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Encrypted Root Filesystem HOWTO

Christophe Devine

Revision History                                                             
Revision v1.3            2005-03-13            Revised by: cd                
Updated the packages version.                                                
Revision v1.2            2004-10-20            Revised by: cd                
Updated the packages version.                                                
Revision v1.1            2003-12-01            Revised by: cd                
Added support for GRUB.                                                      
Revision v1.0            2003-09-24            Revised by: cd                
Initial release, reviewed by LDP.                                            
Revision v0.9            2003-09-11            Revised by: cd                
Updated and converted to DocBook XML.                                        


 This document explains how to make your personal data secure by encrypting
your Linux root filesystem using strong cryptography.

 This HOWTO is released under the GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Preparing the system
    1.1. Setting up the partition layout
    1.2. Required packages
    1.3. Installing Linux-2.4.29
    1.4. Installing Linux-2.6.10
    1.5. Installing util-linux-2.12p
   
   
2. Creating the encrypted root filesystem
3. Setting up the boot device
    3.1. Creating the ramdisk
    3.2. Booting from a CD-ROM
    3.3. Booting from a HD partition
   
   
4. Final steps
5. About this HOWTO

1. Preparing the system

1.1. Setting up the partition layout

 Your hard disk (hda) should contain at least three partitions:

��*� hda1: this small unencrypted partition will ask for a password in order
    to mount the encrypted root filesystem.
   
��*� hda2: this partition will contain your encrypted root filesystem; make
    sure it is large enough.
   
��*� hda3: this partition holds the current GNU/Linux system.
   

 At this point, both hda1 and hda2 are unused. hda3 is where your Linux
distribution is currently installed; /usr and /boot must not be separated
from this partition.

 Here's an example of what your partition layout might look like:

 
# fdisk -l /dev/hda                                                          
                                                                             
Disk /dev/hda: 255 heads, 63 sectors, 2432 cylinders                         
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 bytes                                       
                                                                             
   Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System                     
/dev/hda1             1         1      8001   83  Linux                      
/dev/hda2             2       263   2104515   83  Linux                      
/dev/hda3           264       525   2104515   83  Linux                      
/dev/hda4           526      2047  12225465   83  Linux                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Required packages

 If you use Debian, the following packages are mandatory:

 
apt-get install gcc make libncurses5-dev patch bzip2 wget                    

 To make copy & paste easier, you should also install:

 
apt-get install lynx gpm                                                     
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Installing Linux-2.4.29

 There are two main projects which add loopback encryption support in the
kernel: cryptoloop and loop-AES. This howto is based on loop-AES, since it
features an extremely fast and highly optimized implementation of Rijndael in
assembly language, and therefore provides maximum performance if you have an
IA-32 (x86) CPU. Besides, there are some [http://groups.google.com/groups?
selm=1emrG-1Ck-25%40gated-at.bofh.it] security concerns about cryptoloop.

 First of all, download and unpack the loop-AES package:

 
cd /usr/src                                                                  
wget http://loop-aes.sourceforge.net/loop-AES/loop-AES-v3.0b.tar.bz2         
tar -xvjf loop-AES-v3.0b.tar.bz2                                             

 Then you must download and patch the kernel source:

 
wget http://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.4/linux-2.4.29.tar.bz2        
tar -xvjf linux-2.4.29.tar.bz2                                               
cd linux-2.4.29                                                              
rm include/linux/loop.h drivers/block/loop.c                                 
patch -Np1 -i ../loop-AES-v3.0b/kernel-2.4.28.diff                           

 Setup the keyboard map:

 
dumpkeys | loadkeys -m - > drivers/char/defkeymap.c                          

 Next, configure your kernel; make sure the following options are set:

 
make menuconfig                                                              
                                                                             
    Block devices  --->                                                      
                                                                             
        <*> Loopback device support                                          
        [*]   AES encrypted loop device support (NEW)                        
                                                                             
        <*> RAM disk support                                                 
        (4096)   Default RAM disk size (NEW)                                 
        [*]   Initial RAM disk (initrd) support                              
                                                                             
    File systems  --->                                                       
                                                                             
        <*> Ext3 journalling file system support                             
        <*> Second extended fs support                                       
                                                                             
(important note: do not enable /dev file system support)                     

 Compile the kernel and install it:

 
make dep bzImage                                                             
make modules modules_install                                                 
cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz                                      

 If grub is your bootloader, update /boot/grub/menu.lst or /boot/grub/
grub.conf:

 
cat > /boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF                                             
default 0                                                                    
timeout 10                                                                   
color green/black light-green/black                                          
title Linux                                                                  
    root (hd0,2)                                                             
    kernel /boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hda3                                   
EOF                                                                          

 Otherwise, update /etc/lilo.conf and run lilo:

 
cat > /etc/lilo.conf << EOF                                                  
lba32                                                                        
boot=/dev/hda                                                                
prompt                                                                       
timeout=60                                                                   
image=/boot/vmlinuz                                                          
    label=Linux                                                              
    read-only                                                                
    root=/dev/hda3                                                           
EOF                                                                          
lilo                                                                         

 You may now restart the system.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Installing Linux-2.6.10

 Proceed as described in the previous section, using loop-aes' 
kernel-2.6.10.diff patch instead, and make sure cryptoloop support is not
activated. Note that modules support require that you have the
module-init-tools package installed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Installing util-linux-2.12p

 The losetup program, which is part of the util-linux package, must be
patched and recompiled in order to add strong cryptography support. Download,
unpack and patch util-linux:

 
cd /usr/src                                                                    
wget http://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/util-linux-2.12p.tar.bz2 
tar -xvjf util-linux-2.12p.tar.bz2                                             
cd util-linux-2.12p                                                            
patch -Np1 -i ../loop-AES-v3.0b/util-linux-2.12p.diff                          

 To use passwords that are less than 20 characters, enter:

 
CFLAGS="-O2 -DLOOP_PASSWORD_MIN_LENGTH=8"; export CFLAGS                     

 Security is certainly your major concern. For this reason, please do not
enable passwords shorter than 20 characters. Data privacy is not free, one
has to 'pay' in form of long passwords.

 Compile losetup and install it as root:

 
./configure && make lib mount                                                
mv -f /sbin/losetup /sbin/losetup~                                           
rm -f /usr/share/man/man8/losetup.8*                                         
cd mount                                                                     
gzip losetup.8                                                               
cp losetup /sbin                                                             
cp losetup.8.gz /usr/share/man/man8/                                         
chattr +i /sbin/losetup                                                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Creating the encrypted root filesystem

 Fill the target partition with random data:

 
shred -n 1 -v /dev/hda2                                                      

 Setup the encrypted loopback device:

 
losetup -e aes256 -S xxxxxx /dev/loop0 /dev/hda2                             

 To prevent optimized dictionary attacks, it is recommended to add the -S
xxxxxx option, where "xxxxxx" is your randomly chosen seed (for example, you
might choose "gPk4lA"). Write down your seed on a piece of paper so that you
don't loose it afterwards. Also, in order to avoid boot-time problems with
the keyboard map, do not use non-ASCII characters (accents, etc.) in your
password. The [http://www.diceware.com/] Diceware site offers a simple way to
create strong, yet easy to remember, passphrases.

 Now create the ext3 filesystem:

 
mke2fs -j /dev/loop0                                                         

 Check that the password you entered is correct:

 
losetup -d /dev/loop0                                                        
losetup -e aes256 -S xxxxxx /dev/loop0 /dev/hda2                             

 
mkdir /mnt/efs                                                               
mount /dev/loop0 /mnt/efs                                                    

 You can compare the encrypted and unencrypted data:

 
xxd /dev/hda2  | less                                                        
xxd /dev/loop0 | less                                                        

 It's time to install your encrypted Linux system. If you use a GNU/Linux
distribution (such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo, Mandrake, RedHat/Fedora,
SuSE, etc.), run the following command:

 
cp -avx / /mnt/efs                                                           

 If you use the Linux From Scratch book, proceed as described in the manual,
with the modifications below:

��*�Chapter 6 - Installing util-linux:
   
    Apply the loop-AES patch after unpacking the sources.
   
��*�Chapter 8 - Making the LFS system bootable:
   
    Refer to the next section (Setting up the boot device).
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Setting up the boot device

3.1. Creating the ramdisk

 To begin with, chroot inside the encrypted partition and create the boot
device mount point:

 
chroot /mnt/efs                                                              
mkdir /loader                                                                

 Then, create the initial ramdisk (initrd), which will be needed afterwards:

 
cd                                                                           
dd if=/dev/zero of=initrd bs=1k count=4096                                   
mke2fs -F initrd                                                             
mkdir ramdisk                                                                
mount -o loop initrd ramdisk                                                 

 If you're using grsecurity, you may get a "Permission denied" error message;
in this case you'll have to run the mount command outside chroot.

 Create the filesystem hierarchy and copy the required files in it:

 
mkdir ramdisk/{bin,dev,lib,mnt,sbin}                                         
cp /bin/{bash,mount} ramdisk/bin/                                            
ln -s bash ramdisk/bin/sh                                                    
mknod -m 600 ramdisk/dev/console c 5 1                                       
mknod -m 600 ramdisk/dev/hda2    b 3 2                                       
mknod -m 600 ramdisk/dev/loop0   b 7 0                                       
cp /lib/{ld-linux.so.2,libc.so.6,libdl.so.2} ramdisk/lib/                    
cp /lib/{libncurses.so.5,libtermcap.so.2}    ramdisk/lib/                    
cp /sbin/{losetup,pivot_root} ramdisk/sbin/                                  

 It's ok if you see a message like "/lib/libncurses.so.5: No such file or
directory", or "/lib/libtermcap.so.2: No such file or directory"; bash only
requires one of these two libraries. You can check which one is actually
required with:

 
ldd /bin/bash                                                                

 Compile the sleep program, which will prevent the password prompt being
flooded by kernel messages (such as usb devices being registered).

 
cat > sleep.c << "EOF"                                                       
#include <unistd.h>                                                          
#include <stdlib.h>                                                          
                                                                             
int main( int argc, char *argv[] )                                           
{                                                                            
    if( argc == 2 )                                                          
        sleep( atoi( argv[1] ) );                                            
                                                                             
    return( 0 );                                                             
}                                                                            
EOF                                                                          
                                                                             
gcc -s sleep.c -o ramdisk/bin/sleep                                          
rm sleep.c                                                                   

 Create the init script:

 
cat > ramdisk/sbin/init << "EOF"                                             
#!/bin/sh                                                                    
                                                                             
/bin/sleep 3                                                                 
                                                                             
echo -n "Enter seed value: "                                                 
read SEED                                                                    
                                                                             
/sbin/losetup -e aes256 -S $SEED /dev/loop0 /dev/hda2                        
/bin/mount -r -n -t ext3 /dev/loop0 /mnt                                     
                                                                             
while [ $? -ne 0 ]                                                           
do                                                                           
    /sbin/losetup -d /dev/loop0                                              
    /sbin/losetup -e aes256 -S $SEED /dev/loop0 /dev/hda2                    
    /bin/mount -r -n -t ext3 /dev/loop0 /mnt                                 
done                                                                         
                                                                             
cd /mnt                                                                      
/sbin/pivot_root . loader                                                    
exec /usr/sbin/chroot . /sbin/init                                           
EOF                                                                          
                                                                             
chmod 755 ramdisk/sbin/init                                                  

 Umount the loopback device and compress the initrd:

 
umount -d ramdisk                                                            
rmdir ramdisk                                                                
gzip initrd                                                                  
mv initrd.gz /boot/                                                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Booting from a CD-ROM

 I strongly advise you to start your system with a read-only media, such as a
bootable CD-ROM.

 Download and unpack syslinux:

 
wget http://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/boot/syslinux/syslinux-3.07.tar.bz2 
tar -xvjf syslinux-3.07.tar.bz2                                                

 Configure isolinux:

 
mkdir bootcd                                                                 
cp /boot/{vmlinuz,initrd.gz} syslinux-3.07/isolinux.bin bootcd               
echo "DEFAULT /vmlinuz initrd=initrd.gz ro root=/dev/ram0" \                 
    > bootcd/isolinux.cfg                                                    

 Create and burn the bootable cd-rom iso image:

 
mkisofs -o bootcd.iso -b isolinux.bin -c boot.cat \                          
        -no-emul-boot -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table \                   
        -J -hide-rr-moved -R bootcd/                                         
                                                                             
cdrecord -dev 0,0,0 -speed 4 -v bootcd.iso                                   
                                                                             
rm -rf bootcd{,.iso}                                                         
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Booting from a HD partition

 The boot partition can come in handy if you happen to lose your bootable CD.
Remember that hda1 is a writable media and is thus insecure; use it only in
case of emergency!

 Create and mount the ext2 filesystem:

 
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/hda1 bs=8192                                         
mke2fs /dev/hda1                                                             
mount /dev/hda1 /loader                                                      

 Copy the kernel and the initial ramdisk:

 
cp /boot/{vmlinuz,initrd.gz} /loader                                         

 If you use grub:

 
mkdir /loader/boot                                                           
cp -av /boot/grub /loader/boot/                                              
cat > /loader/boot/grub/menu.lst << EOF                                      
default 0                                                                    
timeout 10                                                                   
color green/black light-green/black                                          
title Linux                                                                  
    root (hd0,0)                                                             
    kernel /vmlinuz ro root=/dev/ram0                                        
    initrd /initrd.gz                                                        
EOF                                                                          
grub-install --root-directory=/loader /dev/hda                               
umount /loader                                                               

 If you use lilo:

 
mkdir /loader/{boot,dev,etc}                                                 
cp /boot/boot.b /loader/boot/                                                
mknod -m 600 /loader/dev/hda  b 3 0                                          
mknod -m 600 /loader/dev/hda1 b 3 1                                          
mknod -m 600 /loader/dev/hda2 b 3 2                                          
mknod -m 600 /loader/dev/hda3 b 3 3                                          
mknod -m 600 /loader/dev/hda4 b 3 4                                          
mknod -m 600 /loader/dev/ram0 b 1 0                                          
cat > /loader/etc/lilo.conf << EOF                                           
lba32                                                                        
boot=/dev/hda                                                                
prompt                                                                       
timeout=60                                                                   
image=/vmlinuz                                                               
    label=Linux                                                              
    initrd=/initrd.gz                                                        
    read-only                                                                
    root=/dev/ram0                                                           
EOF                                                                          
lilo -r /loader                                                              
umount /loader                                                               
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Final steps

 Still inside chroot, modify /etc/fstab so that it contains:

 
/dev/loop0      /               ext3    defaults       0       1             

 Delete /etc/mtab and exit from chroot. Finally, run "umount -d /mnt/efs" and
reboot. If something goes wrong, you can still boot your unencrypted
partition by entering "Linux root=/dev/hda3" at the LILO: prompt.

 If everything went well, you can now re-partition your disk and encrypt hda3
as well as hda4. In the following scripts, we assume that hda3 will hold the
swap device and hda4 will contain /home; you should initialize both
partitions first:

 
shred -n 1 -v /dev/hda3                                                      
shred -n 1 -v /dev/hda4                                                      
losetup -e aes256 -S xxxxxx /dev/loop1 /dev/hda3                             
losetup -e aes256 -S xxxxxx /dev/loop2 /dev/hda4                             
mkswap /dev/loop1                                                            
mke2fs -j /dev/loop2                                                         

 Then create a script in the system startup directory and update fstab:

 
cat > /etc/init.d/loop << "EOF"                                              
#!/bin/sh                                                                    
                                                                             
if [ "`/usr/bin/md5sum /dev/hda1`" != \                                      
     "5671cebdb3bed87c3b3c345f0101d016  /dev/hda1" ]                         
then                                                                         
    echo -n "WARNING! hda1 integrity verification FAILED - press enter."     
    read                                                                     
fi                                                                           
                                                                             
echo "1st password chosen above" | \                                         
    /sbin/losetup -p 0 -e aes256 -S xxxxxx /dev/loop1 /dev/hda3              
                                                                             
echo "2nd password chosen above" | \                                         
    /sbin/losetup -p 0 -e aes256 -S xxxxxx /dev/loop2 /dev/hda4              
                                                                             
/sbin/swapon /dev/loop1                                                      
                                                                             
for i in `seq 0 63`                                                          
do                                                                           
    echo -n -e "\33[10;10]\33[11;10]" > /dev/tty$i                           
done                                                                         
                                                                             
EOF                                                                          
                                                                             
chmod 700 /etc/init.d/loop                                                   
ln -s ../init.d/loop /etc/rcS.d/S00loop                                      
vi /etc/fstab                                                                
...                                                                          
/dev/loop2      /home           ext3    defaults       0       2             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. About this HOWTO

 The Encrypted Root Filesystem HOWTO was first written in november 2002 for
the [http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/lfs/news.html] Linux From Scratch
project. I'd like to thank the many people who have since contributed to this
document (in reverse chronological order): Micha Borrmann, Dennis Lemckert,
Oleg Vyushin, Ellen Bokhorst, Daczi L�szl�, Gaetano Zappulla, Guillaume
Lehmann, Claude Thomassin, Jean-Philippe Gu�rard, Luc Vo Van, Jacobus Brink,
Ernesto P�rez Est�vez, Matthew Ploessel, Mike Lorek, Lars Bungum, Michael
Shields, Julien Perrot, Grant Stephenson, Cary W. Gilmer, James Howells,
Pedro Baez, Josh Purinton, Jari Ruusu and Zibeli Aton.

 This HOWTO has been translated in various languages:

��*�[http://www.traduc.org/docs/HOWTO/lecture/
    Encrypted-Root-Filesystem-HOWTO.html] French
   
��*�[http://www.linux.it/~gaetano/erfs/] Italian
   
��*�[http://tldp.fsf.hu/HOWTO/Encrypted-Root-Filesystem-HOWTO-hu/] Hungarian
   
��*�[http://doc.nl.linux.org/HOWTO/Encrypted-Root-Filesystem-HOWTO-NL/
    article.html] Dutch
   

 Please send any comment to [http://www.cr0.net:8040/about/] Christophe
Devine.





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