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Firewall Piercing mini-HOWTO

Fran�ois-Ren� Rideau

v0.97, 24 November 2001
Revision History                                                             
Revision v0.97            2001-11-24           Revised by: frr               
Conversion to DocBook SGML.                                                  


Directions for using ppp over ssh, telnet or whatever, so as to do achieve
transparent network connection accross a firewall. Applies to friendly VPN
construction as well as to piercing unfriendly firewalls.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Stuff
    1.1. DISCLAIMER
    1.2. Legal Blurp
    1.3. Looking for a maintainer
    1.4. Credits
    1.5. Latest versions
   
   
2. Introduction
    2.1. Foreword
    2.2. Security issues
    2.3. Other requirements
    2.4. Downloading software
   
   
3. Understanding the problem
    3.1. Giving names to things
    3.2. The main problem
    3.3. The secondary problem
   
   
4. Secure solution: piercing using ssh
    4.1. Principle
    4.2. A sample session
   
   
5. Unsecure solution: piercing using telnet
    5.1. Principle
    5.2. fwprc
    5.3. .fwprcrc
   
   
6. Routing
    6.1. The catch
    6.2. Example of routing
   
   
7. Reverse piercing
    7.1. Rationale
    7.2. Getting the trigger message
    7.3. Other automated tools for reverse piercing
   
   
8. Final notes
    8.1. Other settings
    8.2. HOWTO maintenance
    8.3. Related Documents
    8.4. Final Word
    8.5. Extra copy of IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER --- BELIEVE IT!!!
   
   

1. Stuff

1.1. DISCLAIMER

READ THIS IMPORTANT SECTION !!!

I hereby disclaim all responsibility for your use of this hack. If it
backfires on you in any way whatsoever, that's the breaks. Not my fault. If
you don't understand the risks inherent in doing this, don't do it. If you
use this hack and it allows vicious vandals to break into your company's
computers and costs you your job and your company millions of dollars, well
that's just tough nuggies. Don't come crying to me.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Legal Blurp

Copyright � 1998-2001 by Fran�ois-Ren� Rideau.

This document is free software published under the [http://www.geocities.com/
SoHo/Cafe/5947/bugroff.html] bugroff license.

To ease their task, it has also been released to the LDP maintainers under
the [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html] GNU Free Documentation License.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Looking for a maintainer

I have stopped actively developing this mini-HOWTO, although I'm still
maintaining it. I'm looking for a maintainer to take over this document, who
would extend it into a full-fledged HOWTO by expanding on the solutions whose
existence I only mention, and who would maybe develop software to make it
easier to pierce firewalls. I have a lot of ideas to expand this HOWTO and
write according software, if anyone is interested. I also used to write a
french version of this HOWTO, but no one has been maintaining it anymore for
a long time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Credits

Even though the only thing left is the disclaimers, this document owes a lot
to the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Term-Firewall.html] Term-Firewall
mini-HOWTO by Barak Pearlmutter <bap@cs.unm.edu>. Barak's mini-HOWTO relies
on an ancient and no-more-supported program named Term (a great program in
its time, and maybe still useful in some unhappy circumstances), as well as
on peculiarities of a not-so-standard telnet implementation, that is, many
obsolete and non-portable facts. Nevertheless, there was a necessity for a
mini-HOWTO about piercing firewalls, and despite the limitations of its
hacks, this mini-HOWTO was a model and an encouragement.

I'd also like to congratulate Lars Brinkhoff <lars@nocrew.org> and Magnus
Lundstr�m <logic@gore.nocrew.org> for their fine http, mail and icmp tunnels.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Latest versions

The latest official LDP version of this document is on: [http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Firewall-Piercing.html] http://www.linuxdoc.org/
HOWTO/mini/Firewall-Piercing.html

The source of my latest official version of this document is on: [http://
fare.tunes.org/files/fwprc/] http://fare.tunes.org/files/fwprc/

The source of my latest working draft of this document is on: [http://
tunes.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb/fare/fare/www/articles/Firewall-Piercing.en.sgml]
http://tunes.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb/fare/fare/www/articles/
Firewall-Piercing.en.sgml
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Introduction

2.1. Foreword

This document has a moral. And the moral is: a firewall cannot protect a
network against its own internal users, and should not even try to.

When an internal user asks you system administrator to open an outbound port
to an external machine, or an inbound port to an internal machine, then you
should do it for him. Of course you should help the user to make sure that
his transactions are secure, and that his software is robust. But a flat out
denial of service is plain incompetence. For unless he is so firewalled as to
be completely cut from the outside world, with no ssh, no telnet, no web
browsing, no email, no dns, no ping, no phone line, no radio, no nothing,
then the user can and will use firewall piercing techniques to access the
machines he wants nonetheless, and the net result for security will be an
unaudited connection with the outside world. So either you trust your users,
after proper training and selection, or you shouldn't grant them access to
the network at all - but then again, the role of a network administrator is
usually to serve its users, so your goal should be the former rather than the
latter. You can and you shall protect them from the outside world; you can
and you shall protect your critical services from them; but you can't and you
shall not protect them from themselves.

Because there exists such things as system administrators who are either
unresponsive, absent, overworked, plain incompetent, irresponsible, or more
generally managed by incompetent people, it so happens that a user may find
himself behind a firewall that he may cross, but only in awkward ways. This
mini-HOWTO explains a generic and portable way to pierce tunnels into
firewalls, by turning any thin, tiny trickle of bits into a full-fledged
information superhighway, so the user can seamlessly use standard tools to
access computers on the other side of the firewall. The very same technique
can be used by competent system administrators to build virtual private
networks (VPN).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Security issues

Of course, if your sysadm has setup a firewall s/he might have a good reason,
and you may have signed an agreement to not circumvent it. On the other hand,
the fact that you can use telnet, the web, e-mail, or whatever other
bidirectional information flux with the outside of the firewall (which is a
prerequisite for the presented hacks to work) means that you are allowed to
access external systems, and the fact that you can log into a particular
external system somehow means you're allowed to do it, too.

So this is all a matter of conveniently using legal holes in a firewall, and
allow generic programs to work from there with generic protocols, as opposed
to requiring special or modified (and recompiled) programs going through lots
of special-purpose proxies that be misconfigured by an uncaring or
incompetent sysadm, or to installing lots of special-purpose converters to
access each of your usual services (like e-mail) through ways supported by
the firewall (like the web).

Moreover, the use of a user-level IP emulator such as SLiRP should still
prevent external attackers from piercing the firewall back in the other way,
unless explicitly permitted by you (or they are clever and wicked, and root
or otherwise able to spy you on the server host).

All in all, the presented hack should be relatively safe. However, it all
depends on the particular circumstances in which you set things up, and I can
give no guarantee about this hack. Lots of things are intrinsically unsafe
about any Internet connection, be it with this hack or not, so don't you
assume anything is safe unless you have good reasons, and/or use some kind of
encryption all the way.

Let's repeat the basics of networking security: you cannot trust anything
about a connection more than you trust the hosts that can handle the
unencrypted data, including hosts on both ends of the connection, and all
hosts that can intercept the communication, unless the communication is
properly encrypted with secret keys. If you misplace your trust, your
passwords may be stolen and used against you, your credit card number may be
stolen and used against you, and you may be fired from your work for
endangering the whole company. Tough nuggies.

To sum it up, don't use this hack unless you know what you're doing. Re-read
the disclaimer above.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. Other requirements

It is assumed that you know what you're doing, that you know about
configuring a network connection, that in case of doubt, you will have read
all relevant documentation (HOWTOs, manual pages, web pages, mailing-list
archives, RFCs, courses, tutorials).

It is assumed that you have shell accounts on both sides of the firewall,
that you can somehow transmit packets of information both ways across the
firewall (with telnet, ssh, e-mail, and the web being the ways currently
known to work), and that you can let a daemon run as a background task on the
server site (or benefit from and existing daemon, sshd, telnetd, or sendmail/
procmail).

It is assumed that you know or are willing to learn how to configure an IP
emulator (pppd, slirp) or an Internet access daemon and its associated
library (SOCKS, Term) on each side, according to your needs in terms of
connectivity and to your access rights, with your recompiling some software
if needed.

Last but not least, so that you can use the hacks described in this document,
it is assumed that you are root on the side of the firewall that needs full
transparent IP access to the other side. Indeed, you'll want to run the PPP
daemon on this side which allows for use the normal kernel packet routing
facilities. In case you're not root on this side, your case is not desperate
though: indeed, Barak Pearlmutter's [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/
Term-Firewall.html] Term-Firewall mini-HOWTO describes how to use Term, a
purely userland program, to the end of piercing firewalls. Although there's
no HOWTO, I suspect SOCKS could also be used as a way to pierce firewalls
without have root privilege; I will gladly accept patches to this HOWTO that
describe such a method of piercing firewalls.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Downloading software

Most software named in this HOWTO should be available from your standard
Linux distribution, possibly among contrib's. At least, the four first below
are available in as .rpm and .deb packages. In case you want to fetch the
latest sources (after all, one of the ends of the connection may not be
running under Linux), use the addresses below:

��*�SLiRP can be found at [http://blitzen.canberra.edu.au/slirp] http://
    blitzen.canberra.edu.au/slirp and/or [ftp://www.ibc.wustl.edu/pub/
    slirp_bin/] ftp://www.ibc.wustl.edu/pub/slirp_bin/.
   
��*�zsh can be found at [http://www.zsh.org/] http://www.zsh.org/.
   
��*�ppp can be found at [ftp://cs.anu.edu.au/pub/software/ppp/] ftp://
    cs.anu.edu.au/pub/software/ppp/.
   
��*�ssh can be found at [http://www.openssh.com/] http://www.openssh.com/.
   
��*�fwprc, cotty and getroute.pl can be found at [http://fare.tunes.org/files
    /fwprc/] http://fare.tunes.org/files/fwprc/.
   
��*�httptunnel can be found at [http://www.nocrew.org/software/httptunnel/]
    http://www.nocrew.org/software/httptunnel/.
   
��*�mailtunnel can be found at [http://www.detached.net/mailtunnel/] http://
    www.detached.net/mailtunnel/.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Understanding the problem

Understanding a problem is the first half of the path to solving it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Giving names to things

If you want this hack to work for you, you'll have to get an idea of how it
works, so that in case anything breaks, you know where to look for.

The first step toward understanding the problem is to give a name to relevant
concepts.

As usual, we'll herein call "client" the machine that decides to initiate the
connection, as well as programs and files on that machine. Conversely, we'll
call "server" that waits for connections and accepts them, as well as
programs and files on that machine. Firewall piercing is useful when the two
machines are separated by a firewall, such that it is possible for the server
to accept some kind of connections, whereas the client might or might not be
able to accept any. A tunnel will be created between the two machines that
allows full IP traffic despite the firewall.

Usually, when piercing firewalls, the client is the machine behind a
firewall: it has limited access to the internet, but can somehow open some
kind of connection to the server. The server is a machine with full internet
access, that will serve as a proxy for the client to access all of the
internet. In a VPN, the firewall the roles might be reversed, with the client
being on the internet, and the server serving as a proxy for the client to
access some private network.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. The main problem

The main problem with firewall piercing is to create a tunnel: a continuous
connection from the client machine to a server machine on the other side of
the firewall, that allows for bidirectional exchange of information.
Optionally, this connection should be a secure one. The secondary problem is
to transform this connection into a full IP access for normal programs to use
transparently.

For the main problem, we'll assume that either (1) you can establish normal
TCP/IP connections from the client side of the firewall to some port on a
server machine where a sshd runs or can be set to run, or (2) you can somehow
establish a telnet connection through a telnet proxy. In case you cannot, we
will give you pointers to other software that allows you to pierce a tunnel
accross a firewall. Although we only give a secure solution in the first
case, you can hack your own secure solution in the other cases, if you
understand the principle (if you don't, someone, e.g. I, can do it for you in
exchange for money).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. The secondary problem

For the secondary problem, IP emulators (pppd or SLiRP) are run on each side
of the tunnel.

On the side that wants full IP access to the other side, you'll want to run 
pppd. On the other side, you want to run pppd if you also want full IP access
to the first side, or SLiRP if you want to prevent any access. Go to your
usual pppd or SLiRP documentation for more information, if you have specific
needs not covered by the examples given below.

Although this is conceptually trivial, it nonetheless requires a few silly
tricks, so as to work, since (a) in case you're using some kind of programmed
interactive shell session to start the server's IP emulator on either side,
you need to correctly synchronize the start of the IP emulator on the other
side, so as not to send garbage into the shell session, and (b) IP emulators
are designed to be run on a "tty" interface so you have to convert your
tunnel's interface into a tty one.

Issue (a) is just your usual synchronization problem, and doesn't even exist
if you use ssh, that transparently handles server's command launching.

Issue (b) requires the use of a simple external utility. We wrote one, cotty
just for that purpose.

<FLAME ON>

Among the silly problems caused by pppd maintainers' shortmindedness (no more
true in recent Linux versions), you can only run it through either a device
in /dev or the current tty. You cannot run it through a pair of pipe (which
would be the obvious design). This is fine for the server's pppd if any, as
it can use the telnet or ssh session's tty; but for the client's pppd, this
conflicts with the possible use of telnet as a way to establish a connection.

Indeed, telnet, too wants to be on a tty; it behaves almost correctly with a
pair of pipe, except that it will still insist on doing ioctl's to the
current tty, with which it will interfere; using telnet without a tty also
causes race conditions, so that the whole connection will fail on "slow"
computers (fwprc 0.1 worked perfectly on a P/MMX 233, one time out of 6 on a
6x86-P200+, and never on a 486dx2/66). All in all, when using telnet, you
need cotty to run as a daemon to copy output from one tty on which runs pppd
into another tty on which runs telnet, and conversely.

If I find the sucker (probably a MULTICS guy, though there must have been 
UNIX people stupid enough to copy the idea) who invented the principle of
"tty" devices by which you read and write from a "same" pseudo-file, instead
of having clean pairs of pipes, I strangle him!

</FLAME>
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Secure solution: piercing using ssh

4.1. Principle

Let's assume that your firewall administrator allows transparent TCP
connections to some port on some server machine on the other side of the
firewall (be it the standard SSH port 22, or an alternate destination port,
like the HTTP port 80 or whatever), or that you somehow managed to get some
port in one side of the firewall to get redirected to a port on the other
side (using httptunnel, mailtunnel, some tunnel over telnet, or whatelse).

Then, you can run an sshd on the server side port, and connect to it with an 
ssh on the client side port. On both sides of the ssh connection, you run IP
emulators ( pppd), and there you have your VPN, Virtual Public Network, that
circumvents the stupid firewall limitations, with the added bonus of being
encrypted for privacy (beware: the firewall administrator still knows the
other end of the tunnel, and whatever authentication information you might
have sent before to run ssh).

The exact same technology can be used to build a VPN, Virtual Private
Network, whereby you securely join physical sites into a one logical network
without sacrificing security with respect to the transport network between
the sites.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. A sample session

Below is a sample script for you to adapt to your needs. It uses the array
feature of zsh, but you may easily adapt it to your favorite shell. Use
option -p for ssh to try another port than port 22 (but then, be sure to run 
sshd on same port).

Note that the script supposes that ssh can login without your having to
interactively type your password (indeed, it's controlling tty will be
connected to pppd, so if it asks for a password, you lose). This can be done
either by ssh keys in your ??/.ssh/authorized_keys that either do not require
a password, or that you unlock using ssh-agent or ssh-askpass. See your SSH
documentation. Actually, you might also use a chat script to enter your
password, but this is definitely not the Right Thing.

If you are not root on the server end, or simply if want to screen your
client's network from outbound connections, you can use slirp instead of pppd
as the server's PPP emulator. Just uncomment the relevant line.

#!/bin/zsh -f                                                                
SERVER_ACCOUNT=root@server.fqdn.tld                                          
SERVER_PPPD="pppd ipcp-accept-local ipcp-accept-remote"                      
#SERVER_PPPD="pppd" ### This usually suffices if it's in /usr/sbin/          
#SERVER_PPPD="/home/joekluser/bin/slirp ppp"                                 
CLIENT_PPPD=( pppd                                                           
        silent                                                               
        10.0.2.15:10.0.2.2                                                   
        ### For debugging purposes, you may uncomment the following:         
        # updetach debug                                                     
        ### Another potentially useful option (see section on Routing):      
        # defaultroute                                                       
)                                                                            
$CLIENT_PPPD pty "ssh -t $SERVER_ACCOUNT $SERVER_PPPD"                       

Note that default options from your /etc/ppp/options or ??/.slirprc may break
this script, so remove any unwanted option from there.

Also note that 10.0.2.2 is the default setting for slirp, which might or not
fit your specific setup. In any case, you should most likely be using some
address in one of the ranges reserved by RFC 1918 for private networks:
10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 or 192.168.0.0/16. The firewall-protected LAN might
already be using some of them, and avoiding clashes is your responsibility.
For more customization, please read the appropriate documentation.

If your client's pppd is old or non-linux (e.g. BSD) and hasn't got the pty
option, use
cotty -d -- $CLIENT_PPPD -- ssh -t $SERVER_ACCOUNT $SERVER_PPPD              
Catches: don't put quotes around commands given to cotty, as they are just 
exec()'d as is, and don't forget to specify the full path for the server's 
pppd if it's not in the standard path setup by ssh.

Automatic reconnection is left as an exercise to the reader (hint: the 
nodetach option from pppd might help for that).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Unsecure solution: piercing using telnet

5.1. Principle

If all you can do is telnet (because of a telnet proxy), then this solution
might be fit for you.

The firewall-piercing program, fwprc, will use a "tty proxy", cotty, that
opens two pseudo-tty devices, launches some command on each of those devices'
slaves, and stubbornly copies every character that one outputs to the tty
that serves as input of the other command. One command will be telnet
connection to server site, and the other will be the client's pppd. pppd can
then open and control the telnet session with a chat script as usual.

Actually, if your telnet proxy allows connection to an arbitrary port, and if
you can reliably run a daemon on the server host (with a cron job to relaunch
it in case of breakage), then you'd better write some program that will just
connect a client side port to the server side port through the proxy, so you
can use the above secure solution, possibly using some variant of
ssh -t -o "ProxyCommand ..."                                                 
(if you submit it to me, I'll gladly integrate such a solution to the fwprc
distribution).

Note: if you must use the unsecure telnet-based solution, be sure that
nothing lies in your target account that you want to keep secret or
untampered, since the password will be sent in clear text accross the
Internet. If you can control these things, a one-time-password system, or an
explicit cryptographic challenge system will enhance your security, although
it will make automated connection scripts much more complex.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. fwprc

I wrote a very well self-documented script to pierce firewalls, fwprc,
available from [http://fare.tunes.org/files/fwprc/] my site, together with 
cotty (which is required by fwprc 0.2 and later). At the time of my writing
these lines, latest versions are fwprc 0.3e and cotty 0.4c.

The name "fwprc" is voluntarily made unreadable and unpronounceable, so that
it will confuse the incompetent paranoid sysadm who might be the cause of the
firewall that annoys you (of course, there can be legitimate firewalls, too,
and even indispensable ones; security is all a matter of correct
configuration). If you must read it aloud, choose the worst way you can
imagine.

CONTEST! CONTEST! Send me an audio file with a digital audio recording of how
you pronounce "fwprc". The worst entry will win a free upgrade and his name
on the fwprc 1.0 page!

I tested the program in several settings, by configuring it through resource
files. But of course, by Murphy's law, it will break for you. Feel free to
contribute enhancements that will make life easier to other people who'll
configure it after you.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. .fwprcrc

fwprc can be customized through a file .fwprcrc meant to be the same on both
sides of the firewall. Having several alternate configurations to choose from
is sure possible (for instance, I do it), and is left as an exercise to the
reader.

To begin with, copy the appropriate section of fwprc (the previous to last)
into a file named .fwprcrc in your home directory. Then replace variable
values with stuff that fits your configuration. Finally, copy to the other
host, and test.

Default behavior is to use pppd on the client, and slirp on the server. To
modify that, you can redefine the appropriate function in your .fwprcrc with
such a line as:
remote_IP_emu () { remote_pppd }                                             

Note that SLiRP is safer than pppd, and easier to have access to, since it
does not require being root on the server machine, and needn't additional
firewall configuration to prevent connections from the outside world into the
firewalled network. The basic functionality in SLiRP works quite well, but I
haven't managed to get some advertised pluses to work (like run-time
controllability). Of course, since it is free software, feel free to hack the
source so as to actually implement or fix whichever feature you need.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Routing

Piercing the firewall is not everything. You must also route the packets from
the client side of the firewall to the server side. This section tackles the
basic settings specific about routing accross a tunnel. For more detailed
explanations of routing, see the relevant HOWTOs and man pages about
networking, routing and masquerading.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. The catch

The catch is that although your network administration would tell you to
setup your some router on your client side's as the default route, (this may
be relevant if you want to have a specific route to the networks on the
client of the firewall), you should setup PPP link as the route to the
networks on the server side.

In other words, your default route should point to a router on whichever side
of the tunnel that gives you access to the Internet.

Most importantly, packets sent to the server host as part of running the
tunnel should be routed through your usual network (e.g. your default
ethernet router); otherwise, your kernel will have problems, as it tries to
route through the inside the tunnel the very packets that ought to constitute
the outside of the tunnel.

Thus, you'll have to setup correct routes in your network startup
configuration. The precise location of your routing configuration data
depends on your distribution, but it is typically under /etc/init.d/network
or /etc/network/; similarly, your PPP configuration is typically in /etc/ppp
/, and the proper place to configure its routes is usually in ip-up or
ip-up.d/. (Tip: to identify your distribution-specific file locations, you
must read the documentation of your distribution and otherwise [http://
foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/foldoc.cgi?RTFM] RTFM; alternatively use grep
recursively on your /etc; at worst, trace what happens at boot time, as
configured in your /etc/inittab.)

When piercing a tunnel from a roaming laptop on the Internet into a protected
network, the script getroute.pl (available from the fwprc distribution) gives
the current route to the server host that is the other end of the tunnel.

Once you can route packets to the server side of the tunnel, you might want
to setup your machine as a router for all your pals on the client side of the
firewall, achieving a full-fledged shared VPN. This is not specific to
Firewall-Piercing, so just you read the relevant HOWTOs about networking,
routing and masquerading. Also, for security reasons, be sure to also setup a
proper firewall on your machine, especially if you're going to be a router
for other people.

Finally, be reminded that if you're using pppd on the server end of the
tunnel (as opposed to user-mode slirp), you will have to configure proper
routes and firewall rules on the server side of the tunnel, too.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Example of routing

In this example, your client machine is connected to a firewalled LAN through
ethernet device eth0. Its IP address is 12.34.56.78; its network is
12.34.56.0/24; its router is 12.34.56.1.

Your network administrator may have told you to use 12.34.56.1 as default
router, but you shouldn't. You should only use it as a route to the client
side of the firewall.

Let's suppose the client side of your firewall is made of networks 12.34.0.0/
16 and 12.13.0.0/16, and of host 11.22.33.44. To make them accessible through
your client router, add these routes to your global network startup script:
route add -net 12.34.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 12.34.56.1                   
route add -net 12.13.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 12.34.56.1                   
route add -host 11.22.33.44 gw 12.34.56.1                                    
You must also keep the route to the client's local network, necessary for
linux kernel 2.0 and earlier, but but unnecessary for linux kernel 2.2 and
later (that implicitly adds it during the ifconfig):
route add -net 12.34.56.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0                     
On the other hand, you must remove any default route from your scripts.
Delete or comment away a line like:
route add default gw 12.34.56.1                                              
Note that it is also possible to remove the route from the running kernel
configuration without rebooting, by the following command:
route del default gw 12.34.56.1                                              
Then you can have pppd setup a default route automatically when it starts by
using its defaultroute option. Alternatively, you can add it afterwards:
route add default gw 10.0.2.2                                                
If you don't want pppd as a default route, because the Internet access is
available on your side of the firewall, and if you instead want network
98.76.48.0/20 to be routed through the tunnel, except from host 98.76.54.32
that serves as the other end of the tunnel, then add the following lines to
your /etc/ppp/ip-up:
route add -host 98.76.54.32 gw 12.34.56.1                                    
route add -net 98.76.48.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 gw 10.0.2.2                  
If you're a laptop and your current LAN moves, and yet you want to keep your
current route to 98.76.54.32, whatever it be, then use getroute.pl as follows
to automatically find the right gateway in the route add -host command:
$(getroute.pl 98.76.54.32)                                                   
Note that if you have them in your /etc/hosts, you might use symbolic names
instead of numerical IP addresses (and you might even use FQDN's, if you
trust the DNS never to fail).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Reverse piercing

7.1. Rationale

Sometimes, only one side of the firewall can launch telnet sessions into the
other side; however, some means of communication is possible (typically,
through e-mail). Piercing the firewall is still possible, by triggering with
whatever messaging capability is available a telnet connection from the
``right'' side of the firewall to the other.

fwprc includes code to trigger such connections from an OpenPGP-authentified
email message; all you need is add fwprc as a procmail filter to messages
using the protocol, (instructions included in fwprc itself). Note however,
that if you are to launch pppd with appropriate privileges, you might need
create your own suid wrapper to become root. Instructions enclosed in fwprc.

Also, authentified trigger does not remotely mean secure connection. You
should really use ssh (perhaps over telnet) for secure connections. And then,
beware of what happens between the triggering of a telnet connection, and ssh
taking over that connection. Contribution in that direction welcome.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Getting the trigger message

If you are firewalled, your mail may as well be in a central mailserver that
doesn't do procmail filtering or allow telnet sessions. No problem! You can
run fetchmail in daemon mode (or within a cron job) to poll your mailserver
and deliver mail to your linux system which itself will have been configured
to use procmail at delivery. Note that if you run fetchmail as a background
daemon, it will lock away any other fetchmail that you'd like to run only at
other times, like when you open a fwprc; of course, if you can also run a
fetchmail daemon as a fake user. Too frequent a poll won't be nice to either
the mailserver or your host. Too infrequent a poll means you'll have to wait
before the message gets read and the reverse connection gets established. I
use two-minute poll frequency.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Other automated tools for reverse piercing

Another way to poll for messages, when you don't have a mailbox, but do have
outbound FTP access, is to use [http://dhirajbhuyan.hypermart.net/
ftp-tunnel.html] FTP tunnel.

A tool to maintain a permanent connection between a firewalled host and an
external proxy, so as to export services from the host to the world, is
[http://www.employees.org/~hek2000/projects/firewallTunnel/] firewall tunnel.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Final notes

8.1. Other settings

I have no idea how to pierce firewalls with lesser operating systems, but you
can take one of these old disused computers (about anything with 8MB of RAM
and an ethernet card should do), install Linux or BSD as on it, and pierce
the firewall with it, while serving as a router for other machines running
lesser OSes. See appropriate HOWTOs about routing, IP forwarding, NAT, etc.

I don't know the details, but a promising tool to pierce firewalls is Chris
Mason's [http://www.r00t3d.org.uk/] Bouncer, which acts as a
SOCKS-proxy-over-SSL.

There are other kinds of firewalls than those that allow for direct ssh or
telnet connections. As long as a continuous flow of packets may transmit
information through a firewall in both directions, it is possible to pierce
it; only the price of writing the piercer may be higher or lower.

In a very easy case, we saw that you can just launch ssh over a pty master
and do some pppd in the slave tty. You may even want to do it without an
adverse firewall, just so as to build a secure ``VPN'' (Virtual Private
Network). The [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/VPN.html] VPN mini-HOWTO
gives all the details you need about this. We invite you, as an exercise, to
modify fwprc so as to use this technique, or perhaps even so as to use it
inside a previous non-secure fwprc session.

Now, if the only way through the firewall is a WWW proxy (usually, a minimum
for an Internet-connected network), you might want to use [http://
www.snurgle.org/~griffon/] Chris Chiappa's script [http://www.snurgle.org/
~griffon/ssh-https-tunnel] ssh-https-tunnel.

Another promising program for piercing through HTTP is [http://
lars.nocrew.org/] Lars Brinkoff's [http://www.nocrew.org/software/httptunnel
/] httptunnel, a http server and client combination that achieves a TCP/IP
tunnel connection through the proxy-friendly HTTP protocol. You should then
be able to run fwprc (preferably over ssh) over that connection, although I
haven't tried it yet. Could anyone test and report? Note that httptunnel is
still under development, so you may help implement the features it currently
lacks, like, having multiple connections, and/or serving fake pages so as to
mislead suspicious adverse firewall administrators.

Whatever goes through your firewall, be it telnet, HTTP or other TCP/IP
connections, or something real weird like DNS queries, ICMP packets, e-mail
(see [http://www.detached.net/mailtunnel/] mailtunnel, [http://
www.detached.net/icmptunnel/] icmptunnel), or whatelse, you can always write
a tunnel client/server combination, and run a ssh and/or PPP connection
through it. The performance mightn't be high, depending on the effective
information communication rate after paying the overhead for coding around
filters and proxies; but such a tunnel is still interesting as long as it's
good enough to use fetchmail, suck, and other non-interactive programs.

If you need cross a 7-bit line, you'll want to use SLIP instead of PPP. I
never tried, because lines are more or less 8-bit clean these days, but it
shouldn't be difficult. If necessary, fall back to using the [http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Term-Firewall.html] Term-Firewall mini-HOWTO.

If you have an 8-bit clean connection and you're root on linux both sides of
the firewall, you might want to use ethertap for better performance,
encapsulating raw ethernet communications on top of your connection. David
Madore has written ethertap-over-TCP and ethertap-over-UDP tunneling [ftp://
quatramaran.ens.fr/pub/madore/misc/] ftp://quatramaran.ens.fr/pub/madore/misc
/. There remains to write some ethertap-over-tty to combine with fwprc-like
tools.

If you really need more performance than you can get while paying for a
user-space sequential communication tunnel through which to run PPP, then
you're in the very hard case where you might have to re-hack a weird IP
stack, using (for instance) the Fox project's packet-protocol functors.
You'll then achieve some direct IP-over-HTTP, IP-over-DNS, IP-over-ICMP, or
such, which requires not only an elaborate protocol, but also an interface to
an OS kernel, both of which are costly to implement.

Finally, if you're not fighting against an adverse firewall, but just
building your own VPN, there is a large offer of VPN tools, and although the
tricks I present are simple, work well, and might be enough for your needs,
it could be a good idea to look at this evolving offer (that I do not know
much about) for a solution that fits your requirements of performance and
maintainability.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2. HOWTO maintenance

I felt it was necessary to write it, but I don't have that much time for
that, so this mini-HOWTO is very rough. Thus will it stay, until I get enough
feedback so as to know what sections to enhance, or better, until someone
comes and takes over maintenance for the mini-HOWTO. Feedback welcome. Help
welcome. mini-HOWTO maintenance take-over welcome.

In any case, the above sections have shown many problems whose solution is
just a matter of someone (you?) spending some time (or money, by hiring
someone else) to sit down and write it: nothing conceptually complicated,
though the details might be burdensome or tricky.

Do not hesitate to contribute more problems, and hopefully more solutions, to
this mini-HOWTO.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.3. Related Documents

The [http://www.linuxdoc.org/] LDP publishes many documents related to this
[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX/mini.html] mini-HOWTO. most
notably the [http://www.securityportal.com/lskb/] Linux Security Knowledge
Base, the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/VPN.html] VPN HOWTO and the [http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/VPN.html] VPN mini-HOWTO. For more general
questions about networking, routing and firewalling, start from the [http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Networking-Overview-HOWTO.html] Networking Overview
HOWTO. See also the [http://www.linux-firewall-tools.com/linux/] Linux
Firewall and Security site.

Then again, when facing a problem with some program, one reflex for any Linux
user should be to [http://foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/foldoc.cgi?RTFM] RTFM:
Read The Fscking Manual pages for the considered programs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.4. Final Word

I've come to the conclusion that much like the need for Design Patterns came
directly from the fact that people were using inferior languages like C++ or 
Java that don't allow to directly express higher-level programming constructs
(whereas good languages such as LISP allow to express them), the need HOWTOs
comes directly from the fact that Linux and UNIX systems are inferior
operating systems that do not allow to directly express those simple tasks
that people attempt to do with them.

If you think that all this mucking around with stupid scripts and silly
HOWTOs is overly complicated and that a decent computer system ought to
automate it all for you, then welcome with me among [http://
www.research.microsoft.com/~daniel/preface.html] UNIX haters and other people
who hate current low-level operating systems, and yearn for declarative
computing systems that take care of the silly details and let us focus on
things that matter. (Maybe have a peek at my own [http://tunes.org/] TUNES
project).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.5. Extra copy of IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER --- BELIEVE IT!!!

"I hereby disclaim all responsibility for your use of this hack. If it
backfires on you in any way whatsoever, that's the breaks. Not my fault. If
you don't understand the risks inherent in doing this, don't do it. If you
use this hack and it allows vicious vandals to break into your company's
computers and costs you your job and your company millions of dollars, well
that's just tough nuggies. Don't come crying to me."





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