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HOWTO Clone Disk Images on Linux Booted from a Network

Guilherme Tupynamb�

gtupy (at) uol.com.br

2002-09-09
Revision History                                                             
Revision 0.3           2002-09-24            Revised by: gct                 
Review suggestions incorporated                                              
Revision 0.2           2002-09-23            Revised by: jyg                 
Minor revisions                                                              
Revision 0.1           2002-09-09            Revised by: gct                 
First draft.                                                                 


This document describes a setup that allows a machine to boot Linux from
BOOTP/TFTP, using the Grub boot loader, and save and restore disk and
partition images to and from a TFTP server.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Legal Notices
    1.1. Disclaimer
    1.2. Copyright
    1.3. Feedback
   
   
2. Introduction
    2.1. Why clone disk images
    2.2. Why boot from a network
    2.3. Network boot process overview
   
   
3. Setting up DHCP and TFTP servers
    3.1. Setting up DHCP
    3.2. Setting up TFTP
    3.3. Using different servers
   
   
4. Preparing boot files
    4.1. Kernel
    4.2. Files on initrd
    4.3. Packing initrd
   
   
5. Booting from Grub floppy disk
    5.1. Grub menu file
    5.2. Compiling Grub with network support
    5.3. Making the boot floppy disk
   
   
6. Running the clone script
    6.1. Saving and restoring disk images
    6.2. Using fdisk
   
   
7. Extending the solution
    7.1. Saving and restoring files instead of file systems
    7.2. Setting up the master boot record
    7.3. Loading necessary modules
    7.4. Predefined operations on grub.conf
   
   
A. List of files on initrd
B. Clone script
References

1. Legal Notices

1.1. Disclaimer

This article assumes that the reader using the described setup is familiar
with the technical concepts and commands. If you are not comfortable issuing
the commands in this document or don't understand the clone script, don't try
these instructions.

Additionally, if you do not know the difference between /dev/hda and /dev/
hda1, please do not use this HOWTO. This may be the difference between
restoring a partition and losing all your data. Please note that I take no
responsibility for anything that may go wrong, even if the error resulting
from any incorrectness in this article.

For the purpose of this document, the RedHat 7.3 distribution has been used
in both server and client. Although this shouldn't make great difference, no
test has been made on other distributions or custom setups.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Copyright

Copyright (c) 2002 Guilherme Tupynamb�

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html] GNU Free
Documentation License (GFDL), Version 1.1 or any later version published by
the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover
Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. The clone script is licensed in the
terms of the [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html] GNU General Public
License (GPL).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Feedback

Comments on this article will be highly appreciated. Direct your comments to
<gtupy (at) uol.com.br>.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Introduction

2.1. Why clone disk images

The main reason to clone disk images is to ease the installation of an
operating system and a basic set of applications over a large number of
machines. One standard machine is prepared and its pristine image is saved to
be restored on other machines saving efforts and simplifying procedures.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Why boot from a network

Booting from hard disk would limit the possibilities of copying images. It
wouldn't be possible, for instance, to safely copy to and from a partition
mounted by the booted operating system. Also, the operating system may not be
Linux, in which case free options to clone are not available.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. Network boot process overview

The client machine boots from a Grub floppy disk. Then, using the Grub BOOTP
support, it gets an IP address from a DHCP server. Next, the client machine
downloads the kernel and initrd images from the TFTP server. Once the initrd
image is mounted in memory, the initialization script is run, making use of
the programs and files stored in this image. This script allows block devices
contents to be saved in the TFTP server, and contents from the TFTP server to
be written to the block devices.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Setting up DHCP and TFTP servers

A DHCP server is required to provide IP addresses for the clients when
booting Grub (BOOTP) and later when booting Linux. A TFTP server is required
to make the boot images available on the network for Linux to boot. The TFTP
server is also necessary to make it possible to save and restore the disk
images.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Setting up DHCP

Details on DHCP are beyond the scope of this article. The "Linux Networking
HOWTO" has a chapter on DHCP.

Setting up DHCP is very easy, but if you are in a network environment
administered by someone else, it's advisable to use a preexisting DHCP
server. If you "own" the network then you can follow this procedure.

Install DHCP, if not installed, from the rpm package, normally found in Linux
distributions:
# rpm -ihv dhcp-*.rpm                                                        
                                                                             

Edit the /etc/dhcpd.conf file to configure DHCP service. In our setup, the
server has IP address 10.0.0.1 and provides IP addresses up to 253 clients.
Configure /etc/dhcpd.conf according to your environment:
#/etc/dhcpd.conf                                                             
server-identifier dhcp.clonedomain.com;                                      
default-lease-time      172800;                                              
max-lease-time          604800;                                              
option domain-name      "clonedomain.com";                                   
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {                                      
        range dynamic-bootp 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.254;                             
}                                                                            
                                                                             

Start the dhcpd server:

/etc/rc.d/init.d/dhcpd start.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Setting up TFTP

Setting up TFTP is almost as easy as DHCP.

First install from the rpm package:
# rpm -ihv tftp-server-*.rpm                                                 
                                                                             

Create a directory for the files:
# mkdir /tftpboot                                                            
# chown nobody:nobody /tftpboot                                              
                                                                             

The directory /tftpboot is owned by user nobody, because this is the default
user id set up by tftpd to access the files.

Edit the file /etc/xinetd.d/tftp to look like the following:
service tftp                                                                 
{                                                                            
        socket_type     = dgram                                              
        protocol        = udp                                                
        wait            = yes                                                
        user            = root                                               
        server          = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd                                 
        server_args     = -c -s /tftpboot                                    
        disable         = no                                                 
        per_source      = 11                                                 
        cps             = 100 2                                              
}                                                                            
                                                                             

The changes from the default file are the parameter disable = no (to enable
the service) and the server argument -c. This argument allows for the
creation of files, which is necessary if you want to save boot or disk
images. You may want to make TFTP read only in normal operation.

Then reload xinetd:

/etc/rc.d/init.d/xinetd reload

You can use the tftp command, available from the tftp (client) rpm package,
to test the server. At the tftp prompt, you can issue the commands put and 
get.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Using different servers

It is possible to use different servers for DHCP and TFTP. This may be
necessary if using a preexisting DHCP server. You can configure the
next-server parameter in DHCP to point to the TFTP server or you can use the
command tftpserver in Grub.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Preparing boot files

Now that the server is set up, you need to prepare the files to make the
client boot. Two files are necessary: the kernel and the init ramdisk
(initrd) which will be mounted by the kernel as the root file system. This
document assumes that the procedures outlined in this section and the next
are made in the client machine. Normally, when saving and restoring disk
images, there is no need to have Linux installed on a local hard disk. To
deploy disk images to a number of machines, start by installing a Linux
distribution on one machine for each model. Use DHCP and have TFTP client to
test the setup made in the previous section. Unless otherwise noted, commands
are issued in the bash shell by the user root in a working directory.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Kernel

Identify the compressed kernel file:
# cd /boot                                                                   
# ls vmlinuz-$(uname -r)                                                     
vmlinuz-2.4.18-3                                                             
                                                                             

The version may vary, according to your system. Upload this file to the TFTP
server, renaming it to vmlinuz:
# tftp 10.0.0.1                                                              
tftp> binary                                                                 
tftp> put vmlinuz-2.4.18-3 vmlinuz                                           
Sent 1030147 bytes in 2.3 seconds                                            
tftp> quit                                                                   
                                                                             

You may want to keep the file name, or have different names for different
hardware models or kernel versions. We use the same names for the kernel and
initrd so we don't have to make another boot floppy disk after changing the
kernel or the initrd images.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Files on initrd

Next, make the root file system image for the client. The full listing of the
files is in Appendix A.

These files have been taken from a working system as a minimum configuration
for having powerful shell (bash), client network utilities (dhcpcd and tftp),
and copying and compressing utilities (dd, gzip). Administrative commands (
mknod, mount, fdisk and insmod) are also present.

In the working directory create a file named initrd.lst and put these file
names on it. To check the existence of these files in your system, run the
following command:
# ls -d $(<initrd.lst) > /dev/null                                           
                                                                             

You should get an error output like this:
ls: /bin/clone: No such file or directory                                    
ls: /bin/tftp: No such file or directory                                     
ls: /lib/3c59x.o: No such file or directory                                  
                                                                             

The first error is a script to be created in the working directory. The
second error is the program tftp found in the directory /usr/bin instead of /
bin. The third is the network interface card module (probably not yours)
found in the directory /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/drivers/net.

These three files will be discussed in upcoming sections separately soon. If
there are other missing files, check for lack of installation or differences
in version, distribution or hardware. Adjust the list to match your system.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Packing initrd

The next step is to make the image. A size of 4 Mbytes was enough to hold the
files in our setup. You may increase this size if necessary.
# dd if=/dev/zero of=initrd bs=1024 count=4096                               
4096+0 records in                                                            
4096+0 records out                                                           
# yes | mkfs initrd                                                          
mke2fs 1.27 (8-Mar-2002)                                                     
initrd is not a block special device.                                        
Proceed anyway? (y,n) Filesystem label=                                      
blah blah blah...                                                            
# mkdir mnt                                                                  
# mount -o loop initrd mnt/                                                  
# egrep -v "clone|3c59x|tftp" initrd.lst | cpio -pdm mnt                     
4876 blocks                                                                  
                                                                             

Now the three files excluded by the egrep command. Copy the tftp program from
/usr/bin to the image directory:
# cp -p /usr/bin/tftp mnt/bin/                                               
                                                                             

Identify the proper module for your network interface card. Use the output of
the commands lspci and lsmod to identify the file, which resides in the
directory /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/drivers/net.

Note Whenever you see a reference to 3c59x, use the name of the module suited
     for your case.                                                          
# cp -p /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/drivers/net/3c59x.o mnt/lib/         
                                                                             

Edit the clone script found in Appendix B, changing the variables as
explained in Section 6. Make it executable and copy it to the image
directory:
# chmod +x clone                                                             
# cp -p clone mnt/bin/                                                       
                                                                             

Unmount, compress, and send the initrd image.
# umount mnt/                                                                
# gzip initrd                                                                
# tftp 10.0.0.1                                                              
tftp> binary                                                                 
tftp> put initrd.gz                                                          
Sent 1155530 bytes in 2.8 seconds                                            
tftp> quit                                                                   
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Booting from Grub floppy disk

The next step is to make a boot floppy disk using Grub. GNU Grub is the GRand
Unified Bootloader. It can handle BOOTP and TFTP, so it can boot from
network.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. Grub menu file

In the working directory create a file named grub.conf with the following
content:
default=0                                                                    
timeout=1                                                                    
title Clone                                                                  
        bootp                                                                
        root (nd)                                                            
        kernel /vmlinuz rw root=/dev/ram ramdisk_size=4096 init=/bin/clone   
        initrd /initrd.gz                                                    
                                                                             

In the last four lines are the Grub commands to boot from network:

��*�bootp, to get an IP address from the DHCP server.
   
��*�root (nd), to set the root in the network (TFTP server). An alternative
    TFTP server could be set before this command using the command tftpserver
    <tftp server>.
   
��*�kernel, to specify the kernel file and its parameters:
   
    ��+�rw, to specify writable mounting of the root file system.
       
    ��+�root, to specify where to mount the root file system (in ram memory).
       
    ��+�ramdisk_size, to specify the ram disk size. 4096 (kbytes) is the
        default size but if you needed a greater image, change this parameter
        accordingly.
       
    ��+�init, to specify (our script) as the first program to run in user
        mode (in the absence of init and sh).
       
   
��*�initrd to specify the file holding the image of the root file system.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2. Compiling Grub with network support

To compile Grub, first download the source tarball from [http://www.gnu.org/
software/grub/] the Grub web site and unpack it. Run configure specifying the
menu file you just created and the network interface card model. Run make as
usual.
# tar xzf grub-0.92.tar.gz                                                   
# cd grub-0.92                                                               
# ./configure --enable-preset-menu=../grub.conf --enable-3c90x               
# make                                                                       
                                                                             

Again, where you see 3c90x put the model of your network interface card.
First check if it is supported by Grub.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. Making the boot floppy disk

Once Grub is compiled, the image of the boot floppy disk is the concatenation
of the files stage1/stage1 and stage2/stage2. To make the floppy disk run:
# cat stage1/stage1 stage2/stage2 | dd of=/dev/fd0                           
                                                                             

You should now have a boot floppy disk.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Running the clone script

The clone script, shown in Appendix B, is not essential. You can make init=/
bin/bash as a kernel parameter and end up with a shell from where you can run
the available commands and programs.

The script is presented here to show the commands in a formal way and to
propose a way to reduce the possibility of damages resulting from mistyping.
You have to change the variables tftp_server, nic_module, major_a, family_a
and image_a according to your environment and application.

Please note that the arrays major_a and family_a are corresponding. Wrong
major number for a given family name will mislead the user. You can locate
the major and minor numbers of the devices of interest (whole disks and
partitions) by listing the /dev directory. The major and minor number are
where the size of a regular file is, in the output of the command ls -l,
separated by a comma.
# ls -l /dev/fd0 /dev/hda /dev/hda1 /dev/hdc                                 
brw-rw----    1 root     disk       2,   0 Apr 11 11:25 /dev/fd0             
brw-rw----    1 root     disk       3,   0 Apr 11 11:25 /dev/hda             
brw-rw----    1 root     disk       3,   1 Apr 11 11:25 /dev/hda1            
brw-rw----    1 root     disk      22,   0 Apr 11 11:25 /dev/hdc             
                                                                             

The command set -e instructs the shell to abort the script should any command
return non-zero code. The message"Kernel panic: Attempted to kill init!" will
follow, as in case of normal end. Don't panic! This is normal, given the
circumstances. Just turn off the computer. Press Ctrl-Alt-Del to have a
smooth reboot before exiting the script to avoid this ugly message.

The command insmod will load the network interface module and the command 
dhcpcd will start DHCP client. Note that the fact that Grub used DHCP during
its boot has nothing to do with Linux doing the same.

The script makes a big loop and, for each iteration, it asks for one of three
operations: Copy from network to device, Copy from device to network or Run
fdisk. Then the script asks which block device to use. The array major_a
holds the major number for the block devices allowed to be used and the array
family_a the respective names for the device families. Next, the script asks
the minor number of the block device to be used.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. Saving and restoring disk images

If one of the copy operations is selected, the script asks for the name of
the image to be saved or restored. The image name is limited to the elements
of the array image_a. A named pipe with the same name as the image is created
if doesn't exist. Finally, dd and tftp are invoked simultaneously to transfer
the image. Unlike regular ftp, tftp puts and gets named pipes just like
regular files.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Using fdisk

If fdisk command is selected it is invoked for the block device. fdisk is
normally run for the whole disk as opposed to one partition. Note that what
normally is called /dev/hda will be called /dev/hda0 by the clone script. The
input of fdisk could be put in the script to make automatic creation of
partitions if desired.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Extending the solution

7.1. Saving and restoring files instead of file systems

If you don't want to save a whole disk image just the files within the file
system, you can use a similar solution but with tar or cpio instead of dd.
Also you need to mount the file system. More commands should be added to the
clone script as shown below.
# mkdir /mnt                                                                 
# mount ${device_name} /mnt                                                  
# mknod ${image} p                                                           
# tftp ${tftp_server} <<-EOT &                                               
binary                                                                       
put ${image}                                                                 
EOT                                                                          
tar czf ${image}                                                             
                                                                             

or
# tftp ${tftp_server} <<-EOT &                                               
binary                                                                       
get ${image}                                                                 
EOT                                                                          
tar xzf ${image}                                                             
                                                                             

You have to put the mkdir and tar programs in the initrd image so that the
script can use them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Setting up the master boot record

In a situation where you used this setup to reorganize and resize your
partitions, you may end up with a disk that doesn't boot. Running the setup
command from Grub (including the grub program in the image) should resolve
the situation. See the Grub documentation for details.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Loading necessary modules

Depending on your kernel, additional modules may be necessary to access some
block devices like SCSI devices. Just put the necessary modules in the /lib
directory of the initrd image and the correspondent insmod commands in the
clone script. The same applies for file systems. If, for instance, you want
save the files instead of the image of a fat file system you will need the
fat.o and vfat.o modules.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4. Predefined operations on grub.conf

The Grub menu file grub.conf may be customized to present a few copy options
or even execute a predefined operation such as repartitioning the disk and
retrieving specified images from network. Again, you can use the concepts
presented here to achieve a specific application.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A. List of files on initrd

/bin/                                                                        
/bin/bash                                                                    
/bin/clone                                                                   
/bin/dd                                                                      
/bin/gzip                                                                    
/bin/mknod                                                                   
/bin/mount                                                                   
/bin/tftp                                                                    
/dev/                                                                        
/dev/console                                                                 
/dev/null                                                                    
/etc/                                                                        
/etc/dhcpc/                                                                  
/etc/hosts                                                                   
/etc/nsswitch.conf                                                           
/etc/protocols                                                               
/etc/services                                                                
/lib/                                                                        
/lib/3c59x.o                                                                 
/lib/i686/                                                                   
/lib/i686/libc-2.2.5.so                                                      
/lib/i686/libc.so.6                                                          
/lib/ld-2.2.5.so                                                             
/lib/ld-linux.so.2                                                           
/lib/libdl-2.2.5.so                                                          
/lib/libdl.so.2                                                              
/lib/libnss_files-2.2.5.so                                                   
/lib/libnss_files.so.2                                                       
/lib/libtermcap.so.2                                                         
/lib/libtermcap.so.2.0.8                                                     
/proc/                                                                       
/sbin/                                                                       
/sbin/dhcpcd                                                                 
/sbin/fdisk                                                                  
/sbin/insmod                                                                 
/tmp/                                                                        
/var/                                                                        
/var/run/                                                                    
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. Clone script

#!/bin/bash                                                                  
                                                                             
set -e                                                                       
                                                                             
export PATH=/sbin:/bin                                                       
                                                                             
tftp_server=10.0.0.1                                                         
nic_module=3c59x.o                                                           
major_a=(2 3 22)                                                             
family_a=(fd hda hdc)                                                        
image_a=(img0001 img0002 img0003 img0004)                                    
                                                                             
operation_a=(   "Copy from network to device" \                              
                "Copy from device to network" \                              
                "Run fdisk")                                                 
                                                                             
mount -t proc proc /proc                                                     
insmod /lib/${nic_module}                                                    
/sbin/dhcpcd                                                                 
                                                                             
while true; do \                                                             
        [ ! -z "${image}" ] && unset image                                   
        echo                                                                 
        echo "Clone Menu"                                                    
        echo                                                                 
        echo "Operation"                                                     
        echo                                                                 
        PS3="Choose operation (1-${#operation_a[*]}): "                      
        select operation in "${operation_a[@]}"; do \                        
                [ -z "${operation}" ] && continue                            
                echo                                                         
                echo $REPLY - $operation                                     
                echo                                                         
                break                                                        
        done                                                                 
                                                                             
        echo "Device Family"                                                 
        echo                                                                 
        PS3="Choose device family (1-${#family_a[*]}): "                     
        select family in "${family_a[@]}"; do \                              
                [ -z "${family}" ] && continue                               
                echo                                                         
                echo $REPLY - $family                                        
                echo                                                         
                break                                                        
        done                                                                 
                                                                             
        major_i=$[REPLY-1]                                                   
        major=${major_a[$major_i]}                                           
                                                                             
        echo "Minor Number"                                                  
        echo                                                                 
        PS3="Choose minor number (0-255): "                                  
        echo -n "$PS3" >&2                                                   
        read minor                                                           
        minor=$[minor%256]                                                   
        echo                                                                 
        echo $minor                                                          
        echo                                                                 
                                                                             
        if [ "${operation}" != "${operation_a[2]}" ]; then \                 
                echo "Image"                                                 
                echo                                                         
                PS3="Choose image (1-${#image_a[*]}): "                      
                select image in "${image_a[@]}"; do \                        
                        [ -z "${image}" ] && continue                        
                        echo                                                 
                        echo $REPLY - $image                                 
                        echo                                                 
                        break                                                
                done                                                         
                image_i=$[REPLY-1]                                           
                image=${image_a[${image_i}]}                                 
        fi                                                                   
                                                                             
        echo                                                                 
        echo -e "Operation:\t$operation"                                     
        device_name=/dev/${family_a[${major_i}]}${minor}                     
        echo -e "Device:\t\t${device_name} ($major, $minor)"                 
        [ ! -z "${image}" ] && echo -e "Image:\t\t${image}"                  
        echo                                                                 
                                                                             
        echo "Confirmation"                                                  
        echo                                                                 
        PS3="Ok/Cancel (1-2): "                                              
        select ok in Ok Cancel; do \                                         
                [ -z "${ok}" ] && continue                                   
                echo                                                         
                echo $REPLY - $ok                                            
                echo                                                         
                break                                                        
        done                                                                 
        if [ "${ok}" = "Ok" ]; then \                                        
                if [ ! -b ${device_name} ]; then \                           
                        echo "Creating ${device_name}"                       
                        mknod ${device_name} b ${major} ${minor}             
                fi                                                           
                if [ ! -z "${image}" ]; then \                               
                        if [ ! -p ${image} ]; then \                         
                                echo "Creating pipe"                         
                                mknod ${image} p                             
                        fi                                                   
                fi                                                           
                if [ "${operation}" = "${operation_a[0]}" ]; then \          
                        tftp ${tftp_server} <<-EOT &                         
                        binary                                               
                        get ${image}                                         
                        EOT                                                  
                        gzip -c -d < ${image} | dd of=${device_name}         
                elif [ "${operation}" = "${operation_a[1]}" ]; then \        
                        tftp ${tftp_server} <<-EOT &                         
                        binary                                               
                        put ${image}                                         
                        EOT                                                  
                        dd if=${device_name} | gzip -c > ${image}            
                elif [ "${operation}" = "${operation_a[2]}" ]; then \        
                        fdisk ${device_name}                                 
                fi                                                           
                echo                                                         
        fi                                                                   
                                                                             
        echo "Continuation"                                                  
        echo                                                                 
        PS3="Continue/Exit (1-2): "                                          
        select new in Continue Exit; do \                                    
                [ -z "${new}" ] && continue                                  
                echo                                                         
                echo $REPLY - $new                                           
                echo                                                         
                break                                                        
        done                                                                 
        [ "${new}" = "Exit" ] && break                                       
done                                                                         
exit 0                                                                       
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

References

[grub]�GRUB.

http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/





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