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Disk Encryption HOWTO

David Braun

<cruhmoz602 [at] sneakemale [period] com (rewrite 'male' as 'mail')>

Copyright � 2004 David Braun

2004-11-17
Revision History                                                             
Revision 1.5             2004-11-17            Revised by: DB                
added warning about dm-crypt                                                 
Revision 1.4             2004-08-17            Revised by: DB                
bug fixes, hints toward plausible deniability and dm-crypt                   
Revision 1.3             2003-12-18            Revised by: DB                
added link to Diceware                                                       
Revision 1.2             2003-10-09            Revised by: DB                
added idle logout and Gentoo instructions                                    
Revision 1.1             2003-09-13            Revised by: DB                
added step to zero out keychain                                              
Revision 1.0             2003-08-28            Revised by: tmm               
Initial release, reviewed by LDP                                             
Revision 0.92            2003-08-27            Revised by: DB                
first submission to LDP                                                      


A method is described for encrypting a hard disk, either in whole or in part,
with the encryption key stored on an external medium for increased security.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Technical Summary
    1.2. Copyright and License
    1.3. Disclaimer
    1.4. Acknowledgments
    1.5. Feedback
    1.6. Approaches
    1.7. Threat Model
    1.8. Caveats
    1.9. Requirements
    1.10. Looking to the Future
   
   
2. Procedure
    2.1. Prepare the Keychain
    2.2. Prepare the Asset
    2.3. Scripts
    2.4. Testing and Backup
    2.5. Rescue Disk
    2.6. Installing Linux
   
   
3. More Information
Glossary
A. GNU Free Documentation License
    A.1. PREAMBLE
    A.2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    A.3. VERBATIM COPYING
    A.4. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    A.5. MODIFICATIONS
    A.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    A.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    A.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    A.9. TRANSLATION
    A.10. TERMINATION
    A.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    A.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
   
   

1. Introduction

I've got a laptop computer running Linux and I don't want to worry about
someone reading the personal information it contains, in case it gets lost or
stolen. My log on password may stop someone from booting it, but it won't
prevent an attacker from removing the hard disk and reading its data. I need
stronger protection.

Fortunately, it's relatively easy to use encryption so the hard disk data
would be unreadable if it were to fall into the wrong hands. Encryption's not
only useful for portable computers like laptops??it can be used to protect
any computer with personal information. I protect my computer's files with
encryption for the same reason I lock my filing cabinet at home. For further
motivation, you may be interested in reading Michael Crawford's [http://
www.goingware.com/encryption/] Why You Should Use Encryption.

I could encrypt only certain files, such as those in my home directory. This
would protect the files but then I'd have to worry about information leaking
out of them to other, unencrypted places on the disk. Instead I encrypt the
whole disk so I don't have to manage this problem.

There are many encryption algorithms to choose from. I chose [http://
csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/aes/] AES because it has been approved by the US
government's National Institute of Standards and Technology and is well
regarded by the cryptography community. I want my use of it to be resistant
to dictionary attacks, so I use a long, randomly generated key. There's no
way I'm going to memorize such a key so I keep it in a form I can carry with
me easily: on a USB flash drive on my keychain. I encrypt the key with a
passphrase so my data is protected in two ways: by a) what I have (the USB
flash drive) and b) what I know (the passphrase). I can even give a friend
access to my computer without giving away my passphrase??she uses her own USB
flash drive and her own passphrase.

The operating system keeps the data encrypted on the disk at all times and
decrypts it in RAM only as it's used. This way if the computer loses power
suddenly the data will remain protected. The decryption key is loaded into
RAM at boot time and kept there while the computer is on, so I don't need to
keep the USB flash drive plugged in after starting the computer.

The procedure outlined in this HOWTO is written for version 2.4 of the Linux
kernel. It will become less complicated with the release of Linux 2.6, which
will have built-in support for encryption and do a better job of managing
partitions within loopback devices.

This document assumes the reader has a moderate level of experience with
Linux (you should be comfortable patching and compiling kernels as well as 
partitioning, mounting, and unmounting disks).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. Technical Summary

The encryption is implemented through a special kind of loopback device. A
loopback device doesn't store any data itself; instead it takes all the data
storage and retrieval requests it receives and passes them along to a real
storage device, such as a disk or a file. As the data passes through, it can
be filtered, and in our case the filter used is encryption.

When the system is deployed, a removable medium (USB flash drive) boots using
GRUB, a kernel, and an initrd. Both the key and the kernel are selected from
the GRUB menu, allowing a single removable medium to be used with multiple
computers. The initrd contains just enough tools to ask for a passphrase, set
up an encrypted loopback device, and mount it. After mounting, pivot_root is
used to resume the boot process from the encrypted device. Loopback device
offsets are used, instead of partitions, to access separate swap and root
file system spaces within the encrypted loopback device because the 2.4
kernel doesn't provide access to partitions within loopback devices. The
offset method does not generalize to multiple partitions (unfortunately)
because the maximum offset understood by losetup is 2GB.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Copyright and License

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the
license is included in Appendix A.

Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.�
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Disclaimer

No liability for the contents of this document can be accepted. Use the
concepts, examples and information at your own risk. There may be errors and
inaccuracies that could be damaging to your system and you may lose important
data. Proceed with caution, and although this is highly unlikely, the author
does not take any responsibility.

All copyrights are held by their by their respective owners, unless
specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Naming
of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

I know you hate reading directions and want to skip to the meaty bit right
away, but I advise you to read the whole document first before touching
anything. I know all the HOWTOs say that, but I really mean it for this one.
It's worth it; trust me. You may also want to run through the procedure first
on a test system before tackling a production system.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Acknowledgments

Thanks to Linus Torvalds, Jari Ruusu, and all the developers who contributed
to their software, without which this HOWTO would have been impossible.

Thanks to the National Institute of Standards and Technology for carefully
selecting a strong, open encryption algorithm.

Thanks to Mark Garboden and others on the [http://mail.nl.linux.org/
linux-crypto/] linux-crypto mailing list and The Linux Documentation Project
mailing lists who took the time to critique my writing and offer suggestions.

Thanks to alert readers Ladislao Bastetti and Norris Pouhovitch for
struggling through unusual hardware configurations, finding mistakes in the
HOWTO, and suggesting good ideas.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Feedback

Feedback is solicited for this document. Please send additions, comments, and
criticisms to the author.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6. Approaches

There are three different approaches we can take to encrypt the disk: encrypt
the whole thing, a single partition, or a single file. I strongly recommend
the first approach for best security. The first two approaches assume you'll
be booting from removable media, such as a USB flash drive or a business card
size CD-ROM. If you don't want to do this, you may modify the method to boot
from the disk instead by making a small, unencrypted boot partition. If you
want to use a USB flash drive to boot your computer, be sure your motherboard
can do it first. At the time of this writing many cannot.

To avoid having to enumerate all three approaches everywhere I'm going to
refer to what you're protecting as the asset. I will refer to the removable
medium used to store the key as the keychain. I call it the keychain instead
of the key because we can store lots of keys, each for different computers,
on the same medium.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6.1. Whole Disk

A problem with keeping data secret with encryption is that the data likes to
move around. Imagine the encryption is like a fence around your data. While
the data's inside the fence, it's safe. To be most useful, however, data
likes to be transmitted on networks, put on removable disks like CD-ROMs, and
shared with friends. Any time your data leaves the fenced area it's
unprotected. We can't put an encryption fence around all possible locations
where our data might play but we do want to make the fence as large as
practical. By putting the encryption fence around your whole hard disk, you
won't have to worry about data becoming unprotected if it jumps to another
part of the disk.

Warning In this approach, we create one swap space and one root file system. 
        Some people want more than a single encrypted partition for the root 
        file system. Unfortunately, the method detailed here relies on the   
        offset parameter of losetup to create "subpartitions" within the     
        asset. The offset parameter is limited to a maximum value of 2GB,    
        limiting the size of all but the last partition to 2GB. This works   
        nicely for swap, which is already limited to 2GB on the i386         
        architecture, but I'm guessing it won't be practical for other uses. 
        Using it to create multiple partitions smaller than 2GB is left as an
        exercise for the reader.                                             
                                                                             
        Another way to handle multiple partitions is to encrypt each         
        partition separately (using the same key) to avoid the technical     
        limitation above. This isn't secure as encrypting the whole disk     
        because the partition table is exposed. When an attacker attempts to 
        break encryption, the first thing he does is try to figure out what  
        it's encrypting. A partition table listing Linux partitions is a big 
        hint. For this reason I discourage encrypting multiple partitions    
        separately, but arguably it's a good compromise for getting around   
        the current losetup limitation. Another option is simply to wait for 
        the release of Linux 2.6 because it is expected to make the offset   
        parameter unnecessary.                                               
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6.2. Partition (for multiboot systems)

Encrypting the whole disk is fine if Linux is the only operating system on
it, but this won't work for people who have set up their computer to boot
multiple operating systems, e.g., [http://www.kernel.org] Linux, [http://
www.netbsd.org/] NetBSD, and [http://developer.apple.com/darwin/] Darwin. In
this case we can encrypt just the Linux partition and leave the others alone.
Since we're booting from a removable medium, we won't even need to include
the Linux partition in the multiboot menu with the others. To see why this
isn't as secure as encrypting the whole disk, read Table 1.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6.3. File (for home directories)

You may want to encrypt only a file on a file system. Once you've encrypted
it you can put into it whatever you want, including other file systems. You
might want to use this approach to encrypt only your home directory, for
example. This is the least secure of the three approaches and not
recommended. If you choose this approach you will notice instructions below
to skip whole sections. This is because I'm assuming you've already booted an
operating system and have your swap issues handled, so those sections don't
apply to you. This HOWTO may be overkill for your needs and you can probably
get away with just reading the fine [http://loop-aes.sourceforge.net/
loop-AES.README] README that comes with [http://sourceforge.net/projects/
loop-aes/] loop-AES. If you do, be sure to read Section 1.7 before you finish
here.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7. Threat Model

In order to protect our asset well, we must first understand what we're
protecting it against. The general idea is that you've got a laptop which is
vulnerable to being stolen or lost, and have a USB flash drive on your
keychain that isn't, so this system is designed to handle the case that your
laptop is stolen. I'm guessing your keychain won't be as easily stolen
because it's in your pocket, and because an attacker won't know that it's
important. If you pull your USB flash drive out of your pocket and someone
non-technical exclaims, "What's that?", tell them it's a [http://www.pez.com
/] Pez dispenser.

Note This system falls short when it comes to plausible deniability, which   
     means there's no way to hide the fact that your personal data is        
     encrypted. This is like locking your jewels in a safe and keeping the   
     safe in plain sight in the middle of your living room. Only you can open
     the safe, but a man with a gun can tell you to open the safe for him. So
     if you're worried about your computer being subpoenaed and being told to
     hand over your laptop, keychain, and passphrase, you'd better look at   
     other solutions such as [http://stegfs.sourceforge.net/] StegFS.        
                                                                             
     The following solution to the deniability problem has been suggested by 
     Norris Pouhovitch. It should be possible to install a minimal Windows   
     partition at the front of the disk and to encrypt the remainder. When   
     the computer is turned on without the keychain, it boots Windows        
     normally. When the keychain is booted, it skips the Windows partition,  
     decrypts the remainder of the disk, and boots Linux.                    
                                                                             
     The advantage of this scheme is that if the laptop is stolen and turned 
     on, it will look like what a casual attacker is expecting to see (a     
     Windows computer). On the other hand, a serious attacker could notice   
     the unusually small partition and become suspicious. I will flesh out   
     this idea further in a future version of the HOWTO.                     


Table 1. Attack Tree
+----------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+
|                    Attack                    | Reaction |      Notes      |
+-----------+----------------------------------+----------+-----------------+
|attacker   |while it is on                    |   SOL    |The asset is     |
|steals     |                                  |          |unprotected while|
|laptop     |                                  |          |the computer is  |
|           |                                  |          |running because  |
|           |                                  |          |the encryption   |
|           |                                  |          |key is in RAM.   |
|           |                                  |          |You can lower the|
|           |                                  |          |risk by using an |
|           |                                  |          |idle logout (    |
|           |                                  |          |Section 2.6.3),  |
|           |                                  |          |but if you think |
|           |                                  |          |your laptop is   |
|           |                                  |          |about to be      |
|           |                                  |          |stolen, turn off |
|           |                                  |          |the power        |
|           |                                  |          |immediately and  |
|           |                                  |          |quickly read the |
|           |                                  |          |[http://         |
|           |                                  |          |www.aikidofaq.com|
|           |                                  |          |/] Aikido HOWTO. |
|           +----------+-----------------------+----------+-----------------+
|           |while it  |attacker doesn't steal | new key  |�                |
|           |is off    |keychain               |          |                 |
|           |          +-----------+-----------+----------+-----------------+
|           |          |attacker   |attacker   |   SOL    |�                |
|           |          |steals     |knows your |          |                 |
|           |          |keychain   |passphrase |          |                 |
|           |          |           +-----------+----------+-----------------+
|           |          |           |attacker   | new key  |�                |
|           |          |           |doesn't    |          |                 |
|           |          |           |know your  |          |                 |
|           |          |           |passphrase |          |                 |
+-----------+----------+-----------+-----------+----------+-----------------+
|attacker   |attacker knows passphrase         | new key  |Your asset is at |
|steals     |                                  |          |risk because the |
|keychain   |                                  |          |attacker can     |
|but doesn't|                                  |          |decrypt it.      |
|have laptop+----------+-----------------------+----------+-----------------+
|           |attacker  |you're feeling lazy or |   new    |You're probably  |
|           |doesn't   |you're convinced the   |passphrase|OK without       |
|           |know      |keychain was lost, not |          |changing the     |
|           |passphrase|stolen                 |          |asset key because|
|           |          |                       |          |the attacker     |
|           |          |                       |          |can't decrypt the|
|           |          |                       |          |asset without the|
|           |          |                       |          |passphrase.      |
|           |          +-----------------------+----------+-----------------+
|           |          |you're feeling paranoid| new key  |�                |
+-----------+----------+-----------------------+----------+-----------------+
|attacker convinces you to send data over      |   SOL    |�                |
|network                                       |          |                 |
+----------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+
|attacker convinces you to copy data to        |   SOL    |�                |
|removable medium                              |          |                 |
+----------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+
|you encrypt only a partition and a process    |   SOL    |�                |
|writes data to a different partition          |          |                 |
+----------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+
|you encrypt only a file and a process copies  |   SOL    |�                |
|data from RAM to the unencrypted swap, or to a|          |                 |
|file in /tmp, or elsewhere on the unencrypted |          |                 |
|disk                                          |          |                 |
+----------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+
|attacker demands you hand over laptop,        |   SOL    |There is no      |
|keychain, and passphrase while waving a rubber|          |plausible        |
|hose menacingly                               |          |deniability built|
|                                              |          |into the system. |
+----------------------------------------------+----------+-----------------+

new passphrase
    Restore the keychain backup and choose a new passphrase.
   
new key
    Generate a new random key to re-encrypt the asset, choose a new
    passphrase, and restore the asset backup.
   
SOL
    Sorry Over your Loss
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.8. Caveats

��*�This method won't work (yet) with Software Suspend for Linux.
   
��*�Encrypting the disk will undoubtedly slow it down. I don't know by how
    much. If anyone has done some benchmarks, please send them to me.
   
��*�There is nothing in this method to support plausible deniability (see 
    Section 1.7).
   
��*�It won't prevent information leaks via networks and removable disks.
   
��*�Encrypting backups is beyond the scope of this HOWTO.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.9. Requirements

��*�a computer with an easily accessible removable medium reader (such as a
    USB port or a CD-ROM drive)
   
��*�a motherboard which supports booting from removable media (check
    carefully for USB, not all do)
   
��*�removable medium (such as a USB flash drive) to be used as the keychain
   
��*�[http://www.kernel.org/] Linux 2.4
   
��*�[http://sourceforge.net/projects/loop-aes/] loop-AES
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.9.1. A Digression about USB Flash Drives

There are many choices on the market. When I bought mine, I found one which
fit the following requirements:

��*�physically small (I carry it on my physical keychain)
   
��*�supports USB 2.0 at full speed
   
��*�has a write-protect switch, so I don't clobber my encryption keys by
    accident
   

You might be tempted to get one with a fingerprint reader. I strongly
encourage you not to. It might initially seem like a good idea, because by
adding the biometric, your security protection expands to:

��*�something you have (the USB flash drive)
   
��*�something you know (the passphrase)
   
��*�something you are (your fingerprint, or whatever)
   

However, suppose something goes wrong. If you are now asking yourself, "What
could go wrong?", then why are you reading this HOWTO? If something goes
wrong, you make a change (see Corrective Reactions):

��*�Change what you have by using a different USB flash drive.
   
��*�Change what you know by learning a new passphrase.
   
��*�You can't change what you are.
   

Stop and ponder that last line for a while.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.10. Looking to the Future

I wrote this document while using the 2.4 kernel. Linux 2.6 introduces the
[http://sources.redhat.com/dm/] Device-mapper which we will be able to use to
avoid playing games with losetup offsets. Linux 2.6 also introduces [http://
www.saout.de/misc/dm-crypt/] dm-crypt, an encryption layer for the
Device-mapper which looks quite elegant. Unfortunately, [http://mareichelt.de
/pub/texts.cryptoloop.php] it's not safe! Hopefully someday it will be fixed,
but in the mean time the best course is to stick with loop-AES.

A future version of this HOWTO will explain how to use the Device-mapper with
Linux 2.6.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Procedure

This method is designed to erase the contents of the asset before encrypting
it. If you already have data on the disk you intend to encrypt, you should
copy it somewhere else temporarily and then move it back once the encryption
is set up. It is possible to encrypt data in place, but for now I consider
such magic too advanced for this HOWTO. See [http://sourceforge.net/projects/
loop-aes/] loop-AES's [http://loop-aes.sourceforge.net/loop-AES.README]
README for more details if you're interested in that method.

To do the following operations you will need to be running a system which has
a [http://sourceforge.net/projects/loop-aes/] loop-AES capable kernel. If you
don't have one already, I recommend using [http://www.knoppix.com/] KNOPPIX.
It boots off a CD-ROM and doesn't need to be installed, so it's very little
hassle.

For simplicity these instructions assume you'll be preparing the keychain and
the asset on the same computer, but this needn't be the case. Adapt the
instructions to whatever's convenient for you.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. Prepare the Keychain

If you're taking the approach of encrypting only a file instead of a disk or
a partition, you may skip this section and proceed directly to Section 2.2.

In the ideal setup you will use a bootable keychain device, such as a USB
flash drive or a business card size CD-ROM. This is because we want to expose
as little of your disk as possible, but we're going to have to expose a
minimal boot process or the computer will never start. Since the boot process
will be necessarily unencrypted, it's better to have it away from your
computer (on your keychain). If you can't or don't want to use a bootable
keychain for some reason, then follow these instructions anyway but instead
apply them to a small boot partition on your disk instead of the keychain.

In the following example the keychain shows up as the first SCSI drive /dev/
sda. Replace /dev/sda with the device for your drive as appropriate.

The first step??zeroing out the keychain??is technically unnecessary, but it
will make the keychain backup smaller if you back it up as an image as I
suggest in Section 2.4.

    bash# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda                                        
   
Next, partition the keychain as you would any bootable disk. See the Linux
Partition HOWTO if you need help with partitioning.

    bash# cfdisk /dev/sda                                                    
   
Put a file system on the first partition.

    bash# mkfs /dev/sda1                                                     
   
Mount the keychain.

    bash# mkdir /tmp/keychain                                                
    bash# mount /dev/sda1 /tmp/keychain                                      
    bash# cd /tmp/keychain                                                   
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1.1. Build the Kernel

If you use the keychain with multiple computers you may want to build a
different kernel for each one.

You probably need to build a custom kernel for your keychain so you can
ensure two things:

��*�It has been patched correctly with [http://sourceforge.net/projects/
    loop-aes/] loop-AES and encryption support is turned on.
   
��*�All the device drivers necessary to boot your computer and make the asset
    accessible have been compiled in instead of loaded as modules.
   

You can load device drivers as modules, since we're using an initrd, but I
chose to compile them into the kernel in order to keep the boot disk as
simple as possible. Feel free to do differently.

For help building a custom kernel read The Linux Kernel HOWTO. Be sure to set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM in the kernel configuration so it can boot using an
initrd.

Follow the directions that come with [http://sourceforge.net/projects/
loop-aes/] loop-AES to build the new loop driver. Also follow the directions
to rebuild the [http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/] util-linux
tools, some of which we'll copy to the keychain later. Your distribution may
have already built them for you (e.g., see the loop-aes-utils and
loop-aes-source packages in Debian).

Once you've built the kernel, copy it to the keychain.

    bash# mkdir boot                                                         
    bash# cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage boot/vmlinuz-laptop                      
   
Install [http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub.html] GRUB or your favorite
boot loader.

    bash# grub-install --root-directory=. /dev/sda                           
   
Here is a sample menu.lst for GRUB. It has entries for two computers named 
laptop and desktop.

Important It is required to pass the name of the key (I suggest you name it  
          after the computer) as the first parameter to linuxrc.             


Example 1. /tmp/keychain/boot/grub/menu.lst
title  laptop                                                                
root (hd0,0)                                                                 
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-laptop root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc laptop              
initrd /boot/initrd                                                          
                                                                             
title  desktop                                                               
root (hd0,0)                                                                 
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-desktop root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc desktop            
initrd /boot/initrd.old                                                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1.2. Make the initrd

We boot the keychain using an initrd so we can remove it after the boot
process starts (who wants a USB flash drive hanging out of their laptop while
trying to look cool in a caf�?). To gain access to the asset we create a
loopback device attached to the initrd's /dev/loop0. Putting the device file
on the initrd means the initrd will have to stay mounted while the asset is
mounted (not a big deal).

To learn all about making initial RAM disks you're welcome to read The Linux
Bootdisk HOWTO and Linux's Documentation/initrd.txt, or don't bother and just
follow along.

We start by choosing 4MB for the size of the initial RAM disk, all of which
we won't need, but it's the conventional maximum size (and it won't hurt) so
that's one less decision to make.

    bash# head -c 4m /dev/zero > boot/initrd                                 
    bash# mke2fs -F -m0 -b 1024 boot/initrd                                  
   
Mount the initrd so we can work on it.

    bash# mkdir /tmp/initrd                                                  
    bash# mount -o loop=/dev/loop3 boot/initrd /tmp/initrd                   
    bash# cd /tmp/initrd                                                     
   
Create the minimal directory structure we'll need.

    bash# mkdir -p {bin,dev,lib,mnt/{keys,new-root},usr/sbin,sbin}           
   
Create the minimal set of devices we'll need. Note that tty is necessary for
the password prompt. This command assumes your asset is the drive /dev/hda.
Change it as appropriate.

    bash# cp -a /dev/{console,hda,loop0,loop1,tty} dev                       
   
We'll copy the six programs we'll need.

Tip You can use which to find a program's full pathname, e.g.:               
    bash# which mount                                                        
    /bin/mount                                                               

Copy the programs:

    bash# cp /bin/{mount,sh,umount} bin                                      
    bash# cp /sbin/{losetup,pivot_root} sbin                                 
    bash# cp /usr/sbin/chroot usr/sbin                                       
   
Use ldd to find out which shared libraries are used by each program:

    bash# ldd /bin/{mount,sh,umount} /sbin/{losetup,pivot_root} /usr/sbin/chroot 
    /bin/mount:                                                                  
            libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x40023000)                             
            /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)                
    /bin/sh:                                                                     
            libncurses.so.5 => /lib/libncurses.so.5 (0x40020000)                 
            libdl.so.2 => /lib/libdl.so.2 (0x4005c000)                           
            libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x4005f000)                             
            /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)                
    /bin/umount:                                                                 
            libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x40023000)                             
            /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)                
    /sbin/losetup:                                                               
            libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x40023000)                             
            /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)                
    /sbin/pivot_root:                                                            
            libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x40023000)                             
            /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)                
    /usr/sbin/chroot:                                                            
            libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x40023000)                             
            /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)                
   
Copy the libraries. On my system I copied these libraries (yours may be
different):

    bash# cp /lib/{ld-linux.so.2,libc.so.6,libdl.so.2,libncurses.so.5} lib   
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2. Prepare the Asset

It's possible to repeat these steps as many times as you want to handle
multiple computers using the same keychain. Each computer will have its own
key and probably its own kernel. The instructions here assume the computer's
name is laptop; substitute the name of the computer you're working with each
time you repeat the steps.

First, back up your data. See the Linux Complete Backup and Recovery HOWTO.

No, stop, listen to me. Back up your data. Really. It's no fun to have an
encrypted hard disk if you can't decrypt it because of some mistake you made.
These tools are powerful magic; if you blow it you can't just call up 
Computer Gurus Are Us and expect them to get your data back for you. That's
the whole point of this exercise.

If you are encrypting your whole disk (recommended), replace /dev/hda with
the device for your disk.

    bash# ln -s /dev/hda /tmp/asset                                          
   
If you are encrypting a partition (multiboot case), replace /dev/hda3 with
the device for your partition.

    bash# ln -s /dev/hda3 /tmp/asset                                         
   
If you are encrypting a file only, replace ~/encrypted with the name of the
file and create a link named /tmp/keychain that points to where you decide to
store your key file (an already prepared removable medium, e.g., /mnt/cf).

    bash# ln -s ~/encrypted /tmp/asset                                       
    bash# ln -s /mnt/cf /tmp/keychain                                        
   
Initialize the asset with random data. This will make it less obvious to the
attacker which parts are free space.

    bash# shred -n 1 -v /tmp/asset                                           
   
Here we create an encrypted file system to hold the keys. More encryption,
you say? Yes, in case your keychain is stolen (see Table 1), you don't want
your keys to be exposed. I chose one megabyte as the size of the file system
because it's a round number. There's no way we're going to need that much
space for keys so feel free to chose a smaller size if you like (each key
file will be 61 bytes long).

Again, initialize with random data.

    bash# cd /tmp/initrd                                                     
    bash# head -c 1m /dev/urandom > keys                                     
   
To make the passphrase resistant to dictionary attacks we'll generate a seed.
Whenever you see the symbol <seed> be sure to replace it with the one you
generated. The following command will display a random seed on the screen.

    bash# head -c 15 /dev/random | uuencode -m - | head -2 | tail -1         
   
Set up the loopback device using the seed. This is where you choose your
passphrase, which must be at least 20 characters in length. Choose one with
care that you know you won't forget. You may want to use the [http://
world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html] Diceware method for choosing a secure
passphrase.

    bash# losetup -e AES128 -C 100 -S <seed> -T /dev/loop1 keys              
   
Format and mount the keys file system (the decrypt.sh script assumes you use
the ext2 file system here).

    bash# mke2fs /dev/loop1                                                  
    bash# mkdir /tmp/keys                                                    
    bash# mount /dev/loop1 /tmp/keys                                         
   
Now for the actual asset key, 45 bytes as random as your computer can make
them. Try a dictionary attack against that, attacker! Ha! We name the key
after the computer with which it will be used (laptop). Substitute the name
of your computer instead.

    bash# head -c 45 /dev/random | uuencode -m - | head -2 | tail -1 > /tmp/keys/laptop
   
Set up a loopback device with the key for encrypted access to the asset.

    bash# losetup -e AES128 -p 0 /dev/loop0 /tmp/asset < /tmp/keys/laptop    
   
Unmount the keys file system.

    bash# umount /tmp/keys                                                   
    bash# losetup -d /dev/loop1                                              
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.1. Swap Partition

Skip this section if you're encrypting only a file.

It's critical to give mkswap a size parameter here because we're not handing
it a dedicated partition. Choose whatever size you want; I chose 2GB.

    bash# mkswap /dev/loop0 $((2*1024*1024))                                 
    mkswap: warning: truncating swap area to 2097144kB                       
    Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 2147471360 bytes                  
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.2. Root File System

If you're encrypting only a file, format it with a file system like this and
skip to Section 2.3.

    bash# mkfs /dev/loop0                                                    
   
We'll create the root "partition" after the swap space. I put the word
'partition' in quotes because it's not a real partition. We're faking it
using the offset argument of losetup.

Notice how mkswap told us the actual size of the swapspace, which is not
necessarily the size requested. Use the actual size (which was 2147471360 in
the above example) when specifying the offset to begin the root file system.

    bash# losetup -o <root offset> /dev/loop1 /dev/loop0                     
   
If the asset is the whole disk or the last partition on the disk, then we
needn't worry about specifying a size for the file system. If this applies to
you, do the following and skip to Section 2.2.2.1.

    bash# mkfs /dev/loop1                                                    
   
Since the asset isn't the last partition on the disk, we must give mkfs a
size limitation or it will write all over whatever partitions are between
this one and the end of the disk. I repeat, if you don't give mkfs the
correct size parameter here, you may lose data. mkfs is actually just a front
end, so to be as careful as possible we'll choose an actual file system
maker, in this case mke2fs.

It's possible to limit the size of the file system by specifying its size in
blocks, but mke2fs chooses the block size based on the size of the file
system. A classic Catch-22! We can ask it to do a dry run on the rest of the
disk (more than we want) to see what block size it would chose.

    bash# mke2fs -n -j /dev/loop1                                                   
    mke2fs 1.34-WIP (21-May-2003)                                                   
    Filesystem label=                                                               
    OS type: Linux                                                                  
    Block size=4096 (log=2)                                                         
    Fragment size=4096 (log=2)                                                      
    9781248 inodes, 19544448 blocks                                                 
    977222 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user                               
    First data block=0                                                              
    597 block groups                                                                
    32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group                               
    16384 inodes per group                                                          
    Superblock backups stored on blocks:                                            
            32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 
            4096000, 7962624, 11239424                                              
   
In this case it chose 4096. Whatever it chooses is probably close enough for
our file system. Calculate the correct size in blocks.

   
    file system size = (size of partition ?? size of swap space) � block size
   
Suppose the size of the partition is 10GB and the size of the swap is 2GB.
The correct size for mke2fs is (10 ?? 2) � 230 � 4096 = 2097152. Don't get
this wrong! Make backups! Measure twice, cut once!

    bash# mke2fs -j /dev/loop1 2097152                                       
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2.2.1. initrd Mount Point

Mount the new root file system and create the initrd mount point. This is
necessary for the linuxrc script's call to pivot_root.

    bash# mount /dev/loop1 mnt/new-root                                      
    bash# mkdir mnt/new-root/initrd                                          
    bash# umount mnt/new-root                                                
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3. Scripts

We have enough information to create the decryption script. Change the
variables at the beginning to reflect your setup (including the seed you
generated earlier).

If you're encrypting the whole disk or a partition, set ROOT_OFFSET to the
size you got from mkswap. Put the script in /tmp/initrd and name it
decrypt.sh.

If you're encrypting only a file then this script can live anywhere. In this
case be sure to set ROOT_OFFSET to zero and set MOUNT to a convenient mount
point (probably not /mnt/new-root).


Figure 1. /tmp/initrd/decrypt.sh
#!/bin/sh                                                                                               
                                                                                                        
SEED=<seed>                                                                                             
ASSET=/dev/hda                                                                                          
ROOT_OFFSET=<root offset>                                                                               
ROOT_TYPE=ext3                                                                                          
MOUNT=/mnt/new-root                                                                                     
KEY="$1"                                                                                                
                                                                                                        
# Ask for a passphrase to open the keys (this prevents exposure of the keys in                          
# case the owner loses the keychain).  Give the user three tries to get the                             
# passphrase right.                                                                                     
for ((FAILED=1, TRY=1; ($FAILED != 0) && (TRY <= 3); TRY++))                                            
do                                                                                                      
        mount -n -t ext2 -o loop=/dev/loop1,encryption=AES128,itercountk=100,pseed=$SEED keys /mnt/keys 
        FAILED=$?                                                                                       
done                                                                                                    
                                                                                                        
if [ $FAILED -ne 0 ]; then                                                                              
        echo "Sorry, you get only three attempts to guess the password."                                
        exit 1                                                                                          
fi                                                                                                      
                                                                                                        
# Use the key to decrypt the asset.                                                                     
losetup -e AES128 -p 0 /dev/loop0 $ASSET < "/mnt/keys/$KEY"                                             
                                                                                                        
# Close the keys.                                                                                       
umount -n /mnt/keys                                                                                     
losetup -d /dev/loop1                                                                                   
                                                                                                        
# Set up the root "partition" device.                                                                   
losetup -o $ROOT_OFFSET /dev/loop1 /dev/loop0                                                           
                                                                                                        
# Mount the root file system (read-only, so it can be checked with fsck).                               
mount -n -r -t $ROOT_TYPE /dev/loop1 $MOUNT                                                             

Make the script executable.

    bash# chmod +x decrypt.sh                                                
   
If you're encrypting only a file, skip to Section 2.4. Otherwise, save the
following boot script as linuxrc and place it in /tmp/initrd.


Figure 2. /tmp/initrd/linuxrc
#!/bin/sh                                                                    
                                                                             
# Decrypt the asset                                                          
source decrypt.sh "$1"                                                       
                                                                             
# Pivot to the asset's root file system.                                     
cd $MOUNT                                                                    
/sbin/pivot_root . initrd                                                    
                                                                             
# Pass control to init.                                                      
shift 1                                                                      
exec chroot . /sbin/init $* <dev/console >dev/console 2>&1                   

Make the script executable.

    bash# chmod +x linuxrc                                                   
   
Okay, the keychain and asset are now ready. Unmount everything.

    bash# umount /tmp/{initrd,keychain}                                      
   
You now have an empty, encrypted file system. Hurray!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Testing and Backup

Test your system by booting the keychain or executing the decrypt.sh script
as appropriate (give it the name of the key you want to use as a parameter).
After booting there may be a complaint about a nonexistent /sbin/init but
that's okay for now.

Check to make sure your root file system mounted successfully. When you're
confident everything is working, back up your keychain. In fact, make lots of
backups. You might ask, "But isn't it insecure to have a copy of my keychain
somewhere?" The answer is yes, it is, but not as insecure as losing your only
keychain, if you define security as also meaning "securing access to my
data".

Because my keychain is small I decided to back up the whole image so it's
easy to restore:

    bash# bzip2 -c /dev/sda > keychain.img.bz2                               
   
If you're encrypting only a file, you can pat yourself on your back at this
point because you've finished.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. Rescue Disk

Rescue disks are useful when a system isn't behaving properly and/or refuses
to boot. Check to make sure your rescue disk has [http://sourceforge.net/
projects/loop-aes/] loop-AES support in its kernel and has the correctly
patched [http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/] util-linux tools
such as losetup and mount, otherwise it will be worthless with your newly
encrypted asset. In the future, all rescue disks will include this support
because it will come standard with the 2.6 kernel. In the meantime, [http://
www.knoppix.com/] KNOPPIX (for example) already has all the necessary support
and can be used as a rescue disk.

After booting an appropriate rescue disk, mount your keychain and execute the
decrypt.sh script.

    bash# mkdir /tmp/{keychain,initrd}                                       
    bash# mount /dev/sda1 /tmp/keychain                                      
    bash# mount -o loop=/dev/loop3 /tmp/keychain/boot/initrd /tmp/initrd     
    bash# pushd /tmp/initrd                                                  
    bash# ./decrypt.sh laptop                                                
    bash# popd                                                               
    bash# umount /tmp/{initrd,keychain}                                      
   
You can now access your asset through the mount point you specified in 
decrypt.sh.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.6. Installing Linux

Your final task is to install Linux to your new encrypted file system. As you
do this make sure the entries in your /etc/fstab for the root and swap look
like those below:


# /etc/fstab: static file system information.                                  
#                                                                              
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>               <dump>  <pass> 
/dev/loop0      none            swap    sw                      0       0      
/dev/loop1      /               ext3    errors=remount-ro       0       1      

If you already have an installation elsewhere, read the Hard Disk Upgrade
Mini How-To to learn how to copy it over.

The procedure for a fresh installation of Linux is different for each
distribution. Please send me instructions for distributions not listed below
and I will include them here.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.6.1. [http://www.debian.org] Debian

 1. Boot from a rescue disk by following the instructions in Section 2.5.
   
 2. Install using the method 3.7 Installing Debian GNU/Linux from a Unix/
    Linux System.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.6.2. [http://www.gentoo.org/] Gentoo

 1. Boot from a rescue disk (Gentoo's Live CD 1.4 won't work) by following
    the instructions in Section 2.5.
   
 2. Activate the swap partition if you created one.
   
        bash# swapon /dev/loop0                                              
       
   
 3. Point /mnt/gentoo to the root file system.
   
        bash# ln -s new-root /mnt/gentoo                                     
       
   
 4. Skip to [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml#doc_chap8]
    Chapter 8. Stage tarballs and chroot in the [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en
    /gentoo-x86-install.xml] Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.6.3. Idle Logout

Once your system is up and running, consider configuring it to log out
automatically after a period of inactivity. This will lessen (but not
eliminate) the risk of exposing your asset if the laptop is stolen while on
(see Table 1).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. More Information

��*�The [http://loop-aes.sourceforge.net/loop-AES.README] README that comes
    with [http://sourceforge.net/projects/loop-aes/] loop-AES explains how to
    use it in multiple scenarios.
   
��*�[http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Encrypted-Root-Filesystem-HOWTO/] Encrypted
    Root Filesystem HOWTO
   
��*�The [http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/] Hardened Gentoo Project's
    [http://www.sdc.org/~leila/usb-dongle/readme.html] A Structured Approach
    to Hard Disk Encryption is more comprehensive and is targeted to [http://
    www.gentoo.org/] Gentoo users.
   

Glossary

[http://csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/aes/] AES
    Advanced Encryption Standard, a strong, well-regarded encryption
    algorithm chosen by the United States National Institute of Standards and
    Technology
   
asset
    the data being protected by encryption??either a disk, partition, or a
    file
   
encryption
    a mathematical means of scrambling data so that it's unintelligible
    unless decrypted using a specific key
   
key
    the small piece of data necessary to make encrypted data intelligible
   
keychain
    the physical medium (such as a USB flash drive) used to hold the
    encryption key (and possibly the beginning of the boot process)
   
loopback device
    a Linux block device which appears to store data (by using another
    device)
   
[http://sourceforge.net/projects/loop-aes/] loop-AES
    software written by Jari Ruusu that implements the AES algorithm using a
    loopback device
   
plausible deniability
    a means to avoid being coerced into decrypting one's own data for an
    attacker
   
USB flash drive
    a small electronic device containing a memory chip and a USB interface
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002

   
    Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple
    Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy
    and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it
    is not allowed.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.1. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure
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modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this
License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
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This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
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We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states
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A.3. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
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    These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
    the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance
    and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications
    given therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
    text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to
    conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
   
 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve
all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from
the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's
users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included
in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the
aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket
the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if
the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed
covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.9. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in
the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the
translation and the original version of this License or a notice or
disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1)
will typically require changing the actual title.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.10. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.12. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
    Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no
    Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section
    entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
   
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

   
    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover
    Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
   
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination
of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.





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