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  Root over nfs clients & server Howto.
  Hans de Goede hans@highrise.nl

  v1.0 30 March 1999

  Howto setup a server and configure clients for diskless operation from
  a network.

  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents


  1. Introduction

     1.1 Copyright
     1.2 Changelog

  2. Basic principle

     2.1 Things can't be that simple
        2.1.1 Each ws needs its own writable copy of a number of dirs
        2.1.2 Write access to /home might be needed
        2.1.3 How does a ws find out it's ip so that it can communicate with the server?
        2.1.4 What about ws sepecific configuration
        2.1.5 Miscelancious problems

  3. Preparing the server

     3.1 Building a kernel
     3.2 Creating and populating /tftpboot, making symlinks for /tmp etc.
        3.2.1 The automagic part
        3.2.2 Manual adjustments to some files
     3.3 Exporting the appropriate file systems and setting up bootp
        3.3.1 Exporting the appropriate file systems
        3.3.2 Setting up bootp

  4. Adding workstations

     4.1 Creating a boot disk or bootrom
        4.1.1 Creating a bootdisk
        4.1.2 Creating a bootrom
     4.2 Creating a ws dir
     4.3 Add entries to /etc/bootptab and /etc/hosts
     4.4 Booting the ws for the first time
     4.5 Set the ws specific configuration.

  5. Added bonus: booting from cdrom

     5.1 Basic Principle
        5.1.1 Things can't be that simple
     5.2 Creating a test setup.
     5.3 Creating the cd
        5.3.1 Creating a boot image
        5.3.2 Creating the iso image
        5.3.3 Verifying the iso image
        5.3.4 Writing the actual cd
     5.4 Boot the cd and test it

  6. Thanks

  7. Comments



  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction

  This howto is also available at - <http://xmame.retrogames.com/hans>.
  This document describes a setup for nfs over root. This document
  differs from the other root over nfs howto's in 2 ways:


  1. It describes both the server and the client side offering a
     complete solution, it doesn't desribe the generic principles off
     root over nfs although they will become clear. Instead it offers a
     working setup for root over nfs. One of the many possible setup's I
     might add.

  2. This solution is unique in that it shares the root of the server
     with the workstations (ws). Instead of having a mini-root per ws.
     This has a number of advantages:

  �  low diskspace usage

  �  any changes on the serverside are also automagicly made at the
     client side, all configuration has only to be done once!

  �  Very easy adding of new clients

  �  only one system to maintain

  This document is heavily based on a RedHat-5.2 system. Quite a bit of
  prior linux sysadmin experience is assumed in this howto, if you have
  that it shouldn't be a problem to addept this solutions to other
  distributions.

  1.1.  Copyright

  Well here's the standard howto legal stuff:

  This manual may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in part,
  without fee, subject to the following conditions:


  �  The copyright notice above and this permission notice must be
     preserved complete on all complete or partial copies.

  �  Any translation or derived work must be approved by the author in
     writing before distribution.

  �  If you distribute this work in part, instructions for obtaining the
     complete version of this manual must be included, and a means for
     obtaining a complete version provided.

  �  Small portions may be reproduced as illustrations for reviews or
     quotes in other works without this permission notice if proper
     citation is given.


  Exceptions to these rules may be granted for academic purposes: Write
  to the author and ask. These restrictions are here to protect us as
  authors, not to restrict you as learners and educators.

  1.2.  Changelog


  �  v0.1, 20 January 1999: First draft written at the HHS, where the
     setup was originally developed.

  �  v1.0, 30 March 1999: First released version partially written in
     time of ISM

  2.  Basic principle

  As already said with this setup the clients share basicly the entire
  root-fs with the server. But the clients ofcourse only get read access
  to it. This is basicly how things work.

  2.1.  Things can't be that simple

  Unfortunatly things aren't that simple, there are a couple of problems
  the overcome with this simple setup.

  2.1.1.  Each ws needs its own writable copy of a number of dirs

  A normal linux setup needs to have write access to the following dirs:


  1. /dev

  2. /var

  3. /tmp

  There are 3 solutions for this, of which one will only work for /dev:


  1. mount a ramdisk and populate it by untarring a tarball, or by
     copying a template dir.

  �  Advantages:

     a. It's cleaned up every reboot, which removes tmp files and logs.
        Thus it needs no maintaince unlike server sided dirs.

     b. It doesn't take up any space on the server, and that it doesn't
        generate any network traffic. A ramdisk takes less server and
        network resources, and is faster.

  �  Disadvantages:

     a. It takes memory.

     b. The logs aren't kept after a reboot, if you really want logging
        of all your clients tell syslog to redirect the logging to your
        server.

  2. create a dir for each ws on the server and mount it rw over nfs.

  �  Advantages & disadvantages:

     a. The above arguments work in reverse for serversided dirs.

  3. With kernel 2.2 devfs can be used for /dev, this is a virtual
     filesystem ala /proc for /dev.

  �  Advantages:

     a. Devfs takes very little memory when compared to a ramdisk / no
        diskspace on the server and is very fast. A normal /dev takes at
        least 1.5 mb since the minimal size for a file (and thus for a
        device) is 1k, and there are somewhere around 1200 devices. You
        can offcourse use a template of a stripped /dev with only the
        entries you need to save some space. 1.5 Mb is a lott for a
        ramdisk and also isn't nice on a server.
     b. Devfs automagicly creates entries for newly added & detected
        devices, so no maintainance is needed.

  �  Disadvantages:

     a. Any changes to /dev like creating symlinks for the mouse and
        cdrom are lost. Devfs comes with a script called rc.devfs to
        save these chances. The script's provided in this howto will
        automagicly restore these symlinks settings by calling rc.devfs
        If you make any changes to /dev you need to call the rc.devfs
        yourself to save them by typing:


       /etc/rc.d/rc.devfs save /etc/sysconfig


  As you can see, there are a number of ways to solve this problem. For
  the rest of this Howto the following choices are assumed:


  �  For /dev we'll use Devfs

  �  For /var and /tmp we'll use a shared ramdisk of 1mb. It's shared to
     use the space as effeciently as possible. /tmp is replaced by a
     symlink to /var/tmp to make the sharing possible.

  �  Populating the ramdisk with tarballs or template dirs, works
     equally well.  But with template dirs it's much easier to make
     changes, thus we'll use template dirs.

  2.1.2.  Write access to /home might be needed

  Not really a problem in every unix client/server setup /home is
  mounted rw from the server so we'll just do that ;)

  2.1.3.  How does a ws find out it's ip so that it can communicate with
  the server?

  Luckily for us, this problem has already been solved and the linux
  kernel has support for 2 ways of autoconfiguration of the ip-address:


  1. RARP

  2. Bootp

  Rarp is the easiest to setup, bootp is the most flexible. Since most
  bootroms only support bootp that's what we'll use.

  2.1.4.  What about ws sepecific configuration

  On redhat most system dependent config files are already in
  /etc/sysconfig We'll just move those which aren't there and add
  symlinks. Then we mount a seperate /etc/sysconfig on a per ws basis.
  This is really the only distribution dependent part on other
  distributions you can just create a sysconfig dir, move all config
  files which can't be shared there and create symlinks. Also
  /etc/rc.d/rc3.d, or symilar on other dists, might need to be different
  for the server resp the workstations. Assuming that all ws run the
  same services in runlevel 3, we'll just create a seperate 3th runlevel
  for the workstations and the server:


  1. Create both a /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws and a /etc/rc.d/rc3.server


  2. make /etc/rc.d/rc3.d a symlink to /etc/sysconfig/rc3.d

  3. make /etc/sysconfig/rc3.d a symlink to the apropiate
     /etc/rc.d/rc3.xxx

  4. replace S99local in rc3.ws by a link to /etc/sysconfig/rc.local so
     that each ws can have it's own rc.local

  2.1.5.  Miscelancious problems

  There are a few problems left:


  1. /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit needs /var, so /var needs to be mounted or
     created before /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit is run. It would also be nice
     if the ws-specific /etc/sysconfig is mounted before any initscripts
     are run.

  �  We'll just source a bootup script for the ws in the very top of
     /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit.  Note this script will then ofcourse also be
     sourced by the server itself on boot, so the script has to detect
     this and do nothing on the server.

  2. /etc/mtab needs to be writable:

  �  This is a tricky one, just create a link to /proc/mounts and create
     an empty file mounts in /proc so that fsck and mount don't complain
     during the initscripts when /proc isn't mounted yet. One note
     smb(u)mount doesn't respect mtab being a link and overwrites it.
     Thus if you want to use smb(u)mount create wrapper scripts that
     restore the symlink.

  3.  Preparing the server

  Now it's time to prepare the server to serve diskless clients.

  3.1.  Building a kernel

  The first thing todo is build a kernel with the nescesarry stuff in to
  support root over nfs. Take the following steps to build your kernel:


  1. Since we'll be using redhat-5.2 with kernel-2.2 you should asure
     yourself that your redhat-5.2 is kernel-2.2 ready. RedHat has got
     an excellent howto on this.

  2. I use the same kernel for both server and ws, to avoid module
     conflicts since they share the same /lib/modules. If this is not
     possible in your situation, fake different kernel versions by
     editing the version number in the kernel's top makefile. These
     different versionsnumbers will avoid any conflicts.

  3. Besides the usual stuff the kernel should have the following:

  �  ext2 compiled in (if used on server, or for both)

  �  nfs and root-over-nfs compiled in (if used on client or both), to
     get the nfs over root option in 2.2 enable ip-autoconfig in the
     network options. We'll use bootp as configuration method.

  �  ws networkcard support compiled in (if used on client or both)

  �  compile devfs in (required for client, also nice for server)

  �  anything else you normally use, modules for all other devices used
     on either the server or all / some ws etc.
  4. The kernel-src needs to be edited to make the default root-over-nfs
     mount: /tftpboot/<ip>/root instead of just /tftpboot/<ip>. This is
     to get a clean tree in /tftpboot with one dir per ws containing
     both the root for it (a link to the actual server root) and any ws
     specific dirs.

  �  For 2.0 This is a define in: "include/linux/nfs_fs.h" called
     "NFS_ROOT"

  �  For 2.2 This is a define in: "fs/nfs/nfsroot.c"

  5. Now just compile the kernel as usual, see the kernel-howto.

  6. If you don't have /dev/nfsroot yet, create it by typing:

       mknod /dev/nfsroot b 0 255.


  7. After compiling the kernel set the root to nfsroot by typing:

       rdev <path-to-zImage>/zImage /dev/nfsroot


  8. Before booting with devfs you need to make a few changes to
     /etc/conf.modules, append the contents of the conf.modules in the
     devfs documentation to it.

  9. Since this new kernel is compiled for autoconfig of ip's it will
     try to autoconf the ip of the server during bootup. Which ofcourse
     will fail since it gives out the ip's. To avoid a long timeout add:
     append="ip=off" To the linux section of /etc/lilo.conf.

  10.
     Run lilo and boot the new kernel.

  11.
     Due to devfs you'll have lost all symlinks on the server. With
     redhat this is usually /dev/mouse and /dev/cdrom. Recreate these.
     If you also used to use special ownerships, chown to appropiate
     files in /dev. Now save the /dev settings (in /etc/sysconfig, since
     they might be ws specific):

  �  Copy rc.devfs from the devfs documentation in the kernel source to
     /etc/rc.d/rc.devfs and make it executable

  �  Save the settings by typing:

       /etc/rc.d/rc.devfs save /etc/sysconfig


  3.2.  Creating and populating /tftpboot, making symlinks for /tmp etc.

  The next step is to create and populate /tftpboot

  3.2.1.  The automagic part

  This is all handled by a big script since putting a long list of
  commands into this howto seemed pretty useless to me. If you want todo
  this manual just read the script and type it in as you go ;)

  This setup script thus some nasty things like nuke /tmp, temporary
  kill syslog, umount /proc. So make sure that noone is using the
  machine during this, and that X isn't running. Just making sure your
  the only one logged in on a text-console is enough, no need to change
  runlevels.

  DISCLAIMER: this script has been tested but nevertheless if it messes
  up your server your on your own. I can take no responsibility what so
  ever. Lett me repeat this howto is only for experienced linux
  sysadmins. Also this is script is designed to be run once and I really
  mean once. Running it twice will nuke: /etc/fstab,
  /etc/X11/XF86Config, /etc/X11/X and /etc/conf.modules.

  Now with that said, just cut and paste the script make it executable,
  execute it and pray to the holy penguin that it works ;)



  ______________________________________________________________________
  #!/bin/sh

  SERVER_NAME=`hostname -s`

  ###
  echo creating /etc/rc.d/rc.ws
  #this basicly just echos the entire script ;)
  echo "#root on nfs stuff

  SERVER=$SERVER_NAME

  #we need proc for mtab, route etc
  mount -t proc /proc /proc

  IP=\`ifconfig eth0|grep inet|cut --field 2 -d ':'|cut --field 1 -d ' '\`

  #if the first mount fails we're probably the server, or atleast something is
  #pretty wrong, so only do the other stuff if the first mount succeeds
  mount \$SERVER:/tftpboot/\$IP/sysconfig /etc/sysconfig -o nolock &&
  {
     #other mounts
     mount \$SERVER:/home /home -o nolock
     mount \$SERVER:/ /\$SERVER -o ro,nolock

     #/var
     echo Creating /var ...
     mke2fs -q -i 1024 /dev/ram1 1024
     mount /dev/ram1 /var -o defaults,rw
     cp -a /tftpboot/var /

     #network stuff
     . /etc/sysconfig/network
     HOSTNAME=\`cat /etc/hosts|grep \$IP|cut --field 2\`
     route add default gw \$GATEWAY
     ifup lo
  }

  #restore devfs settings
  /etc/rc.d/rc.devfs restore /etc/sysconfig

  umount /proc" > /etc/rc.d/rc.ws

  ###
  echo splitting runlevel 3 for the client and server
  mv /etc/rc.d/rc3.d /etc/rc.d/rc3.server
  cp -a /etc/rc.d/rc3.server /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws
  rm /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws/*network
  rm /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws/*nfs
  rm /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws/*nfsfs
  rm /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws/S99local
  ln -s /etc/sysconfig/rc.local /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws/S99local
  ln -s /etc/rc.d/rc3.server /etc/sysconfig/rc3.d
  ln -s /etc/sysconfig/rc3.d /etc/rc.d/rc3.d

  ###
  echo making tmp a link to /var/tmp
  rm -fR /tmp
  ln -s var/tmp /tmp

  ###
  echo moving various files around and create symlinks for them
  echo mtab
  /etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog stop
  umount /proc
  touch /proc/mounts
  mount /proc
  /etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog start
  rm /etc/mtab
  ln -s /proc/mounts /etc/mtab
  echo fstab
  mv /etc/fstab /etc/sysconfig
  ln -s sysconfig/fstab /etc/fstab
  echo X-config files
  mkdir /etc/sysconfig/X11
  mv /etc/X11/X /etc/sysconfig/X11
  ln -s ../sysconfig/X11/X /etc/X11/X
  mv /etc/X11/XF86Config /etc/sysconfig/X11
  ln -s ../sysconfig/X11/XF86Config /etc/X11/XF86Config
  echo conf.modules
  mv /etc/conf.modules /etc/sysconfig
  ln -s sysconfig/conf.modules /etc/conf.modules
  echo isapnp.conf
  mv /etc/isapnp.conf /etc/sysconfig
  ln -s sysconfig/isapnp.conf /etc/isapnp.conf

  ###
  echo creating a template dir for the ws directories
  echo /tftpboot/template
  mkdir /home/tftpboot
  ln -s home/tftpboot /tftpboot
  mkdir /tftpboot/template
  mkdir /$SERVER_NAME
  echo root
  ln -s / /tftpboot/template/root
  echo sysconfig
  cp -a /etc/sysconfig /tftpboot/template/sysconfig
  rm -fR /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/network-scripts
  ln -s /$SERVER_NAME/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts \
   /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/network-scripts
  echo NETWORKING=yes > /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/network
  echo `grep "GATEWAY=" /etc/sysconfig/network` >> /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/network
  echo "/dev/nfsroot / nfs defaults 1 1" > /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/fstab
  echo "none /proc proc defaults 0 0" >> /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/fstab
  echo "#!/bin/sh" > /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/rc.local
  chmod 755 /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/rc.local
  rm /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/rc3.d
  ln -s /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/rc3.d
  rm /tftpboot/template/sysconfig/isapnp.conf
  echo var
  cp -a /var /tftpboot/var
  rm -fR /tftpboot/var/lib
  ln -s /$SERVER_NAME/var/lib /tftpboot/var/lib
  rm -fR /tftpboot/var/catman
  ln -s /$SERVER_NAME/var/catman /tftpboot/var/catman
  rm -fR /tftpboot/var/log/httpd
  rm -f /tftpboot/var/log/samba/*
  for i in `find /tftpboot/var/log -type f`; do cat /dev/null > $i; done
  rm `find /tftpboot/var/lock -type f`
  rm `find /tftpboot/var/run -type f`
  echo /sbin/fsck.nfs
  echo "#!/bin/sh
  exit 0" > /sbin/fsck.nfs
  chmod 755 /sbin/fsck.nfs

  echo all done

  ______________________________________________________________________



  3.2.2.  Manual adjustments to some files

  Now we need to make a few manual adjustments to the server:


  1. The ws setup script has to be sourced at the very beginning of
     rc.sysinit, so add the following lines directly after setting the
     PATH:

     ___________________________________________________________________
     #for root over nfs workstations.
     /etc/rc.d/rc.ws

     ___________________________________________________________________



  2. Strip /etc/rc.d/rc3.ws to a bare minimum. It might be useful to
     create something like rc.local.ws but I'll leave that up to you.
     Network and nfsfs are already setup.The following have been already
     removed / updated by the automagic script:

  �  network

  �  nfsfs

  �  nfs

  �  rc.local

  3.3.  Exporting the appropriate file systems and setting up bootp

  The server must ofcourse export the appropriate filesystems and asign
  the ip addresses to the clients.

  3.3.1.  Exporting the appropriate file systems

  We need to export some dir's for the workstations so for the situation
  here at the university I would add the following to /etc/exports:


  ______________________________________________________________________
  / *.st.hhs.nl(ro,no_root_squash)
  /home *.st.hhs.nl(rw,no_root_squash)

  ______________________________________________________________________



  Ofcourse use the apropriate domain ;) and restart nfs by typing:


       /etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs restart


  Note for knfsd users: knfsd doesn't allow you to have multiple exports
  on one partition with different permissions. Also knfsd doesn't allow
  clients to go past partition boundaries for example if a client mounts
  / and /usr is a different partition it won't have access to /usr. Thus
  if you use knfsd, at least /home should be on a different partition,
  the server prepare script already puts /tftpboot in /home so that
  doesn't need a seperate partition.  If you've got any other partitions
  your clients should have access to export them seperatly and add mount
  commands for them to /etc/rc.d/rc.ws.


  3.3.2.  Setting up bootp


  1. If bootp isn't installed yet install it. It comes with RedHat.

  2. Edit /etc/inetd.conf and uncomment the line beginning with bootps,
     if you want to use a bootprom uncomment tftp while your at it.

  3. Restart inetd by typing:

       /etc/rc.d/init.d/inetd restart


  4.  Adding workstations

  Now that the server is all done, we can start adding workstations.

  4.1.  Creating a boot disk or bootrom

  You'll need ot create a bootrom and / or a bootdisk to boot your
  workstation.

  4.1.1.  Creating a bootdisk

  Even if you wish to use a bootrom its wise to first test with a
  bootdisk, to create a boot disk just type:


       dd if=/<path-to-zImage>/zImage of=/dev/fd0


  4.1.2.  Creating a bootrom

  There are a few free package's out there to create bootroms:


  1. netboot, this is IMHO the most complete free package out there. It
     uses standard dos packet drivers so allmost all cards are
     supported. One very usefull hint I got on there mailing list was to
     pklite the packetdrivers since some commercial drivers are to big
     to fit into the bootrom. Netboot's documentation is complete
     enough, so I won't waste any time reproducing it here, it should be
     more then sufficient to create a bootrom and boot a ws with it.
     Netboot's webpage is: http://www.han.de/~gero/netboot/

  2. etherboot, this is the other free package out there it has got a
     few nice features like dhcp support, but has limited driver support
     as it uses its own driver format. I haven't used this so I really
     can't give anymore usefull info.  Etherboot's webpage is:
     http://www.slug.org.au/etherboot/

  About the roms themselves. Most cards take ordinary eproms with an 28
  pins dip housing. These eproms come in size upto 64kB. For most cards
  you'll need 32kB eproms with netboot. Some cards drivers will fit into
  16kB but the price difference of the eproms is minimal. These eproms
  can be burned with any ordinairy eprom burner.

  4.2.  Creating a ws dir

  Just copy over the template by typing:


       cd /tftpbootcp -a template <ip>



  You could of course also copy over the dir of a workstation with
  identical mouse, graphicscard and monitor and ommit the configuration
  in step 5.4.

  4.3.  Add entries to /etc/bootptab and /etc/hosts

  Edit /etc/bootptab and add an entry for your test ws, an example entry
  is:


  ______________________________________________________________________
  nfsroot1:hd=/tftpboot:vm=auto:ip=10.0.0.237:\
  :ht=ethernet:ha=00201889EE78:\
  :bf=bootImage:rp=/tftpboot/10.0.0.237/root

  ______________________________________________________________________



  Replace nfsroot1 by the hostname you want your ws to have. Replace
  10.0.0.237 by the ip you want your ws to have (do this twice) and
  replace 00201889EE78 by the MAC-ADDRESS of your ws. If you don't know
  the MAC-ADDRESS of the ws, just boot it with the just created boot
  disk and look for the MAC-ADDRESS in the boot messages. There's a
  chance bootpd is already running so just to make sure try to restart
  it by typing:


       killall -HUP bootpd


  Don't worry if it fails, that just means it wasn't running, inetd will
  start it when asked too.

  4.4.  Booting the ws for the first time

  Just boot the ws from the bootdisk. This should get you a working ws
  in textmode, with the exact same setup as your server except for the
  ip-nr and the running services. Even if you want to use a bootprom
  it's wise to first test with the bootdisk, if that works you can try
  to boot with the bootrom see the bootroms documentation for more info.

  4.5.  Set the ws specific configuration.

  Now it's time to configure any ws specific settings:


  1. First off all to get the mouse working, just run mouseconfig. To
     apply the changes, and check that the mouse works type:

       /etc/rc.d/init.d restart


  2. Run Xconfigurator, when Xconfigurator has probed the card and you
     can press ok don't! Since we have moved the symlink for the Xserver
     from /etc/X11/X to /etc/sysconfig/X11/X Xconfigurator will fail to
     create the proper link. Thus to make sure the rest of Xconfigurator
     goes well, switch to another console and create the link in
     /etc/sysconfig/X11 to the advised server. Now just finish
     Xconfigurator and test X.

  3. Configure anything else which is different then the server /
     template:

  �  sound: You probaly need to modify isapnp.conf and conf.modules,
     both are already made links to /etc/sysconfig by the server setup
     script.

  �  cdrom: Link in /dev, entry in /etc/fstab? etc.

  �  rc.local: Make any nescesarry changes.

  4. Save the links and any other changes to /dev type:

       /etc/rc.d/rc.devfs save /etc/sysconfig


  5. All done.

  5.  Added bonus: booting from cdrom

  Much of the above also goes for booting from cdrom. Since I wanted to
  document howto boot from cdrom anyway, I document it in here to avoid
  typing a lott of the same twice.

  Why would one want to boot a machine from cd-rom? Booting from cdrom
  is interesting everywhere where one wants to run a very specific
  application, like a kiosk, a library database program or an intenet
  cafe, and one doesn't have a network or a server to use a root over
  nfs setup.

  5.1.  Basic Principle

  The basic principle is wants again simple, boot with a cdrom as root.
  To make this possible we'll use the rockridge extension to put a unix
  like filesystem on a cd and the Eltorito extension to make cd's
  bootable.

  5.1.1.  Things can't be that simple

  Ofcourse this setup also has a few problems. most are the same as
  above:


  1. We'll need write access to: /dev, /var & /tmp.

  �  We'll just use the same solutions as with root over nfs (see
     above):

  �  For /dev we'll use Devfs

  �  For /var and /tmp we'll use a shared ramdisk of 1mb. It's shared to
     use the space as effeciently as possible. /tmp is replaced by a
     symlink to /var/tmp to make the sharing possible.

  �  Populating the ramdisk with tarballs or template dirs, works
     equally well.  But with template dirs it's much easier to make
     changes, thus we'll use template dirs.

  2. Some apps need write access to /home.

  �  Put the homedir of the user's who will be running the application
     in /var, and populate it wiht the rest of /var every boot.

  3. /etc/mtab needs to be writable:

  �  Create a link to /proc/mounts and create an empty file mounts in
     /proc, see above.



  5.2.  Creating a test setup.

  Now that we know what we want todo and how, it's time to create a test
  setup:


  1. For starters just take one of the machines which you want to use
     and put in a big disk and a cd-burner.

  2. Install your linux of choice on this machine, and leave a 650mb
     partition free for the test setup. This install will be used to
     make the iso-image and to burn the cd's from, so install the
     nescesarry tools. It will also be used to restore any booboo's
     which leave the test setup unbootable.

  3. On the 650 mb partition install your linux of choice with the setup
     you want to have on the cd, this will be the test setup

  4. Boot the test setup.

  5. Compile a kernel as described in Section 3.1, follow all the steps,
     the changes need for devfs are still needed! At step 3 of Section
     3.1 put in the following:

  �  isofs compiled in

  �  devfs compiled in

  �  cdrom support compiled in

  �  everything else you need either compiled in or as module.

  6. Configure the test setup:

  �  Create the user which we'll be running the application.

  �  Put it's homedir in /var.

  �  Install the application if needed.

  �  Configure the application if needed.

  �  Configure the user so that the application is automagicly run after
     login.

  �  Configure linux so that it automaigcly logs in the user.

  �  Configure anything else which needs configuring.

  7. Test that the test setup automagicly boots into the apllication and
     everything works.

  8. Boot the main install and mount the 650 mb partition on /test of
     the main install.

  9. Put the following in a file called /test/etc/rc.d/rc.iso, this file
     we'll be sourced at the begining of rc.sysinit to create /var



     ___________________________________________________________________
     #/var
     echo Creating /var ...
     mke2fs -q -i 1024 /dev/ram1 1024
     mount /dev/ram1 /var -o defaults,rw
     cp -a /lib/var /

     #restore devfs settings, needs proc
     mount -t proc /proc /proc
     /etc/rc.d/rc.devfs restore /etc/sysconfig
     umount /proc

     ___________________________________________________________________



  10.
     Edit /test/etc/rc.sysinit comment the lines we're the root is
     remounted rw and add the following 2 lines directly afer setting
     the PATH:

     ___________________________________________________________________
     #to boot from cdrom
     . /etc/rc.d/rc.iso

     ___________________________________________________________________



  11.
     Copying the following to a script and executing it, this wil create
     a template for /var and make /tmp and /etc/mtab links.

     ___________________________________________________________________
     #!/bin/sh
     echo tmp
     rm -fR /test/tmp
     ln -s var/tmp /test/tmp

     ###
     echo mtab
     touch /test/proc/mounts
     rm /test/etc/mtab
     ln -s /proc/mounts /test/etc/mtab

     ###
     echo var
     mv /test/var/lib /test/lib/var-lib
     mv /test/var /test/lib
     mkdir /test/var
     ln -s /lib/var-lib /test/lib/var/lib
     rm -fR /test/lib/var/catman
     rm -fR /test/lib/var/log/httpd
     rm -f /test/lib/var/log/samba/*
     for i in `find /test/lib/var/log -type f`; do cat /dev/null > $i; done
     rm `find /test/lib/var/lock -type f`
     rm `find /test/lib/var/run -type f`


     ___________________________________________________________________



  12.
     Remove the creation of /etc/issue* from /test/etc/rc.local it will
     only fail.
  13.
     Now boot the test partition again, it will be read only just like a
     cdrom.  If something doesn't work reboot to the working partition
     fix it, try again etc. Or you could remount / rw ,fix it then
     reboot straight into to test partition again. To remount / rw type:

       mount -o remount,rw /


  5.3.  Creating the cd

  5.3.1.  Creating a boot image

  First of all boot into the workign partition. To create a bootable cd
  we'll need an image of a bootable floppy. Just dd-ing a zimage doesn't
  work since the loader at the beginning of the zimage doesn't seem to
  like the fake floppydrive a bootable cd creates. So we'll use syslinux
  instead.


  1. Get boot.img from a redhat cd

  2. Mount boot.img somewhere through loopback by typing:

       mount boot.img somewhere -o loop -t vfat


  3. Remove everything from boot.img except for:

  �  ldlinux.sys

  �  syslinux.cfg

  4. Cp the kernel-image from the test partition to boot.img.

  5. Edit syslinux.cfg so that it contains the following, ofcourse
     replace zImage by the appropiote image name:

     ___________________________________________________________________
     default linux

     label linux
     kernel zImage
     append root=/dev/<insert your cdrom device here>

     ___________________________________________________________________



  6. Umount boot.img:

       umount somewhere


  7. If your /etc/mtab is a link to /proc/mounts umount won't
     automagicly free /dev/loop0 so free it by typing:

       losetup -d /dev/loop0


  5.3.2.  Creating the iso image

  Now that we have the boot image and an install that can boot from a
  readonly mount it's time to create an iso image of the cd:


  1. Copy boot.img to /test

  2. Cd to the directory where you want to store the image make sure
     it's on a partition with enough free space.

  3. Now generate the image by typing:

       mkisofs -R -b boot.img -c boot.catalog -o boot.iso /test


  5.3.3.  Verifying the iso image


  1. Mounting the image throug the loopbackdevice by typing:

       mount boot.iso somewhere -o loop -t iso9660


  2. Now verify that the contents is ok.

  3. Umount boot.iso:

       umount somewhere


  4. If your /etc/mtab is a link to /proc/mounts umount won't
     automagicly free /dev/loop0 so free it by typing:

       losetup -d /dev/loop0


  5.3.4.  Writing the actual cd

  Assuming that you've got cdrecord installed and configured for your
  cd-writer type:


       cdrecord -v speed=<desired writing speed> dev=<path to your
       writers generic scsi device> boot.iso


  5.4.  Boot the cd and test it

  Well the title of this paragraph says it all ;)

  6.  Thanks


  �  The HHS (Haagse Hoge School) a dutch college where I first
     developed and tested this setup for use in a couple of labs. And
     where the initial version of this HOWTO was written.

  �  ISM a dutch company where I'm doing my final project. Part of the
     project involves diskless machines, so I got to develop this setup
     further and had the time to update this HOWTO.

  �  All the users who will give me usefull input once this first
     version is out ;)

  7.  Comments

  Comments suggestions and such are welcome. They can be send to Hans de
  Goede at: j.w.r.degoede@et.tudelft.nl







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