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DocBook Install mini-HOWTO

Robert B Easter

reaster@reaster.com
Revision History                                                             
Revision v1.8            2002-02-04           Revised by: rbe                


DocBook-Install-mini-HOWTO is a detailed practical guide for novices to
quickly getting DocBook installed and processing SGML files into HTML, PS,
and PDF files on a [http://www.gnu.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html] GNU/[http://
www.linux.org] Linux system - other systems may be similar. Since setup of
DocBook requires files from several separately distributed packages, it can
be confusing for beginners.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Information About this Document
    1.2. What is DocBook
    1.3. Brief Overview
   
   
2. Download the Packages
    2.1. OpenJade
    2.2. DocBook SGML DTD
    2.3. ISO8879 ENTITY SGML
    2.4. DocBook DSSSL
    2.5. SGMLtools-Lite
    2.6. HTMLdoc
    2.7. DocBook2X
   
   
3. Install the Packages
    3.1. Before You Install
    3.2. Install OpenJade
    3.3. DocBook SGML DTD
    3.4. DocBook DSSSL
    3.5. SGMLtools-Lite
    3.6. htmldoc
    3.7. DocBook2X and SGMLS.pm (sgmlspl)
    3.8. $SGML_CATALOG_FILES
   
   
4. Using DocBook
    4.1. Generating HTML
    4.2. Generating rtf and tex
    4.3. Generating dvi and ps
    4.4. Generating pdf
    4.5. Using make
    4.6. Generating a man page
   
   
A. Legal
    A.1. Copyright and Licenses
    A.2. Disclaimer
   
   
B. GNU Free Documentation License
    0. PREAMBLE
    1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    2. VERBATIM COPYING
    3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    4. MODIFICATIONS
    5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    8. TRANSLATION
    9. TERMINATION
    10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    How to use this License for your documents
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Introduction

1.1. Information About this Document

The lastest version of this mini-HOWTO can be found at:

[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/DocBook-Install/] http://www.linuxdoc.org
/HOWTO/mini/DocBook-Install/

See the "Legal" section in the appendix for copyright, licenses, and
disclaimer information pertaining to this document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. What is DocBook

DocBook is a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) Document Type
Definition (DTD) that defines a set of textual document markup tags that work
much like the familiar HTML language used on the web.

DocBook is intended for the authoring of books and articles. As such, it
provides tags specifically designed to describe books and articles. For
instance, the <book> and <article> DocBook tags are used to create books and
articles. Within these documents, the <chapter>, <sect1>, and <para> tags are
used. DocBook SGML files are stored in text files with a sgml or gml suffix.

When processed, a single DocBook SGML file can output html, pdf, ps, txt and
other formats for both online and printed publication. The processing is
governed by stylesheets that can automatically generate a table of contents,
page numbering, chapter & section numbering, and other features.

DocBook is also designed for authoring unix man pages by writing <refentry>
documents. If you don't know what a man page is, try the command man man on
your terminal.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Brief Overview

Here are brief descriptions of the packages we will work with in the next
sections:

OpenJade. OpenJade is an implementation of the ISO/IEC 10179:1996
international standard Document Style Semantics and Specification Language
(DSSSL). OpenJade executes the DSSSL language to process SGML and XML input
files. In particular, it uses the Modular DocBook Stylesheets dsl code to
process DocBook SGML/XML files into other formats such as html, tex, rtf, txt
and others. OpenJade is the essential engine for converting a DocBook file
into other formats. The TeX output format is used mostly as an intermediate
format to obtain dvi, pdf, and ps via TeX macros and dvi converters.

DocBook SGML DTD. The DocBook Document Type Definition (DTD) files are SGML
files that define the DocBook language. It defines the valid tag set and
rules of their use. OpenJade requires access to the DTD files for every
document type that it parses.

ISO8879 ENTITY SGML. Entities define how to represent special characters that
have either no keyboard key or have special meaning in SGML. Examples
familiar from HTML include "&amp;"='&', "&gt;"='>', and "&lt;"='<'.

DocBook DSSSL (Modular DocBook Stylesheets). The DSSSL files (dsl suffix) for
a particular DTD, in this case DocBook, specify how to convert DocBook into
html, rtf, tex etc. A dsl file is input to openjade along with your DocBook
sgml file and tells openjade how to transform/style your document into
another file format. The dsl for online (html) formats is often different
than for print (dvi, pdf, ps) formats.

SGMLtools-Lite. SGMLtools-Lite is a frontend wrapper for running openjade and
the TeX macros jadetex and pdfjadetex, macros included with OpenJade.
Converting a DocBook file to ps or pdf is a two or three-step process.
OpenJade outputs a tex file which is the input of jadetex to produce a dvi
file, and pdfjadetex to produce a pdf. A ps file is obtained by passing the
dvi file through dvips. The sgmltools script provides a single command to
perform these tasks.

HTMLdoc. HTMLdoc is a free program for converting html files into a pdf or ps
file.

SGMLSpm and docbook2X. Together, these two are used to generate man pages.
SGMLSpm is a perl5 module library for processing parsed output from onsgmls,
a program included with OpenJade. SGMLSpm includes an application called
sgmlspl to use the SGMLSpm library. Sgmlspl requires "spec files", which are
available from various other sources on the Internet, for each type of
document transformation to be performed. DocBook2X is a package that provides
the spec files for transforming DocBook files into man pages.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Download the Packages

In this section, we will locate and download the software on the Internet.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. OpenJade

OpenJade is an actively maintained open-source software project based on the
Jade package by [http://www.jclark.com/] James Clark. Download the lastest
stable release at:

[http://openjade.sourceforge.net/] http://openjade.sourceforge.net/

OpenJade also includes the OpenSP package and the TeX macros, jadetex and 
pdfjadetex for converting files to dvi and pdf. The following programs are
provided by this package:

��*�openjade
   
��*�onsgmls
   
��*�osgmlnorm
   
��*�ospam
   
��*�ospent
   
��*�osx
   

To use jadetex and pdfjadetex for making dvi, ps, and pdf, you must have a
working TeX (tex) installation. If you do not have TeX, check with your Linux
distribution for a binary package that can be downloaded and installed.
Otherwise, you can download the teTeX distribution of TeX from:

[http://www.tug.org/tetex/] http://www.tug.org/tetex/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. DocBook SGML DTD

The DocBook DTD for SGML and XML are maintained by a technical committee at
[http://www.oasis-open.org/] Oasis-Open.ORG. Download the current version
(and any old versions you might need) of DocBook SGML at:

[http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/sgml/index.shtml] http://
www.oasis-open.org/docbook/sgml/index.shtml
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. ISO8879 ENTITY SGML

The entities define representations for special or untypeable symbols or
characters, including mathematical symbols, and the entities that you may be
familiar with from HTML. These entity files need to be installed for a proper
configuration.

��*�Resources at [http://www.oasis-open.org/] OASIS:
   
    ��+�[http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/topics.html#entities] http://
        www.oasis-open.org/cover/topics.html#entities
       
    ��+�[http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/ISOEnts.zip] http://
        www.oasis-open.org/cover/ISOEnts.zip
       
    ��+�[http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/isoENT-tar.gz] http://
        www.oasis-open.org/cover/isoENT-tar.gz
       
   

ISOEnts.zip can simply be unzipped into the directory where the DocBook DTD
is unzipped without requiring anything else but the files in isoENT-tar.gz
are also needed. Again, the files in isoENT-tar.gz are to be unzipped into
the DocBook DTD directory (see next section on installing for details), but
the filenames end with ".ent" suffix. These will need to be renamed to a
".gml" ending. You can do this manually, or you can download and use the file
below, made by this author, which contains the files of both ISOEnts.zip and
isoENT-tar.gz:

[http://reaster.com/iso8879-entities.tar.gz] http://reaster.com/
iso8879-entities.tar.gz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. DocBook DSSSL

[http://www.nwalsh.com/] Norman Walsh's Document Style Semantics and
Specification Language (DSSSL) files for the DocBook DTD (SGML/XML) are
maintained at the [http://docbook.sourceforge.net/] DocBook Open Repository
at [http://www.sourceforge.net/] SourceForge. These files, also known as the
[http://docbook.sourceforge.net/projects/dsssl/doc/] Modular DocBook
Stylesheets, tell openjade what to do when converting your DocBook SGML file
into other formats. A dsl file specifies things such as the mappings from one
DTD's tags to another DTD's tags and other programmatic conversions,
programmed in the [http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wilensky/CS294/dsssl/html/
index.htm] DSSSL language. The DSSSL language is decomposed into a group of
different languages, but running through it all is the [http://
www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wilensky/CS294/dsssl/html/h2-15.htm] Core Expression
Language which is based on [http://www.schemers.org/Documents/Standards/R5RS/
HTML/] Scheme.

The DocBook DSSSL package and documentation can be downloaded from the [http:
//docbook.sourceforge.net/projects/dsssl/] DocBook DSSSL Stylesheets Project

The [http://www.linuxdoc.org/] Linux Documentation Project has a stylesheet
customization file that turns on some nice style features. It can be
downloaded at:

[http://www.linuxdoc.org/authors/tools/ldp.dsl] http://www.linuxdoc.org/
authors/tools/ldp.dsl
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. SGMLtools-Lite

SGMLtools-Lite is a frontend for openjade, jadetex, pdfjadex, dvips, and
other programs. It provides a single command for generating all the formats
possible with these tools. The lastest release can be downloaded at:

[http://sourceforge.net/projects/sgmltools-lite/] http://sourceforge.net/
projects/sgmltools-lite/

This package is optional, but does make things easier sometimes.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.6. HTMLdoc

HTMLdoc is a free program for converting websites into Portable Document
Format (pdf) or PostScript (ps). For pdf, it creates a tree of bookmarks that
make navigation easy. Both htmldoc and pdfjadetex output pdf files, but in
slightly different formats. Try both and see which turns out best for a
particular docbook file. See quick links below for download site.

You can download the lastest version of HTMLdoc from [http://www.easysw.com/]
Easy Software Products' [ftp://ftp.easysw.com/pub/htmldoc/] ftp site.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.7. DocBook2X

DocBook2X requires perl5 and the SGMLS.pm perl module, available at the
Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN). SGMLS.pm provides libraries and a
program called sgmlspl which translates DocBook files into other formats by
using specification files. The specification files are perl files that
provide the logic for the translation to a particular format.

[http://www.cpan.org/] http://www.cpan.org/

[http://docbook2x.sourceforge.net/] http://docbook2x.sourceforge.net/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Install the Packages

3.1. Before You Install

The following sections suggest how you might install the downloaded packages
to setup your DocBook SGML environment. The examples may make reference to
old versions of the packages but you should adapt the examples and use the
most recent versions instead.

For the most up-to-date, authoritative information, always read the
documentation that comes with a package you are installing. Often, you will
find a README and a INSTALL file after you unpack an archive.

The detailed instructions below may not work exactly as shown since packages
are changing all the time. However, the instructions should still give you a
general idea of the procedure to get DocBook SGML working.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Install OpenJade

3.2.1. openjade

Here is what to do, but remember to read the files that come with OpenJade to
see if there are any things you want to do special for your platform:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/local                                              |
|                tar -xvzf ~/openjade-1.3.tar.gz                            |
|                cd openjade-1.3                                            |
|                ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/openjade-1.3               |
|                make                                                       |
|                make install                                               |
|                                                                           |
|                # Once installed, the objects etc. can be deleted.         |
|                make clean                                                 |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The installation puts libraries in /usr/local/openjade-1.3/lib, so you might
like to add it to /etc/ld.so.conf and run ldconfig. Add /usr/local/
openjade-1.3/bin to your $PATH.

You might be wondering why I dump the openjade source directly into /usr/
local. The author experienced some issues with openjade's installation.
However, with newer releases of OpenJade, you might try a standard (/usr/
local/src) location for the openjade source package with some other prefix
install location, and see how it goes.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.2. jadetex & pdfjadetex

As mentioned, jadetex and pdfjadetex are TeX macros that are packaged with
OpenJade. They can be found in /usr/local/openjade-3.1/dsssl. A handy guide
to installing these macros was prepared by Frank Atanassow Christoph and can
be found at:

[ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/macros/jadetex/install.pdf] ftp://
ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/macros/jadetex/install.pdf

[http://reaster.com/installjadetex.pdf] http://reaster.com/installjadetex.pdf

The following is based on the instructions in install.pdf:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.2.1. Create hugelatex (if needed)

The jadetex and pdfjadetex tex macros require more memory than a regular run
of tex. The default tex memory limit configuration is often too limited. The
tex configuration file, texmf.cnf, can be edited and variables which limit
tex's memory use can be increased. But rather than just editing the texmf.cnf
file to allow tex in all instances to have more memory, a custom tex context
can be created, called hugelatex. If hugelatex is already configured on your
system, you can skip this subsection (which hugelatex).

Verify that a working TeX is installed and find its directory:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                bash$ which tex                                            |
|                /usr/share/texmf/bin/tex                                   |
|                bash$ kpsewhich -expand-var='$TEXMFMAIN'                   |
|                /usr/share/texmf                                           |
|                bash$                                                      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Using which should find the location of the tex program. If its not found,
then you might need to install teTeX then return here. kpsewhich is a utility
that comes with teTeX and finds the main tex directory if all goes well.

Now that the texmf directory is known, installation can begin:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/share/texmf                                        |
|                cd tex/latex                                               |
|                cp -r config config-temp                                   |
|                cd config-temp                                             |
|                tex -ini -progname=hugelatex latex.ini                     |
|                mv latex.fmt hugelatex.fmt                                 |
|                mv hugelatex.fmt /usr/share/texmf/web2c                    |
|                cd ..                                                      |
|                rm -r config-temp                                          |
|                cd /usr/share/texmf/bin                                    |
|                ln -s tex hugelatex                                        |
|                cd /usr/share/texmf/web2c                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The web2c directory contains the texmf.cnf configuration file. Make a backup
of this file: cp texmf.cnf texmf.cnf.orig. Edit the file using whatever
editor you like, and add the following lines at the end:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                % hugelatex settings                                       |
|                extra_mem_top.hugelatex = 8000000                          |
|                extra_mem_bot.hugelatex = 8000000                          |
|                hash_extra.hugelatex = 15000                               |
|                pool_size.hugelatex = 5000000                              |
|                string_vacancies.hugelatex = 45000                         |
|                max_strings.hugelatex = 55000                              |
|                pool_free.hugelatex = 47500                                |
|                nest_size.hugelatex = 500                                  |
|                param_size.hugelatex = 1500                                |
|                save_size.hugelatex = 5000                                 |
|                stack_size.hugelatex = 15000                               |
|                                                                           |
|                % jadetex                                                  |
|                extra_mem_top.jadetex = 8000000                            |
|                extra_mem_bot.jadetex = 8000000                            |
|                hash_extra.jadetex = 20000                                 |
|                pool_size.jadetex = 5000000                                |
|                string_vacancies.jadetex = 45000                           |
|                max_strings.jadetex = 55000                                |
|                pool_free.jadetex = 47500                                  |
|                nest_size.jadetex = 500                                    |
|                param_size.jadetex = 1500                                  |
|                save_size.jadetex = 5000                                   |
|                stack_size.jadetex = 15000                                 |
|                                                                           |
|                % pdfjadetex                                               |
|                extra_mem_top.pdfjadetex = 8000000                         |
|                extra_mem_bot.pdfjadetex = 8000000                         |
|                hash_extra.pdfjadetex = 20000                              |
|                pool_size.pdfjadetex = 5000000                             |
|                string_vacancies.pdfjadetex = 45000                        |
|                max_strings.pdfjadetex = 55000                             |
|                pool_free.pdfjadetex = 47500                               |
|                nest_size.pdfjadetex = 500                                 |
|                param_size.pdfjadetex = 1500                               |
|                save_size.pdfjadetex = 5000                                |
|                stack_size.pdfjadetex = 15000                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Here, we've gone ahead and added entries for jadetex and pdfjadetex, which
we'll be setting up below. You can play with these memory settings any way
you like if you experience trouble with them.

After setting up hugelatex, like above, it may not work until the texhash
program is called:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                root# texhash                                              |
|                texhash: Updating /usr/share/texmf/ls-R...                 |
|                texhash: Updating /var/cache/fonts/ls-R...                 |
|                texhash: Done.                                             |
|                root#                                                      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.2.2. jadetex & pdfjadetex

Setting up jadetex and pdfjadetex is similar to hugelatex.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/local/openjade-1.3/dsssl                           |
|                make -f Makefile.jadetex install                           |
|                # make creates and installs the .fmt                       |
|                # files to /usr/share/texmf/web2c                          |
|                                                                           |
|                # Now create symlinks ...                                  |
|                cd /usr/share/texmf/bin                                    |
|                ln -s tex jadetex                                          |
|                ln -s pdftex pdfjadetex                                    |
|                                                                           |
|                # Finally, run texhash.                                    |
|                root# texhash                                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This Makefile uses hugelatex, so hugelatex must have been setup already. When
tex is run as hugelatex, jadetex, or pdfjadetex, it gets its program name
(context) from argv[0] in the environment. Then, it scans texmf.cnf, and uses
any context-specific settings it finds. The format (.fmt) files in /usr/share
/texmf/web2c are also loaded based on the context.

The jadetex command takes a tex file generated from openjade, and outputs a
dvi file. pdfjadetex takes a tex file generated from openjade, and outputs a
pdf. The dvips program takes the dvi file and outputs a PostScript ps file
that you can send to your printer or view with ghostscript gs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. DocBook SGML DTD

3.3.1. Unpack the DocBook SGML DTD

The DocBook DTD is just some sgml text files, so there is nothing to compile.
Just unzip them somewhere:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                # DocBook DTD V4.1 in                                      |
|                # /usr/local/share/sgml/docbook/4.1                        |
|                                                                           |
|                cd /usr/local/share                                        |
|                mkdir sgml; cd sgml                                        |
|                mkdir docbook; cd docbook                                  |
|                mkdir 4.1; cd 4.1                                          |
|                unzip -a ~/docbk41.zip                                     |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
If you install doctools-1.2 from the XFree86 distribution, it will put some
older versions of DocBook DTD, like 2.4.1/ and 3.0/ in subdirectories of
docbook.

There are some differences between the different versions of the DocBook DTD.
The xxissues.txt files document those issues. Tags have been added, removed,
and renamed between the versions.

If you need to use DocBook DTD V3.1, it is available from the same place
where V4.1 is downloaded. V3.1 is used a lot, so its a good idea to get it
and install it in a 3.1/ subdirectory.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3.2. Unpack the ISO8879 Entities

For each DocBook DTD version unpacked, go into its directory and unpack the
iso8879-entities.tar.gz file:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/local/share/sgml/docbook/4.1                       |
|                tar -xvzf ~/iso8879-entities.tar.gz                        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
In each DocBook directory, there should be a docbook.cat file or a catalog
file, or both. If both are present, they are likely to be identical. If only
docbook.cat is present, go ahead and make a symlink:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                # If needed ...                                            |
|                cd /usr/local/share/sgml/docbook/4.1                       |
|                ln -s docbook.cat catalog                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. DocBook DSSSL

Installation of the DocBook DSSSL, which works for all versions of DocBook,
is just a matter of unzipping it somwhere.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/local/share/sgml                                   |
|                mkdir dsssl; cd dsssl                                      |
|                unzip -a ~/db160.zip                                       |
|                                                                           |
|                # If you downloaded the ldp.dsl stylesheet                 |
|                # customization, copy it to ...                            |
|                cd docbook                                                 |
|                cp ~/ldp.dsl html                                          |
|                cp ~/ldp.dsl print                                         |
|                # Copy into both directories.                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
That's all there is to installing the DSSSL, except for the setup of the
$SGML_CATALOG_PATH discussed later. Don't forget to straighten out the file
modes and owner/group of these unpacked files - often they are scrambled and
inappropriate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5. SGMLtools-Lite

If you like it, you can install the SGMLtools-Lite, but it is optional. Its
installation is the standard:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/src                                                |
|                tar -xvzf ~/sgmltools-lite-3.0.2.tar.gz                    |
|                cd sgmltools-lite-3.0.2                                    |
|                ./configure                                                |
|                make install                                               |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This installs the sgmltools python script to /usr/local/bin. Note that it
uses python, so if you don't have it, then this package is useless.

One tweak that has to be done to make the sgmltools script work, is you have
to edit it and set the path to openjade: vi `which sgmltools`. Consult its
docs to learn more about it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6. htmldoc

3.6.1. binary

Preferrably you downloaded a binary distribution of htmldoc for your
platform. The installation is straightforward: just unpack it and run the
setup. Read the docs in the package for more info.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6.2. source

If you downloaded the source, you will also need the Fast Light Tool Kit or
else it will not link:

[http://www.fltk.org/] http://www.fltk.org/

Installation is autoconf style. Just run the configure script, make, make
install. If all goes well, it will install in /usr/bin.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6.3. ldp_print

The htmldoc program has (or had) a few glitches when generating output from
html files from openjade. For instance, bullet items are not rendered
properly and shaded areas are not always shaded.

To fix this problem, a perl script ([http://www.linuxdoc.org/authors/tools/
ldp_print.tar.gz] ldp_print) is available from [http://www.linuxdoc.org/]
LinuxDoc.org. The lpd_print script processes a nochunks html file from 
openjade and then runs htmldoc on it to produce correctly rendered pdf and
ps.

Tip Get it!                                                                  

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                tar -xvzf ldp_print.tar.gz                                 |
|                cd ldp_print                                               |
|                                                                           |
|                # Copy the lib somewhere where perl looks.                 |
|                cp fix_print_html.lib /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl             |
|                                                                           |
|                cp ldp_print /usr/local/bin                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Take a look at the script in case there are lines in it you need to change
for your system. Perhaps someday htmldoc's bugs will be fixed and this script
will not be needed anymore.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.7. DocBook2X and SGMLS.pm (sgmlspl)

3.7.1. sgmlspl

Before the spec files from DocBook2X are of any use, the SGMLS.pm module for 
perl version 5 has to be installed, assuming that perl version 5 is
installed. The installation of this module is not as automated as most perl
module installs. It uses a Makefile that has to be edited first before
running make.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/src                                                |
|                tar -xvzf ~/SGMLSpm-1.03ii.tar.gz                          |
|                cd SGMLSpm                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|                # Edit Makfile                                             |
|                vi Makefile                                                |
|                # In the user options of the Makefile                      |
|                # set everything correct for                               |
|                # your system.                                             |
|                # Example:                                                 |
|                #       PERL = /usr/bin/perl                               |
|                #       BINDIR = /usr/local/bin                            |
|                #       PERL5DIR = /usr/lib/perl5/site_perl                |
|                #       MODULEDIR = ${PERL5DIR}/SGMLS                      |
|                #       SPECDIR = ${PERL5DIR}                              |
|                #       HTMLDIR= /usr/local/apache/htdocs                  |
|                                                                           |
|                make install                                               |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
sgmlspl gets copied to /usr/local/bin.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.7.2. docbook2X (docbook2man-spec.pl)

DocBook2X contains no program to compile or install, though it has some
scripts you might want to look at, so all there is to do is unpack it
somwhere.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/local/share/sgml                                   |
|                tar -xvzf ~/docbook2X-0.6.0.tar.gz                         |
|                cd docbook2X                                               |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
In the unpacked directory is the docbook2man-spec.pl and a patch file for it
that corrects a few things. Applying the patch is optional but recommended.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                patch docbook2man-spec.pl docbook2man-spec.pl.patch        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Later, in Using DocBook, you will see how to use sgmlspl and
docbook2man-spec.pl to generate a man page from a <refentry> DocBook
document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.8. $SGML_CATALOG_FILES

The $SGML_CATALOG_FILES environment variable is used by openjade (and other
SGML software) to locate DTDs and DSL (stylesheets). SGML software cannot
function without finding these files, which have been unpacked to various
directories. Given the setup as done so far, here is how $SGML_CATALOG_FILES
can be set in /etc/profile:
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|########################################################################################## |
|# SGML DocBook - openjade sgmltools-lite                                                   |
|JADE_HOME=/usr/local/openjade-1.3                                                          |
|SGML_SHARE=/usr/local/share/sgml                                                           |
|                                                                                           |
|PATH=$PATH:$JADE_HOME/bin                                                                  |
|                                                                                           |
|# DSSSL stylesheets                                                                        |
|#       Norman Walsh's Modular DocBook Stylesheets                                         |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/catalog                                       |
|#       OpenJade stylesheets                                                               |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$JADE_HOME/dsssl/catalog                            |
|#       sgmltools-lite's stylesheets                                                       |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$SGML_SHARE/stylesheets/sgmltools/sgmltools.cat     |
|                                                                                           |
|# DocBook DTD                                                                              |
|#       From OASIS-Open.org                                                                |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$SGML_SHARE/docbook/3.1/catalog                     |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$SGML_SHARE/docbook/4.1/catalog                     |
|#       These old ones were installed with doctools-1.2 from XFree86.org                   |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$SGML_SHARE/docbook/2.4.1/catalog                   |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$SGML_SHARE/docbook/3.0/catalog                     |
|                                                                                           |
|# sgmltools-lite catalogs for LinuxDoc                                                     |
|SGML_CATALOG_FILES=$SGML_CATALOG_FILES:$SGML_SHARE/dtd/sgmltools/catalog                   |
|                                                                                           |
|export JADE_HOME SGML_SHARE PATH SGML_CATALOG_FILES                                        |
|########################################################################################## |
|                                                                                           |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Save your profile, logout and then log back in to take effect.

Installation is complete! In the next section, we'll test the installation
and convert some test DocBook files.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Using DocBook

Now that everything is installed, it's time to test it out and see how to use
openjade and the other tools.

Figure 1. Example DocBook SGML file - test.sgml
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN">                 |
|                                                                           |
|<article lang="en">                                                        |
|<articleinfo>                                                              |
|        <title>This is a Test</title>                                      |
|                                                                           |
|        <author>                                                           |
|                <firstname>John</firstname>                                |
|                <surname>Doe</surname>                                     |
|                <othername role="mi">L</othername>                         |
|                <affiliation>                                              |
|                        <address>                                          |
|                        <email>j.doe@jdoe dot com</email>                  |
|                        </address>                                         |
|                </affiliation>                                             |
|        </author>                                                          |
|                                                                           |
|        <revhistory>                                                       |
|                <revision>                                                 |
|                <revnumber>v1.0</revnumber>                                |
|                <date>2000-12-30</date>                                    |
|                <authorinitials>jld</authorinitials>                       |
|                </revision>                                                |
|        </revhistory>                                                      |
|                                                                           |
|        <abstract>                                                         |
|        <para>                                                             |
|        This is a test DocBook document.                                   |
|        </para>                                                            |
|        </abstract>                                                        |
|                                                                           |
|</articleinfo>                                                             |
|                                                                           |
|<sect1 id="test1">                                                         |
|<title>Test 1</title>                                                      |
|<para>                                                                     |
|Test section 1.                                                            |
|</para>                                                                    |
|        <sect2>                                                            |
|        <title>Test 1.1</title>                                            |
|        <para>                                                             |
|        Test section 1.1                                                   |
|        </para>                                                            |
|        </sect2>                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|        <sect2>                                                            |
|        <title>Test 1.2</title>                                            |
|        <para>                                                             |
|        <screen>                                                           |
|                -- Test section 1.2                                        |
|                openjade -t sgml -d $DSLFILE test.sgml                     |
|        </screen>                                                          |
|        </para>                                                            |
|        </sect2>                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|</sect1>                                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|<sect1 id="test2">                                                         |
|<title>Test 2</title>                                                      |
|<para>                                                                     |
|Test section 2.                                                            |
|</para>                                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|        <sect2>                                                            |
|        <title>Test 2.1</title>                                            |
|        <para>                                                             |
|        Test section 2.1                                                   |
|        </para>                                                            |
|        </sect2>                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|        <sect2>                                                            |
|        <title>Test 2.2</title>                                            |
|        <para>                                                             |
|        Test section 2.2                                                   |
|        </para>                                                            |
|        </sect2>                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|</sect1>                                                                   |
|</article>                                                                 |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
For a guide to DocBook and a reference of DocBook elements, see:

DocBook: The Definitive Guide. [http://www.docbook.org/tdg/en/] http://
www.docbook.org/tdg/en/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Generating HTML

4.1.1. docbook.dsl

Figure 2. Generating HTML output using docbook.dsl
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                    |
|total 4                                                                        |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1077 Dec 31 16:25 test.sgml               |
|bash$ echo $SGML_SHARE                                                         |
|/usr/local/share/sgml                                                          |
|bash$ openjade -t sgml -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/docbook.dsl test.sgml |
|[snip - DTDDECL catalog entries are not supported, repeats]                    |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                    |
|total 12                                                                       |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1885 Dec 31 17:34 t1.htm                  |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1077 Dec 31 16:25 test.sgml               |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1544 Dec 31 17:34 x27.htm                 |
|bash$                                                                          |
|                                                                               |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The warnings about DTDDECL can be ignored. They might be a little annoying,
but these warnings are normal when using openjade. Other warnings and errors
should be looked at and often indicate syntax errors that you should fix.

Two htm files are generated, one for each <sect1>. The filenames are not very
descriptive. Section one appears on the same page as the article information.
These are the results of using the default stylesheet that comes with the 
Modular DocBook Stylesheets, docbook.dsl.

Stylesheets can be customized to improve on these defaults. If you downloaded
the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/] Linux Documentation Project's ldp.dsl file and
installed it as shown in Section 3.3, then you already have a customized
style available.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.2. ldp.dsl

Figure 3. Generating HTML output using ldp.dsl
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ openjade -t sgml -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl#html test.sgml |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                     |
|total 16                                                                        |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        2006 Dec 31 18:00 index.html               |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1077 Dec 31 16:25 test.sgml                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1677 Dec 31 18:00 test1.html               |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1598 Dec 31 18:00 test2.html               |
|bash$                                                                           |
|                                                                                |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Using ldp.dsl, the output looks better:

��*�An index file has been created that contains the article information.
   
��*�A table of contents has been automatically generated.
   
��*�Each <sect1> is in its own file.
   
��*�Filenames are derived from ID attributes of the <sect1> elements.
   
��*�The file extension has changed to html.
   
��*�The <screen> elements are shaded.
   

Note how the ldp.dsl file is written in the command line: it has "#html"
appended. ldp.dsl contains two <STYLE-SPECIFICATION> elements, one with ID=
"html" and another with ID="print". This selects the html style from within
ldp.dsl. The DocBook DSSSL contains support for converting DocBook files into
html and print formats. In Section 3.3, we copied ldp.dsl into both the print
and html directories. When generating html output, the html style should be
selected like above. When generating other types of files, such as rtf and
tex, they fall under the print style and so the print style should be
selected from ldp.dsl. The alternative is to comment out or delete the print
or html style in the copy of ldp.dsl in the respective directory. If a dsl
file has more than one style-spec in it and none is selected like in the
example above, then the first style encountered in the file is selected. For
ldp.dsl, the print style-spec is first in the file, so it gets selected by
default. So in the example above, without appending "#html" when specifying
ldp.dsl as the dsssl stylesheet, the "print" style-spec would be selected and
used when generating the html output. It will work, but is intended for when
selecting the print/ldp.dsl and the formatting will be different.

To learn more about how the stylesheet customization files are made, read the
[http://nwalsh.com/docbook/dsssl/doc/] documentation for the Modular DocBook
Stylesheets. Customization mainly involves setting boolean option parameters
to toggle style features on and off. Completely new style logic can be
programmed using the the [http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~wilensky/CS294/dsssl/
html/index.htm] DSSSL language.

The openjade option "-t output_type" specifies the output type. The "-d
dsssl_spec" option is the path to the dsssl stylesheet to use. In the example
above, the output type specified is sgml, which is for SGML to SGML
transformations. HTML, defined by the [http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/sgml/
dtd.html] HTML Document Type Definition (DTD), is an SGML document type just
as DocBook is, so "sgml" is the correct output_type option. The other two
output types commonly used are "rtf" and "tex". The tex output_type will be
used later as an intermediate format for the generation of pdf and ps
formats. The dsssl_spec must specify a dsl file, not a directory.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Generating rtf and tex

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                      |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml                 |
|bash$ openjade -t rtf -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/print/ldp.dsl#print test.sgml |
|bash$ openjade -t tex -d $SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/print/ldp.dsl#print test.sgml |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                      |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf                  |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex                  |
|                                                                                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Generating dvi and ps

Figure 4. Running jadetex to generate a Device Independent (dvi) file.
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml            |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex             |
|bash$ jadetex test.tex                                                      |
|This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)                                  |
|(test.tex                                                                   |
|JadeTeX 1999/06/29: 2.7                                                     |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1ptm.fd)                                |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/jadetex/isoents.tex)                                  |
|Elements will be labelled                                                   |
|Jade begin document sequence at 19                                          |
|No file test.aux.                                                           |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/cyrillic/ot2cmr.fd)                             |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/ts1cmr.fd)                                 |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/lucidabr/lmrhlcm.fd)                            |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/hyperref/nameref.sty)                           |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1phv.fd)                                |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: Reference `TEST1' on page 1 undefined on input line 238.     |
|                                                                            |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: Reference `20' on page 1 undefined on input line 262.        |
|                                                                            |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: Reference `23' on page 1 undefined on input line 285.        |
|                                                                            |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: Reference `TEST2' on page 1 undefined on input line 316.     |
|                                                                            |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: Reference `30' on page 1 undefined on input line 340.        |
|                                                                            |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: Reference `33' on page 1 undefined on input line 363.        |
|                                                                            |
|[1.0.46] (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1pcr.fd) [2.0.46] [3.0.46]     |
|(test.aux)                                                                  |
|                                                                            |
|LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references.                             |
|                                                                            |
| )                                                                          |
|Output written on test.dvi (3 pages, 34984 bytes).                          |
|Transcript written on test.log.                                             |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                 |
|total 80                                                                    |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         771 Dec 31 20:55 test.aux             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34984 Dec 31 20:55 test.dvi             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        5072 Dec 31 20:55 test.log             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml            |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex             |
|bash$ jadetex test.tex                                                      |
|This is TeX, Version 3.14159 (Web2C 7.3.1)                                  |
|(test.tex                                                                   |
|JadeTeX 1999/06/29: 2.7                                                     |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1ptm.fd)                                |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/jadetex/isoents.tex)                                  |
|Elements will be labelled                                                   |
|Jade begin document sequence at 19                                          |
|(test.aux) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/cyrillic/ot2cmr.fd)                  |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/ts1cmr.fd)                                 |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/lucidabr/lmrhlcm.fd)                            |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/hyperref/nameref.sty)                           |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1phv.fd) [1.0.46]                       |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1pcr.fd) [2.0.46] [3.0.46] (test.aux) ) |
|Output written on test.dvi (3 pages, 34148 bytes).                          |
|Transcript written on test.log.                                             |
|You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/reaster                                |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                 |
|total 80                                                                    |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml            |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex             |
|bash$                                                                       |
|                                                                            |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The first time jadetex is run, warnings are printed. They can be ignored.
Running it a second time, they do not appear again.

Figure 5. Running dvips to generate a PostScript (ps) file.
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                    |
|total 80                                                                       |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml               |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex                |
|bash$ dvips test.dvi                                                           |
|This is dvips(k) 5.86 Copyright 1999 Radical Eye Software (www.radicaleye.com) |
|' TeX output 2000.12.31:2058' -> test.ps                                       |
|<texc.pro><8r.enc><texps.pro><special.pro><color.pro>. [1] [2] [3]             |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                    |
|total 116                                                                      |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34817 Dec 31 21:06 test.ps                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml               |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex                |
|bash$                                                                          |
|                                                                               |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Figure 6. Running htmldoc to generate a PostScript (ps) file.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                              |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml                         |
|bash$ export DSL_HTML=$SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl\#html                       |
|bash$ openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $DSL_HTML test.sgml | htmldoc -f test-htmldoc.ps - |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                              |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        9050 Jan  1 00:44 test-htmldoc.ps                   |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml                         |
|bash$                                                                                    |
|                                                                                         |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
If the ps file doesn't appear as expected, it may be due to bugs in htmldoc.
Look inside the ldp_print script if you want to use it to make ps.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.4. Generating pdf

Figure 7. Running pdfjadetex to generate a Portable Document Format (pdf)
file.
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                     |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 20:58 test.aux                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4433 Dec 31 20:58 test.log                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34817 Dec 31 21:06 test.ps                  |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex                 |
|bash$ pdfjadetex test.tex                                                       |
|This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159-13d (Web2C 7.3.1)                               |
|(test.tex[/usr/share/texmf/pdftex/config/pdftex.cfg]                            |
|JadeTeX 1999/06/29: 2.7                                                         |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1ptm.fd)                                    |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/jadetex/isoents.tex)                                      |
|Elements will be labelled                                                       |
|Jade begin document sequence at 19                                              |
|(test.aux) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/cyrillic/ot2cmr.fd)                      |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/base/ts1cmr.fd)                                     |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/lucidabr/lmrhlcm.fd)                                |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/context/base/supp-pdf.tex                                 |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/context/base/supp-mis.tex                                 |
|loading : Context Support Macros / Missing                                      |
|)                                                                               |
|loading : Context Support Macros / PDF                                          |
|) (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/hyperref/nameref.sty)                             |
|(/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1phv.fd) [1.0.46[/usr/share/texmf/dvips/con |
|fig/pdftex.map]] (/usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/psnfss/t1pcr.fd) [2.0.46] [3.0.46] |
| (test.aux) )<8r.enc>                                                           |
|Output written on test.pdf (3 pages, 9912 bytes).                               |
|Transcript written on test.log.                                                 |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                     |
|total 128                                                                       |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users         753 Dec 31 21:13 test.aux                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34148 Dec 31 20:58 test.dvi                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        5075 Dec 31 21:13 test.log                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        9912 Dec 31 21:13 test.pdf                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       34817 Dec 31 21:06 test.ps                  |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        4584 Dec 31 20:51 test.rtf                 |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml                |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users       18719 Dec 31 20:51 test.tex                 |
|bash$                                                                           |
|bash$ pdfjadetex test.tex                                                       |
|[snip]                                                                          |
|bash$ pdfjadetex test.tex                                                       |
|[snip]                                                                          |
|                                                                                |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
pdfjadetex must be run up to three times to resolve all internal references
for things such as TOC page numbers.

Figure 8. Running htmldoc to generate a Portable Document Format (pdf) file.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                  |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml             |
|bash$ export DSL_HTML=$SGML_SHARE/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl\#html           |
|bash$ openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $DSL_HTML test.sgml > test-htmldoc.htm |
|bash$ ldp_print test-htmldoc.htm                                             |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                  |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        9050 Jan  1 01:17 test-htmldoc.pdf      |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1143 Dec 31 18:18 test.sgml             |
|bash$                                                                        |
|                                                                             |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
If enabled in the ldp_print script, this would generate a ps file also.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5. Using make

Repeating the commands to generate the output files is tedious. The make
command works perfectly to automate the process.

Figure 9. Filename: Makefile - automates document generation.
# Generates online and print versions of SGML source file.                   
                                                                             
BASENAME=DocBook-Install                                                     
                                                                             
# SGML source file.                                                          
SGML_FILE=$(BASENAME).sgml                                                   
                                                                             
# Stylesheets                                                                
DSL_PRINT=$(SGML_SHARE)/dsssl/docbook/print/ldp.dsl\#print                   
DSL_HTML=$(SGML_SHARE)/dsssl/docbook/html/ldp.dsl\#html                      
                                                                             
# Generated files.                                                           
HTML_FILE=index.html                                                         
HTM_FILE=$(BASENAME).htm                                                     
TEX_FILE=$(BASENAME).tex                                                     
RTF_FILE=$(BASENAME).rtf                                                     
PDF_FILE=$(BASENAME).pdf                                                     
DVI_FILE=$(BASENAME).dvi                                                     
PS_FILE=$(BASENAME).ps                                                       
                                                                             
                                                                             
# Build rules.                                                               
                                                                             
html: $(HTML_FILE)                                                           
                                                                             
htm: $(HTM_FILE)                                                             
                                                                             
tex: $(TEX_FILE)                                                             
                                                                             
rtf: $(RTF_FILE)                                                             
                                                                             
pdf: $(PDF_FILE)                                                             
                                                                             
dvi: $(DVI_FILE)                                                             
                                                                             
ps: $(PS_FILE)                                                               
                                                                             
all: html htm tex rtf pdf dvi ps                                             
                                                                             
clean:                                                                       
        rm -f $(BASENAME).{htm,log,aux,ps,pdf,tex,dvi,rtf,fot}               
        rm -f *.html                                                         
                                                                             
distclean: clean                                                             
        rm -f $(BASENAME).tgz                                                
                                                                             
package:                                                                     
        rm -f $(BASENAME).tgz                                                
        tar -C .. -czf /tmp/$(BASENAME).tgz $(BASENAME)                      
        mv /tmp/$(BASENAME).tgz .                                            
                                                                             
dist: clean package                                                          
                                                                             
distall: all package                                                         
                                                                             
                                                                             
# Compile rules.                                                             
                                                                             
$(HTML_FILE): $(SGML_FILE)                                                   
        openjade -t sgml -d $(DSL_HTML) $(SGML_FILE)                         
                                                                             
$(HTM_FILE): $(SGML_FILE)                                                    
        openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $(DSL_HTML) \                        
        $(SGML_FILE) > $(HTM_FILE)                                           
                                                                             
$(TEX_FILE): $(SGML_FILE)                                                    
        openjade -t tex -d $(DSL_PRINT) $(SGML_FILE)                         
                                                                             
$(RTF_FILE): $(SGML_FILE)                                                    
        openjade -t rtf -d $(DSL_PRINT) $(SGML_FILE)                         
                                                                             
# [pdf]jadetex is run 3 times to resolve references.                         
#$(PDF_FILE): $(TEX_FILE)                                                    
#       pdfjadetex $(TEX_FILE)                                               
#       pdfjadetex $(TEX_FILE)                                               
#       pdfjadetex $(TEX_FILE)                                               
                                                                             
# This *should* work, but htmldoc has bugs ...                               
#$(PDF_FILE): $(SGML_FILE)                                                   
#       openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $(DSL_HTML) \                        
#       $(SGML_FILE) | htmldoc -f $(PDF_FILE) -                              
                                                                             
# Have to use ldp_print to work around htmldoc bugs                          
# ldp_print can also do the ps file - see script                             
$(PDF_FILE): $(HTM_FILE)                                                     
        ldp_print $(HTM_FILE)                                                
                                                                             
$(DVI_FILE): $(TEX_FILE)                                                     
        jadetex $(TEX_FILE)                                                  
        jadetex $(TEX_FILE)                                                  
        jadetex $(TEX_FILE)                                                  
                                                                             
$(PS_FILE): $(DVI_FILE)                                                      
        dvips $(DVI_FILE)                                                    
                                                                             
#$(PS_FILE): $(SGML_FILE)                                                    
#       openjade -t sgml -V nochunks -d $(DSL_HTML) \                        
#       $(SGML_FILE) | htmldoc -f $(PS_FILE) -                               
                                                                             

Usage is just like for most projects:


Figure 10. Invoking make to run Makefile
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                -- generate html (default)                                 |
|                make                                                       |
|                -- generate just pdf                                       |
|                make pdf                                                   |
|                -- generate all files                                      |
|                make all                                                   |
|                -- delete all generated files                              |
|                make clean                                                 |
|                -- create tgz distribution                                 |
|                -- with no generated files                                 |
|                make dist                                                  |
|                -- create tgz distribution                                 |
|                -- containing all generated files                          |
|                make distall                                               |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Notice the commented compile rules for pdf and ps which provide alternative
means of generating those files.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6. Generating a man page

During the section on installing everything, we installed the perl version 5
module SGMLS.pm. Then we installed Docbook2X which provides the spec.pl files
for transforming DocBook <refentry> documents into nroff (man page) format
with sgmlspl.

An example Docbook <refentry> document, for the foo command, is given below.

Figure 11. foo command man page, docbook <refentry> source (foo-ref.sgml)
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|<!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook V4.1//EN">                       |
|<refentry>                                                                        |
|<refentryinfo>                                                                    |
|        <date>2001-01-01</date>                                                   |
|</refentryinfo>                                                                   |
|<refmeta>                                                                         |
|        <refentrytitle>                                                           |
|                <application>foo</application>                                    |
|        </refentrytitle>                                                          |
|        <manvolnum>1</manvolnum>                                                  |
|        <refmiscinfo>foo 1.0</refmiscinfo>                                        |
|</refmeta>                                                                        |
|<refnamediv>                                                                      |
|        <refname>                                                                 |
|                <application>foo</application>                                    |
|        </refname>                                                                |
|        <refpurpose>                                                              |
|        Does nothing useful.                                                      |
|        </refpurpose>                                                             |
|</refnamediv>                                                                     |
|<refsynopsisdiv>                                                                  |
|        <refsynopsisdivinfo>                                                      |
|                <date>2001-01-01</date>                                           |
|        </refsynopsisdivinfo>                                                     |
|        <cmdsynopsis>                                                             |
|        <command>foo</command>                                                    |
|<arg><option>-f </option><replaceable class="parameter">bar</replaceable></arg>   |
|<arg><option>-d<replaceable class="parameter">n</replaceable></option></arg>      |
|<arg rep="repeat"><replaceable class="parameter">file</replaceable></arg>         |
|        </cmdsynopsis>                                                            |
|</refsynopsisdiv>                                                                 |
|<refsect1>                                                                        |
|        <refsect1info>                                                            |
|                <date>2001-01-01</date>                                           |
|        </refsect1info>                                                           |
|        <title>DESCRIPTION</title>                                                |
|        <para>                                                                    |
|        <command>foo</command> does nothing useful.                               |
|        </para>                                                                   |
|</refsect1>                                                                       |
|<refsect1>                                                                        |
|        <title>OPTIONS</title>                                                    |
|        <variablelist>                                                            |
|        <varlistentry>                                                            |
|                <term>-f <replaceable class="parameter">bar</replaceable></term>  |
|                <listitem>                                                        |
|                        <para>                                                    |
|                        Takes <filename>bar</filename> as it's run                |
|                        control file. If this were a real program,                |
|                        there might be more to say here about what                |
|                        bar is and how it will be used.                           |
|                        </para>                                                   |
|                </listitem>                                                       |
|        </varlistentry>                                                           |
|        <varlistentry>                                                            |
|                <term>-d<replaceable class="parameter">n</replaceable></term>     |
|                <listitem>                                                        |
|                        <para>                                                    |
|                        Do something, where integer                               |
|                        <replaceable class="parameter">n</replaceable>            |
|                        specifies how many times.                                 |
|                        </para>                                                   |
|                </listitem>                                                       |
|        </varlistentry>                                                           |
|        <varlistentry>                                                            |
|                <term><replaceable class="parameter">file...</replaceable></term> |
|                <listitem>                                                        |
|                        <para>                                                    |
|                        Processes the files in the order listed,                  |
|                        sending all output to stdout.                             |
|                        </para>                                                   |
|                </listitem>                                                       |
|        </varlistentry>                                                           |
|        </variablelist>                                                           |
|</refsect1>                                                                       |
|<refsect1>                                                                        |
|        <title>USAGE</title>                                                      |
|        <para>                                                                    |
|        <command>foo</command> -f foo.conf -d2 foodata.foo                        |
|        </para>                                                                   |
|</refsect1>                                                                       |
|<refsect1>                                                                        |
|        <title>CAVEATS</title>                                                    |
|        <para>                                                                    |
|        Other programs named <command>foo</command> may exist and actually        |
|        do something!                                                             |
|        </para>                                                                   |
|</refsect1>                                                                       |
|<refsect1>                                                                        |
|        <title>BUGS</title>                                                       |
|        <para>                                                                    |
|        None.  Program does nothing.                                              |
|        </para>                                                                   |
|</refsect1>                                                                       |
|<refsect1>                                                                        |
|        <title>AUTHOR</title>                                                     |
|        <para>                                                                    |
|        <author>                                                                  |
|                <firstname>Foo</firstname>                                        |
|                <othername role="mi">E</othername>                                |
|                <surname>Bar</surname>                                            |
|                <contrib>Original author</contrib>                                |
|        </author>                                                                 |
|        </para>                                                                   |
|</refsect1>                                                                       |
|</refentry>                                                                       |
|                                                                                  |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Figure 12. Generating a man page with onsgmls, sgmlspl, and
docbook2man-spec.pl
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ls -l                                                                    |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        2434 Jan  3 03:51 foo-ref.sgml            |
|bash$ onsgmls foo-ref.sgml | sgmlspl $SGML_SHARE/docbook2X/docbook2man-spec.pl |
|bash$ ls -l                                                                    |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        2434 Jan  3 03:51 foo-ref.sgml            |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users        1129 Jan  3 04:03 foo.1                   |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users           0 Jan  3 04:03 manpage.links           |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users           0 Jan  3 04:03 manpage.log             |
|-rw-r--r--   1 reaster  users          15 Jan  3 04:03 manpage.refs            |
|bash$ groff -mandoc -Tascii foo.1                                              |
|                                                                               |
|FOO(1)                                                     FOO(1)              |
|                                                                               |
|                                                                               |
|NAME                                                                           |
|       foo - Does nothing useful.                                              |
|                                                                               |
|SYNOPSIS                                                                       |
|       foo [ -f bar ]  [ -dn ]  [ file... ]                                    |
|                                                                               |
|DESCRIPTION                                                                    |
|       foo does nothing useful.                                                |
|                                                                               |
|OPTIONS                                                                        |
|       -f bar Takes  bar as its run control file. If this were a               |
|              real program, there might be more to say here about              |
|              what bar is and how it will be used.                             |
|                                                                               |
|       -dn    Do  something,  where  integer n specifies how many              |
|              times.                                                           |
|                                                                               |
|       file...                                                                 |
|              Processes the files in the  order  listed,  sending              |
|              all output to stdout.                                            |
|                                                                               |
|USAGE                                                                          |
|       foo -f foo.conf -d2 foodata.foo                                         |
|                                                                               |
|CAVEATS                                                                        |
|       Other  programs  named foo may exist and actually do some-              |
|       thing!                                                                  |
|                                                                               |
|BUGS                                                                           |
|       None. Program does nothing.                                             |
|                                                                               |
|AUTHOR                                                                         |
|       Foo E Bar (Original author)                                             |
|                                                                               |
|[snip - several extra blank lines that man would not show]                     |
|foo 1.0                     2001-01-01                          1              |
|bash$ groff -mandoc -Tascii foo.1 | less                                       |
|bash$ less foo.1                                                               |
|                                                                               |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The man page, foo.1, is generated as a Section 1 page. The groff command is
used to give a quick look at its formatted appearance.

To install this man page, it belongs in any man/man1 directory, where the
directory man/ is added to $MANPATH in the environment. The standard location
is /usr/local/man/man1. The standard sections in the man pages system are 1
though 9. Each is for holding specific catagories of documentation.


Table 1. Manual Pages Sections
+-------+----------------------------------------+
|Section|                Purpose                 |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man1  |             User programs              |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man2  |              System calls              |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man3  |   Library functions and subroutines    |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man4  |                Devices                 |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man5  |              File formats              |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man6  |                 Games                  |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man7  |             Miscellaneous              |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man8  |         System administration          |
+-------+----------------------------------------+
| man9  |Kernel internal variables and functions |
+-------+----------------------------------------+

Tip The source file for a man page, like foo-ref.sgml, can be processed into 
    all the other formats just like any other DocBook file. So using the same
    commands discussed earlier to generate html and print output types, a man
    page can be made into html and rtf, tex, pdf, dvi, and ps. This can      
    really save a lot of conversion work!                                    

Have fun !
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A. Legal

A.1. Copyright and Licenses

    Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Robert B. Easter
   
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any
    later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
    Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
    Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
    Free Documentation License".
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.2. Disclaimer

No liability for the contents of this document can be accepted. Use the
concepts, examples and other content at your own risk.

All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless specifically noted
otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting
the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

   
    Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite
    330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics,
a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could
be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related
matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers
is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for
human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
    that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
    if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
    may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
    that version gives permission.
   
 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
   
 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
    the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
    License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
    required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
 I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an
    item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
    Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section
    entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year,
    authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
    add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
    sentence.
   
 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
    locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
    These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
    section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone
    of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
    therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
    text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
    title with any Invariant Section.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
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9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
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10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
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How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
    Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A
    copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
    Documentation License".
   
If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead
of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write
"no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise
for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.





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