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USB Flash Memory HOWTO

Niko Sauer

Unit of Advanced Study
University of Pretoria, South Africa


�����������< nikos@friedrichs.up.ac.za>
�������
Revision History                                                             
Revision 0.06            2004-03-10           Revised by: ns                 
Added section on Linux-2.6.                                                  
Revision 0.05            2003-12-26           Revised by: ejh                
Technical review.                                                            
Revision 0.04            2003-12-11           Revised by: ns                 
Revision 0.03            2003-12-02           Revised by: ejh                
Technical review.                                                            
Revision 0.02            2003-10-30           Revised by: ns                 
Changed 2003-11-20                                                           


  This document describes procedures for installing USB Flash Memory devices
and the way of formatting them for various file systems such as vfat (the way
they usually come) and ext2 (the way they fit in better with Linux). It is
also described how to partition the device in two sections with different
file types.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Purpose
2. Physical devices
3. Buying a memory stick
4. Reading
5. Hardware and kernel
    5.1. Setup
    5.2. Kernel options
    5.3. Notes
   
   
6. Some basic concepts
    6.1. The /proc filesystem
    6.2. SCSI devices
    6.3. The USB device filesystem
    6.4. The ext2 filesystem
    6.5. The vfat filesystem
    6.6. Explanation of command options
   
   
7. Basic verifications
    7.1. A quick check
    7.2. Probing the /proc filesystem
    7.3. Mounting the USB filesystem
    7.4. Tests -- vfat
   
   
8. Setting up an Ext2 filesystem
    8.1. Partitioning
    8.2. Making an ext2 device
    8.3. Tests -- ext2
   
   
9. Setting up a dual partition
    9.1. Partitioning
    9.2. Making a dual ext2/vfat system
    9.3. Tests -- ext2 and vfat
    9.4. Configuring Linux for the dual partition
   
   
10. Making the memory stick accessible to users
11. Maintenance
    11.1. Filesystem inspection
    11.2. And then?
   
   
12. The Linux-2.6 kernel
    12.1. What is new?
    12.2. Kernel options
    12.3. Notes
    12.4. Hotplugging and Naming
   
   
13. Formalities
    13.1. Copyright Information
    13.2. Disclaimer
    13.3. Credits
    13.4. Feedback
   
   

1. Purpose

  The purpose of this document is to describe procedures for implementing USB
flash memory devices (memory sticks) on Linux. This entails the following:

��*�  making over-the-counter devices, pre-formatted for the MS Windows
    system, work on Linux;
   
��*�  formatting the device in the ext2 filesystem on a single partition and
    making it work. This is intended for situations where the device will be
    used exclusively on Linux machines;
   
��*�  formatting the device on a dual partition in the ext2 and vfat
    filesystems and making it work. The purpose of this is for situations
    where Linux + Linux and Linux + Windows are possible;
   
��*�  making the device more user friendly;
   
��*�  maintaining the filesystem of the device;
   
��*�  using additional features of Linux-2.6.x.
   

  The procedures described in this document should work on any USB memory
stick device which can be operated as a read-write device. Read-only devices
do not fall in this category. The procedures will not work if the write
facility of the device is disabled (i.e. if the write protect switch is on).

  The procedures described for formatting and maintenance in particular
filesystems may (in principle) be adapted for other filesystems such as ext3
and reiserfs. These have not been tried and tested. Neither has any attention
been paid to adaptation of the procedures to other related operating systems.

Warning It may be dangerous to re-format the flash memory intended for a     
        digital camera. The camera may then be unable to understand it. Use  
        the camera's built-in menu system to do this reformatting for you.   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Physical devices

  Flash memory devices come mainly in the form of small, portable devices
often referred to as memory sticks or keychains, and as part of digital
cameras. They are non-volatile devices which operate on the principle that
electric charges are used to represent data in binary format. These charges
can remain unchanged almost indefinitely, but changes (such as writing to the
device) limit the life span of the device (100000 writes of 8MB each).

Memory sticks plug directly into a USB-port at the back of your computer. The
power it needs is supplied by the USB-port. It is sometimes convenient to use
a USB-extension cable to bring the device within easy reach.

  Memory sticks usually have write protect switches which should be turned
off if you want to use it as read-write device. If the switch is in the "on"
position, the device is read-only. The devices are usually equipped with a
led (light emitting diode), which indicates that the device is operational.
The led also flickers while data is being transferred to or from the device.

  Digital cameras use flash memory for image storage. These are powered by
the camera and connected to the computer's USB-port via an electronic
interface. To be able to connect to the computer, the camera's power must be
turned on for the duration of the interfacing, and should only be turned off
after the device had been unmounted from the computer. It is important to
remember that the device takes power from the camera's battery. The operation
should therefore be terminated as soon as possible.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Buying a memory stick

  Important considerations when buying a memory stick are the following:

The size of the memory
      This will depend on whatever use you have in mind. 128MB seems to be a
    popular choice.
   
Is it known to work on Linux?
      The established brands have web sites in which this may be stated
    explicitly. Alternatively, ask the supplier. But beware: the sales person
    may not know what you are talking about. The instruction leaflet may also
    mention something like: Works on Linux-2.4, or may have a picture of the
    Linux penguin. If these inquiries fail, it may be wise not to buy.
   
Extension cable and keychain
      Memory sticks usually are packaged with an extension cable (Section 2)
    and a keychain. The latter provides a safe and with-it way of
    transporting the device. Make sure that these are included. You may need
    an additional extension cable, depending on circumstances. Laptop and
    notebook computers usually don't need them.
   
File system
      Over-the-counter memory sticks are usually formatted in vfat (msdos),
    and this will work in Linux, but you will not have the strength and
    versatility of the standard ext2 (or other) file system. This is not a
    problem. It can be endowed with other file systems as will be described
    later in this document.
   
Cost
      Prices of memory sticks of a given size may vary considerably. It is a
    good idea to find out what that range is. The internet is excellent for
    the purpose.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Reading

Users of this document might want to acquaint themselves with the following: 
[1]

��*�  Manual pages of the following tools: mount, umount, fdisk, mke2fs, 
    mkdosfs, dumpe2fs> and fsck.ext2.
��*�    Linux documentation project
��*�    USB-Digital Camera HOWTO *
��*�  The Linux Partition HOWTO *
��*�    The Linux 2.4 SCSI subsystem HOWTO
��*�    The Linux Kernel HOWTO
��*�    The Linux USB subsystem *
��*�    Linux filesystem hierarchy
��*�    The Linux Kernel
��*�  Linux Kernel 2.4.xx/Documentation (should be in /usr/src/linux/
    Documentation )

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Hardware and kernel

5.1. Setup

  This is a description of the salient features of the setup used to develop
the procedures described below. All the procedures have been tried and
tested, also for Linux-2.6. The screen-like displays are precise copies of
what appeared on my screen.

��*�  Hardware: Intel (R) Celeron (TM) 1100 MHz
��*�  Distribution: RedHat Linux 7.0 (extensively modified)
��*�  Kernel: Linux-2.4.20 (from www.kernel.org). See also Section 12 for
    Linux-2.6.x.
��*�  Tools: util-linux-2.11z (mount, umount, fdisk); e2fsprogs-1.32 (mke2fs,
    dumpe2fs, fsck.ext2); mkdosfs-2.2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2. Kernel options

  It is uncertain if USB-support is sufficient in kernels earlier than
2.4.xx. The following support, relevant to this document, was compiled into
the kernel. A modular approach may also be followed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.1. SCSI support

��*�SCSI support (CONFIG_SCSI scsi_mod.o)
��*�SCSI disk support (CONFIG_BLK_DEV_SD sd_mod.o)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2.2. File systems

��*�DOS FAT fs support (CONFIG_FAT_FS fat.o)
��*�MSDOS fs support (CONFIG_MSDOS_FS msdos.o)
��*�VFAT (Windows 95) fs support (CONFIG_VFAT_FS vfat.o)
��*�/proc filesystem (CONFIG_PROC_FS)
��*�Second extended fs support (ext2fs) (CONFIG_EXT2_FS ext2.o)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2.3. USB support

��*�Support for USB (CONFIG_USB usbcore.o)
��*�Preliminary USB device filesystem (CONFIG_USB_DEVICEFS)
��*�USB Mass Storage support (CONFIG_USB_STORAGE usb-storage.o)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.3. Notes

  In the lists above the entities in uppercase refer to the variable names to
be found in the .config file in the upper level directory of the kernel
source (/usr/src/linux/). The entities xxx.o refer to the modules created
when a modular approach is followed. When there is no reference to a module,
the option can only be hard-compiled into the kernel.

  Different kernel versions may have different indications of options when,
for example, make menuconfig or make xconfig are run. Variables such as
CONFIG_USB, which can be gleaned from the various   help options, may be a
more reliable indication.

  Very recent Linux distributions such as RedHat and SuSE probably have the
appropriate kernel options compiled in.

  Under USB-support, options for a number of digital cameras are available.

  Please consult the relevant texts as set out in Section 4 if you consider
(re)compiling your kernel.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Some basic concepts

  In this section we discuss in a very brief manner, some basic Linux
concepts which should contribute to an understanding of the procedures
described below.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. The /proc filesystem

  The /proc filesystem serves as a window through which we can see the
workings of a Linux setup. The objects of most interest for this document are
the directories/proc/bus/usb/ and /proc/scsi/. These will be used to verify
that the kernel had been set up properly for our purpose (Section 7.2).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. SCSI devices

  Your memory stick will be considered as a USB mass storage device posing as
a removable SCSI disk (sd). SCSI disk devices are mapped to the /dev
(devices) directory under   /dev/sda ,   /dev/sdb , ... When different disk
devices are present, they will be mapped to /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, etc. If, for
example, a memory stick and a digital camera are plugged in, the one would be
mapped to /dev/sda and the other to /dev/sdb. Tests have indicated that the
first device to be detected is mapped to sda and represented in the directory
/proc/scsi/usb-storage-0. The second will be mapped to sdb and represented in
/proc/scsi/usb-storage-0. What will happen when both devices are present at
boot-up, is not known. An overview of the partitions relevant to this
document, the file /proc/partitions may be consulted. Look for entries like
sda, sda1, sdb. Under the Linux-2.6 series of kernels this problem may be
very neatly resolved (Section 12).

  In the descriptions further on, it will be assumed that only one memory
stick is present, and therefore mapped to /dev/sda.

  In most distributions these points exist in abundance. You should check
that this is the case in your setup (ls /dev/sda*. If there are none you can
create them by doing (as root, indicated by the hash).
             # mknod /dev/sda  b 8 0                                         
             # mknod /dev/sda1 b 8 1                                         
             # mknod /dev/sda2 b 8 2                                         
                                                                             

  etc, up to /dev/sda15 if necessary. The device as a whole is mapped to /dev
/sda, while /dev/sdax (x = 1 ... 15) represent the various partitions of the
device. We shall describe, later on, how to create different partitions for
different file systems (see Section 8 and Section 9 ). If you intend to use
your memory stick with a single partition (filesystem), /dev/sda1 is
sufficient.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3. The USB device filesystem

  This dynamically generated filesystem should be mounted at /proc/bus/usb/.
It is therefore essential that this mount point exists. Once it is mounted,
there should be more to be seen in /proc/bus/usb/ and in /proc/scsi/ (Section
7.3). To find out which USB devices are present, read the file /proc/bus/usb/
devices ( less /proc/bus/usb/devices). It takes a small effort to interpret
the writing on the screen, but it is not difficult. A memory stick is
indicated by Mass Storage Device.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.4. The ext2 filesystem

  The ext2 (second extended) filesystem still is the most prevalent in Linux
setups. It is most versatile and sophisticated, carrying with it permissions
(read-write-execute, who is permitted to do what), ownership (user, group,
others), a timestamp (when last modified), etc. Moreover, tools for the
proper maintenance of a device endowed with ext2, exist (Section 11). If a
flash memory device is to be used exclusively within Linux setups, it is
therefore desirable to format it in ext2 (see Section 8).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.5. The vfat filesystem

  Enabling vfat in the kernel makes it possible to mount filesystems created
under Dos/Windows to be mounted in a Linux system. Most memory sticks are
formatted for direct use on Windows and should therefore be considered as
vfat-formatted. The vfat filesystem is less sophisticated than ext2 and will
therefore be more economic as far as memory space is concerned. It does not
carry permissions in the same way as ext2 with the result that an ext2-file
saved in vfat will re-appear with its permissions changed. Nonetheless, if a
memory stick is to be used for the purpose of carrying data between Linux and
Windows machines, it is best to keep it in the vfat format. A compromise is
to partition the memory stick in two parts: one in vfat and the other in
ext2. At least the Linux machine should be able to handle both. This is
described in Section 9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.6. Explanation of command options

  Here is a short list of command options that occur in this document:

��*�mount -t ext2 /dev/sda1 /mnt/memstick Mount in filetype ext2, device sda1
    at mountpoint /mnt/memstick
��*�ls -l Make a complete list (modes, ownerships, etc.)
��*�mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sda1 Create an ms-dos filesystem, FAT-size 32, on the
    partition /dev/sda1
��*�ln -s /dev/sda1 /dev/flash link, symbolically, the existing /dev/sda1 to
    the symbolic /dev/flash
��*�mkdir -m 777 /mnt/memstick/superdir create a new directory with mode rwx
    for user, group and others
��*�dumpe2fs -h /dev/sda1 Show the header of the ext2 partition /dev/sda1

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Basic verifications

Important In order to make sure that the device you look at and write on is  
          the one intended, it is best to remove similar devices from the    
          USB-bus before starting these procedures.                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1. A quick check

  It is possible that your system is already set up for handling a USB-flash
memory device. To check this, simply issue the command $ mount from an
X-terminal. If something like
           none on /proc/bus/usb type usbfs (rw)                             
                                                                             

  appears among the output, you are ready to go to Section 7.4 and proceed
from there. It may be virtuous, however, to glance through the intervening
sections. If the test is unsuccessful, all is not lost. Please read on.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Probing the /proc filesystem

  A few things in the /proc directory can be checked so see if the kernel
options have been properly included or the appropriate modules properly
inserted. As a first check, see if the directory /proc/bus/usb exists. If it
does, your kernel supports the USB-subsystem correctly. If this is not the
case the kernel has to be re-compiled with appropriate USB support (see 
Section 5.2.3) or the kernel has to be updated. Next, check if the directory
/proc/scsi exists. If it does, you're well-away. If it doesn't, SCSI support
has not been compiled into your kernel (see Section 5.2.1).

  In /proc there should be provision for a mount point for the USB
filesystem. That point is /proc/bus/usb. If it exists, the kernel is
correctly set up.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Mounting the USB filesystem

  If the verifications of the previous sections were positive, the next step
is to mount the USB filesystem. This is issued from root as follows:
             # mount -t usbfs none /proc/bus/usb                             
                                                                             

Note In older kernel versions the mount command above may have to be changed 
     by replacing usbfs with usbdevfs. In Linux-2.4.20 both forms work.      

  If there are no complaints, do some more tests. The first is the quick test
(Section 7.1). A deeper probe would be to issue the command # ls -l /proc/bus
/usb . This should give something similar to
             dr-xr-xr-x 1 root root 0  Sep 19  14:21  001                    
             dr-xr-xr-x 1 root root 0  Sep 19  14:21  002                    
             -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0  Sep 19  22:30  devices                
             -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0  Sep 19  22:30  drivers                
                                                                             

  The path   /proc/scsi/usb-storage-0/ should now exist and one of the files
at the end will show this. In my setup the command $ less /proc/scsi/
usb-storage-0/1 gives
                Host scsi1: usb-storage                                      
                    Vendor: Generic                                          
                   Product: Mass Storage Device                              
             Serial Number: None                                             
                  Protocol: Transparent SCSI                                 
                 Transport: Bulk                                             
                      GUID: 0ed166800000000000000000                         
                  Attached: Yes/No                                           
                                                                             

  If the flashdrive is present, the last line will have the entry "Yes". If
it is not plugged in, the entry will be "No".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4. Tests -- vfat

You are now ready to find out if the memory stick is working. Let us suppose
that you bought it over the counter. Its instruction leaflet will most likely
tell you how to set it up for Windows. That is an indication that it is
formatted in vfat. Before you try to mount it, create a mount point for it.
Do something like # mkdir -m 777 /mnt/memstick. The mounting command would
most likely be
    # mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /mnt/memstick                                  
                                                                             

If everything went smoothly, you should be able to see the device: # ls /mnt/
memstick.

Now try some standard things like making a directory on the device and
copying a favourite text file to it:
             # mkdir /mnt/memstick/apollo                                    
             # cp /home/myname/myfavourite_file /mnt/memstick/apollo/.       
                                                                             

List again (# ls -l /mnt/memstick ) and pay attention to the permissions.

Unmount the device (# umount /dev/sda1 ) and mount it again as above. List
again and check the permissions. Most likely your favourite text file will
now have an x-permission. It became executable. That is normal in the vfat
filesystem. If you are happy with that, unmount the device and skip to 
Section 10 .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Setting up an Ext2 filesystem

  The procedures described here will give the entire flash memory device a
single partition endowed with the ext2 filesystem. This will make the device
more suitable for use between Linux machines. Don't do this if the device is
supposed to operate between Linux and Windows machines.

Important The device associated with /dev/sda will be re-formatted. Any data 
          present on it will be destroyed. To make sure that the device you  
          work with is the one intended, remove similar devices from the     
          USB-bus before starting these procedures.                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1. Partitioning

  It is assumed that the flash memory is mapped to   /dev/sda. In this
section we treat the situation where the whole flash memory device will
become devoted to a single ext2 partition. In the example procedure shown
below, a 128MB flash memory was formatted for ext2. That is why figures like
131MB and 888 cylinders appear. The fdisk tool, which is used, simply reads
that from the device.

All operations are done by root. The single partition will be created on /dev
/sda (please note: not   /dev/sda1 ) The procedure is described in a series
of steps with comments. The standard prompt of fdisk is Command (m for help):
and you can, at any stage enter m to see the available commands. If you do
that the result would be
             Command   action                                                
                a      toggle a bootable flag                                
                b      edit bsd disklabel                                    
                c      toggle the dos compatibility flag                     
                d      delete a partition                                    
                l      list known partition types                            
                m      print this menu                                       
                n      add a new partition                                   
                o      create a new empty DOS partition table                
                p      print the partition table                             
                q      quit without saving changes                           
                s      create a new empty Sun disklabel                      
                t      change a partition's system id                        
                u      change display/entry units                            
                v      verify the partition table                            
                w      write table to disk and exit                          
                x      extra functionality (experts only)                    
                                                                             

  Your memory stick must be plugged in, but not mounted. Take care that write
protect is off.

Here goes:
             # fdisk /dev/sda                                                
             Command (m for help):d {enter }                                 
             Selected partition 1                                            
             Command (m for help):n {enter}                                  
             Command action                                                  
                e  extended                                                  
                p  primary partition (1-4)                                   
             p {enter}                                                       
             Partition number (1-4):1 {enter}                                
             First cylinder (1-888, default 1): {press enter}                
             Using default value 1                                           
             Last cylinder ... (1-888, default 888): {press enter}           
             Using default value 888                                         
                                                                             

Now is a good time to verify that all went well by printing out the partition
details and table.
             Command (m for help): p                                         
             Disk /dev/sda: 131 MB, 131072000 bytes                          
             9 heads, 32 sectors/track, 888 cylinders                        
             Units = cylinders of 288 * 512 = 147456 bytes                   
                                                                             
             Device     Boot Start End Blocks Id System                      
                                                                             
             /dev/sda1         1   888 127856 83 Linux                       
                                                                             

  Make sure that the partition is not set up as bootable. There should not be
an asterisk under the heading "Boot" in the partition table. Furthermore, the
headings "Id" and "System" should be as they are in the printout shown above.
That indicates that you can format the device in ext2 (next section). These
are the defaults. If they are not, they can be changed by
             Command (m for help): a [toggle a bootable flag]                
             Command (m for help): t [change a partition's system id]        
                                                                             

If (or when) the partition table is correct, you can conclude the procedure
with
             Command (m for help): w [write table to disk and exit]          
                                                                             

That's it!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2. Making an ext2 device

Having completed the partition part, we go straight on to "formatting" the
device in ext2. For this we use the tool mke2fs. This is straightforward.
             # mke2fs /dev/sda1                                              
                                                                             

  You might like to watch the led on your memory stick flicker while this is
happening. When it stops, the job is done.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.3. Tests -- ext2

To see if you were successful, essentially repeat the procedures described in
Section 7.3 and Section 7.4 with two exceptions of detail. In the first place
the mount command should be
             # mount -t ext2 /dev/sda1 /mnt/memstick                         
                                                                             

The second exception is that the permissions on your favourite text file
should not change anymore.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Setting up a dual partition

9.1. Partitioning

  The procedures described here will partition the flash memory device in two
pieces -- one of the partitions will be formatted in ext2 and the other in
vfat. This may be handy when the device is to be used to transport data
between two (or more) Linux machines (ext2) and between Linux and Windows
machines (vfat)

Important The device mapped to /dev/sda will be re-formatted. Any data       
          present on it will be destroyed. To make sure that the device you  
          work with is the one intended, remove similar devices from the     
          USB-bus before starting these procedures.                          

In this section we describe how to set up a dual partition for the memory
stick: One half of the device will be devoted to the vfat filesystem, and the
other will be ext2. In this way your device will be more versatile, but also
a little shattered. The procedure will be given in somewhat less detailed
than in Section 8.1 . Note that the procedure of the previous section is
repeated and that the hex code for each file type is explicitly entered
(lines following the entry "t": Win95 = b; Linux = 83). When the partition
will only be for Linux, this is unnecessary -- Linux is the default. Also
note that the vfat partition goes on first -- that is the way Windows would
have it.
             # fdisk /dev/sda                                                         
                                                                                      
             Command (m for help): d                                                  
             Selected partition 1                                                     
                                                                                      
             Command (m for help): n                                                  
             Command action                                                           
                e   extended                                                          
                p   primary partition (1-4)                                           
             p                                                                        
             Partition number (1-4): 1                                                
             First cylinder (1-888, default 1):                                       
             Using default value 1                                                    
             Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-888,                       
                   default 888):444                                                   
             Command (m for help): t                                                  
             Selected partition 1                                                     
             Hex code (type L to list codes): b                                       
                                                                                      
              Changed system type of partition 1 to b (Win95 FAT32)                   
                                                                                      
             Command (m for help): n                                                  
             Command action                                                           
                e   extended                                                          
                p   primary partition (1-4)                                           
             p                                                                        
             Partition number (1-4): 2                                                
             First cylinder (445-888, default 445):                                   
             Using default value 445                                                  
                                                                                      
              Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (445-888,                    
              default 888):                                                           
                                                                                      
             Using default value 888                                                  
                                                                                      
             Command (m for help): t                                                  
             Partition number (1-4): 2                                                
             Hex code (type L to list codes): 83                                      
                                                                                      
             Command (m for help): p                                                  
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
                                 Disk /dev/sda: 131 MB, 131072000 bytes               
             9 heads, 32 sectors/track, 888 cylinders                                 
             Units = cylinders of 288 * 512 = 147456 bytes                            
                                                                                      
                Device Boot    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System                 
             /dev/sda1             1       444     63920    b  Win95 FAT32            
             /dev/sda2           445       888     63936   83  Linux                  
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
             Command (m for help):w                                                   
                                                                                      
                                                                                      

Note Note that we went on with the second partition before writing.          

  The choice of splitting the device right in the middle (1--444; 445--888
for a 128 MB memory stick) is arbitrary. Any other well-conceived splitting
would be fine.

  If you had more than one partition to begin with, the "delete" part of the
procedure would have to be repeated.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2. Making a dual ext2/vfat system

This step is a repetition of Section 8.2. The first step makes the dos
partition, the second makes the Linux ext2 partition.
             # mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sda1                                       
             # mke2fs /dev/sda2                                              
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.3. Tests -- ext2 and vfat

Simply carry out the tests of Section 7.4 and Section 8.3 on the two devices
separately. The mount commands would be
             # mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /mnt/fatstick                         
             # mount -t ext2 /dev/sda2 /mnt/memstick                         
                                                                             

  to mount both partitions on your device.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.4. Configuring Linux for the dual partition

  The Linux machine you did the partitioning on, will be configured for the
dual partition. Evidently you need to carry the keychain to another Linux
machine. There you will find that it only sees /dev/sda1. This is, perhaps, a
shortcoming of the kernel. The workaround is as follows: On the new host
machine do (keychain plugged in but not mounted)
             # fdisk /dev/sda                                                
                   Choose p; check partition table                           
                   If satisfied, choose w                                    
             # less /proc/partitions                                         
                                                                             

  Your device with its partitions should be there. Data on your keychain
should be untouched. For a single partition this is not necessary.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. Making the memory stick accessible to users

What we have described so far, are simply the procedures of setting up the
system and formatting memory sticks. We have to make the mounting of the USB
filesystem more permanent, and we have to make mounting of such a device
easier for non-root users. There are only a few things to be done.

  The procedure described below is for the more complex situation of a memory
stick with a dual partition (Section 9). If the partition is a single ext2,
the procedure should be simplified by leaving out the line referring to the
vfat part and changing sda2 to sda1.

Suppose that the mount points /mnt/memstick and /mnt/fatstick have been
created. You do not have to use those words and they don't even have to be
sub-directories of /mnt

To make remembering easier, create the following symbolic links:
                                                                             
             # ln -s /dev/sda1 /dev/fatflash                                 
             # ln -s /dev/sda2 /dev/flash                                    
                                                                             

For smoother and easier mounting add the following lines to /etc/fstab : (
See NOTE at the end of Section 7.3 )
             none          /proc/bus/usb usbfs       defaults       0 0      
             /dev/flash    /mnt/memstick ext2,vfat   rw,user,noauto 0 0      
             /dev/fatflash /mnt/fatstick vfat        rw,user,noauto 0 0      
                                                                             

The middle line enables mounting either in ext2 or vfat. The last two lines
make it possible for any user to mount the device by the command
             $ mount /dev/flash  [for ext2 or vfat]                          
             $ mount /dev/fatflash  [for vfat]                               
                                                                             

It is possible to mount both partitions simultaneously. See Section 9.

In the case of an ext2-formatted device it does not seem possible for a user
(other than root) to mount in read-write mode. The solution is to create a
directory on the memory stick owned by the particular user with complete
permissions. Root should do that:
             # mount /dev/flash                                              
             # mkdir -m 777 /mnt/memstick/superdir                           
             # chown charles:charles /mnt/memstick/superdir                  
                                                                             

  If the device is in the vfat format, this step is unnecessary.

In conclusion, here is a small script I use to mount and unmount my (ext2)
flash drive:
             #!/bin/bash                                                          
             EXCODE="keepit"                                                      
             green='\033[0;32m'                                                   
             yellow='\033[0;33m'                                                  
             ## ___________________________                                       
             ## Function to echo in colours                                       
             echo_in_color ()                                                     
             {                                                                    
                  message=$2                                                      
                  message1=$4                                                     
                  color=$1                                                        
                  color1=$3                                                       
                  echo -e -n $color                                               
                      echo -n $message                                            
                  echo -e -n $color1 " "                                          
                  echo  -n $message1 " "                                          
                  tput sgr0                                                       
                  return                                                          
             }                                                                    
             ## ___________________________                                       
             clear                                                                
             mount /dev/flash                                                     
             echo_in_color $green "Flash drive mounted"                           
             sleep 2                                                              
             while [ $EXCODE != "flexit" ]                                        
                  do                                                              
                     clear                                                        
                     echo_in_color $yellow "Enter [flexit] to unmount and exit:"  
                     read EXCODE                                                  
                  done                                                            
             umount /dev/flash                                                    
             exit                                                                 
                                                                                  

I call this from an FVWM menu by Exec exec xterm -geometry 43x2+1250+0 -e /
home/nikos/bin/flashdrive which places it on a tiny x-term in one corner of
the screen. The horizontal displacement of 1250 may have to be modified
according to the horizontal resolution of your screen.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11. Maintenance

11.1. Filesystem inspection

  It is a virtuous habit to inspect your ext2 filesystem on the flash memory
regularly. To do this, the tool dumpe2fs may be used in the following way: # 
dumpe2fs -h /dev/sda1 (you must be root and the device should not be
mounted). The result should be similar to the following:
             Filesystem volume name:   <none>                                
             Last mounted on:          <not available>                       
             Filesystem UUID:          c42a6963-5e6a-4cd2-b7d7-c8f09dca6c52  
             Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53                                
             Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)                           
             Filesystem features:      dir_index filetype sparse_super       
             Default mount options:    (none)                                
             Filesystem state:         clean                                 
             Errors behavior:          Continue                              
             Filesystem OS type:       Linux                                 
             Inode count:              32000                                 
             Block count:              127856                                
             Reserved block count:     6392                                  
             Free blocks:              116456                                
             Free inodes:              31922                                 
             First block:              1                                     
             Block size:               1024                                  
             Fragment size:            1024                                  
             Blocks per group:         8192                                  
             Fragments per group:      8192                                  
             Inodes per group:         2000                                  
             Inode blocks per group:   250                                   
             Filesystem created:       Sat Sep 20 12:43:00 2003              
             Last mount time:          Tue Oct 28 14:13:03 2003              
             Last write time:          Tue Oct 28 14:28:27 2003              
             Mount count:              13                                    
             Maximum mount count:      35                                    
             Last checked:             Sat Oct 18 11:28:26 2003              
             Check interval:           15552000 (6 months)                   
             Next check after:         Thu Apr 15 11:28:26 2004              
             Reserved blocks uid:      0 (user root)                         
             Reserved blocks gid:      0 (group root)                        
             First inode:              11                                    
             Inode size:               128                                   
             Default directory hash:   tea                                   
             Directory Hash Seed:      118bee0a-efa5-4771-967e-41a0badd0355  
                                                                             

  A few important aspects need to be pointed out.

��*�  When the ext2 filesystem is created, it is by default given maximal
    usage before it has to be checked. These can be seen Maximum mount count 
    (35) and Check interval (expiry date).
   
��*�  The usage so far: Mount count and Last checked .
   
��*�  The existence of corrupted files (bad blocks): Filesystem state .
   

  You might get warnings about these things when you mount the device or when
you try the read files from the device.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.2. And then?

  When the usage allocation has been spent, or there is evidence of file
corruption, the thing to do is to run # fsck.ext2 /dev/sda1 with the device
unmounted. After that, usage parameters will be freshly allocated and bad
blocks will be gone.

Note When dealing with the vfat system, the dump does not seem to exist. The 
     command # dumpe2fs -f /dev/sda1 for filesystems other than ext2 does not
     work for vfat. The tool dosfsck exists (it is still Alpha), and may be  
     risky to use on a device you have not formatted yourself.               
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. The Linux-2.6 kernel

12.1. What is new?

Setting up your system as described above for the Linux-2.4.x kernels will be
perfectly good, but with the Linux-2.6.x kernels (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 at the time
of this writing) much more is possible:

��*�  USB Hotplugging of devices has been improved immensely. This means that
    it has become possible to attach and remove a device from the USB port
    with full cognisance of the system. If a device is attached, it will show
    in the /proc filesystem. Once it is removed, it will not show anymore.
   
��*�  The sysfs system has been introduced. By using this facility, a very
    tight grip on attached devices, their attributes and nodes of attachment
    is possible.
   
��*�  Utilities for handling hotplugging have been improved or became
    available. With the aid of these it is possible to easily distinguish
    between attached devices irrespective of the order in which they were
    attached.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.2. Kernel options

  Kernel configuration options are very much the same as described in Section
5.2. The configuration menu (# make menuconfig) has been organized
differently and more systematically. Here are the relevant choices:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.2.1. Bus options

��*�  Support for hot-pluggable devices (CONFIG_HOTPLUG)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.2.2. Device drivers

��*�  SCSI device support
��*�  SCSI device support (CONFIG_SCSI scsi_mod)
��*�legacy /proc/scsi support (CONFIG_SCSI_PROC_FS)
��*�SCSI disk support (CONFIG_BLK_DEV_SD sd_mod)
��*�
   
��*�  USB support
��*�  Support for USB (CONFIG_USB usbcore)
��*�  USB device filesystem (CONFIG_USB_DEVICEFS)
��*�  UHCI HCD support (CONFIG_USB_UHCI_HCD uhci_hcd)
��*�  USB Mass Storage support (CONFIG_USB_STORAGE usb_storage)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.2.3. File systems

��*�Second extended (CONFIG_EXT2_FS ext2)
��*�
   
��*�DOS/FAT/NT filesystems
��*�DOS FAT fs support (CONFIG_FAT_FS fat)
��*�MSDOS fs support (CONFIG_MSDOS_FS msdos)
��*�VFAT (Windows 95) fs support (CONFIG_VFAT_FS vfat)
��*�
   
��*�  Pseudo filesystems
��*�/proc file system support (CONFIG_PROC_FS)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.3. Notes

  It may be in your interest to consult [http://thomer.com/linux/
migrate-to-2.6.html]   Migrating to Linux Kernel 2.6, but it is not necessary
to follow steps that cannot be followed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.4. Hotplugging and Naming

  In Section 6.2 the situation of two USB devices plugged in at the same time
was discussed. The difficulty is that it becomes hard for the user to
distinguish the two devices. Progress recently made in the Linux Hotplug
Project (search for hotplug) and implemented in the 2.6-series of kernels,
has made it possible to address this problem efficiently. For implementation
some utilities are needed:

��*�sysfs -- compiled by default into Linux-2.6.x
��*�  [http://linux-diag.sourceforge.net/Sysfsutils.html]   sysfsutils-0.4.0
    or later
��*�[http://sourceforge.net/projects/linux-hotplug]   hotplug-2004_01_05 or
    later
��*�  [http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug]   udev-016 or
    later

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.4.1. Installation

The sysfs filesystem.

  The sysfs filesystem is intrinsic to the Linux-2.6 kernel series. It is
used by udev and sysfstools to obtain information about kernel objects
(devices, etc.), their attributes and mutual linkages. Activation is
according to the following procedure:
              # cd /                                                         
              # mkdir sys                                                    
              # mount -t sysfs none /sys                                     
                                                                             

If you do ls -F /sys, a whole directory structure with entries like block/, 
bus/, ... will be shown. You were successful. The mounting should now be made
permanent by adding the following line to /etc/fstab:
              none  /sys   sysfs  defaults  0  0                             
                                                                             

Sysfsutils.

  This is installed in one of the usual ways without having to make special
configuration options. Instructions in the README file are very clear. You
should, however, first make sure that the entry /usr/local/lib is entered in
/etc/ld.so.conf so that the libsysfs.so libraries will be recognisable by the
system. After installation, check that the utilities /usr/local/bin/lsbus and
/usr/local/bin/systool have been installed. Also check that the libraries
mentioned above have been properly linked in (ldconfig -p | grep libsysfs).

Hotplug.

  Next install the hotplug scripts. The first thing to do is to check that
hotplugging will work on your system. Do: less /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug. The
result should be /sbin/hotplug. If it is not so, you should add the line echo
"/sbin/hotplug" > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug to an appropriate initialization
script, e.g. /etc/rc.d/rc.local. This command could also be given (as root)
before checking that everything works. Installation is extremely simple. Do:
# make install. Check afterwards that the script /sbin/hotplug exists.

Udev.

  This is the last installation. Study the README file and follow the
instructions necessary to be able to run make USE_KLIBC=true. If you have
compiled the Linux-2.6.x kernel, this should not be too difficult. A quick
check would be to find out if /sbin/udev and /sbin/udevinfo exist. There are
other occurences as well, a very important one being /etc/udev/udev.rules. If
you have a working setup for memory sticks (as described above) and a memory
stick plugged in you could try ls /udev, you should see the device (sda,
sda1, ...). If it is there, unplug the device and list again. It should be
gone!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12.4.2. Naming memory sticks

  With the udev utility in place, it is possible to identify a memory stick
on the basis of some built-in attribute. One that works, is the vendor
identity. To find this for an attached device, do systool -vb scsi | grep
vendor. This should give a list of attached SCSI devices (remember that your
memory stick poses as a SCSI device Section 6.2). Let us suppose that you
have two memory sticks plugged in at the same time and found (as I did) two
vendor Id's, namely "UFD" and "STORAGE". Then add to the file /etc/udev/
udev.rules the following lines (at the top if you like):
              ## Flash Memory 1                                              
              BUS="scsi", SYSFS_vendor="UFD*", NAME="namib%n"                
                                                                             
              ## Flash Memory 2                                              
              BUS="scsi", SYSFS_vendor="STORAGE*", NAME="kalahari%n"         
                                                                             

  The vendor-identities may have trailing blank spaces, and therefore the
wildcard asterisks have a purpose. Do not ignore them. Remove and replace the
memory sticks, then do ls /udev. Instead of the impersonal sda, sda1, etc.
there should now be kalahari, kalahari1, namib and namib1. The devices have
been named according to the "vendor" information in them. Thus we can
identify the device, no matter where it was mapped. All that remains to be
done is to creat appropriate mount points like /mnt/namib and kalahari and
make entries like
             /udev/namib1     /mnt/namib     vfat,ext2  user,noauto,rw  0 0          
             /udev/kalahari1  /mnt/kalahari  vfat,ext2  user,noauto,rw  0 0          
                                                                                     

  in /etc/fstab to enable mounting from other places.

  This is great fun ... and remember, there are other deserts on the planet.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. Formalities

13.1. Copyright Information

  This document is copyrighted (c) 2003 Niko Sauer and is distributed under
the terms of the Linux Documentation Project (LDP) license, stated below.

  Unless otherwise stated, Linux HOWTO documents are copyrighted by their
respective authors. Linux HOWTO documents may be reproduced and distributed
in whole or in part, in any medium physical or electronic, as long as this
copyright notice is retained on all copies. Commercial redistribution is
allowed and encouraged; however, the author would like to be notified of any
such distributions.

  All translations, derivative works, or aggregate works incorporating any
Linux HOWTO documents must be covered under this copyright notice. That is,
you may not produce a derivative work from a HOWTO and impose additional
restrictions on its distribution. Exceptions to these rules may be granted
under certain conditions; please contact the Linux HOWTO coordinator at the
address given below.

  In short, we wish to promote dissemination of this information through as
many channels as possible. However, we do wish to retain copyright on the
HOWTO documents, and would like to be notified of any plans to redistribute
the HOWTOs.

  If you have any questions, please contact <nikos@friedrichs.up.ac.za >
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.2. Disclaimer

  No liability for the contents of this documents can be accepted. Use the
concepts, examples and other content at your own risk. As this is a new
document, there may be errors and inaccuracies, that may of course be
damaging to your system. Proceed with caution, and although this is highly
unlikely, the author do not take any responsibility for that.

  All copyrights are held by their by their respective owners, unless
specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

  Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

  You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major
installation and backups at regular intervals.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.3. Credits

  I wish to express my deep gratitude towards my sons Paul and Philip who in
1995 persuaded me to move to Linux. Philip gave me profound advice and
insights which made this project a pleasant learning experience.

  Emma Jane Hogbin, in her review, raised a number of important questions
which served to improve this document immensely. My sincerest thanks to her.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.4. Feedback

  Users of this document are most welcome to email me with suggestions on the
improvement of the presentation and possible additions to the scope of it.

Notes

[1]  This document leans heavily on the texts marked with an asterisk        





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