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  Ftape-HOWTO
  Claus-Justus Heine, <heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>
  v3.0, August 1998

  This HOWTO discusses essential do's and dont's for the ftape floppy
  tape driver under Linux. It focusses on the newest version which is
  ftape-4.02 at the time of this writing. This HOWTO is to be intended
  as first step help and source of information.  The ftape driver inter-
  faces to QIC-40, QIC-80, QIC-3010 and QIC-3020 compatible drives, and
  to the Iomega Ditto 2GB and Ditto Max drives.  The QIC-3010 and
  QIC-3020 standards are also known as `Travan' (TR-2 and TR-3).  These
  drives connect via the floppy disk controller (FDC) which may be
  either an internal FDC or inside of certain parallel port floppy tape
  drives. Please refer to the section ``Supported drives'' for further
  information.  ftape does not cover SCSI or QIC-02 tape drives.  DAT
  tape drives usually (always?) connect to a SCSI controller.  This is
  but one of the Linux HOWTO documents.  You can get an index of the
  HOWTOs from the Linux HOWTO index, while the real HOWTO's can be
  fetched (using ftp) from sunsite.unc.edu:pub/Linux/doc/HOWTO (this is
  the ``official'' place) or via the World Wide Web from the Linux Docu-
  mentation Project home page.
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents



  1. Legalese

  2. Revision History

  3. The preliminaries

     3.1 Other sources of information
     3.2 Contacts
     3.3 What is

  4. Getting and installing

     4.1 Getting
     4.2 Differences between
     4.3 Installing the driver with v2.0.x and earlier kernels
     4.4 Installing the driver with v2.1.x and later kernels
     4.5 Following the development of the
     4.6 Mixing

  5. The Care and Feeding of Tape and Tape Drives

     5.1 Formatting
        5.1.1 Can I format my tapes under Linux?
        5.1.2 Which formatting programs can I use under DOS?
     5.2 Retensioning
     5.3 Drive Cleaning
     5.4 Repairing de-spooled cartridges

  6. Hardware support

     6.1 Supported tape drives
     6.2 Supported special controllers
        6.2.1 Colorado FC-10, FC-20
        6.2.2 Mountain MACH-2
        6.2.3 Iomega Tape Accelerator II
        6.2.4 Iomega Ditto Dash and other 2Mbps controllers
        6.2.5 Iomega Ditto EZ PnP controller
     6.3 Unsupported tape drives
     6.4 Using an external tape drive with
     6.5 PCI motherboards and

  7. Backing up and restoring data

     7.1 Writing an archive to a tape
     7.2 Restoring an archive
     7.3 Testing the archive
     7.4 Putting more than one backup on a tape
     7.5 Appending files to an archive
     7.6 Mount/unmounting tapes

  8. Creating an emergency boot floppy for

  9. Frequently Asked Questions

  10. FAQ: "Compiling and installing Ftape" related questions !

     10.1 What Ftape version should I use?
     10.2 I'm having problems getting my XYZ drive to run under the 2.0.xx kernel with the built-in driver.  How do I fix this?
     10.3 I'm running Linux/SMP and the system just freezes when trying to access the Ftape devices!
     10.4 Why does depmod complain about "undefined symbols"?
     10.5 "insmod" says the kernel version is wrong
     10.6 "insmod" says that kernel 1.2.0 and 1.2.0 differ
     10.7 Trying to compile Ftape gives me the error "modversions.h: no such file or directory"
     10.8 What is this versioned symbols stuff anyway?
     10.9 I seem to be getting sftape instead of zftape. When I run "ftmt status" command, I get output that the Ftape docs says corresponds to sftape ( /dev/qft0: Invalid argument ). Why?
     10.10 My Ditto DASH/FC-20/Exabyte Accelerator card works under Microsoft Windows, but I get a drive not found type of error in /var/log/messages when trying to use it under Linux.
     10.11 Ftape DMA transfers gives ECC errors
     10.12 Help! I'm getting 'dmaalloc() failed' in my syslog file.
     10.13 Syslogd works overtime when running Ftape
     10.14 How do I change the trace-level?
     10.15 I'm having problems with Ftape.  I'm using the latest version of Ftape from the Ftape Home Page and believe that I've located a real bug. What should I do?

  11. FAQ: "Using Ftape" related questions !

     11.1 How fast is Ftape ?
     11.2 When I write to some of my tapes, they seem to spend a lot of time "shoe-shining," or repositioning instead of streaming.  Is something wrong with my system?
     11.3 Do I have to reboot to the DOS world to format tapes?
     11.4 Is it possibly to format Ditto 2GB tapes with ftape?
     11.5 Is it possibly to format Ditto Max or Max Pro tapes with ftape?
     11.6 Ftape detects more bad sectors than DOS on QIC-3020 tapes
     11.7 Is it ok that I'm not hearing the tape move when I do a fsf or a bsf with mt?
     11.8 Why does my XYZ backup program complain about "Invalid argument" errors?
     11.9 I/O errors and FDC - some explanations.
     11.10 Why do I get "/dev/qft0: No such device" errors?
     11.11 I get "device busy" when I make multiple backups on a tape using some script.
     11.12 How do I "..." with tar?
     11.13 What block-size should I use with tar ?
     11.14 Where can I find the tar/mt/cpio/dd binaries - sources - manpages?
     11.15 If I use tapers compression, is it a bad idea to use the compression with zftape, or would it be better to not use tapers compression, and let zftape do it?
     11.16 How does zftape compression compare to say gzip -9?
     11.17 I don't trust compression, but hear that the sftape interface is going away. What should I do?
     11.18 Ftape says "This tape has no 'Linux raw format"
     11.19 Can I exchange tapes with someone using DOS?
     11.20 How does `mt eom' work when you've started overwriting a tape in the middle?
     11.21 When I made backups before using taper, under the 2.0.29 ftape my drive didn't support fsf, under the new zftape it does, why would this be, and what exactly is fsf ?
     11.22 What exactly is the difference between ftape, and zftape?
     11.23 What is the difference between a rewinding, and non rewinding drive?
     11.24 Can someone tell me how to use mt to rewind my TR-3 drive one record using zftape record, so I can verify it?
     11.25 By non-rewinding, they mean that it doesn't automatically rewind, correct? It doesn't mean that under no circumstances it will rewind, right?  I tried using /dev/zqft0, and it instantly rewinds the tape.
     11.26 What is the difference between what mt considers a record and what it considers a file?
     11.27 Reusing tapes with zftape without reformatting the tape.
     11.28 This script implements a simple contents listing for the zftape package using the "MTIOCVOLINFO" ioctl.

  12. FAQ: "Tape and Drivers" related questions !

     12.1 What are good makers of Travan tapes?
     12.2 Where can I obtain the QIC standards?
     12.3 Is the Iomega Ditto 2GB drive supported?
     12.4 Is the Iomega Ditto Max drive supported?
     12.5 Is the Iomega Ditto Max Pro drive supported?

  13. FAQ: Miscellaneous !

     13.1 How to subscribe to the Ftape Mailing List?
     13.2 How to un-subscribe from the Ftape Mailing List?
     13.3 Links to related information.

  14. Debugging the

     14.1 The kernel/
     14.2 OK, it's a bug ...ehhh... feature - How do I submit a report?

  15. Contributions



  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Legalese



  The Linux ftape-HOWTO may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in
  part, subject to the following conditions:



       Copyright (c) 1993-1996 by Kai Harrekilde-Petersen
       Email: khp@dolphinics.no

       Copyright (c) 1996-1997 by Kevin Johnson
       Email: kjj@pobox.com

       Copyright (c) 1998 by Claus-Justus Heine
       Email: heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de



  The Linux ftape-HOWTO is a free document; you may reproduce and/or
  modify it under the terms of version 2 (or, at your option, any later
  version) of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
  Software Foundation.

  This HOWTO is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
  WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
  General Public License for more details.

  The author encourages wide distribution of this document for personal
  or commercial use, provided that the above copyright notice remains
  intact and the provisions of the GNU General Public License are
  adhered to.  The summary is that you may copy and distribute this
  document free of charge, or for a profit.  No explicit permission is
  required from the author for reproduction of this document in any
  medium, physical or electronic.

  Note that derivative works and translations of this document must be
  placed under the GNU General Public License, and the original
  copyright notice must remain intact.  If you have contributed new
  material to this document, you must make the source code (e.g., SGML
  source) available for your revisions.  Please make revisions and
  updates available directly to the author: Contact heine@math1.rwth-
  aachen.de via Internet e-mail.  This will allow the author to merge
  updates and provide consistent revisions to the Linux community.

  The author encourages distributors of Linux software in any medium to
  use the HOWTO as an installation and user guide.  Given the copyright
  above, you are free to print and distribute copies of this document
  with your software.  If doing so, you may wish to include a short
  ``installation supplement'' for your release, or modify the relevant
  sections of this book to reflect your product.

  The author would like to know of any plans to publish and distribute
  this HOWTO commercially.  In this way, we can ensure that you are kept
  up-to-date with new revisions.  And, should a new version be right
  around the corner, you might wish to delay your publication of the
  HOWTO until it is available.

  If you are distributing this HOWTO commercially, donations, royalties,
  and/or printed copies are greatly appreciated by the author.
  Contributing in this way shows your support for free software and the
  Linux Documentation Project.

  If you have questions or comments, please contact the author at

  heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de

  2.  Revision History



     version 3.0 (August, 1998)

     o  Additions to list of supported hardware.

     o  New section about differences between ftape versions.

     o  Pointers to the Ftape-FAQ and the Ftape manual.

     o  Updated to ftape-4.02.

     o  Additions to the FAQ.

     o  Update all URLs.

     version 2.0 (March 15, 1997)

     o  Updated to ftape v2.11 and v3.xx

     o  Lots of updates.

     version 1.9 (September 20, 1996)

     o  New maintainers of ftape and the HOWTO.

     o  A few minor formatting and spelling fixes.

     o  Updated for Linux v2.0.

     o  Started to integrate some of Andrew Martin's ftape info.


     version 1.8 (May 22, 1996)

     o  Copyright policy changed to GNU GPL v2

     o  The maintainer's email address has changed.

     o  Updated to ftape-2.08

     o  ftape is now a part of the kernel distribution.

     version 1.7.1 (February 13, 1996)

     o  Updated to ftape-2.06b

     version 1.7 (January 28, 1996)

     o  Updated to ftape-2.06 and modules-1.3.57

     version 1.6.2 (January 23, 1996)

     o  Connor TST3200R drive added

     o  Updated 2Mbps fdc information.

     version 1.6.1 (January 16, 1996)

     o  minor corrections

     version 1.6 (January 10, 1996)


     o  New maintainer of ftape

     o  updated to v2.05

     o  added new drives



  3.  The preliminaries



  3.1.  Other sources of information



     ftape version 3
        ftape-3.x came with a manual of its own, which is contained in
        the ftape-3.04d package available from the usual places.  See
        ``Getting Ftape''.


     ftape version 4
        ftape-4.x also has a documentation package ftape-doc which is
        available from the usual places. This Ftape-HOWTO, however, also
        focusses on ftape-4.x and is meant as an entry point to the
        available documentation. See ``Getting Ftape''.


     ftape-tools
        The ftape-tools package (including useful utilities for ftape)
        comes with its own manual.  See ``Getting Ftape''.


     Ftape-FAQ
        The Ftape-FAQ is included wordly in this manual, but more recent
        versions may be found at http://www.correct.nl/~ftape.



  3.2.  Contacts


  The maintainer of the source for ftape is Claus Heine
  <heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>.  He has a web page at http://www-
  math.math.rwth-aachen.de/~LBFM/claus/ftape/.

  If you have a problem or questions about ftape, try posting to the
  Linux Tape mailing list linux-tape@vger.rutger.edu (see ``Following
  the ftape development'' below).  There also used to be a newsgroup
  that mirrored the mailing list traffic but it has vanished some time
  ago.

  I use ftape (it is my sole means of backing up on my linux box :-).  I
  hesitate to make recommendations on what hardware to buy.  See the
  section ``Supported drives'' and ``Unsupported drives'' for a list of
  supported and unsupported drives.

  You should try to post a summary of your problems and its solution(s),
  after you've got it working, even if you only got it partially
  working. Please also send a copy copy of your solution to the Linux
  Tape mailing list at <linux-tape@vger.rutgers.edu> so that it can be
  added to the HOWTO and/or the FAQ.

  If you receive this as part of a printed distribution or on a CD-ROM,
  please check out the Linux Documentation home page or ftp to
  ftp://sunsite.unc.edu:/pub/Linux/doc/HOWTO to see if there exists a
  more recent version.  This could potentially save you a lot of
  trouble.

  If you email me, please include the string ftape in the subject line.
  This will help ensure the mail doesn't inadvertently get buried. But
  preferrably you should email to the Linux Tape mailing list at <linux-
  tape@vger.rutgers.edu> instead of contacting me directly.



  3.3.  What is ftape


  ftape is a driver program that controls various low-cost tape drives
  that connect to the floppy controller.

  ftape is not a backup program as such; it is a device driver, which
  allows you to use the tape drive (just like the SoundBlaster 16 driver
  let you use your sound card) through the device files
  /dev/[n]qft[0-3].

  ftape was originally written by Bas Laarhoven <bas@vimec.nl>, with ``a
  little help from his friends'' to sort out the ECC (Error Correcting
  Code) stuff. ftape is copyrighted by Bas under the GNU General Public
  License, which basically says: ``go ahead and share this with the
  world, just don't disallow other people from copying it further''.

  ftape has undergone several changes since then. While the Linux-2.0.x
  kernel series still contains ftape-2.08 the v2.1.x and soon the v2.2.*
  kernel series come with ftape-3.x (hopefully even with ftape-4.02, but
  this wasn't clear at the time of this writing) which differs in some
  points from the ftape-2.x driver.  Since version 3.00 the ftape driver
  has been maintained by me (Claus-Justus Heine); it has been changed
  and improved in several respects and support for new hardware has been
  added.

  ftape is quite stable, and has been that for some time now.  It is
  reliable enough for critical backups (but it's always a good idea to
  check your backups, so you won't get a nasty surprise some day).

  ftape supports drives that conform to the QIC-117 and one of the
  QIC-80, QIC-40, QIC-3010, and QIC-3020 standards as well as the Iomega
  Ditto 2GB and Ditto Max drives which no longer strictly conform to the
  QIC standards in all respects.

  ftape can drive floppy tape drives that connect to the internal FDC as
  well as certain parallel port floppy tape drives.

  ftape supports neither QIC-02, IDE (ATAPI), nor SCSI tape drives.
  SCSI drives are accessed as /dev/[n]st[0-7] and are supported by the
  kernel through the SCSI drivers.  If you look for help on SCSI tape
  drives, you should read the SCSI-howto.  ATAPI tape drives are
  supported by the kernel since 1.3.46.  See section ``Supported
  drives'' and ``Unsupported drives'' for a list of supported and
  unsupported drives.



  4.  Getting and installing ftape



  4.1.  Getting ftape


  The v2.0.x versions of the kernel include version 2.08 of ftape I
  recommend, however, that you grab the latest version of the full
  source code package for ftape. It is a newer version, includes files
  that are not included in the kernel v2.0.X distribution, and includes
  much better documentation about how to install ftape.  The v2.1.x and
  later versions of the kernel include the version 3.04 of ftape.


  I recommend that you download the latest stable version of ftape which
  is 4.02 at the time of this writing and is available from

  http://www-math.math.rwth-aachen.de/~LBFM/claus/ftape/archives.html

  as well as from

  ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/kernel/tapes/.

  You probably should also grab the ftape-doc and the ftape-tools
  package that are available from the same locations.

  If you still want to use the ftape-2.08 which is shipped with the
  v2.0.x kernels, then you get a version of the driver which is really
  out of date and doesn't support QIC-3020 tapes at 2Mbps correctly,
  neither does it support the Ditto 2GB drives nor the Ditto Max drives
  nor any kind of parallel port tape drive. The section ``Supported
  drives'' gives detailed information about which version of the ftape
  driver supports which hardware.


  4.2.  Differences between ftape-2.x , ftape-3.x  and ftape-4.x  ver-
  sions


  ftape-3.x and ftape-4.x use the file system interface that was
  implemented for a branch release which was called zftape. Actually,
  the module that implements the VFS (Virtual File System) interface of
  ftape-3.x and ftape-4.x still is called zftape.o and its C-sources
  inside the kernel tree reside in
  [/usr/src/linux/]drivers/char/ftape/zftape/.

  ftape-2.x (i.e. the version still contained in the v2.0.x kernel) uses
  another file system interface, that was implemented by ftape's
  original author Bas Larhoven.


     File Marks
        The conceptional difference between ftape-2.x and later versions
        of ftape is the way file marks are implemented.

        Floppy tape devices don't have real file marks. (--  File marks
        are used to distinguish different backup sets if you write
        multiple backup sets to a tape. SCSI and QIC-150 tapes have real
        file marks, i.e. between two different backup sets there is a
        region on the tape that is written special data to so that the
        drive logic can detect that marker when the tape is wound with
        (possibly) high speed over those file marks.--) Because the goal
        of ftape's file system interface was from the beginning on to
        provide an interface that could be used with standard Unix-like
        tape utilities (i.e. mt) the developers of ftape started to
        emulate file marks by storing the positions on the tape where a
        file mark should be located in certain fields of the header
        segments. (-- header segments refers to a region at the
        beginning of the tape sized two times 29k to hold some important
        information about the tape format and size and some status
        information.--)

        However, the QIC standards already designate a special region to
        store such information in, the so called volume table segment.
        Since ftape-3.x this volume table segment is used instead of
        using unused data fields in the header segment. As a result it
        is possible to use your tape cartridge with different operating
        systems in the sense that your Win or DOS backup program will
        realize that certain regions of the tape cartridge are already
        occupied with data, and ftape-3.x and later will detect the
        regions used by those DOS and Win programs. However, you can't
        extract a DOS backup set under Linux or extract a volume written
        by ftape under DOS, safe you write your own software to do that.


     IOCTL interface
        There are certain differences in the IOCTL (-- This IO control
        interface is used by e.g. mt to rewind the tape or skip to the
        next file mark or do any other tape operation.--)

        interface between ftape-2.x and ftape-3.x and later. A detailed
        description can be found in the ftape-manual contained in the
        ftape-doc package.  See ``Getting Ftape''.


     Formatting
        Formatting of cartridges is supported with ftape-3.x and later
        only. Please get the ftape-tools package that contains the
        ftformat program that interfaces to the driver to format
        cartridges.  See ``Getting Ftape''. The ftape-tools package
        comes with (more or less) detailed documentation, so the case of
        formatting cartridges is not dealt with in this document.


     Compression
        ftape-3.x supported user transparent on-the-fly compression in
        software. This feature (or bug) has vanished in ftape-4.x as it
        made further improvements concerning the realiability of backups
        very very hard. This means, ftape-4.x comes without compression
        support.

        However de-compression of compressed archives produced with
        ftape-3.x is supported in order not to brake existing backup
        programs where a user-level filter would not suffice to preserve
        compatibility. Think, e.g., of taper which calls the MTIOC
        ioctls itself instead of relying on the mt program to perform
        tape operations.


  The ftape-manual contained in the ftape-doc package contains much more
  detailed information about ftape`s file system interface as well as
  implementation notes which by far exceed the scope of this HOWTO. See
  ``Getting Ftape'' for informations about where to obtain the manual.



  4.3.  Installing the driver with v2.0.x and earlier kernels


  The following section provides some useful information to get you
  going with the installation of v4.x which is not shipped with the
  kernel source tree yet but has to be downloaded separately, see the
  section ``Getting ftape'' above.

  Once you've downloaded the source code (probably ftape-4.02-tar.gz),
  untar it.  You can do this by determining what directory you want the
  source code to be located in.  I recommend /usr/src/ or ~/src.  When
  the tar file is extracted, it will dump everything into a ftape-4.02
  subdirectory, so that you'll end up, in the example I've given, with
  something like /usr/src/ftape-4.02 or ~/src/ftape-4.02.

  NOTE: you cannot compile ftape-4.02 into your v2.0.x kernel. Instead,
  configure your kernel to not compile the ftape driver and follow the
  installation instructions in the ftape-4.02 distribution and install
  ftape-4.02 as a module.

  Read the README file.  The README is required reading.  It's the top
  of the tree, so to speak.  If there are specific files that the README
  tells you to read then read them.  It will make the process much less
  complicated.

  Do NOT proceed with compiling the package until you have read the
  appropriate README files and the INSTALL file.

  Afterwards you need to edit the MCONFIG file and configure you package
  according to your hardware. The MCONFIG file contains lots of
  explanations so it should be fairly easy to go along with it.

  However, most of the hardware configuration can be done via setting
  parameters during module load time so most parameters specified in the
  file MCONFIG simply give the default configuration, but you don't need
  to recompile the driver to change IO addresses or interrupt settings.
  The file INSTALL and the file modules/insert contain examples how to
  specify the proper module parameters when loading the kernel modules,
  so I won't go into further detail here.

  If you are using a Linux-v1.3.x kernel, you should consider moving to
  v2.0.x.  v1.3.x was the development release prior to the production
  release v2.0.x.



  4.4.  Installing the driver with v2.1.x and later kernels


  (* Maybe ftape-4.02 will be included into the v2.2.x kernel, but this
  isn't clear at the time of this writing. This HOWTO will be revised
  appropriately when this has become clear. So long you have to refer to
  the previous section ``Installing the driver with v2.0.x and earlier
  kernels'' and disregard the contents of this section.  *)


  The Linux kernel v2.1.x and later already include ftape-4.x so you
  don't need to download the ftape-4.x kernel driver package.

  ftape-4.x as included in the v2.1.x versions of the kernel can be
  completely configured using the kernel configuration menus (either
  with make menuconfig or make xconfig. Also, there is online help
  available that documents each parameter setting which I won't repeat
  here.

  The various boot- and loadtime parameter settings are explained in the
  file

  [/usr/src/linux/]Documentation/ftape.txt

  of the Linux-v2.1.x and later kernel distributions.



  4.5.  Following the development of the ftape  driver


  If you want to follow the development of the ftape driver, you should
  subscribe to the Linux Tape mailing list linux-tape@vger.rutgers.edu.
  To do so you need to send an email saying `subscribe linux-tape' (in
  the body) to majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu.  When you subscribe, you will
  be sent a greeting mail, which will tell you how to submit real mails
  and how to get off the list again. Store this email in a safe place.
  Please.

  Please note that I do not, repeat DO NOT, have any special powers with
  regard to this mailing list.  If you're stuck on the list, don't
  bother to tell me that.  I can only shrug and send you my sympathy
  (but that won't get you off the list).



  4.6.  Mixing ftape  and floppies


  If you use your floppy tape drive with the standard FDC then the
  floppy drive and the floppy tape drive cannot run concurrently as they
  share the same hardware, the FDC, and the floppy and the ftape driver
  do not talk to each other.  Thus, if you have mounted a floppy and
  then try to access the tape drive, ftape will complain that it cannot
  grab IRQ6 and then die.  This is especially a problem when designing a
  emergency disk for use with ftape.  This solution is to either load
  the boot/root disk into a ramdisk and then unmount the floppy, or have
  two floppy drive controllers.



  5.  The Care and Feeding of Tape and Tape Drives



  5.1.  Formatting


  Before a tape can be used, it must be formatted.  The formatting
  process lays out sector information onto the tape.  Other tape
  interfaces don't typically require formatting.  The reason floppy
  tapes do is that they need to look like a floppy (kinda gross, but
  what the hey - it works :-).



  5.1.1.  Can I format my tapes under Linux?


  Yes, you can, if you use ftape-3.04d or above. To format a floppy tape
  cartridge you need a user level tool called ftformat as well which is
  contained in the ftape-tools distribution (see section ``Getting
  ftape'').

  The ftape-tools package comes with its own manual, so I do not need to
  repeat here how to use ftformat.


  5.1.2.  Which formatting programs can I use under DOS?



  The following are known to work:


  o  Colorado Memory System's software (tape.exe)

  o  Conner Backup Basics v1.1 and all Windows versions

  o  Norton Backup

  o  QICstream version 2

  o  Tallgrass FileSecure v1.52

  o  Escom Powerstream 3.0 (qs3.exe -- QICstream v3?)

  These programs are known to be more or less buggy:


  o  Conner Backup Basics 1.0

  o  Colorado Windows tape program

  o  CP Backup (wastes tape space, but is OK apart from that)

  As a general rule, most software under DOS should work.  The Conner
  Backup Basics v1.0 has a parameter off by one (someone could not read
  the QIC-80 specs right!), which is corrected in version 1.1.  However,
  ftape detects this, and will work around it.  Dennis T. Flaherty
  (<dennisf@denix.elk.miles.com>) report that Conner C250MQ owners can
  obtain the new v1.1, by calling Conner at 1-800-4Conner (in the US)
  and ask for an upgrade (for a nominal fee for the floppy).  The
  Windows versions should work fine.  Some versions of Colorado's tape
  program for windows, has an off-by-one error in the number of
  segments. ftape also detect and work around that bug.

  Central Point Backup can be used, but it wastes precious tape space
  when it encounters a bad spot on the tape.

  NOTE: If you are running a formatting software under DOS, which is not
  mentioned here, please mail the relevant info to me
  (<heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>), so I can update the list.



  5.2.  Retensioning


  QIC tapes are particularly sensitive to tape stretch.  The reason is
  that floppy tapes are pre-formatted with sector information, whereas
  other tape types have their sync information written as the data is
  written to the tape.  If the floppy tape stretches and the sync fields
  get out of sync the result will be read errors.  The problem is worse
  with longer tapes.

  It is a good idea to retension new tapes a few times before using them
  and before formatting them.  You should also try retensioning the tape
  if you are start getting read errors.  It might also be a good idea
  retension the tape before a backup.


  5.3.  Drive Cleaning


  The coating on the tape is an oxide compound.  As the tape is dragged
  across the tape head it has a tendency to leave tiny amounts of
  residue on the head.  You should periodically use a tape cleaner -
  following the specs for the drive in question.  Tape cleaners should
  be available from any distributer of tapes.

  One more additional note about tape cleaning.  You might want to clean
  the drive after the first use of a brand new tape.  A brand new tape
  will typically leave quite a bit of residue the first time it's used.

  Thanks to Neal Friedman for the explanation and suggestion that this
  information be included in the HOWTO.


  5.4.  Repairing de-spooled cartridges


  In rare occasions it can happen that the tape drive doesn't detect the
  EOT (End Of Tape) markers correctly. These markers are simply holes in
  the tape which are detected by the tape drive with means of a little
  photo-transistor (or the like).

  The manual of your tape drive will probably give you proper hints how
  to clean those EOT detectors.

  However, if the EOT detection fails, then the tape drive despooles the
  cartridge because the tape isn't glued to the wheels, but hold by
  friction only.

  There are detailed instructions how to fix such a despooled tape at
  the Iomega WWW pages at

  http://www.iomega.com/support/techs/ditto/3006.html

  and at the Hewlett Packard WWW pages at

  http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cms/docs/lpg12020.html

  If the pages shouldn't be in the exact locations as given above, then
  please try to browse a little bit through the web pages of HP or
  Iomega until you find the needed information.



  6.  Hardware support



  6.1.  Supported tape drives


  All drives that are both QIC-117 compatible and one of the QIC-40, 80,
  3010, and 3020 standards should work.  QIC-WIDE and Travan drives are
  also supported (TR-1 is just QIC-80 with 8mm tapes, while TR-2 and
  TR-3 is a.k.a QIC-3010 and 3020 respectively). Iomega Ditto 2GB and
  Ditto Max drives are supported, too, though they no longer conform to
  the QIC standards in every respect. Some parallel port tape drives are
  supported as well.

  Some of the comments given below about possible problems with certain
  tape drives are very old, and I don't have access to all of the
  hardware, so I couldn't check everything.

  Some of the reports below have been commented by me
  (<heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>) like this:


       This is a comment.

  Currently, the list of drives that are known to work with ftape is:


     Alloy Retriever 250


     Archive 5580i, XL9250i


     Colorado DJ-10, DJ-20 (aka: Jumbo 120, Jumbo 250)


     Colorado 1400
        <kosowsky@bellini.harvard.edu> reported a problem doing a 1G
        backup using taper.


     Colorado Trakker parallel port tape drive

        Support added by Jochen Hoenicke
        <Jochen.Hoenicke@Informatik.Uni-Oldenburg.DE>.


     HP Colorado T1000

          The problem reports are probably totally out-dated. In
          particular, the zftape the people talk about doesn't
          exist any more, and the ftape driver is the very
          ftape-2.08.


     Works with 3M Travan 400M (TR-1) tapes with 120M tapes.  Also
     reported that mt dies, but with backups using tar it works ok.
     With cpio, ftape is recommended rather than zftape.
     (<millner@millner.bevc.blacksburg.va.us>)

     Problems have been reported with the drive continually stopping and
     starting with zftape (<75104.1756@compuserve.com>).  This appears
     to be a problem with the tape going too fast for the computer; the
     DMA buffers are getting flushed before getting filled again.  Newer
     versions of zftape don't do this any more is a suitably fast backup
     program or large DMA buffers are used
     (<millner@millner.bevc.blacksburg.va.us>).


     Conner C250MQ(T)
        The 250Q is reported to generate write error and frequent
        repositioning. (Frank Stuess at Nacamar Data Communications)


          Write errors need not be caused by the tape drive, but
          also by bad tape cartridges. Frequent repositioning can
          be caused by bad cartridges, too, but can also be caused
          by overrun errors which would indicate that the FDC and
          DMA controller have problems to talk to each other.



     Conner TSM420R, TSM850R
        The 400 and 800 models only work with TR-1 tapes.


          I don't know whether it was meant that named drives
          doesn't work with ordinary 120MB DC-2120 cartridges, or
          that TR-3 tapes can't be read. The tape drives weren't
          designed for the latter. So what.
     Conner TST3200R
        Works with TR-3 tapes at 1Mbps (ie. 1600M capacity only).  Wirks
        with QIC-WIDE 400M tapes (Sony 5122's?)  (<chris@cs.wmich.edu>).
        Works with TR3, QIC-3010, and QIC-3020 tapes.  Comes with a 2MB
        FDC which the Promise 2300+ 1Mbps controller works
        (<kjh@pollux.usc.edu>).

        Reported that the floppy disk can no longer read low-density
        floppies.  May have to fiddle with IRQ/ports/dma channels
        (<chris@yakkocs.wmich.edu>).


          The TST3200R works well with ftape.



     Conner TST800R
        The TST800R works with TR-1, Sony QW5122F (210M) and DC2120
        tapes.


          Works well with ftape since ftape-2.07 at least. Used it
          myself until the drive died with a melted transistor.
          Probably caused by over-heating it previously.



     Conner CTT3200

        The CTT3200 is supposedly identical to the Iomega Ditto 3200.
        It works with the supplied 2Mbps controller, but reported not to
        work under DOS on some machines. (<jmorris@dtx.net>)


     Conner 1.7G Tapestor (TSM1700R)

        Works with QIC-WIDE tapes (<pschmidt@slip.net>).  Partially
        works with QIS-3200.  Using the HSC-2 controller, the DMA
        channel needs to be changed (incremented by 1, channel2?, Modify
        the Makefile).  You then need to modify the ftape Makefile to
        reflect this change.  However, ftape seems to be a bit flaky
        with this (no version number supplied) (<ttait@tiac.net>).  It
        may not work at 2Mbps (QIC-3020) with the HSC controller.  The
        tape died with a messages like "dumb tape stop" and has since
        been unreliable (<ttait@tiac.net>).


          No recent informations available



     Escom or Archive (Hornet) 31250Q


     Exabyte EXB-1500
        Work with QIC-3010 tapes.


     Exabyte TR-3

     Irwin 80SX, Insight 80Mb


     Iomega 250


     Iomega Ditto Tape Insider 420, 1700


     Iomega Ditto Tape Insider 3200
        This is the unit, that I use.  The default jumper settings don't
        work.  Leave the irq and ioport address at the default (6 and
        0x370, respectfully), but change the DMA from 3 to 2. (Kevin
        Johnson <kjj@pobox.com>).


          Refer to the file MCONFIG of recent ftape distributions
          for other suggestions for ioport, irq and DMA channel.


     May require the having {0x08882, 80, wake_up_colorado, "Iomega
     3200"}, added to vendors.h on older versions of ftape.

     Problems reported with ftape 2.07 and kernel 1.12.13.  With all
     sorts of combinations of accelerator, etc, the drive may (on some
     systems) only be accessed once (<erwin@box.nl>).  Also, after the
     first access, the next use of the tape says it is write protected
     (<erwin@box.nl>, <M.J.Ammerlaan@dutiwy.twi.tudelft.nl>).

     There has been one report of a problem where the tape got wound off
     the end of the spool.


          This may be caused by a dirty EOT sensor, and need not be
          a real hardware bug (except when it was a bug that dirt-
          ied the EOT sensor ...)


     Another problem has been reported with writing archives (with dd)
     to the tape.  It may start fine, but when the driver catches up
     with dd, it stops the tape and rewinds it to the beginning.  Then
     it starts winding on through the tape ad infinitum.  It appears to
     occur when the driver asks the tape to pause which should cause the
     tape to move back by 3 segments, but instead is moves back to the
     beginning of the tape.  A bug fix submitted is reported to not
     solve the problem.


          Should have been fixed somewhere between ftape-3.00 and
          ftape-4.00. Unluckily, the fast-skipping facilities of
          all Iomega floppy tape drives are really poor. Recent
          ftape versions work around this problem. I suggest get-
          ting the latest version of the ftape driver when you
          experience this problem.



     Iomega Ditto 800 Insider
        Works with Travan TR1, TR2, or DC2120 tapes
        (<klein@informatik.uni-rostock.de>).


     Iomega Ditto 2GB
        Support added by Jochen Hoenicke
        <Jochen.Hoenicke@Informatik.Uni-Oldenburg.DE> to ftape-3.xx and
        later.

        Can't format cartridges, writing is only possible with special
        Ditto 2GB cartridges (hardware limitation, not a lacking feature
        of ftape).


     Iomega Ditto Max

     Iomega Ditto Max Pro
        Supported since ftape-4.00. Thanks to Tim Jones
        <tjones@estinc.com>.

        Can't format cartridges, writing is only possible with special
        Ditto Max cartridges (hardware limitation, not a lacking feature
        of ftape)

        I wasn't able to get the Ditto Max to work with any other device
        than /dev/[n]qft0. I don't know whether this is a feature of the
        Ditto Max or the Ditto EZ controller I had plugged the Ditto Max
        into.

        (* You don't need to buy a Ditto Max Pro to use the 5/10GB
        cartridges. With ftape there is no real difference between the
        Ditto Max and the Ditto Max Pro.  *)


     Iomega Ditto 800/3200/2GB/Max/Max Pro Easy (parallel port)
        Supported since ftape-4.00 with the bpck-fdc FDC driver.


     Mountain FS8000


     Reveal TB1400

        Reported not to work with kernel 1.3.79 and ftape (no version
        given) or with kernel 1.2.13 and zftape 1.04
        (<colin@colina.demon.co.uk>).


          The mentioned ftape driver versions are out of date. If
          you still have such a beast try the more recent versions
          of the ftape driver.



     Summit SE 150, SE 250


     Tallgrass FS300
        If you have a Tallgrass FS300 and an AHA1542B, you need to
        increase the bus-on / bus-off time of the 1542B.  Antti Virjo
        (<klanvi@uta.fi>), says that changing CMD_BUSON_TIME to 4 and
        CMD_BUSOFF_CMD to 12 in linux/drivers/scsi/aha1542.c will do the
        trick.


     Teac 800


     Memorex tape drive backup system


     Wangtek 3040F, 3080F


  You can always check out the newest list of drives that are recognised
  by ftape, by looking in the file vendors.h in the ftape distribution.

  Although I do not want to endorse one drive type over another, it has
  been reported that the Colorado DJ-20 drive is rather noisy, when
  compared to, say, a Conner C250MQ drive ('tis said that the Colorado
  is 5-10 times as noisy as the Conner drive. Since I have neither, I
  can't tell for sure).


       If you have a drive that works fine, but it is not listed
       here, or if you have corrections to the above information,
       please send a mail to the HOWTO maintainer
       (<heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>).



  6.2.  Supported special controllers


  These dedicated high-speed tape controllers are supported by ftape:


  o  Colorado FC-10, FC-20

  o  Mountain MACH-2

  o  Iomega Tape Accelerator II

  o  2Mbps controllers (using the i82078-1 fdc)

  o  Iomega Ditto EZ 4Mbps PnP controller


  6.2.1.  Colorado FC-10, FC-20


  Support for the FC-10 controller has been merged into the ftape driver
  in version 1.12. See the RELEASE-NOTES and the Makefile files in the
  ftape distribution.  Since of version 2.03 of ftape, the FC-20
  controller will work, but only at 1Mbit/sec (check the Release
  notes!).


  6.2.2.  Mountain MACH-2


  The support for the MACH-2 controller was added in ftape-1.14d.


  6.2.3.  Iomega Tape Accelerator II


  To use the Iomega Tape Accelerator II (not to be mistaken as the
  Iomega Ditto Dash!), use -DMACH2, and set the right settings for I/O
  base, IRQ and DMA.  This works (by the empirical testing of Scott
  Bailey <sbailey@xcc.mc.xerox.com>), with at least ftape-2.02.


  6.2.4.  Iomega Ditto Dash and other 2Mbps controllers


  The Iomega Ditto Dash, and all other known 2Mbps controllers, use the
  Intel 82078-1 chip, which can run at 2Mbps. This is supported properly
  since ftape-3.00.


  6.2.5.  Iomega Ditto EZ PnP controller


  This controller requires the use of e.g. the isapnptools package to
  configure it. You may get it from
  http://www.roestock.demon.co.uk/isapnptools/

  The controller will cause too many overrun errors when used at the
  highest possible speed of 4Mbps. Neither Tim Jones <tjones@estinc.com>
  nor I <heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de> have been able to find but a single
  system which could run the controller at 4Mbps. 3Mbps seems to  be
  fine.

  If you configure the Ditto EZ to use DMA 2 (the DMA channel used by
  the floppy controller) then your floppy drive will no longer work. It
  doesn't help to disable the controllers DMA gate (as is the case with
  other hight speed controllers) so this can't be helped from inside
  ftape.


  6.3.  Unsupported tape drives



  o  Some parallel port floppy tape drives still not work. Others do.

  o  Irwin AX250L / Accutrak 250. (not a QIC-80 drive)

  o  IBM Internal Tape Backup Unit (identical to the Irwin AX250L drive)

  o  COREtape light

  The Irwin AX250L (and the IBM Internal Tape Backup Unit) does not work
  the ftape.  This is because they only support QIC-117, but not the
  QIC-80 standard (they use Irwin's proprietary ``servoe (Rhomat)''
  format).  I know nothing about the Rhomat format, nor where to get any
  info on it.  Sorry.

  The COREtape light does not accept the initialisation commands, we're
  feeding it. This pretty much leaves the drive unusable.


  6.4.  Using an external tape drive with ftape


  If you have a floppy controller which has a female DB37 connector on
  the bracket (and some means of delivering power to the drive), you can
  use it with ftape.  OK, that sentence was not very obvious. Let's try
  it this way: Some FDC's (the very ancient one's), have a DB37
  connector on the bracket, for connecting to external floppy drives.

  If you make a suitable cable from the DB37 connector (on the FDC) to
  your external tape drive, you can get ftape to control your tape
  drive.

  This is because that from a program's view there is no difference
  between the internal and the external connectors. So, from ftape's
  point of view, they are identical.


  o  Pins 20-37: GROUND

  o  1: +12 Volt (POWER)

  o  2: +12 Volt return (GROUND)

  o  3: +5 Volt return (GROUND)

  o  4: +5 Volt (POWER)


  o  5: 2

  o  6: 8

  o  7: 10

  o  8: 12

  o  9: 14

  o  10: 16

  o  11: 18

  o  12: 20

  o  13: 22

  o  14: 24

  o  15: 26

  o  16: 28

  o  17: 30

  o  18: 32

  o  19: 34

  The power connector is of the "mini" type, sitting on 3.5" floppy
  drives.  The idea appears to be that you plug one of the power
  connectors from the PSU to this connector on the board.  If you want
  to use just a single cable, you might want to get a 50 wire cable, and
  use multiple wires for the power lines (and ground, for that matter).

  I have received no confirmation from anyone that this works.  Let me
  know your results if you try it.



  6.5.  PCI motherboards and ftape


  Unfortunately, some PCI motherboards cause problems when running
  ftape.  Some people have experienced that ftape would not run in a PCI
  based box, but ran flawlessly in a normal ISA based 386DX machine.  If
  you have such a problem, please read the README.PCI file in the ftape
  distribution.


       A floppy disk controller needs the ISA bus DMA controller
       for its memory transfers. Seemingly the ISA DMA controller
       doesn't get control over the memory bus often enough on some
       PCI based systems.



  7.  Backing up and restoring data


  This section describes some simple uses of tar and mt. Other examples
  can be found in the ftape-manual of the ftape-doc package. The ftape-
  tools contains some simple automated DejaGnu (-- Package for writing
  automated tests.--)

  test-suites. See section ``Getting ftape'' for informations about
  where to download those additional packages from.


  7.1.  Writing an archive to a tape


  You can use `tar', `dd', `cpio', and `afio'. You will need to use `mt'
  to get the full potential of your tapes and the ftape driver.  For a
  start I'd recommend using `tar', as it can archive lots of directories
  and let you pick out separate files from an archive.  cpio creates
  smaller archives and is more generally more flexible than tar, but is
  missing some features like volume labels.  `afio' creates backups
  where each file is compressed individually and then concatenated.
  This will allow you to access the files ``after'' the point of the
  error.  If you use gzipped tar files, all data after the point of the
  error is lost! (to me, this is a pretty good reason for NOT using
  compression on backups).  The choice of which is most appropriate
  depends on the situation and the features and malfeatures of each of
  the packages.  I recommend taking a look at each package at reviewing
  the options that each provides.  It's possible that this HOWTO may
  provide more detail on this subject at some point in the future.

  There are more links pointing to backup software at http://www-
  math.math.rwth-aachen.de/~LBFM/claus/ftape/ in the software section of
  that page.

  To make a backup of your kernel source tree using tar, do this
  (assuming you have the sources in /usr/src/linux):



               # cd /usr/src
               # tar cf /dev/ftape linux



  This will not compress the files, but gives you a smoother tape run.
  If you want the compression (and you've got tar 1.11.2), you just
  include the -z flag(*), eg: `tar czf /dev/ftape linux'

  For further instructions on how to use tar, dd and mt look at the man
  pages and the texinfo files that comes with the respective
  distributions.

  (*) tar assumes that the first argument is options, so the `-' is not
  necessary, i.e. these two commands are the same: `tar xzf /dev/ftape'
  and `tar -xzf /dev/ftape'



  7.2.  Restoring an archive


  OK, let us restore the backup of the kernel source you made in section
  ``Writing an archive to a tape'' above.  To do this you simply say



               tar xf /dev/ftape


  If you used compression, you will have to say



               tar xzf /dev/ftape



  When you use compression, gzip will complain about trailing garbage
  after the very end of the archive (and this will lead to a `broken
  pipe' message).  This can be safely ignored.

  For the other utilities, please read the man page.



  7.3.  Testing the archive


  tar has an option (-d) for detecting differences between two archives.
  To test your backup of the kernel source say



               tar df /dev/ftape



  If you do not have the man page for tar, you are not lost (yet); tar
  has a built-in option list: try `tar --help 2>&1 | less'


  7.4.  Putting more than one backup on a tape



  To put more than one backup on a tape you must have the mt utility.
  You will probably have it already, if you got one of the mainline
  distributions (eg. Slackware or Debian).

  Programs like tar and cpio generate a single Tape ARchive and know
  nothing about multiple files or positioning of a tape, it just reads
  or writes from/to a device. mt knows everything about moving the tape
  back and forth, but nothing about reading the data off the tape.  As
  you might have guessed, combining tar or cpio with mt does the trick.

  By using the nqft[0-3] (nftape) device, you can use `mt' to position
  the tape the correct place (`mt -f /dev/nqft0 fsf 2' means step over
  two ``file marks'', i.e.  tar files) and then use tar or cpio to read
  or write the relevant data.

  The most common use of the non-rewinding device is to append another
  backup to an existing tape.  Here are the specific steps with a little
  explanation thrown in for good measure.


  o  Insert a tape into the drive.  On some devices this may cause the
     tape to be rewound.

  o  Issue an End-of-Tape command to the NON-rewinding device.



          mt -f /dev/n???? eof



  The tape should now be positioned at the End-of-Data (EOD). The tape
  won't move unless a program opens the device, closes the rewinding
  device, removes the device driver from kernel memory (rmmod) or ejects
  the tape.  Using `mt eof' may be faster on QIC tapes.

  o  The next tape operation will start at the EOD mark.  If you perform
     a write, it will append a new `file'.  If you perform a read it
     will fail with EOF.  The EOD mark on most tape formats is actually
     two consecutive EOF marks, however, since version 3.xx ftape  uses
     the volume table as specified in the QIC-113 standard to emulate
     file marks, thus there aren't two consecutive file marks at EOD.
     Writing the EOF marks is handled by either the device driver or the
     hardware when a close() is performed.

  o  Here's where you write the actual data to the tape.

  o  Here's the important part. Now rewind the tape.  Both ftape caches
     some information that belongs in the header segments on the tape
     and update those header segments only when the tape is rewound.
     This caching is necessary because rewinding the tape and updating
     the header segments takes a conspicuous amount of time.  The
     drawback of this caching is that you will lose information if you
     have written to the tape and not rewound the device.



  7.5.  Appending files to an archive


  ``Is there a way to extend an archive -- put a file on the tape, then
  later, add more to the tape?''

  No. The tar documentation will tell you to use `tar -Ar', but it does
  not work.  This is a limitation of the current ftape driver.



  7.6.  Mount/unmounting tapes


  Since a tape does not have a ``filesystem'' on it, you do not mount /
  unmount the tape.  To backup, you just insert the tape and run your
  `tar' command (or whatever you use to access the tape with).



  8.  Creating an emergency boot floppy for ftape


  (* As of the time of this writing (August 1998) I remember that I have
  read about several emergency disk sets in the c.o.l.a
  (comp.os.linux.announce) news group since the time this section has
  been written. Some of those packages actually might produce rather
  sophisticated emergency boot floppy sets. Please check out yourself.
  I didn't try to create an emergency boot floppy with recent versions
  of ftape.  *)

  This section was written by Claus Toendering <ct@login.dknet.dk>.

  Once you are the happy owner of a tape drive and several tapes full of
  backups, you will probably ask yourself this question: ``If everything
  goes wrong, and I completely lose my hard disk, how do I restore my
  files from tape?''

  What you need is an emergency floppy disk that contains enough files
  to enable you to boot Linux and restore your hard disk from tape.

  The first thing you should do is to read ``The Linux Bootdisk HOWTO''
  written by Graham Chapman <grahamc@zeta.org.au>.  That document tells
  you almost everything you need to know about making an emergency
  floppy boot kit.  The paragraphs below contain a few extra pieces of
  information that will make your life a bit easier when you follow
  Graham Chapman's procedures:


  o  You don't really need /etc/init, /etc/inittab, /etc/getty, and
     /etc/rc.d/* on your floppy disk.  If Linux doesn't find /etc/init,
     it will start /bin/sh on your console, which is fine for restoring
     your system.  Deleting these files gives you extra space on your
     floppy, which you will probably need.

  o  Find a small version of /bin/sh.  They are frequently available on
     the boot floppies that come with a Linux distribution.  This again
     will give you extra space.  I'd suggest ash, which is extremely
     small (approx 62Kbytes), and yet very bash compatible.

  o  The /etc/fstab you include on your floppy disk should look
     something like this:


               /dev/fd0        /               minix   defaults
               none            /proc           proc    defaults
               /dev/hda        /mnt            ext2    defaults



  Once you have booted from your floppy, give the command:


               mount -av



  o  Make sure your floppy drive is not mounted when you access the
     streamer tape!  Otherwise you may get the following error message:


               Unable to grab IRQ6 for ftape driver



  This means that you MUST load the floppy into a RAMDISK.

  This has the unfortunate consequence that the programs needed to
  restore the files from the tape can not be located on a separate
  floppy disk.  You have two options here:

     1. You place tar (or cpio or afio or whatever other backup program
        you use) on your root floppy disk.  (This is where you'll need
        all the extra space created in the steps above.)

     2. Before you start restoring from tape, copy tar (or cpio or afio
        or whatever) to your hard disk and load it from there.

  o  Apart from your backup program, you will probably need mt on your
     root floppy as well.

  o  Make sure your ftape device (typically /dev/nqft0) is present on
     your boot floppy.

  o  Finally: TRY IT OUT! Of course, I don't recommend that you destroy
     your hard disk contents to see if you are able to restore
     everything.  What I do recommend, however, is that you try booting
     from your emergency disks and make sure that you can at least make
     a file listing of the contents of your backup tape.



  9.  Frequently Asked Questions


  (* This is the literal inclusion of the Ftape Frequently Asked
  questions collection which is maintained by Johan De Wit
  <jo@correct.nl> and which may be viewed on the web at
  http://www.correct.nl/~ftape.  As Linuxdoc SGML doesn't include sub-
  sub-sections into the table of contents, I have prepended the word FAQ
  to the sections of the original FAQ document.  *)

  This FAQ collection might be slightly out of data as it was collected
  while version 3.04d of the ftape driver was the newest one. If any
  answer given in the FAQ contradicts any other statement of this HOWTO,
  then please disregard the answer in the FAQ and drop me
  (<heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>) as well as the maintainer of the Ftape-
  FAQ (Johan De Wit <jo@correct.nl>) a note


  You might encounter references to the following addresses while
  reading this document:


  o  The maintainer of the Ftape FAQ :

     Johan De Wit <jo@correct.nl>

  o  The Ftape maintainer :

     Claus-Justus Heine <claus@momo.math.rwth-aachen.de>

  o  The Ftape Home Page :

     <http://www-math.math.rwth-aachen.de/~LBFM/claus/ftape/>

  o  Mirrors of the Ftape Home Page :

     <http://www.torque.net/ftape/>

     Thanks to Grant R. Guenther <grant@torque.net>

     <http://www.info-systems.com/ftape/>

     Thanks to Jakob Curdes <jc@info-systems.com>

     <http://www.newwave.net/~joshg/ftape/>

     Thanks to Josh Goins <joshg@newwave.net>


  o  The Ftape HOWTO :

     <http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP/HOWTO>

  o  The Ftape Mailing List :

     <linux-tape@vger.rutgers.edu>


  There is surely quite a lot missing. Please feel free to improve this
  FAQ.  The preferred way of doing this is to post to the Ftape Mailing
  List in case you have a question that isn't answered here.

  Also, if you are already reading the list regularly and have the
  impression that some questions occur again and again, feel free to
  send that question and possibly an answer in the format indicated
  below to the maintainer of the Ftape FAQ AND to Ftape Mailing List.

  If you make FAQ related postings, then please DON'T FORGET to prepend
  the word "[FAQ]" to the subject of your posting. Please don't add the
  word "FAQ" to the subject if you post something that isn't related to
  the FAQ.

  That's all for now.

  Claus-Justus Heine.


  10.  FAQ: "Compiling and installing Ftape" related questions !



  10.1.  What Ftape version should I use?


  Always the latest stable version which is _supposed_ to be available
  from ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/kernel/tapes and http://www-
  math.math.rwth-aachen.de/~LBFM/claus/ftape/

  At time of this writing the latest stable version is ftape-4.02.

  <answer from Claus Heine>

  10.2.  I'm having problems getting my XYZ drive to run under the
  2.0.xx kernel with the built-in driver.  How do I fix this?


  The default version of Ftape included in the 2.0.xx kernel sources is
  2.08 or 2.09 and is very out of date.  Please update the Ftape drivers
  to the latest from the Ftape Home Page.

  <answer from Tim Jones>

  10.3.  I'm running Linux/SMP and the system just freezes when trying
  to access the Ftape devices!


  You need to add -D__SMP__ to the KERNEL_OPT variable in the file
  MCONFIG. In newer ftape versions you only need to uncomment a certain
  line in the MCONFIG file.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  10.4.  Why does depmod complain about "undefined symbols"?


  Ignore the depmod error messages. The problem is that the Ftape
  modules have to be compiled without the version checksum feature (i.e.
  CONFIG_MODVERSIONS) with 2.0.* kernels. This causes no problem, even
  when the modules are used with a kernel that has support for this
  feature; only that depmod wrongly complains about undefined symbols.
  Ignore the complaints of depmod and try to insert the modules despite
  of these complaints:


       modprobe zftape



  If this fails, something is wrong.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  10.5.  "insmod" says the kernel version is wrong


  The insmod program can check the kernel version against the version
  that Ftape was compiled for in two ways: It can directly compare the
  kernel version number recorded in the Ftape module against the version
  of the running kernel, or, if both the kernel and Ftape is compiled
  with versioned symbols, compare the version of the used kernel
  symbols.

  If you have upgraded your version of GCC to v2.7.0 or later, you must
  recompile the modules utilities with gcc v2.7.x.

  Newer versions of insmod allows you to "force" insertion of a module
  into the kernel, even though the version string is incorrect.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.6.  "insmod" says that kernel 1.2.0 and 1.2.0 differ


  Did you remember to apply the ksyms.c patch to the kernel?  If not,
  read the README.linux-1.2 file in the source distribution.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.7.  Trying to compile Ftape gives me the error "modversions.h: no
  such file or directory"


  The modversions.h file is created when the kernel is compiled with the
  configuration item CONFIG_MODVERSIONS turned on.  With this option
  enabled, the file will be created during the make dep step.

  One more handy tip is that a make mrproper will remove
  /usr/include/linux/modversions.h.  You will need to reconfig the
  kernel and do a make dep to get the file back.


  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.8.  What is this versioned symbols stuff anyway?


  When you say `yes' to CONFIG_MODVERSIONS during `make config', all the
  symbols exported by the kernel, i.e: the symbols that the loadable
  modules can "see", are augmented to include a checksum across the
  types of the call/return parameters.  This allows insmod to detect
  whether the definition of a variable or function in the kernel has
  changed since the time when Ftape was compiled.

  This ensures a high degree of safety, such that you do not crash the
  kernel because you used an outdated module with your kernel.

  If you enable CONFIG_MODVERSIONS in the kernel, make sure you have

  -DMODVERSIONS -include /usr/include/linux/modversions.h


  uncommented in the MODULE_OPT line in the Ftape Makefile.  Conversely,
  if you do not have CONFIG_MODVERSIONS enabled, make sure you have it
  commented out.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.9.  I seem to be getting sftape instead of zftape. When I run "ftmt
  status" command, I get output that the Ftape docs says corresponds to
  sftape ( /dev/qft0: Invalid argument ). Why?


  There are (at least) two possible sources of the problem:

  o  All Ftape-3.* versions prior to 3.04 install the modules into


       /lib/modules/misc
       instead of
       /lib/modules/uname -r/misc



  As modprobe searches in /lib/modules/misc/ last there might be an old
  ftape.o module floating around in /lib/modules/ uname -r/misc which
  modprobe finds first (uname -r stands for the kernel version).  Remove
  the old ftape.o module.

  o  Your kernel has support for Ftape compiled in. Reconfigure your
     kernel without support for Ftape (CONFIG_FTAPE) and recompile and
     install it.

  <answer from Claus Heins>


  10.10.  My Ditto DASH/FC-20/Exabyte Accelerator card works under
  Microsoft Windows, but I get a drive not found type of error in
  /var/log/messages when trying to use it under Linux.


  You are probably trying to use the same IRQ and DMA settings as your
  on-board FDC. This does not work in versions of Ftape prior to 3.03b.
  Please update the Ftape Drivers to the latest from the Ftape Home
  Page.
  <answer from Tim Jones>


  10.11.  Ftape DMA transfers gives ECC errors


  Sadly to say there are some SVGA cards and Ethernet cards that do not
  decode their addresses correct.  This typically happens when the Ftape
  buffers are in the range 0x1a0000 to 0x1c0000.  Somehow, the DMA write
  cycles get clobbered and every other byte written gets a bad value
  (0xff).  These problems are reported to happen with both SVGA and
  Ethernet cards.  We know of at least one (bad?) ATI 16bit VGA card
  that caused this.

  The easiest solution is to put the card in an 8bit slot (it is often
  not enough to reconfigure the card to 8bit transfers).  Moving the
  Ftape buffer away from the VGA range is only a partial solution; All
  DMA buffers used in Linux can have this problem!  Let us make this one
  clear: This has nothing to do with the Ftape software.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.12.  Help! I'm getting 'dmaalloc() failed' in my syslog file.


  You should only see this is you are trying to insmod the ftape.o
  module.  Try running swapout first.  It is provided with the
  standalone Ftape source.  It doesn't appear in the Ftape source that's
  provided with the kernel.

  Here's an example of how you can set your rc.local file to use it.



       # Install the Floppy Tape Driver
       if [ -f /boot/modules/`uname -r`/misc/ftape.o ]; then
          echo Installing ftape for Linux `uname -r`
          swapout
          insmod /boot/modules/`uname -r`/misc/ftape.o
       fi



  Please note that you won't have this type of problem if you compile
  the Ftape driver into the kernel.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.13.  Syslogd works overtime when running Ftape


  The compile-time options NO_TRACE and NO_TRACE_AT_ALL in Ftape control
  the amount of system logging.  Add whichever is appropriate to the
  FTAPE_OPT line in the Makefile and recompile.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  10.14.  How do I change the trace-level?


  There are three ways you can do this (in order of personal
  preference).
  While we're at it, here are the meanings of the various trace levels.


  o  0 Bugs

  o  1 + Errors

  o  2 + Warnings

  o  3 + Information

  o  4 + More information

  o  5 + Program flow

  o  6 + FDC/DMA info

  o  7 + Data flow

  o  8 + Everything else


  1. Using insmod to change trace-level

     If you are using the modules mechanism to load the Ftape driver,
     you can specify the tracing level as an option to the insmod
     command.


               /sbin/insmod ftape.o tracing=<tracing-level>



  2. Using mt to change trace-level

     The Ftape driver has a hack in it that allows the fsr option in mt
     to be used to set the tracing level.  zftape does not have this
     hack.


               mt -f /dev/ftape fsr <tracing-level>



  The use of the fsr command in mt is a hack, and will probably disap-
  pear or change with time.

  3. Recompiling to change trace-level

     The file tracing.c contains a line int tracing = 3;.  Change the 3
     to whatever is appropriate and recompile.

  <From the Ftape-Howto>


  10.15.  I'm having problems with Ftape.  I'm using the latest version
  of Ftape from the Ftape Home Page and believe that I've located a real
  bug. What should I do?


  Check the Ftape Home Page.  for an even newer version. Then check the
  FAQ contained in the that package if your problem is listed there.
  Next, try to check if the manual that comes with the Ftape
  distribution mentions your problem.
  There is no need to read the entire manual, simply check the "Concept
  Index" if it contains a keyword that might be related to your problem,
  then jump to the proper location in the manual.

  If you are still convinced you've found a bug, then post a general
  question describing the problem to the Linux-Tape Mailing List , but
  do not attach your entire Ftape error-log. If we've seen the problem
  before, we'll let you know where the resolution effort stands.  If we
  haven't, the Ftape maintainer will most likely request that you send
  him the entire Ftape error-log (snipped from your system messages
  file).

  <answer from Tim Jones>


  11.  FAQ: "Using Ftape" related questions !



  11.1.  How fast is Ftape ?


  You can achieve quite respectable backup and restore speeds with
  Ftape: a Colorado DJ-20 and an Adaptec 1542CF controller, has been
  measured at 4.25Mbyte/min sustained data transfer rate (no
  compression) across a 70Mbyte tar archive, while comparing the archive
  on the tape with data on an IDE disk.  The speed of Ftape is mostly
  dependent on the data transfer rate of your FDC: The AHA1542CF has a
  ``post-1991 82077'' FDC, and it will push 1Mbit/sec at the tape drive.
  If you have an FDC which can only deliver 500Kbit/sec data rates, you
  will see half the transfer rate (well, roughly).



  11.2.  When I write to some of my tapes, they seem to spend a lot of
  time "shoe-shining," or repositioning instead of streaming.  Is some-
  thing wrong with my system?


  There has been a few reports of "shoeshining".  This is when the tape
  just seems to run back and forth endlessly.  This has been seen on a
  Jumbo 250 (74407.3051@compuserve.com) and on an Iomega 250 Ditto
  Insider (tom@opus.cais.com). In the latter case it has been narrowed
  own to using an ELF Linux and running off a SCSI hard disk (connected
  to an Adaptec 1542cf).  Please contact me if you have an update to
  this problem.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>

  Probably not. If you are backing up a large number of < 2K files,
  you're just going to have to live with it.  In this event, the
  repositions are caused by file system access overhead. If you are
  backing up a normal system's files, this may be caused by slop or
  media stretching in the tape cartridge. By simply retensioning the
  tape, you should see this go away. Try


       ftmt -f /dev/zqft0 reten



  to retension the tape. If retensioning doesn't solve this, and it's
  only happening on certain tapes, it might be wise to replace the tapes
  in question.

  <answer from Tim Jones>

  If you use afio as your backup tool you can set it to write a very
  large number of buffers in one hit by using the -c flag. Make it large
  enough so that you supply enough data for most of a single end-to-end
  pass over the tape.  For my system, the following streams quite nicely
  - stopping relatively few times per tape pass on an unloaded system:


       find /usr/local -xdev -print | afio -o -v -f -b 10240 -c 800 /dev/qft0



  In my case I'm writing 800 x 10240 bytes per tape write, i.e. about
  8MB.  haven't experimented that much with these settings - so someone
  might like to establish more optimal ones.

  Presumably other backup utilities could be modified to use a similar
  technique.

  <answer by Michael Hamilton>

  GNU tar doesn't use buffering in this way. The commercial backup
  program "bru" is able to multi-buffer using shared memory; this works
  only when writing compressed archive with bru (regardless whether you
  use Ftape's builtin compression)

  Another way to overcome the problem might be to use more dma buffers
  in the Ftape kernel driver like:


       mt -f /dev/qft0 setdrvbuffer $((6*32786))



  $((6*32786)) should be expanded by your shell when using a Bourne com-
  patible one. This has a negative impact on the system's memory pool:
  Ftape's dma buffers cannot be used by any other part of the kernel nor
  by any other application. And kernel memory cannot be swapped out. If
  you decide to use this kind of multi-buffering then you should unload
  the driver as soon as it isn't needed any longer.

  <answer by Claus Heine>


  11.3.  Do I have to reboot to the DOS world to format tapes?


  Not if you are using the latest version of the Ftape drivers from  the
  Ftape Home Page.

  To format a QIC-80, TR-1, TR-3, QICWide 3010 or 3020 tape, get the
  latest version of ftape and the latest version of the ftape-tools
  package (from the same location) and read the documentation of the
  ftformat utility which is included in the ftape-tools package.

  (* Do not try to format Ditto 2GB tapes.  *)

  (* Do not try to format Ditto Max or Max Pro tapes.  *)

  <answers from Tim Jones and Claus Heine>



  11.4.  Is it possibly to format Ditto 2GB tapes with ftape?


  It isn't possible to format Ditto 2GB tapes with Ditto 2GB tape drive,
  and it isn't possible at all to re-format Ditto 2GB tapes in a way
  that they still can be used by a Ditto 2GB tape drive.

  This is a hardware limitation of the Ditto 2GB tape drive. It can't be
  helped at the software level, i.e. it isn't ftape's fault.


  11.5.  Is it possibly to format Ditto Max or Max Pro tapes with ftape?


  No, the Ditto Max can't format tapes.

  This is a hardware limitation of the Ditto Max (Pro) tape drive. It
  can't be helped at the software level, i.e. it isn't ftape's fault.


  11.6.  Ftape detects more bad sectors than DOS on QIC-3020 tapes


  If you look at the difference, you will notice that Ftape always
  detects 2784 sectors more than DOS.

  The number that Ftape reports is correct (of course :-). Each
  correctly formatted QIC-3020 tape has 2784 sectors at fixed positions
  that are marked in the bad sector map. To quote from the specs:


       Tracks 5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23,25 and 27 within 4 seg-
       ments of either EOT or BOT are prone to increased error
       rates due to hole imprints.  Therefore, these regions shall
       be mapped as bad at format time and entered in the bad sec-
       tor map by indicating that all sectors within the identified
       segments are bad.


  This gives 12 tracks * 2 * 4 segments * 29 sectors == 2784 sectors.

  So Ftape choose to report the real number of sectors that cannot be
  used on the tape, while DOS gives a more optimistic number giving a
  better indication of tape quality.  (Ftape's behavior might change in
  the future to detect correct formatting and display the separate
  numbers. It has rather low priority though).

  QIC-3010 are alike QIC-3020 tapes regarding this.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  11.7.  Is it ok that I'm not hearing the tape move when I do a fsf or
  a bsf with mt?


  Yes.  The driver merely updates an internal counter when those
  commands are issues.  The tape should move to the proper location on
  the next read or write access to the tape drive.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>



  11.8.  Why does my XYZ backup program complain about "Invalid argu-
  ment" errors?


  zftape requires the data to be written in multiples of a fixed minimal
  block size. This is a very usual behavior for a tape device. There are
  three ways to get rid of those errors:

  o  set Ftape's block size to the block size used by the backup
     program. The example below works for "afio":


       mt -f /dev/qft0 setblk 5120



  o  If you don't want to use Ftape's built in compression you can also
     use


       mt -f /dev/qft0 setblk 0



  to switch Ftape to variable block size mode and be able to write the
  data in arbitrary portions to the tape (BUT: the builtin compression
  doesn't work with this setting). When you intend to use "KBackup" then
  this is the only way to make it work together with Ftape (it _may_
  work, don't know if it does)

  o  tell your backup program about Ftape's default block size of 10k
     (which is also the default of GNU tar). For "afio" you can use the
     following command line switch:


       afio -b 10k ...



  You may want to read the section "Tape blocks" of the manual (use its
  "Concept index" to directly jump to that section)

  When using GNU tar's builtin compression with GNU tar versions prior
  to tar-1.12 one needs to run tar with the --block-compress switch to
  re-block the output to the tape.  Otherwise tar will compress the data
  it reads, and write it in arbitrary portions to the tape.



       Example :

       tar -czvf /dev/qft0 --block-compress /etc



  WARNING: One shouldn't use tar's builtin compression with large
  backups as it makes the entire data stream one huge compressed block.
  If such archives are corrupted right at the beginning it will be very
  difficult to recover.

  <answer by Claus Heine>

  11.9.  I/O errors and FDC - some explanations.


  When you get next messages, this could be interesting for you !


  o  fdc-io.c (ft_handle_perpend) - Your FDC does not support QIC-3020.

  o  Cannot write to /dev/qft0: I/O error

  The explanations:

  "FDC" menas "Floppy Disk Controller". The problem is that your floppy
  disk controller must be able to support something that is called
  "perpendicular mode" to be able to read and write QIC-3020/QIC-3010
  cartridges (i.e. TR-3 cartridges). To my knowledge all FDCs that are
  capable of at least 1Mbit/sec data transfer rate also support
  "perpendicular mode" ("perpendicular" refers to the direction of
  magnetization of the ferro-magnetic particles on the tape).

  This means that you need to purchase another FDC. Either look around
  some computer stores and ask for an IO controller cards that is able
  to support 2.88 Mb floppies (which imlies 1Mbit data transfer rate and
  perpendicular mode).

  Or get one of the so called "high speed" controllers that even support
  2Mbit/sec data transfer rate. Those controllers are based on an Intel
  82078 FDC. Iomega sells such a card under the name "Ditto Dash". I
  think Exabyte sells their 2Mbit controllers separately, too, whereas
  Seagate ships its TR-3 drives (i.e. the TST-3200) together with such a
  controller.


  <answer from Claus Heine>


  11.10.  Why do I get "/dev/qft0: No such device" errors?


  I assume that the following is the problem: The Ftape module is loaded
  OK into the kernel:


       /usr/src/ftape-3.03b-970603# lsmod
        Module         Pages    Used by
        ftape             22            0



  but then this happens:


       $ ftmt -f /dev/qft0 status
       ftmt: /dev/qft0: No such device



  Solution You need to load the zftape.o module as well. With Ftape-3.*
  the ftape.o module doesn't implement the VFS interface. This is done
  by zftape.o.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  11.11.  I get "device busy" when I make multiple backups on a tape
  using some script.


  The "device busy" messages can only occur while the Ftape devices are
  still held open by some program. As soon as the close() system call
  has completed the busy flag is cleared. May be "bru" or some other
  program has still forked off a child that dies delayed?

  Yes, this will reproduce the problem, it seems:


       tar -cvvzf /dev/nqft0 --block-compress ; mt rewind



  You can skip the "--block-compress" if using the most recent version
  of GNU tar.

  However, this is not a bug of Ftape. It seems that the parent tar
  process exits before its child has closed the tape device. I know,
  however, from hacking the tar code ages ago, that tar properly waits
  for its parent to die.

  However, the busy message simply means that the "busy" variable is
  still held at 1 (zftape/zftape-init.c). And this simply means that
  there still is a process hanging around that holds the tape device
  open.

  I think I have it (only for the case of tar 'cause I have the source
  code.

  If on uses tar with compression, then it forks a child which will
  become the compressor bei execing  "gzip" or whatever. Before the call
  to execlp() the child will fork off a grand child of its parent tar.
  That grandchild will do the actual tape I/O.


       tar - fork() - write to child tar
               |
             child tar - fork() - gzip (will pipe to grand child tar)
                           |
                         grand child tar - open archive.



  Now, parent tar only waits for its child to die. gzip surely doesn't
  wait for the grand child as the gzip is a result of an execlp().

  What I don't know is whether the grand child should be implicitly
  waited for by the parent tar, or if the wait() function also waits for
  grand childs.

  But this seems to be the problem: the parent tar already has exited
  while its grandchild still is busy closing the archive. One hardly
  will notice this problem if the close() happens fast (i.e. regular
  files, block devices, also other tape devices?), but it isn't a bug in
  Ftape, but either in the backup programs or in the kernel or maybe
  libc exit code.

  Don't know if the considerations above also apply to bru. If there is
  no grandchild and the parent process properly waits for its childs
  then there shouldn't be a problem.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  11.12.  How do I "..." with tar?


  These are really tar questions: Please read the man page and the info
  page.  If you have not got it either, try


       tar  --help 2>&1 | less



  If your version of tar is v1.11.1 or earlier, consider upgrading to
  v1.11.8 - This version can call GNU zip directly (i.e.: it supports
  the -z option) and has an elaborate help included.  Also, it compiles
  right out of the box on Linux.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  11.13.  What block-size should I use with tar ?


  When using compression, and in all general, it can be a benefit to
  specify to tar, that it should block the output into chunks.  Since
  Ftape cuts things into 29Kbyte blocks, saying `-b58' should be
  optimum.

  "Why 29Kbyte?", I hear you cry.  Well, the QIC-80 standard specifies
  that all data should be protected by an Error Correcting Code (ECC)
  code.  The code specified in the QIC-80 standard is known as a Reed-
  Solomon (R-S) code.  The R-S code takes 29 data bytes and generates 3
  parity bytes.  To increase the performance of the ECC code, the parity
  bytes are generated across 29 1Kbyte sectors.  Thus, Ftape takes
  29Kbytes of data, adds 3Kbytes of ECC parity, and writes 32Kbytes to
  the tape at a time.  For this reason, Ftape will always read and write
  32K byte blocks to be able to detect (and correct) data errors.

  If you are curious, and wish to know more, look in the ecc.c and ecc.h
  files, for an explanation of the code and a reference to a textbook on
  Reed-Solomon codes.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  11.14.  Where can I find the tar/mt/cpio/dd binaries - sources - man-
  pages?


  All of these tools have been developed by the GNU project, and the
  source (and man page) can be fetched from just-about any ftp site in
  the world (including ftp.funet.fi, tsx-11.mit.edu, and
  sunsite.unc.edu).  In any case they can be fetched from the official
  GNU home site: prep.ai.mit.edu [18.71.0.38]:/pub/gnu.  The latest
  versions (as of September 12 1996) are:



  cpio:   2.4.2 (cpio-2.4.2.tar.gz)
  dd:     3.13 (fileutils-3.13.tar.gz)
  mt:     2.4.2 (cpio-2.4.2.tar.gz)
  tar:    1.11.8 (tar-1.11.8.tar.gz)
  gzip:   1.2.4 (gzip-1.2.4.tar.gz)



  They all compile out of the box on Linux v1.0.4 / libc v4.5.19 / gcc
  v2.5.8.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  11.15.  If I use tapers compression, is it a bad idea to use the com-
  pression with zftape, or would it be better to not use tapers compres-
  sion, and let zftape do it?


  It is not bad as such to compress data twice (which would be the case
  when using tapers compression together with zftape's compression) but
  it doesn't make any sense. You won't gain much further compression,
  but only waste CPU cycles.

  Tapers compression should be quite safe, as taper compresses single
  files; in contrast to tar -czf ... which makes the entire data stream
  a large compressed block of data, which is really a bad thing with
  serious backups as a single bad byte at the beginning of the archive
  can make the entire archive unusable, well, it will be at least quite
  difficult to recover.

  <Answer from Claus Heine>


  11.16.  How does zftape compression compare to say gzip -9?


  gzip -9 is better (i.e. one gains higher compression). zftape's
  compression is comparable with the Un*x compress program, but should
  be faster, and is faster than gzip.

  <Answer from Claus Heine>


  11.17.  I don't trust compression, but hear that the sftape interface
  is going away. What should I do?


  Use the zftape interface, but don't load the zft-compressor module.
  The device then becomes /dev/qft0.

  <answer from Tim Jones>


  11.18.  Ftape says "This tape has no 'Linux raw format"


  You get this complaint if you haven't erased your freshly formatted
  tape.  This is because Ftape expect a "magic header" on the tape, to
  be able that it is allowed to interpret the header segment in its own
  way (eg: file marks).  To remove the problem, say

  mt -f /dev/nftape erase


  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  11.19.  Can I exchange tapes with someone using DOS?


  No.  The DOS software conforms to the QIC-80 specs about the layout of
  the DOS filesystem, and it should(?)  be a small problem to write a
  program that can read/write the DOS format.  In fact, I'd bet that
  creating a nice user interface would be a bigger problem.

  <From the Ftape-Howto>


  11.20.  How does `mt eom' work when you've started overwriting a tape
  in the middle?


  (EOM is "End Of recorded Media", the position right after all data
  already recorded to the tape)

  One cannot use tape "files" like files on an ordinary file system.

  In principle, a tape doesn't allow anything but appending new data at
  EOM.  However, if one positiones just in the middle of the already
  recorded data AND starts writing, then the driver first deletes all
  following files (thus moving the EOM to the actual position) and then
  starts writing.

  Thus, the new EOM after finishing the write process, is then after the
  newly recorded data.

  One of the consequences of the above is, of course, that writing to
  the tape in the middle of the already recorded area, is destructive in
  the sense, that it not only overwrites the "file" the tape is
  positioned at, but also deletes all following files.

  <from the Ftape-Howto> <Answer from Claus Heine>


  11.21.  When I made backups before using taper, under the 2.0.29 ftape
  my drive didn't support fsf, under the new zftape it does, why would
  this be, and what exactly is fsf ?


  It probably didn't work before because you didn't use a


       mt -f /dev/rft0 erase



  before writing data to the cartridge. THIS ISN'T necessary any more.

  But, hey, what does mt fsf? Tape drives don't store files in the sense
  that you can use

  cp somefile /dev/my_what_ever_tape


  or be able to mount the tape drive like you could mount a harddisk.
  You can't do nothing with a tape drive but write data to it in a
  sequential manner.


  As this is quite inconvenient, somebody invented something which is
  known under the name file mark or eof mark (eof == End Of File). Those
  marks don't separate files that have been backed up to the tape
  device, but only separate blocks of data (whatever data that might
  be).

  Normally, the kernel tape device drivers take care of writing file
  marks when the tape device is closed, i.e.


       tar -cf /dev/nqft0 /bin
       tar -cf /dev/nqft0 /etc
       mt -f /dev/nqft0 rewind



  would result in a backup of all files under /bin and /etc. When the
  first tar finishes, the kernel driver will take care of writing a file
  mark to the tape at the the current tape position, and when the second
  tar process has finished, another file mark is written to the tape
  cartridge at that position.

  Now, the sense of those file marks is, that it is possible to skip
  between different archives on the tape more quickly than would be
  possible with reading the data back.

  The commands to do that are:

     mt fsf
        fast skip to the next file mark towards EOT (End Of Tape)

     mt bsf
        fast skip to the next file marks towards BOT (Begin Of Tape)

  Thus, to extract the second archive in the example above, one doesn't
  need to read the first archive back, but can proceed as follows:


       mt -f /dev/nqft0 rewind
       mt -f /dev/nqft0 fsf
       tar -xvf /dev/nqft0



  <Answer from Claus Heine>


  11.22.  What exactly is the difference between ftape, and zftape?


  When Ftape was young there were two versions of the floppy tape
  driver, one of them was called zftape because of its built-in user-
  transparent on-the-fly compression. Whether such a thing is a feature
  or a bug ('cause this needn't be done in kernel space) is another
  question. However, the ioctl interface and file mark handling provided
  by zftape was much better and had less bugs. And zftape allows to use
  floppy tape cartridges with different OS. Well, you can't exchange
  data, but zftape won't overwrite volumes created by your Windoze
  program, and vice versa.

  Nowadays, Ftape is name of the entire floppy tape driver package AND
  ftape.o is the file-name of the kernel module that implements the low-
  level hardware support. zftape has ceased to exist as a separate
  package, but the new Ftape versions (since ftape-3.00) contain a
  zftape.o module that needs to be loaded on top of ftape.o (i.e. you
  need to load BOTH modules to be able to access your floppy tape drive)
  and implements the file system interface and the advanced (?) features
  of the previous verions zftape.

  <Answer from Claus Heine>


  11.23.  What is the difference between a rewinding, and non rewinding
  drive?


  Well, the rewinding tape devices rewind the tape to BOT (Begin Of
  Tape) when the device is closed, i.e.


       tar -cvf /dev/qft0 /bin



  will rewind the tape cartridge when the tar job has finished. In con-
  trast,


       tar -cvf /dev/nqft0 /bin



  will NOT rewind the tape cartridge and leave the tape R/W head at its
  current position.

  Rewinding devices should be used when performing a single backup, non-
  rewinding devices can be useful when doing multiple backups as one
  doesn't need to space to EOM (End Of recorded Media) before appending
  another archive.

  Non-rewinding devices MUST be used when sending any of the tape motion
  command to the tape drive, such as


       mt -f /dev/nqft0 fsf



  , because when the mt process finishes then the tape device is closed
  which would result in rewinding the cartridge with the rewinding
  devices.

  <Answer from Claus Heine>


  11.24.  Can someone tell me how to use mt to rewind my TR-3 drive one
  record using zftape record, so I can verify it?


  Well, it depends. If the tape is still positioned inside the volume
  just written, "mt bsf 1" (or equivalently "mt bsf") will backspace
  just to the beginning of that volume (this is how "tar --verify"
  works). If the tape is already positioned AFTER the filemark that
  marks the end of the last written volume, then you need to issue "mt
  bsf 2"


  The logic behind this is as follows: "MTBSF count" backspaces over
  count file marks, stops, and then positions on the EOT side of the
  last skipped file mark. This means, an "mt bsf 2" will position right
  at the beginning of the previous volume.

  <answer form Claus Heine>


  11.25.  By non-rewinding, they mean that it doesn't automatically
  rewind, correct? It doesn't mean that under no circumstances it will
  rewind, right?  I tried using /dev/zqft0, and it instantly rewinds the
  tape.


  You are right: auto-rewind means, the tape is rewound when the tape
  device is closed, non-rewinding  means, the tape isn't automatically
  rewound when the tape device is closed (but you can, of course, use
  the tape motion commands BSF/FSF etc. to position the tape head at
  every position you like).

  <answer form Claus Heine>


  11.26.  What is the difference between what mt considers a record and
  what it considers a file?


  A record is the minimal amount of bytes that will be accepted by the
  tape in one read/write operation (except in "variable block size mode"
  where it just should be the amount of data actually written in a
  single write operation??).

  For zftape every read and write access has to be a multiple of a fixed
  block size (fixed, but tunable with MTSETBLK). This block size is a
  "tape record" (as mentioned in the GNU mt man page and defaults to
  10kb for zftape.

  A "file" (in the sense of the mt man page) is a, well, misleading
  terminus. What is meant is an area of the tape between two file marks.
  This is not a file like a file on the file system, in the sense that
  it could have a name, file access modes, could be moved or copied with
  cp, mv, rm etc.

  Instead, It simply is the area of the tape that was recorded in one
  backup session, its end is marked by a tape file mark, and its
  beginning is delimited by either BOT or the file mark of the previous
  tape "file". That tape "files" are the things that can be skipped with
  the MTBSF/FSF commands.

  <answer form Claus Heine>


  11.27.  Reusing tapes with zftape without reformatting the tape.


  We try to answer the followong questions :

  o  Is there a good way to erase, as in remove the data or at least the
     volumes from a tape, without reformating?

  o  Can you overwrite the last volume on a tape with making a mess out
     of it?

  o  Can you overwrite the last several volumes without making a mess?


  o  Can you delete the last volume?

  If you want to "erase" an entire cartridge, then simply do:



       mt -f /dev/qft0 erase



  This will erase the volume table (i.e. the "file marks").

  Pre-ftape-3.x releases of zftape and ftape used to allow overwriting
  of already existing volumes on a cartridge. I have removed this
  feature as it was reported that it already has caused data-loss with
  some backup programs.

  If you indeed need to remove some volumes on the tape then you should
  use the



       vtblc



  program that comes with the ftape-tools package which can be down-
  loaded from the same locations as the ftape kernel driver package.
  Please refer to the documentation which is contained in the ftape-
  tools package for more information.

  If you simply want to reuse old tapes, then it suffices to do



       mt rewind



  If the tape is at BOT (Begin Of Tape) then every write access to the
  tape will silently erase all file marks and overwrite the data already
  existing on the tape.

  <answer by Claus Heine>


  11.28.  This script implements a simple contents listing for the
  zftape package using the "MTIOCVOLINFO" ioctl.


  Here is as little perl/bash script that lists the contents of a
  cartridge using the zftape specific "volinfo" ioctl. Hope this shows
  how to handle this kind of stuff.

  What it basically does is the following:


  1. Rewind the cartridge

  2. Issue the volinfo command:



     claus@thales:~$ mt volinfo
     file number          = 1
     block size           = 10240
     physical space used  =  522.0 kilobytes
     real size of volume  =  520.0 kilobytes



  Parse the ouput and place the values in appropriate variables

  3. Skip to the next volume with "mt fsf"

  4. Exit if this gives an error (EOD), otherwise "goto 2)"

  The Perl Script



  #!/usr/bin/perl
  #
  #     Copyright (C) 1997 Claus-Justus Heine
  #
  # This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  # the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
  # any later version.
  #
  # This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  # GNU General Public License for more details.
  #
  # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  # along with this program; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
  # the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
  #
  #   This script implements a simple contents listing for the zftape
  #   package using the MTIOCVOLINFO ioctl.
  #

  $version = <<EOT;
  listtape-1.0 -- a perl script to list the contents of a floppy tape cartridge
  under Linux using the zftape driver

  RCS \$Revision: 1.2 $
  RCS \$Date: 1998/08/30 13:44:03 $
  EOT

  $tapedev = "/dev/tape";
  $usage = <<EOT;
  Usage: listtape [options ...]

  Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are mandatory or optional
  for short options too.

  -f, --file=FILE       Tape device to use. Default is  "/dev/tape".
  -h, --help            Print this help.
  -?                    Same as '-h'.
  --usage           Same as '-h'.
  -V, --version         Print version information.

  Author: Claus-Justus Heine <claus\@momo.math.rwth-aachen.de>
  EOT

  while ($ARGV[0] =~ /^-/) {
  $_ = shift;
  if (/--file/) {$_ = shift; $tapedev = $_; next;}
  if (/-f/) {$_ = shift; $tapedev = $_; next;}
  if (/--help/) { print $usage; exit 0; }
  if (/-h/) { print $usage; exit 0; }
  if (/--usage/) { print $usage; exit 0; }
  if (/-\?/) { print $usage; exit 0; }
  if (/--version/) { print $version; exit 0; }
  if (/-V/) { print $version; exit 0; }
  die $usage;
  }

  &open_tape($tapedev, "status");
  while(<FTMT>)
  {
  $online = 1 if (/.*online.*/);
  }

  if (! $online) { die "No cartridge present.\n"; }
  &mtop($tapedev, "rewind");

  printf "%11s%12s%20s%20s\n",
  "file number", "block size", "volume size", "tape space";

  while (1)
  {
  &open_tape($tapedev, "volinfo");
  while (<FTMT>) {
  if (/^file number\s*=\s*([0-9]*)$/) { $filenumber = $1; }
  if (/^block size\s*=\s*([0-9]*)$/) { $blocksize = $1; }
  if (/^physical space used\s*=\s*([[0-9]*.*)/) { $rawsize = $1; }
  if (/^real size of volume\s*=\s*([[0-9]*.*)/) { $size = $1; }
  }
  close(FTMT);
  if (&mtop($tapedev, "fsf 1") != 0) {
  &mtop($tapedev,"rewind");
  print "\nRemaining space: $rawsize\n";
  print "Tape block size: $blocksize\n";
  exit 0;
  }
  printf "%6d          %5d  %20s%20s\n",
      $filenumber, $blocksize, $size, $rawsize;
  }

  sub mtop
  {
  local ($tape, $operation) = @_;
  local ($exitval);
  system "ftmt -f $tape $operation > /dev/null 2>&1";
  }

  sub open_tape
  {
  local ($tape, $operation) = @_;
  local ($command);

  $command = "ftmt -f " . $tape . " " . $operation . " |";
  open(FTMT, $command) || die "Couldn't open $command -- $!\n";
  }



  The Bash Script



  ______________________________________________________________________

  #! /bin/bash
  #
  #     Copyright (C) 1997 Claus-Justus Heine
  #
  # This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  # the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
  # any later version.
  #
  # This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  # GNU General Public License for more details.
  #
  # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  # along with this program; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
  # the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
  #
  #   This script implements a simple contents listing for the zftape
  #   package using the MTIOCVOLINFO ioctl.
  #

  #
  # insert better option parsing here
  #
  TAPEDEV=${1-/dev/tape}

  if ! echo $TAPEDEV | grep "/dev/n"
  then
  TAPEDEV=/dev/n$(basename $TAPEDEV)
  fi

  if ! [ -c $TAPEDEV ]
  then
  echo $TAPEDEV is not a character device!  1>&2
  exit 1
  fi

  if ! mt -f $TAPEDEV rewind
  then
  echo Could not rewind $TAPEDEV - no cartridge present?  1>&2
  exit 1
  fi

  echo -e "\nContents of $TAPEDEV:\n"

  printf "%11s%12s%20s%20s\n" "file number" "block size" "volume size" "tape space"

  trap "rm -f /tmp/$0.$$" exit

  while true
  do
  if ! foo=$(mt -f $TAPEDEV volinfo |cut -f 2 -d =)
  then
  echo $TAPEDEV doesn\'t seem to be a floppy tape device 1>&2
  exit 1
  fi
  #
  # "echo foo | read foo" will not work as the "read foo" is executed in
  # another shell.
  #
  echo $foo > /tmp/$0.$$
  read file blksz used usedunit size sizeunit < /tmp/$0.$$
  if ! mt -f $TAPEDEV fsf 1 > /dev/null 2>&1
  then
  echo -e "\nRemaining space: $used $usedunit"
  echo -e "Tape block size: $blksz"
  if ! mt -f $TAPEDEV rewind
  then
      echo Rewind of $TAPEDEV failed 1>&2
      exit 1
  fi
  exit 0
  fi
  printf "%6d          %5d  %20s%20s\n"\
  $file $blksz "$size $sizeunit" "$used $usedunit"
  done
  ______________________________________________________________________



  <answer from Claus Heine>


  12.  FAQ: "Tape and Drivers" related questions !



  12.1.  What are good makers of Travan tapes?


  I was the UNIX Product Manager at Archive Corp (Prior to the
  Conner/Seagate mess) and we performed extensive tests of tape media
  for compatibility certification, including retentivity, flaking and
  length consistancy.  Based on the results of the tests, we selected
  the best of these certified manufacturers' products to private label
  as our own media.  Here is the order in which we selected vendors up
  through 1995 (when I lost contact with the ATI group):


     QIC

        1. 3M (now known as Imation)

        2. QMaxell/Sony (tie)

        3. (BTW - Iomega uses Sony private-labelled media)

     4MM

        1. Fuji

        2. Maxell/Sony (tie - is this a trend?)

     8MM

        1. Fuji/Exabyte - which we believed to be OEM'd Fuji (tie - so
           much for trend!)

        2. Sony

        3. Maxell

     DLT

        1. Maxell

        2. Sony


  Otherwise, we had entries in our search from other vendors which were
  generally a private-labelled version of one of the major labels above.
  The exceptions were Verbatim and DIC.  Both of these manufacturer's
  media had fall-out rates and length discrepancies that were so high
  that we would not certify them and even warned customers about them
  indicating that we could not offer any sort of guarantee that they
  would get a good backup using the media from these manufacturers.

  In addition, since coming to EST, I've found that Verbatim media is
  still not worth the money saved in purchasing it.  We have 11 of their
  TR-Extra and QIC-Extra (QICXL) tapes that were useless after fewer
  than 20 passes each.

  While this is my personal opinion, it is based on over 9 years of
  experience with this very question, I strongly recommend Imation/3M
  media for QIC/Travan user, Fuji media 4MM users, Exabyte/Fuji for 8MM
  and DEC labelled media for DLT users.

  <answer from Tim Jones>


  12.2.  Where can I obtain the QIC standards?


  If you wish to help developing Ftape, or add some utility (e.g. a tape
  formatting program), you will need that appropriate QIC standards.
  The standard(s) to get is: QIC-80, -117, -3010, and 3020.  QIC-117
  describes how commands are sent to the tape drive (including timing
  etc), so you would probably never need it.  QIC-80/3010/3020 describes
  higher level part, such as tape layout, ECC code, standard filesystem.
  You can get the QIC standards from the following address:



       Quarter Inch Cartridge Drive Standards, Inc.
       311 East Carrillo Street
       Santa Barbara, California 93101
       Phone: (805) 963-3853
       Fax:   (805) 962-1541



  Note: They are registered as `Freeman Associates, Inc' in the phone
  book.

  <from the Ftape-Howto>


  12.3.  Is the Iomega Ditto 2GB drive supported?


  Yes, if you are using version ftape-3.x or later of the Ftape drivers
  from the Ftape Home Page or from
  ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/kernel/tapes.

  <answer from Tim Jones>

  As the Ditto 2GB is a Tr-3 tape (though it can only store 1GB instead
  of the 1.6GB you get with a regular Tr-3 drive) you need an FDC (FDC
  means: Floppy Disk Controller) that is capable of at 1Mbit/sec
  transfer rate. You don't need to worry about this if you have an
  accellerator card (i.e. the Ditto Dash controller). Otherwise try to
  purchase an FDC that claims to be capable of driving 2.88Mb floppies
  because this implies that the FDC is capable of 1Mbit transfer rate.

  Ftape prints the maximum data rate of the FDC to the kernel log files
  like this:

  ftape-ctl.c (ftape_init_drive) - Highest FDC supported data rate: 500 Kbps.



  <answer from Claus Heine>


  12.4.  Is the Iomega Ditto Max drive supported?


  Yes, if you are using version ftape-4.02 or later of the Ftape drivers
  from the Ftape Home Page or from
  ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/kernel/tapes.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  12.5.  Is the Iomega Ditto Max Pro drive supported?


  Yes. But if you want to use the 5GB (10GB with compression) cartridges
  you don't need it. With ftape there doesn't seem to be any difference
  between the Ditto Max and the Ditto Max Pro.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  13.  FAQ: Miscellaneous !



  13.1.  How to subscribe to the Ftape Mailing List?


  You can subscribe to that list by sending mail to


       majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu



  with the single line


       subscribe linux-tape



  in its body. Please store the answer you get from majordomo in a safe
  place because it contains instructions how to UNSUBSCRIBE from the
  mailing list.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  13.2.  How to un-subscribe from the Ftape Mailing List?


  Send mail to


  majordomo@vger.rutgers.edu



  with the single line


       unsubscribe linux-tape MY@EMAIL.ADDRESS



  where MY@EMAIL.ADDRESS has to be replaced by the the email address
  that you used when subscribing to the list. Note that you must have
  received an email with instructions how to unsubscribe from the mail-
  ing list at the time you subscribed to it.

  <answer from Claus Heine>


  13.3.  Links to related information.



  <http://www.uwsg.indiana.edu/usai/library/backups.html>

  More links wanted !!!



  14.  Debugging the ftape  driver



  14.1.  The kernel/ ftape  crashes on me when I do `...' - is that a
  bug?


  No, that is a feature ;-)

  Seriously, reliable software do not crash.  Especially kernels do not
  or rather should not crash.  If the kernel crashes upon you when you
  are running ftape, and you can show that it is ftape that is messing
  things up, regard it as a Bug That Should Be Fixed.  Mail the details
  to the maintainer (<heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>) and to the tape list.



  14.2.  OK, it's a bug ...ehhh... feature - How do I submit a report?


  First, make sure you can reproduce the problem.  Spurious errors are a
  pain in the ass, since they are just about impossible to hunt down :-/
  This is a quick check list:


  o  Kernel version, and patches applied

  o  ftape version

  o  tape drive model / manufacturer

  o  Expansion bus type (EISA, ISA, PCI, or VL-bus)

  o  What you did to expose the problem

  o  What went wrong on your system.

  o  Do not delete the kernel and the ftape.o file. I might want you run
     try some patches out or run a different test on your system.

  Increase the tracing level to 4 or 5 and run the command that caused
  problems again (don't do it if your fear that you loose data or damage
  your hardware, there is absolutely no warranty for neither data loss
  nor hardware damage caused by ftape, remember this). Increasing the
  trace level beyond 5 probably doesn't make any sense as it affects the
  timing of the driver in a way that it doesn't work well any more. Get
  the tracing data from the kernel log or /proc/kmsg, depending on where
  you harvest your error messages.  Try to look at what ftape spews out
  at you.  It may look in-comprehensible to you at first, but you can
  get valuable information from the logfile.  Most messages have a
  function name prepended, to make it easier to locate the problem.
  Look through the source, don't just cry ``WOLF!'', without giving it a
  try.  If your version of the kernel (or ftape for that matter), is
  ``old'', when compared to the newest version of the kernel, try to get
  a newer (or even the newest) kernel and see if the problem goes away
  under the new kernel.  When you post your problem report, include the
  information about ftape version, kernel version, expansion bus type
  (ISA, VL-bus, PCI or EISA), bus speed, floppy controller, and tape
  drive.  State exactly what you did, and what happened on your system.
  Some people have experienced that ftape would not run in a PCI based
  box, but ran flawlessly in a normal ISA based 386DX machine (see
  section ``Getting PCI motherboards to work with <tt/ftape/'' on PCI
  machines above)

  Also, please think of the poor souls who actually pay the their
  Internet access (like me): avoid posting a (huge) log from the ftape
  run, without reason.  Instead, you could describe the problem, and
  offer to send the log to the interested parties.

  Send your bug report to <linux-tape@vger.rutgers.edu>. You might also
  want to mail the bug to <heine@math1.rwth-aachen.de>.



  15.  Contributions


  The following is a list of notable folks that have contributed to
  ftape's HOWTO document.  This is a recent addition added by someone
  coming in midstream.  My sincerest apologies if I've inadvertently
  left someone important off the list. You can view anoterh attempt to
  collect such kind of information at Ftape's Hall of Fame

  Johan De Wit <jo@correct.nl>: The maintainer of the Ftape FAQ.

  Kevin Johnson <kjj@pobox.com>: The previous maintainer of the Ftape-
  HOWTO

  Kai Harrekilde-Petersen <khp@dolphinics.no>: The previous maintainer
  of ftape and the HOWTO.


  Andrew Martin <martin@biochemistry.ucl.ac.uk>: Many additions to the
  HOWTO.



  Bas Laarhoven <bas@vimec.nl>: The original author of ftape.







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