GNU.WIKI: The GNU/Linux Knowledge Base

  [HOME] [HowTo] [ABS] [MAN1] [MAN2] [MAN3] [MAN4] [MAN5] [MAN6] [MAN7] [MAN8] [MAN9]

 


  Linux DPT Hardware RAID HOWTO
  Ram Samudrala (me@ram.org)
  v1.62,  August 4, 2004

  How to set up hardware RAID under Linux. This HOWTO is now limited to
  making small changes from version 1.6.
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents


  1. Introduction

  2. Supported controllers

     2.1 DPT controllers
     2.2 ICP vortex controllers

  3. What hardware should be used?

     3.1 Controller type
     3.2 Enclosure type

  4. Installation

     4.1 Installing and configuring the hardware
     4.2 Configuring the kernel
     4.3 Bootup messages

  5. Usage

     5.1 fdisk, mke2fs, mount, etc.
     5.2 Hot swapping
     5.3 Performance

  6. Features in the EATA DMA driver

  7. Troubleshooting

     7.1 Upon bootup, no SCSI hosts are detected
     7.2 RAID configuration shows up as N different disks
     7.3 Machine/controller is shut down in the middle of a format
     7.4 SCSI_ABORT_BUSY errors produced during initial filesystem format
     7.5 If all fails...

  8. References

  9. Acknowledgements



  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction

  This document describes how to set up SCSI hardware RAID, focusing
  mainly on host-based adapters from DPT, though the principles applied
  here are fairly general.

  Use the information below at your own risk.  I disclaim all
  responsibility for anything you may do after reading this HOWTO. The
  latest version of this HOWTO will always be available at
  http://www.ram.org/computing/linux/dpt_raid.html.

  For the purposes of this HOWTO, I am assuming you have only a Linux
  system running. Also, note that I've only tried this out with the DPT
  Smartcache IV PM2144UW and PM3334UW controllers, with DPT (SmartRAID
  tower) and Wetex enclosures, and I have no experience with other
  setups. So things may be different for your setup.

  2.  Supported controllers

  One well-supported host-based hardware RAID controller (i.e, a
  controller for which there exists a driver under Linux) is one that is
  made by DPT <http://www.dpt.com>. However, there exist other host-
  based and SCSI-to-SCSI controllers which may work under Linux.  These
  include the ones made by Syred <http://www.syred.com>, ICP-Vortex
  <http://www.icp-vortex.com>, and BusLogic <http://www.mylex.com>.  See
  the RAID solutions for Linux page <http://linas.org/linux/raid.html>
  for more info.

  If, in the future, there is support for other controllers, I will do
  my best to incorporate that information into this HOWTO. Please send
  me any such information you think is appropriate for this HOWTO.

  2.1.  DPT controllers

  This document is currently DPT-oriented.  Essentially all the
  SmartRAID IV controllers are supported.

  2.2.  ICP vortex controllers

  ICP vortex has a complete line of disk array controllers which support
  Linux.  The ICP driver is in the Linux kernel since version 2.0.31.
  All major Linux Distributors S.u.S.e., LST Power Linux, Caldera and
  Red Hat support the ICP controllers as boot/installation controllers.
  The RAID system can easily be configured with their ROMSETUP (you do
  not have to boot MS-DOS for configuration!).

  With the monitoring utility GDTMON it is possible to manage the
  complete ICP RAID system during operation (check transfer rates, set
  parameters for the controller and hard disks, exchange defective hard
  disks, etc.).  Currently available are: 1 and 2 channel wide and ultra
  SCSI controller for RAID 0 and RAID 1 1, 2, 3 and 5 chn. wide and
  ultra SCSI controller for RAID 0, 1, 4, 5 and 10 1 and 2 channel wide
  and ultra2 LVDS SCSI controller for RAID 0 and RAID 1 1, 2, 3 and 5
  chn. wide and ultra2 LVDS SCSI controller for RAID 0, 1, 4, 5 and 10 1
  and 2 port Fibre Channel controllers for RAID 0, 1, 4, 5 and 10 Pretty
  soon there will be also 64-bit controllers available.

  ICP is transitioning the entry-level RS series from Ultra2 SCSI to
  Ultra160 SCSI.  The drivers, firmware, features, capabilities etc
  remain the same.  They are still 32 Bit cards with the i960RS
  processor working at 100MHz.  The only difference is they will work at
  Ultra160 (data transfer rate of 160MB/sec) rather than Ultra2 (data
  transfer of 80MB/sec).

  Effective immediately, the GDT7523RN units will become GDT8523RZ and
  the GDT7623RN units will become GDT8623RZ.  The transition from 33MHz
  on the PCI bus to 66MHz represents a huge potential performance
  increase.  The new cards will have the new Intel 80303 "Zion"
  processor, allowing bus master transfer rates of up to 528MB/sec, and
  will take up to 256MB of ECC RAM on PC133 SDRAM Dimms.

  3.  What hardware should be used?

  3.1.  Controller type

  Given all these options, if you're looking for a RAID solution, you
  need to think carefully about what you want.  Depending on what you
  want to do, and which RAID level you wish to use, some cards may be
  better than others.  SCSI-to-SCSI adapters may not be as good as host-
  based adapters, for example.  Michael Neuffer (neuffer@uni-mainz.de),
  the author of the EATA-DMA driver, has a nice discussion about this on
  his Linux High Performance SCSI and RAID page <http://www.uni-
  mainz.de/~neuffer/scsi/>.

  3.2.  Enclosure type

  The enclosure type affects the hot swap-ability of the drive, the
  warning systems (i.e., whether there will be indication of failure,
  and whether you will know which drive has failed), and what kind of
  treatment your drive receives (for example, redundant cooling and
  power supplies).  We used the DPT supplied enclosures which work
  extremely well, but they are expensive.

  4.  Installation

  4.1.  Installing and configuring the hardware

  Refer to the instruction manual to install the card and the drives.
  For DPT, since a storage manager for Linux doesn't exist yet, you need
  to create a MS-DOS-formatted disk with the system on it (usually
  created using the command "format /s" at the MS-DOS prompt).  You will
  also be using the DPT storage manager for MS-DOS (available from the
  Adaptec website <http://www.adaptec.com>), which you should probably
  make a copy of for safety.

  Once the hardware is in place, boot using the DOS system disk. Replace
  the DOS disk with the storage manager. And invoke the storage manager
  using the command:



       a:\ dptmgr



  Wait a minute or so, and you'll get a nice menu of options.  Configure
  the set of disks as a hardware RAID (single logical array). Choose
  "other" as the operating system.

  The MS-DOS storage manager is a lot easier to use with a mouse, and so
  you might want to have a mouse driver on the initial system disk you
  create.

  Technically, it should be possible to run the SCO storage manager
  under Linux, but it may be more trouble than its worth.  It's probably
  more easier to run the MS-DOS storage manager under Linux.

  4.2.  Configuring the kernel

  You will need to configure the kernel with SCSI support and the
  appropriate low level driver.  See the Kernel HOWTO
  <http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html> for information
  on how to compile the kernel. Once you choose "yes" for SCSI support,
  in the low level drivers section, select the driver of your choice
  (EATA DMA or EATA ISA/EISA/PCI for most EATA DMA compliant (DPT)
  cards, EATA PIO for the very old PM2001 and PM2012A from DPT).  Most
  drivers, including the EATA DMA and EATA ISA/EISA/PCI drivers, should
  be available in recent kernel versions.

  Once you have the kernel compiled, reboot, and if you've set up
  everything correctly, you should see the driver recognising the RAID
  as a single SCSI disk. If you use RAID-5, you will see the size of
  this disk to be 2/3 of the actual disk space available.

  4.3.  Bootup messages

  The messages you see upon bootup if you're using the EATA DMA driver
  should look something like this:



       EATA (Extended Attachment) driver version: 2.59b
       developed in co-operation with DPT
       (c) 1993-96 Michael Neuffer, mike@i-Connect.Net
       Registered HBAs:
       HBA no. Boardtype    Revis  EATA Bus  BaseIO IRQ DMA Ch ID Pr QS  S/G IS
       scsi0 : PM2144UW     v07L.Y 2.0c PCI  0xef90  11 BMST 1  7  N  64 252 Y
       scsi0 : EATA (Extended Attachment) HBA driver
       scsi : 1 host.
         Vendor: DPT       Model: RAID-5            Rev: 07LY
         Type:   Direct-Access                      ANSI SCSI revision: 02
       Detected scsi disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 8, lun 0
       scsi0: queue depth for target 8 on channel 0 set to 64
       scsi : detected 1 SCSI disk total.
       SCSI device sda: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 35591040 [17378 MB] [17.4 GB]



  (The above display is for a setup with a single DPT SCSI controller,
  configured as RAID-5, with three disks of 9 GB each.)

  The messages you see upon bootup if you're using the EATA ISA/EISA/PCI
  driver should look something like this:



       aic7xxx: <Adaptec AHA-294X SCSI host adapter> at PCI 15
       aic7xxx: BIOS enabled, IO Port 0x7000, IO Mem 0x3100000, IRQ 15, Revision B
       aic7xxx: Single Channel, SCSI ID 7, 16/16 SCBs, QFull 16, QMask 0x1f
       EATA0: address 0x7010 in use, skipping probe.
       EATA0: 2.0C, PCI 0x7410, IRQ 11, BMST, SG 252, MB 64, tc:y, lc:y, mq:62.
       EATA0: wide SCSI support enabled, max_id 16, max_lun 8.
       EATA0: SCSI channel 0 enabled, host target ID 6.
       EATA/DMA 2.0x: Copyright (C) 1994-1997 Dario Ballabio.
       scsi0 : Adaptec AHA274x/284x/294x (EISA/VLB/PCI-Fast SCSI) 4.1.1/3.2.1
       scsi1 : EATA/DMA 2.0x rev. 3.11.00
       scsi : 2 hosts.
       scsi0: Scanning channel A for devices.
         Vendor: IBM OEM   Model: DFHSS2F           Rev: 1818
         Type:   Direct-Access                      ANSI SCSI revision: 02
       Detected scsi disk sda at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
         Vendor: SEAGATE   Model: ST41650       TX  Rev: DG01
         Type:   Direct-Access                      ANSI SCSI revision: 02
       Detected scsi disk sdb at scsi1, channel 0, id 0, lun 0
         Vendor: TEAC      Model: FC-1     GF   00  Rev: RV L
         Type:   Direct-Access                      ANSI SCSI revision: 01 CCS
       Detected scsi removable disk sdc at scsi1, channel 0, id 3, lun 0
         Vendor: SONY      Model: CD-ROM CDU-541    Rev: 2.6a
         Type:   CD-ROM                             ANSI SCSI revision: 02
       Detected scsi CD-ROM sr0 at scsi1, channel 0, id 5, lun 0
       EATA0: scsi1, channel 0, id 0, lun 0, cmds/lun 21, sorted, tagged.
       EATA0: scsi1, channel 0, id 3, lun 0, cmds/lun 21, sorted.
       EATA0: scsi1, channel 0, id 5, lun 0, cmds/lun 21, sorted.
       scsi : detected 1 SCSI cdrom 3 SCSI disks total.
       SCSI device sda: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 4404489 [2150 MB] [2.2 GB]
       SCSI device sdb: hdwr sector= 512 bytes. Sectors= 2779518 [1357 MB] [1.4 GB]
       SCSI device sdc: hdwr sector= 256 bytes. Sectors= 4160 [1 MB] [0.0 GB]


  (The above display is for a setup with two SCSI controllers, DPT
  PM3224W and and Adaptec AHA2940.)

  5.  Usage

  5.1.  fdisk, mke2fs, mount, etc.

  You can now start treating the RAID as a regular disk. The first thing
  you'll need to do is partition the disk (using fdisk).  You'll then
  need to set up an ext2 filesystem.  This can be done by running the
  command:



       % mkfs -t ext2 /dev/sdxN



  where /dev/sdxN is the name of the SCSI partition.  Once you do this,
  you'll be able to mount the partitions and use them as you would any
  other disk (including adding entries in /etc/fstab).

  5.2.  Hot swapping

  We first tried to test hot swapping by removing a drive and putting it
  back in the DPT-supplied enclosure/tower (which you buy for an
  additional cost).  Before we could carry this out to completion, one
  of the disks failed (as I write this, the beeping is driving me
  crazy). Even though one of the disks failed, all the data on the RAID
  drive was accessible.

  Instead of replacing the drive, we just went through the motions of
  hot swapping and put the same drive back in.  The drive rebuilt itself
  and everything turned out okay.  During the time the disk had filed,
  and during the rebuilding process, all the data was accessible. Though
  it should be noted that if another disk had failed, we'd have been in
  serious trouble.

  5.3.  Performance

  Here's the output of the Bonnie program, on a 2144 UW with 9x3=17 GB
  RAID 5 setup, using the EATA DMA driver. The RAID is on a dual
  processor Pentium Pro machine running Linux 2.0.33. For comparison,
  the Bonnie results for the IDE drive on that machine are also given.



                  -------Sequential Output-------- ---Sequential Input--  --Random--
                  -Per Char- --Block--- -Rewrite-- -Per Char- --Block---  --Seeks---
               MB K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU   /sec  %CPU
       RAID   100  9210 96.8  1613  5.9   717  5.8  3797 36.1 90931 96.8 4648.2 159.2
       IDE    100  3277 32.0  6325 23.5  2627 18.3  4818 44.8 59697 88.0  575.9  16.3



  Some people have disputed the above timings (and rightly so---I've
  been unable to try it out on our machines since they're completely
  loaded) because the size of the file used may have led to it being
  cached (resulting in an unusually good performance report).  Here are
  some timings with a 3344 UW controller:



          -------Sequential Output-------- ---Sequential Input-- --Random--
          -Per Char- --Block--- -Rewrite-- -Per Char- --Block--- --Seeks---
       MB K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU  /sec %CPU
     1000  1714 17.2  1689  6.0  1200  5.7  5263 40.2  7023 12.1  51.3 2.2



  And here are some timings on a SCSI-to-SCSI RAID system:



            -------Sequential Output-------- ---Sequential Input-- --Random--
            -Per Char- --Block--- -Rewrite-- -Per Char- --Block--- --Seeks---
       MB   K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU K/sec %CPU /sec %CPU
       64   7465 100.0 70287 98.7 37012 97.7 8074 99.2 *****100.3 ***** 196.6
       128  7289 99.3  67595 98.5 35294 98.6 7792 97.6 *****100.3 ***** 195.8
       256  7222 98.8  44844 69.6 16096 51.8 5787 72.7 ***** 99.8 ***** 85.2
       512  7138 98.4  13871 23.2 7888  29.3 7183 89.3 16488 27.2 1585. 11.5
       1024 6908 95.8  12270 21.5 7161  25.4 7373 90.4 16527 28.2 123.8 1.8
       2047 6081 84.1  12664 22.6 7191  25.6 7289 89.5 16573 28.5 75.0  1.2

       ***** results exceed column width (> 100 MB/sec, > 10000 seeks/sec)

       host:   Dual PII 400 MHz, 2 x U2W, 512 MB RAM, no internal disks
       RAID:   IFT 3102 UA 128 MB Cache, RAID-5, 6 x 9 GB
       OS:     SuSE Linux 6.0 with Kernel 2.2.3



  6.  Features in the EATA DMA driver

  This section describes some of the commands available under Linux to
  check on the RAID configuration.  Again, while references to the
  eata_dma driver is made, this can be used to check up on any driver.

  To see the configuration for your driver, type:



       % cat /proc/scsi/eata_dma/N



  where N is the host id for the controller.  You should see something
  like this:



  EATA (Extended Attachment) driver version: 2.59b
  queued commands:         353969
  processed interrupts:    353969

  scsi0 : HBA PM2144UW
  Firmware revision: v07L.Y
  Hardware Configuration:
  IRQ: 11, level triggered
  DMA: BUSMASTER
  CPU: MC68020 20MHz
  Base IO : 0xef90
  Host Bus: PCI
  SCSI Bus: WIDE Speed: 10MB/sec.
  SCSI channel expansion Module: not present
  SmartRAID hardware: present.
      Type: integrated
      Max array groups:              7
      Max drives per RAID 0 array:   7
      Max drives per RAID 3/5 array: 7
  Cache Module: present.



           Type: 0
           Bank0: 16MB without ECC
           Bank1: 0MB without ECC
           Bank2: 0MB without ECC
           Bank3: 0MB without ECC
       Timer Mod.: present
       NVRAM     : present
       SmartROM  : enabled
       Alarm     : on
       Host<->Disk command statistics:
                Reads:      Writes:
           1k:           0            0
           2k:           0            0
           4k:           0            0
           8k:           0            0
          16k:           0            0
          32k:           0            0
          64k:           0            0
         128k:           0            0
         256k:           0            0
         512k:           0            0
        1024k:           0            0
       >1024k:           0            0
       Sum   :           0            0



  To get advanced command statistics, type:



       % echo "eata_dma latency" > /proc/scsi/eata_dma/N



  Then you can do a:


       % cat /proc/scsi/eata_dma/N



  to get more detailed statistics.

  To turn off advanced command statistics, type:



       % echo "eata_dma nolatency" > /proc/scsi/eata_dma/N



  7.  Troubleshooting

  7.1.  Upon bootup, no SCSI hosts are detected

  This could be due to several reasons, but it's probably because the
  appropriate driver is not configured in the kernel. Check and make
  sure the appropriate driver (EATA-DMA or EATA ISA/EISA/PCI for most
  DPT cards) is configured.

  7.2.  RAID configuration shows up as N different disks

  The RAID has not been configured properly.  If you're using a DPT
  storage manager, you need to configure the RAID disks as a single
  logical array.  Michael Neuffer (neuffer@uni-mainz.de) writes: "When
  you configure the controller with the SM start it with the parameter
  /FW0 and/or select Solaris as OS. This will cause the array setup to
  be managed internally by the controller."

  7.3.  Machine/controller is shut down in the middle of a format

  As stated in the DPT manual, this is clearly a no-no and might require
  the disks to be returned to the manufacturer, since the DPT Storage
  Manager might not be able format it. However, you might be able to
  perform a low level format on it, using a program supplied by DPT,
  called clfmt in their utilities page. Read the instructions after
  unzipping the clfmt.zip file on how to use it (and use it wisely).
  Once you do the low level format, you might be able to treat the disks
  like new. Use this program carefully!

  7.4.  SCSI_ABORT_BUSY errors produced during initial filesystem format

  When you do a mke2fs on the SCSI drive, you may see errors of the
  form:



       scsi: aborting command due to timeout : pid xxx, scsi0, channel 0, id
       2, lun 0
       write (10) xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
       eata_abort called pid xxx target: 2 lun: 0 reason: 3
       Returning: SCSI_ABORT_BUSY



  and this might end up causing the machine to freeze.  I (and many
  others) have been able to fix this problem by simply reading one or
  two hundred MB from the RAID array with dd like this:


       % dd if=/dev/sdX of=/dev/null bs=1024k count=128



  During a format, a fast rush of requests for chunks of memory that is
  directly accessible is made, and sometimes the memory manager cannot
  deliver it on time anymore.  The dd is a workaround that will simply
  create the requests sequentially instead of one huge heap at once like
  the format tends to create it.

  7.5.  If all fails...

  Read the SCSI-HOWTO again.  Check the cabling and the termination.
  Try a different machine if you have access to one.  The most common
  cause of problems with SCSI devices and drivers is because of faulty
  or misconfigured hardware.  Finally, you can post to the various
  newsgroups or e-mail me, and I'll do my best to get back to you.

  8.  References

  The following documents may prove useful to you as you set up RAID:


  �  DPT Technology Library <http://www.dpt.com/library/library.html>

  �  EATA-DMA homepage <http://www.uni-
     mainz.de/~neuffer/scsi/dpt/index.html>

  �  Linux Disk HOWTO <http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/Disk-HOWTO.html>

  �  Linux Kernel HOWTO <http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/Kernel-
     HOWTO.html>

  �  Linux SCSI HOWTO <http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/SCSI-HOWTO.html>

  �  Multi Disk System Tuning HOWTO
     <http://www.nyx.net/~sgjoen/disk.html>

  �  RAID Solutions for Linux <http://linas.org/linux/raid.html>

  9.  Acknowledgements

  The following people have been helpful in getting this HOWTO done:


  �  Andreas Koepf (A_Koepf@icp-vortex.com)

  �  Boris Fain (fain@zen.stanford.edu)

  �  Dario Ballabio (Dario_Ballabio@milano.europe.dg.com)

  �  Heiko Rommel (Heiko.Rommel@Uni-Bielefeld.DE)

  �  Jos Vos (jos@xos.nl)

  �  Michael Neuffer (neuffer@uni-mainz.de)

  �  Ralph Wallace (rwallace@rwallace.interaccess.com)

  �  Russell Brown (russell@lutton.lls.com)

  �  Syunsuke Ogata (Syunsuke_Ogata@appear.ne.jp)


  �  Tom Brown (tbrown@baremetal.com)







  All copyrights belong to their respective owners. Other site content (c) 2014, GNU.WIKI. Please report any site errors to webmaster@gnu.wiki.