(encoding systems). It encodes the encoding system
  of multi bytes again in its inner mechanism; hence, a piece of paper
  can simultaneously use Chinese(BIG5 and GB), Japanese, Korean,
  English, Thai, and so on.

  8.8.1.  Obtaining Mule-2.3 and patch for Linux

  You can get mule-2.3.tar.gz and patch mule-2.3+lx.diff.gz for Linux:

  If your system is Red Hat Linux, you can take mule-2.3-1.i386.rpm,
  mule-common-2.3-1.i386.rpm and mule-elispsrc-2.3-1.i386.rpm:

  8.8.2.  Compiling and Installation

  Decompress packed files and add the patch in.

       # tar -xvzf mule-2.3.tar.gz
       # patch < mule-2.3+lx.diff
       # cd mule-2.3/
       # ./configure "i386-*-linux" --with-x11 --with-x-toolkit --with-gcc

  If you want to rectify the out-looking of mule to fit your taste, read
  INSTALL file, please.  And run ``./configure --help''.  Then, correct
  ``src/Makefile'', changing ``-lcurses'' to ``-lncurses''.  Then,

       # make
       # make install

  Default installing directory is /usr/local.

  8.8.3.  Using Chinese in Mule-2.3

  If you have already installed fonts, you can use mule to enter and
  show Chinese. Most fonts are 16 or 24 points, so you can:

       # mule -fn 8x16 &


  # mule -fn 12x24 &

  According to M-x load-library RETURN chinese RETURN .  ``Ctrl-]'' to
  shift inputs.

  8.9.  hc

  This is a program of conversion for BIG5 and GB codes. Get it at this

  Decompress and install it:

       # tar zxvf hc-30.tar.gz
       # cd hc3
       # make
       # mv hc /usr/local/bin
       # mv /usr/local/lib/chinese
       # mv hc.1 /usr/local/man/man1

  For converting GB into BIG5 , using

       hc -m g2b -t /usr/local/lib/chinese/ < INPUT_FILE > OUTPUT_FILE

  For exchanging BIG5 into GB, using

       hc -m b2g -t /usr/local/lib/chinese/ < INPUT_FILE > OUTPUT_FILE

  You can write a shell script to simplify that instructions.

  8.10.  ctin

  The ctin a news reader of all complete Chinese messages. Get it from

  Set environment variables $NNTPSERVER first to export to the news
  server that you want to link before executing ctin.

       # export

  Then run tin.

  8.11.  Some Other Toys

  You can find several small tools capable of showing Chinese, such as
  cuptime, cw, cless, cwrite, cytalk, and so forth.

  9.  Related Chinese Problems with Others

  9.1.  Netscape Navigator

  Netscape 2.0 or later support both BIG5 and GB codes, which have
  already discussed on several homepages. To display Chinese in
  Netscape, there are three steps:

  1. Install Chinese fonts of X. Refer to the section ``Installing
     Chinese Fonts'' .

  2. Run netscape, and configure Document Encoding as Traditional
     Chinese (Big5) or Simplified Chinese.

  o  In Netscape 2.x or 3.x, this will configure at Options/Document

  o  In Netscape Communicator 4.x, configure it at View/Encoding/....

  3. Select the Chinese fonts you want.

  o  In Netscape 2.x, 3.x, configure it at Options/General

  o  In Netscape Communicator 4.x, configure it at

     Maybe you will feel so strange that why you can only use Fixed(HKU)
     Size 16.0, which is causing from the settings in
     /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/Netscape.  Assuming that you have
     the following BIG5 fonts:

       # xlsfonts | grep big5

  Add one line to /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/Netscape

       *documentFonts.charset*big5.eten.3.10-1:              x-x-big5

  Then, Netscape can use these fonts well.

  Another solution is to name aliases for your fonts's names: Adding
  aliases in the fonts.alias file(create it yourself if there is no such
  a file) under your fonts directory.

       -big5-taipeik-medium-r-normal--16-160-72-72-c-160-big5.hku-1 taipei16
       -big5-taipeik-medium-r-normal--20-200-72-72-c-200-big5.hku-1 taipeik20
       -big5-taipeik-medium-r-normal--24-240-72-72-c-240-big5.hku-1 taipeik24

  The fonts filenames, like taipeik20, are that you need to give aliases
  to them. After modification, do

       # xset fp rehash

  to reload fonts's names to make them available.

  You may find that the sizes of Chinese and English are out of
  proportion in homepages of Chinese-English languages(such as too small
  English words), which is the reason that what you've selected for
  English fonts and Chinese fonts is unbalanced at the magnitude. Go
  back to the configuration for fonts, and select Western(iso-8859-1).
  Then, in your opinion, change the size of English fonts to make it
  perfect in proportions.

  9.2.  sendmail

  Because defaults of sendmail 8.8.x will encode all 8-bit mails first
  before sending them out, which may or may not reduce influences to
  those receiver. (Refer to``Next Sub-Section'' for solutions).  Most
  hosts can directly send 8-bit mails now, so you had better re-compile
  sendmail and close the encoding ability.

  o  Get the newest version from this site(or mirror site):

  o  Decompress it and modify Makefile:

       # tar zxvf sendmail-8.8.8.tar.gz
       # cd src/Makefiles
       # chmod u+w Makefile.Linux
       # vi Makefile.Linux

  Add -DMIME8TO7=0 after CFLAGS+=.

  o  Compile and install sendmail:

  # cd ..
  # ./makesendmail all install

  o  Install man pages to the exact directory manually(It's ok if not

  o  Erase the old sendmail process:

       # kill -9 `head -1 /var/run/`

  o  Restart sendmail:

       # /usr/sbin/sendmail -bd -q1h

  9.3.  procmail

  procmail is an electronic mail filter, which can manipulate mails
  first before storing them into your mailbox, for example,
  classification for mails and so on.  Though, I want to teach you how
  to make use of procmail to uncode the encoded ones into pure text
  files and how to convert the various encoded mails into common
  encoding you used here.

  Create .procmailrc file under your home directory, listed as follows:

  # To avoid accidents, store mails before using procmail.
  # You can filter mails to ensure which mail doesn't need to duplicate
  # by, for example, MAILER-DAEMON.
  :0 c

  # Uncode mails encoded by quoted-printable or base64.
  * ^Content-Type: *text/plain
      :0 fbw
      * ^Content-Transfer-Encoding: *quoted-printable
      | mimencode -u -q

          :0 Afhw
          | formail -I "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit" \
                    -I "X-Mimed-Autoconverted: quoted-printable to 8bit by procmail"

      :0 fbw
      * ^Content-Transfer-Encoding: *base64
      | mimencode -u -b

          :0 Afhw
          | formail -I "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit" \
                    -I "X-Mimed-Autoconverted: base64 to 8bit by procmail"

  # Here will judge whether a mail is GB codes or not; if it is, convert it
  # into BIG5 codes. If you want to convert BIG5 codes into GB codes, you
  # need to exchange big5 with gb2312 and replace 'hc -m b2g' with 'hc -m g2b'.

  * ^Content-Type:.*text/plain;.*charset=gb2312
      :0 fw
      | hc -m b2g -t /usr/local/lib/chinese/

          :0 Afhw
          | formail -I "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=big5" \
                    -I "X-Charset-Autoconverted: gb2312 to big5 by procmail"

  # Store mails into mailbox.

  In this case, integrating with mimencode, formail to decode mails, and
  use ``hc'' to convert GB codes mails into BIG5 codes mails. Thus, you
  have to install these tools in order to use procmail.

  Eventually, rectify your .forward file.

       "|IFS=' ' && exec /usr/bin/procmail -f- ~/.procmailrc ||exit 75 #login"

  Notes: change the login as your login name.

  9.4.  telnet

  If you can access Chinese on your own machine, but cannot access
  Chinese while telnet to other machines, then the problems may cause
  from telnet itself.  When telnet is being under connection, you can
  press Ctrl-] to jump out temporarily, and enter set binary at the
  prompt of telnet> to assure the fully transmission of bits.  You can
  also use telnet -8 to make connections (but it seems won't work for
  some sites...?).  Another more simple method is to use directly a
  8-bit telnet program. Download the binary file from here:

  9.5.  less

  less itself can display Chinese directly; just set the following
  environment variable can Chinese display:

       # export LESSCHARSET=latin1

  9.6.  pine

  Pine of version 3.95 later can support reading and entering Chinese
  mails. As you execute pine, select SETUP/Config in feature list,
  choose this(hit X):

          [X]  enable-8bit-esmtp-negotiation
          [X]  enable-8bit-nntp-posting

  Then, hit C on character-set, and change its value to big5 or gb2312.
  Finally, hit E to escape and store this change.

  You can also install the cpine capable of showing Chinese messages:

  9.7.  samba

  o  At first, take the newest version of samba-1.9.17p5 and big5 patch

  o  Decompress samba-1.9.17p5.tar.gz, and add the patch upon:

  # tar zxvf samba-1.9.17p5.tar.gz
  # cd samba-1.9.17p5/source
  # zcat samba-1.9.17p2-BIG5-patch-0.gz | patch -s

  o  According to the normal procedures, you can compile and install it.
     Refer to the Samba HomePage <>.

  9.8.  lynx

  Lynx <> v2.7 can view Chinese homepages
  directly. Execute lynx, and press O)ption / C)haracter set, and then
  choose Taipei(Big5) by arrow keys, and finally press '>' to store this

  9.9.  minicom

  Use the switch -l to start minicom, then you can see Chinese in

  9.10.  fingerd

  If you type Chinese in your .plan but can't be saw by others, this is
  probably caused by the inability of fingerd to send out 8-bit Chinese
  words.  Get cfingerd from this site:

  Decompress it and execute ./Configure, then implement make all .

  Then, modify /etc/inetd.conf, changing the original finger to:

       finger  stream  tcp     nowait  root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/in.cfingerd

  Let inetd read the configuration file again:

       # kill -HUP `cat /var/run/`

  9.11.  tintin++

  The TinTin++ is not a Chinese software but just a useful tool when
  playing Chinese mud.You can download it from this place:

  Here are some Chinese mud sites:

  FengYun               5555
  Xi You Ji           6905
  Xia ke Xing           5555

  10.  Chinese Linux

  If you have known some projects else about Chinese Linux, please tell
  me about itD

  10.1.  Chinese Linux Documentation's Projects

  CLDP is now abandoned itself to translating Linux HOWTO documents,
  locating at  CLDP has a mailing list  Its purposes are:

  o  Combine everyone's power to implement Linux HOWTO translations

  o  Discuss SGML Tools of dealing with Chinese.

  o  Share and maintain experience of translation for Linux HOWTO.

  o  To propagate the translation projects of Linux HOWTO.

  o  Others concerned with Chinese Linux.

  If you want to join us, please send a mail contented(not titled) with
  subscribe to For more advanced
  explanations of this mailing list, please send a mail contented with
  info to the upper address.  If you want to know the usage of mailing
  list, send a mail contented with help to the same address.  If there
  is any suggestion or suspicion to the mailing list, please write to

  If you are willing to contribute your own power, please join with this
  mailing list.

  10.2.  Chinese Linux Project

  This is established for a Chinese environment of Linux, originated by
  cdchen.  This is still under the period of setting, waiting for
  everyone's all efforts.

  Homepage of this project is at which is
  responsible for formal announcements; and it provides discussions of
  problems, suggestions and criticisms, delivering ourselves of
  achievements and so forth.

  10.3.  Chinese websites of Linux

  Here are some websites for Chinese Linux information. If you have
  others not listed here, tell me about that, please.


  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>

  o  <>


  o  <>

  o  <>

  10.4.  Discussed groups of Linux

  If you have any problem, you can post you question here, using Chinese
  is ok, too. However, make sure that this question is still unknown or
  hasn't answered in related documents or HOWTO, or repeat some FAQs are
  absolutely not popular with these places.

  o  <news://tw.bbs.comp.linux>

  o  <telnet://>

  11.  FAQs

  11.1.  Why Can't I Enter Chinese?

  Answer: This question is quite ambiguous, though. I cannot tell which
  condition that you have met?  If you can not enter Chinese on
  console's shell, refer to the section ``Chinese Input Problems'' for

  Or that you cannot enter Chinese in an editor, it is possible that
  your editor doesn't support Chinese. Please refer to the section
  ``Useful Chinese Softwares'' to install Chinese-supported editors.

  If this is matched at the period of telnet, then refer to the section
  ``telnet'' for more explanations.

  11.2.  I have got the NTU TTF fonts, but how can I decompress it?

  Answer: The NTU TFF fonts is compressed with arj format and divided it
  into several files for the convenience of putting it into floppy
  disks, causing that decompression is a little trifling.  If you want
  ntu_kai.ttf font, for example, you must take ntu_kai.arj, ntu_kai.a01,
  ntu_kai.a02, and ntu_kai.a03 home.  Assuming that you have an arj tool
  of DOS version, put these four files altogether under the same
  directory and invoke this commands to decompress:

  C:\> arj x -va -y ntu_kai

  If you want to decompress them on Linux, you must use unarj to unarj
  them one by one, and then use cat to concatenate them together:

       # unarj e ntu_kai.arj ; mv ntu_kai.ttf ntu_kai.ttf0
       # unarj e ntu_kai.a01 ; mv ntu_kai.ttf ntu_kai.ttf1
       # unarj e ntu_kai.a02 ; mv ntu_kai.ttf ntu_kai.ttf2
       # unarj e ntu_kai.a03 ; mv ntu_kai.ttf ntu_kai.ttf3
       # cat ntu_kai.ttf* > ntu_kai.ttf

  11.3.  Netscape's title and tag cannot see Chinese?

  Answer: To install CXWin will solve this problem. Refer to ``CXWin''
  for detailed.

  11.4.  My Netscape cannot see Chinese?

  Answer: If you could not see any Chinese on all homepages, then you
  might probably not install Chinese fonts, or haven't make Netscape
  settled. Refer to the section ``Netscape''.

  But if you can see Chinese on most parts of Chinese homepages, only on
  some websites could see disturbed codes, then this may not be your
  private problems.  A little websites take Frontpage to generate
  homepages, and their language encoding is x-x-big5 not general big5.

  This wil make all browsers except IE cannot identify this encoding,
  which just a bad trick adopted by Microsoft to fulfill its ambitions
  to occupy the market of browsers.  To solve this problem, send a mail
  to the administrator of that site, telling them there are other
  browsers except IE all over the world. If they want to manage it
  perpetually, they should correct that unusual encoding to normal one.

  Of course, if you have better solutions, please let me know of it.

  11.5.  How to enter Chinese in Netscape?

  Answer: Install xcin+XA. Refer to this section ``XA''.

  11.6.  What's the difference between ChiTeX and CJK? Can I install
  them at the same time?


  o  The system of Chinese reading and searching of CJK which is
     independent and efficnet is based on the NFSS of LaTeX.

  o  CJK can use Chinese, Japanese, and Korean; and ChiTeX is just for

  o  CJK can only use on LaTeX while ChiTeX can use on plain TeX and
     LaTeX .
  o  Instructions of ChiTeX are simple and useful.

  o  ChiTeX is approaching to real Chinese LaTeX.

  o  Difference in functionality...

     ChiTeX and CJK should be compatible while installing them at the
     same system, but if the ttf2pk has the same name for both ChiTeX
     and CJK, then it could cause certain problems.  A solution to this
     is that define the $PATH variable in each shell script,
     respectively, to point to the correct locations of ttf2pk.  (Thanks
     to professor Chen Hung-Yih..)

  12.  Appendix - Chinese Softwares of FTP.IFCSS.ORG

  WarnningGMost pre-compiled Linux executable files are out-of-date and
  cannot use normally.



  software: Phoenix BBS
  version : 4.0, 1995.08.31
  function: o UNIX platform multi-user BBS system,
            o discussion boards, private email
            o multichannel chat, one-to-one chat
            o Internet Email, News gateway,
            o 0Announce : Gopher-like information query interface.
            o fine tuned to allow more than 256 users on-line
            o configurable menu, screen display
            o Chinese message
  URL     :
  author  : Ji-Tzay Yang, Ming-Feng Chen, Tzung-Yu Wen


  software: addpy
  version : 1.0
  function: To annotate Pinyin to rare Hanzi and a portion of
            randomly selected common Hanzi.  Both GB (simplified) and
            Big5 (traditional) versions.  Based on statistics derived
            from huge Chinese corpus and well prepared hazni-freq-pinyin
            tables.  Source code and raw data provided.
  URL     :
  filename: README.addpy, b5addpy.l, gbaddpy.l, b5addpy.dat,
            gbaddpy.dat, makefile
  author  : Guo Jin

  software: rm4mat
  version : n/a
  function: remove formating codes for printing in some GB files
  URL     :
  author  : Chenghong Wang

  software: mail_hxwz
  version : 1.1
  function: It extracts HXWZ from your mail (Suppose you are subscribing
            it).  It is a Bourne shell program which works on most Unix
            systems.  It can rerun itself every Friday automatically.
  URL     :
  author  : Yaoen Zhang

  software: auto_get_hxwz
  Version : 1.2
  Function: It gets the current issue of HXWZ in GB or postscipt format.
            It also process and print these files, and do the clean up.
            It save your time and server machine time.
  URL     :
  author  : Yaoen Zhang

  software: Chinese less
  version : 290, 1995.5.25
  function: Browse BIG5 and GB text files
  URL     :
  author  : Paul W. Shew
  comment : requires a chinese terminal, like cxterm.

  software: cscreen
  version : 3.2b
  function: This is a modified screen to minic ETen in cxterm.
            After you run cscreen in cxterm, it will intercept
            every key movement and examine if the current
            screen postion has a Chinese char. If it has,
            auto-key movements will be made accordingly.
  URL     :
  author  : Shih-Kun Huang

  software: ytalk
  version : 3.0.2c6
  function: ytalk-3.02c provides better compatibility for DEC's
            workstations, two-byte refresh for terminal like cxterm, and
            capable of passing character code 254, internally used as erase
            function in ytalk-3.0; Compatible with ytalk-3.0, cytalk-3.0,
            cytalk-3.0.2, ytalk-3.02c0/1/2/3/4/5, that is, you can still use
            Delete, or Backspace key.  If both ends use ytalk-3.02c4, the code
            254 is transparent, you can use more Chinese words to talk to
  URL     :
  author  : Sze-Yao Ni

  software: lunar
  version : 2.1
  function: conversion program between Solar and Chinese lunar calendars;
            calculation of birthday in "4-column" astrology as well
  URL     :
  author  : Ricky Yeung and Fung Fung Lee
  comment : can output GB code, bitmap, or just ASCII

  software: DateStar - Chinese Calendar Producer
  version : 1.1
  function: Displays Chinese and western calendar in
            ASCII code, BIG-5 code (Hongkong, Taiwan),
                GuoBiao code (PRC Standard), and HZ code (Network)
            Prints on two most popular laser printers
                PostScript laser printers, and
                HP LaserJet (PCL) printers
            Generates four different format
                Yearly calendar, Monthly calendar,
                One-page Weekly calendar, and Two-page Weekly calendar
            Shows calendar with 24 Solar Terms (JieQi),
                the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches
                (TianGan DiZhi Eight Characters)
            Supports user defined annotations
            Applicable from year 1841 through to 2060
  URL     :
  author  : Youzhen Cheng
  comment : UNIX version works on SUN Workstation with SUN OS 4.1.x
            see /software/dos/c-utils for DOS version

  software: pull
  version : 2.9, 1996.4.7
  function: 1. Extracts the original file(s) from uuencoded/compressed/split
               a) uudecode a file and display the name of its decoded file
               b) decompress .zz (= .gz/.Z/.zip) file
               c) uudecode + decompress
               d) uudecode + cat (concatenate) + gunzip
            2. Packs file. Reverse the above `extracting' process.
               compresses, (splits), then encodes file(s)
  URL     :
  author  : Yao Li

  software: utf-utils
  version : 15 Oct 1993.
  function: some utility programs for manipulating Unicode/ISO-10646 text
            in the FSS-UTF encoding.
  URL     :
  author  : Ross Paterson

  software: gbfmt
  version : 1.0
  function: GB formatting with variable line width, GB<->HZ
  URL     :
  author  : Dongxiao Yue (


  software: celvis
  version : 1.3
  function: vi editor with Chinese handling capabilities.
            Most run on some Chinese terminal, e.g. cxterm, or IBM-PC with
            some kind of Chinese DOS.  Work exactly like Unix vi editor,
            except that it side-scrolls long lines instead of wrapping.
  URL     :
  author  : Man-Chi Pong, Yongguang Zhang
  comment : comments, bug-reports, modifications to:

  software: Chinese JOE (Joe's Own Editor)
  version : 2.8c
  function: Chinese BIG5 localized text screen editor.  The key sequences are
            remeniscent of WordStar and TURBO-PASCAL. Makes full use of
            termcap/terminfo, is designed to work well over slow networks and
            low baud rate modems, and has the best features of vi. Most
            useful for editing unformatted text, such as USENET news articles
            and for editing block-structured languages such as C and PASCAL.
  URL     :
  author  : <>


  software: cn2jp
  version : 1.3.2, 1996.4.11
  function: code conversion routines for Chinese and Japanese
  URL     :
  author  : Seke Wei

  software: ktty
  version : 1.3, 1996.4.11
  function: This is a kanji terminal translator among Chinese and Japanese.
            It allows online translation of codes so that you can view a
            specific code real time using your Chinese or Japanese terminal.
            It runs on Unix and is derived from the 'hztty' package
  URL     :
  author  : Seke Wei

  software: code1
  version : 1.3, 1996.4.11
  function: This is a multilingual file browser for Chinese and Japanese.
            It runs on Unix and allows browsing of files in various codes
            using a Chinese or Japanese terminal.
  URL     :
  author  : Seke Wei

  software: HUG program
  version : 1.0, 1995.5.20
  function: Converting between HZ, Uudecode/uuencode, GB codes
  URL     :
  author  : Yinrong Huang

  software: hztty
  version : 2.0 Jan 29, 1994
  Function: This program turns a tty session from one encoding to another.
            For example, running hztty on cxterm can allow you to read/write
            Chinese in HZ format, which was not supported by cxterm.
            If you have many applications in different encodings but your
            favor terminal program only supports one, hztty can make life easy.
            For example, hztty can your GB cxterm into a HZ terminal, a
            Unicode (16bit, or UTF8, or UTF7) terminal, or a Big5 terminal.
  URL     :
  author  : Yongguang Zhang

  software: EHZ
  version : 2.0
  function: Conversion among GB/BIG5/CNS and EHZ-BIG5/GB/CNS.
            Patch to hztty to support EHZ-BIG5/GB/CNS.
  URL     :
  author  : Ricky Yeung
  comment : Also contains the EHZ spec and Fung Fung Lee's EHZ-BIG5-CNS spec.

  software: b5cns
  version : prototype
  function: functions to convert Big5 <-> CNS
  URL     :
  author  : Ross Paterson

  software: c2t
  version : n/a
  function: converts GB or BIG5 coded chinese to _pinyin_
  URL     :
  authors : Tommi Kaikkonen and Katya Ta

  software: BeTTY/CCF/B5Encode package
  version : 1.534, 1995.03.22
  function: a chinese code conversion package for codes widely used
            in Taiwan and the GB code widely used in Mainland, plus
            a 7-bit Big5 encoding method (B5Encode3/B5E3, an extension
            to HZ encoding for GB),
            including off-line converters (CCF/Chinese Code Filters and
            B5E/B5Encode) and an on-line converter (BeTTY) which simulates
            your native chinese terminal to become aware of the coding
            systems widely used in Taiwan and GB, HZ encoding.
  URL     :
  author  : Jing-Shin Chang

  software: BeTTY-ws_2fl.p1
  version : 1.0 (patch to BeTTY-1.534) Oct. 1995.
  function: 1. makes BeTTY respect the window(tty) size.
            2. a second Chinese code converting filter can be added on.
  URL     :
  author  : Wei Dong

  software: c2gif
  version : 0.01, 1995.10.21
  function: convert a BIG5 text file to a GIF file
  URL     :
  author  : Luoh Ren-Shan
  software: gb2jis
  version : 1.5, 1995.11.19
  function: convert GB (or HZ) to JIS with two-letter pinyin
  URL     :
  author  : Koichi Yasuoka

  software: jis2gb
  version : 1.5, 1996.1.10
  function: convert JIS to GB (or HZ)
  URL     :
  author  : Koichi Yasuoka

  software: HZ
  version : 2.0
  function: convert among GB, HZ and zW
  URL     :
  author  : Fung F. Lee

  software: HZ+ specification and conversion utilities
  version : 0.77
  function: HZ+ is a convenient 7-bit representation of mixed Big5, GB,
            and ASCII text for use in Internet e-mail, news, etc.
            Source code for Big5 <-> HZ+ and GB <-> HZ+ conversion
            utilities is here.  DOS executables can be found in
            another archive, /software/dos/convert/  New in
            this Unix version is a simple HZ+ terminal program for cxterm
            which allows the user to transparently read HZ+ mail and news.
  URL     :
  author  : Stephen G. Simpson

  software: hc
  version : 3.0
  function: convert between GB and BIG5
  URL     :
  author  : Fung F. Lee and Ricky Yeung

  software: Support Table for Hanzi Convert (hc)
  version : 1994/05/01
  function: Convert table supports the program Hanzi Convert
            (Author  : Fung F. Lee and Ricky Yeung) GB<->Big5.
            Include Russian, number, Japanese, graphing symbols and
            "incorrect" codes. Text file, comments in it.
  URL     :
  author  : Chi-Ming Tsai

  software: pbmbig5
  version : 0.01, 1995.11.2
  function: convert big5 coded Chinese text file to pbm graphic file
  URL     :
  author  : Wei-Jou Chen

  software: UTF utilities
  version : 31 May 1994.
  function: various utilities for the UTF encoding of Unicode/ISO-10646,
            including conversion from ISO-2022 and (partially) back again.
  URL     :
  author  : Ross Paterson

  software: utf7
  version : prototype, use at your own risk
  function: functions to convert between UTF-7 and other codes
  URL     :
  author  : Ross Paterson

  software: ISO-2022-CN encoder and decoder
  version : beta 960408
  function: Convert between CN-GB and CN-CNS codes
  URL     :
  author  :
  comment : BIG5 code is not yet supported.


  software: gopher2.014c
  version : 2.0.14
  function: A Chinese localized gopher client capable of 8-bit BIG5 Chinese
            string search on IBM AIX, SUN OS, and any other machines.
            Compatable with any BIG5 Chinese system such as ET and
            cxterm. executable binary for ibm and sun included.
  URL     :
  author  : Hoo-Tung Cheuk (NCTU CIS, Taiwan)

  software: Chinese Tin
  version : 1.2PL2a
  function: tin 1.2PL2 newsreader with English/Big5 message toggle.
  URL     :
  author  : Shih-Kun Huang

  software: NcFTP with chinese message compatible
  version : 2.3.0c, 1996.1.17
  function: Chinese (BIG5) patch to NcFTP.
            Now it can display any chinese message from ftp server instead
            of "\xxx".  ANSI color compatible in Line Mode.
  URL     :
  author  : NCEMRSoft (orig), Aiken Sam (chinese patch)


  software: C2PS
  version : 1.30 Aug 1 1995
  function: Translate Big5 coded Chinese document into Level 2 PostScript.
            This is the version for Sparcstation. Using Chinese TrueType fonts,
            you can create the most beautiful document with C2PS.
            This is a DEMO version. You can freely copied and use it.
  URL     :
  author  : Hsueh-I Lu

  software: cnprint
  version : 2.60  JAN-25-95
  function: print GB/Hz/BIG5/JIS/KSC/UTF8 etc or convert to PostScript
            (conforms to EPSF-3.0). Fast.  Multicolumn. Vertical printing.
            Small disk space requirement. "Intelligent" treatment of
            punctuations.  Flexible change of fonts, char size,
            width/height, char and line spaces, paper orientation and
            margins, etc.  Support of European chars.  Special modes for
            printing HXWZ.  See readme for more
  URL     :
  author  : Yidao Cai
  comment : v2.60 is also for VMS, use v2.61 for DOS
  software: GBscript
  version : 1.11
  function: Convert GB/ASCII mixed text to PostScript output.
            High print speed (4ppm on LaserWriter NTX).
            Support Adobe-2.1.
            Small PS file size (400K for one HXWZ issue).
  URL     :
  author  : Yan Zhou

  software: gb2ps
  version : 2.02
  function: convert GB/HZ to postscript, supports simple page formatting
            (change chinese fonts and font size, cover page, page
            number, etc). Five chinese fonts are provided in this
            release, they are Song, Kai, Fang Song, Hei and FanTi
            The HZ ENCODING is also supported.
  URL     :
  author  : Wei SUN

  software: news2ps
  version : n/a
  function: news2ps converts BIG5 to Postscript
  URL     :
  author  : The Society of HKU Postgraduate on Chinese Affairs
  comment : rename to chinese.16

  software: hz2ps
  version : 3.1
  function: Convert hanzi (GB/BIG5) text to PostScript.
            Use HBF font files.
  URL     :
  author  : Fung F. Lee


  software: ChiRK
  version : 1.2a
  function: GB/HZ/BIG5 text viewer on terminals (or emulations) capable
            of displaying Tektronics 401x graphics, such as GraphOn,DEC
            VT240/330, Xterm, Tektool on Sun, EM4105 on PC,
            VersaTerm-Pro on Mac, etc.
            displays up to 17x40 Chinese characters per screen. works directly
            under UNIX mail and news programs. Comes with four fonts.
  URL     :
  author  : Bo Yang
  comment : rename to chinese.16

  software: Cbanner
  version : 1.10, 950821
  function: To show Chinese word's banner
  URL     :
  author  : Sheen Cherng-Dar, rewritten by Jonen Liu
  comment : requires ETen Big5 Chinese System's fonts.
  software: gb2text
  version : n/a
  function: convert GB to text
  URL     :
  author  : Ding Yijun

  software: hzbanner
  version : 1.1, Feb 15, 1995
  function: Display Song style GuoBiao in large ASCII characters,
            supports GB2312-80 (^[$A), GB2312-80 + GB8565-88 (^[$(E),
            Chinese-EUC (8-bit Guobiao) CNS Plane 1 & 2, BIG5 and HZ-encoding
            ( ???)
  URL     :
  author  : Koichi Yasuoka

  software: hzview
  version : 3.1
  function: Display hanzi (GB/BIG5) text on dumb terminal.
            Use HBF font files.
  URL     :
  author  : Fung F. Lee

  Software: cnview
  Version : 3.1 (UNIX version. DOS version available under /software/dos/viewer)
  Function: View GB/Hz/Big5 encoded Chinese text file on * HP-UNIX (X-window) *
  URL     :
  Author  : Jifang Lin

  software: readgb
  version : n/a
  function: convert GB to text
  URL     :
  author  : Yuzhao Lu
  comment : modified from readnews.c

  software: readnews
  version : n/a
  function: readnews converts BIG5 to ascii dot-matrix picture
  URL     :
  author  : The Society of HKU Postgraduate on Chinese Affairs
  comment : rename to chinese.16


  software: CCTeach
  version : 1.0
  function: Chinese Character input method Teacher.
            Help new user to learn CC input and some utility programs
                of "cxterm NewFace" for associate dictionary tool,
                hotkey tool, WuBi phrase encoder, and converter with
                ".tit" <==> ".titnf".
            Based on GB and Big5 (ETen and HongKong).
            Support all input method by external dictionary file.
            Need cxterm in unix, CC DOS or ZW DOS in PC.
  URL     :
  author  : Xiaokun Zhu


  software: ICCS 1.3
  version : 1.3, June 26, 1994
  function: Internet Chinese Chess Server
  URL     :
  author  : Xi Chen
  comment : file off-lined due to legal status July 3, 1996. Please contact
            the author Xi Chen at for further info.


  software: cdelegate
  version : 1.4a, 1996.5.1
  function: This is a Chinese patch on DeleGate, a gateway for the WWW services.
            provides code translation between Chinese/Japanese for WWW browsers
  URL     :
  author  : Seke Wei

  software: Chinese Lynx
  version : 2.5FMc, 1996.7.19
  function: Chinese BIG5/GB patch to lynx, a WWW client for vt100 terminals.
            Volunteers needed to continue on the patch.
  URL     :
  author  : Nelson Chin

  software: Internet MahJong Server (server + client applet)
  version : 0.2beta
  function: provides a server and a graphic client for playing MahJong on
            the Internet.
  URL     :
  author  : Zuwei Thomas Feng

  software: D Series (Chinese Tools, ELF binary)
  version : 1.00,  March 25, 1995
  function: Binary distribution of various useful Chinese tools:
            Viewers -- cxterm, crxvt; Input server -- xcin; GB,Big5,HZ,B5E3
            code converters -- ccf, hc, hz2gb, gb2hz, zw2hz, b5decode,
            b5encode; Print tool -- lunar, ttf2ps; Pseudo tty -- hztty,
            betty; Various handy scripts, man pages, dictionaries, HBF fonts,
            xfonts included; chdrv, celvis, elm, sendmail
  URL     :
  author  : Eric Lin
  comment : requires XFree86 3.1+, ELF libraries

  software: C Series (Chinese packages for Slackware)
  version : N/A
  function: The Chinese packages collected by Wei-Jou Chen can be installed by
            Slackware's setup tools. Basic idea are that we have right to install
            and remove Chinese softwares easily and beginners can play them
            without much trouble.
  URL     :
  compiler: CHEN, Wei-Jou
  software: MU Series (Mule packages for Slackware)
  version : N/A
  function: The Multilingual Emacs 2.0 packages for XFree86 2.X and 3.1
            collected by Shawn Hsiao can be installed by Slackware's setup
  URL     :
  compiler: Shawn Hsiao


  software: GNU fileutils-3.9
  version : 3.9, 1 August 1994
  function: Chinese version of the GNU file utility programs for Linux.
  URL     :
  author  : Patrick D'Cruze

  software: C2PS
  version : 1.30 Aug 1 1995
  function: Translate Big5 coded Chinese document into Level 2 PostScript.
            This is the version for Linux. Using Chinese TrueType fonts, you
            can create the most beautiful Chinese documents with C2PS.
            This is a DEMO version. You can freely copied and use it.
  URL     :
  author  : Hsueh-I Lu


  software: ?????? for Linux (promotion version)
  version : v2.163
  function: PE2-like text editor, special designed for Chinese
  URL     :
  agent   : LU, Heman


  software: chdrv
  version : 1.0.7, 1995.12.20
  function: Chinese Terminal Simulator. Does not require X-Windows.
  URL     :
  author  : WANG, Yu-Chung


  software: Behavior DTop (for Linux)
  version : 1.4, Beta
  function: A full-featured Chinese DeskTop Publishing Software Package
            characterized by object-oriented design for manipulating
            various document objects, including text, tables, graphics,
            equations, images, in an integrated way. Two outline fonts
            are provided in the Beta Version. PostScript output.
            Good as an English DeskTop Publishing Software Package too.
            (See the README's & formated DTop manual files for a long and
            complete list of functions and characteristics).
  URL     :
  author  : DTop Development Group

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