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The Indic Fonts HOWTO

Maninder Bali

Dan Scott - Conversion from HTML to DocBook v4.1.2 (XML)
Revision History                                                             
Revision 0.1            2002/01/07             Revised by: mb                
First rendition released by Maninder Bali.                                   


  This is a detailed guide on how to install and use Indic scripts (devanagri
etc.) using UTF-8 encoding under GNU/Linux. This HOWTO is a work in progress.
More sections regarding fonts and other related things shall be added to this
HOWTO in due course of time. Special thanks to Dan Scott for conversion from
HTML to DocBook v4.1.2(XML). Any feedback, sugestions, pointers, gifts, cds,
BMWs will be gladly accepted. All flames will be redirected to /mnt/
praises_for_thee/ for future reference. Be afraid.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Installing the IndiX system
    2.1. Installing IndiX
    2.2. Running Simpm
   
   
3. Devanagri Input and Output setup
    3.1. Linux console
    3.2. X Window System
   
   
4. Locale Setup
    4.1. Files and the kernel
    4.2. Locale environment variables
   
   
5. Applications with Devanagri
    5.1. Browsers
    5.2. Editors
    5.3. Mailers
   
   
6. References and sites
7. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
8. Acknowledgements and Copyright
A. GNU Free Documentation License
    A.1. 0. PREAMBLE
    A.2. 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    A.3. 2. VERBATIM COPYING
    A.4. 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    A.5. 4. MODIFICATIONS
    A.6. 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    A.7. 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    A.8. 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    A.9. 8. TRANSLATION
    A.10. 9. TERMINATION
    A.11. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    A.12. Addendum
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Introduction

  This HOWTO has been written to help you setup your Linux box to use UTF-8
encoding for using various Indic scripts. You will have to install the IndiX
system developed by NCST, Mumbai on your machine in order for you to use
various Indic scripts. I have tested the IndiX system on Exodus GNU/Linux,
RedHat Linux, and Mandrake Linux. Anyone who has tested this system on a
machine running Debian, please let me know and I will include that in this
HOWTO. I want to thank Mr. Keyur Shroff from NCST, Mumbai for allowing me to
modify and redistribute his Devanagri-HOWTO.

  Please note that Exodus GNU/Linux, developed by the good guys at Centurion
Linux, India will ship with the IndiX system installed, thanks to the
Transfer of Technology deal signed by NCST, Mumbai and Centurion Linux Pvt.
Ltd.

  Almost all of the leading GNU/Linux distributions available today have been
localized in various international languages like French, German, Spanish,
Chinese, Arabic, etc. This HOWTO aims at documenting the steps involved in
enabling you to localize your GNU/Linux distribution to Indic scripts of your
choice. To begin with, you must be aware of the complexity involved in
localizing any of the Indian languages. Any Indian language text input
differs from that of English. Perhaps the most significant difference is that
in English, each keystroke maps directly onto a letter where each letter has
a unique code. On the other hand, a 'syllable' - the Indian language
equivalent unit of writing letter is composed of one or more characters
entered through the keyboard.

  The syllable is composed of vowels, consonants, modifiers and other special
graphics signs. These are encoded, just as roman letters are. The user types
in a sequence of vowels, consonants, modifiers and the graphics signs. The
machine then composes these syllables at run time based on language dependent
rules. Every syllable is thus represented in the machine as a unique sequence
of vowels, consonants and modifiers. In a text sequence, these characters are
stored in logical (phonetic) order.

  Indic characters can combine or change shape depending on their context. A
character's appearance is affected by its ordering with respect to other
characters, the font used to render the character, and the application or
system environment. These variables can cause the appearance of Devanagari
characters to be different from their nominal glyphs (used in the code
charts). Additionally, characters cause a change in the order of the
displayed glyphs. This reordering is not commonly seen in non-Indic scripts
and occurs independent of any bi-directional character reordering that might
be required.

  Each syllable has a unique visual representation. However, there are too
many syllables to design glyphs for each one individually. So a font normally
contains certain component glyphs from which a syllable is composed at run
time. The onscreen representation of a syllable is then a composition of
glyphs from the Indian language font. There is no direct mapping of glyph
codes to the consonant, vowel or modifier codes. However, for every syllable
(a sequence of consonants, vowels and modifiers) there is a corresponding
sequence of glyphs. This constitutes a many-to-many mapping from keystrokes
to glyphs as opposed to a simplistic one-to-one mapping in roman scripts.

  Please read the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Unicode-HOWTO.html]
Unicode-HOWTO and visit [http://www.unicode.org/] http://www.unicode.org/ for
more information on the UTF-8 encoding.

  The Indix system developed by NCST, Mumbai enables most applications in X
Windows (irrespective of the toolkit used), to render Indic characters
according to the unicode standard specification. IndiX provides support for
OpenType fonts and Unicode encoding at X Windows level. This enables most of
the existing applications to handle Indic scripts without any modification or
recompilation.

  Once you have installed the IndiX system, following all the steps mentioned
in this HOWTO, you will be able to fly across seven seas and slap that
annoying sailor who keeps goin' hic' hic'... Okay, on a more serious note,
you will be able to enjoy your Linux experience in Devanagri and other Indic
scripts of your choice.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Installing the IndiX system

  You can obtain the IndiX system from NCST, Mumbai site [http://
rohini.ncst.ernet.in/indix/] http://rohini.ncst.ernet.in/indix/. The system
is available in its source as well as binary form. This HOWTO covers the
installation of the IndiX system using the binary files avaiable for
download. At a later stage, I plan to cover the source installation of IndiX
on your box, too. You need to download the following files in order to
install IndiX sucessfully onto your machine:

 

gtk.tar.gz  
indix.tar.gz

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1. Installing IndiX

  NCST has written Simpm ( Simple Package Manager ) that takes care of the
entire installation process on your system. Simpm carries out the following
steps for a binary distribution of the IndiX system:

 1. It reads the names of the files within the distribution by essentially
    running the command tar -tzpPf package.tgz > .package.list
 2. It saves all these files and the file containing the list using the
    command tar -czpPf .old.package.tgz .package.list `cat .package.list`
 3. Simpm then extracts the files from the package and installs them using 
    tar -xzpPf package.tgz

Should you wish to go back to the old system state for any reason, you can
easily do so using tar -xzpPf .old.package.tgz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Running Simpm

  simpm with no arguments/parameters will display its usage.

 
  # simpm -i package.tgz [-d savdir/]                                        
does all the above steps, 1 through 3. The 'i' flag indicates install.
Successful installation will create savdir/.old.package.tgz. If it finds an
existing .old.package.tgz, simpm will not proceed as it means that the IndiX
system has already been installed earlier. However, you can force an IndiX
install by renaming it to a newpackage. Alternatively, you can uninstall the
package and install it again.

 
  # simpm -u package.tgz [-d savdir/]                                        
uninstalls the package. Note, however, that this command will work only if it
finds a readable .old.package.tgz. Having uninstalled the package, simpm will
restore the original files that were overwritten by the package. The
.old.package.tgz will be deleted after the uninstallation so that all
instances of the previous installation are removed. Simpm maintains a log of
all installs and uninstalls in the savdir/simpm.log file.

  To install the IndiX system, all you have to do is (pray and do your
favourite tribal dance) type in the following commands:

 
  # simpm -i /path/to/gtk.tar.gz                                             
  # simpm -i /path/to/indix.tar.gz                                           
and all the necessary files will be backed up, and the IndiX system installed
on your machine. Hurrah.

  Congratulations, o' most precious one, on having installed IndiX system on
your machine. The remainder of this HOWTO will focus on setting up your Linux
environment to support Indic fonts and scripts in X.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Devanagri Input and Output setup

3.1. Linux console

  Devanagari characters do not display properly in a Linux console. However,
NCST has developed ncst-term (a terminal emulator program in X Window System)
which has support for converting keystrokes to UTF-8 before sending them to
the application running in the ncst-term, and for displaying Unicode
characters that the application outputs as UTF-8 byte sequence.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. X Window System

  You need to make some changes in your XF86Config-4 file (usually resides in
/etc/X11/ directory). A sample config file XF86Config-4.indix is installed
along with IndiX system. This file can be found in /etc/X11/ directory.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.1. Devanagri Font

  OpenType is the most suitable font format to render any Indic script
properly. The IndiX system ships with one OpenType font called "raghu" for
Hindi. Anyone can use and distribute this font free-of-cost. You can find
this font in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType/ directory.

  Installing the Indic Fonts:

  In order to install the Indic fonts, you must log in as root. The X Font
Server (xfs) is known to have some problems with the IndiX system, so remove
it from the FontPath of the X Server. This can be achieved by modifying your
XF86Config-4 file (usually in /etc/X11/) and commenting the line in the Files
section and adding /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType/ to the current
FontPath.

  After that, the FontPath should look something similar to this:
  FontPath   "unix/:7100"                                                    
  FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc"                                 
  FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi"                               
  FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi"                                
  FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType"                             
  FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1"                                
Next, in order to make use of the OpenType font you have, load the "freetype"
module at startup. You can achieve this by adding the following line in the
Module section of XF86Config-4 file.
  Load "freetype"                                                            
Make sure you specify the modules search path in the Files section, too.
  ModulePath "/usr/X11R6/lib/modules/fonts"                                  
  ModulePath "/usr/X11R6/lib/modules/drivers"                                
  ModulePath "/usr/X11R6/lib/modules"                                        
  ModulePath "/usr/X11R6/lib"                                                
  ModulePath "/usr/lib"                                                      
Any new Indic fonts you want to install should be placed in the /usr/X11R6/
lib/X11/fonts/TrueType/ directory. Now, change to this directory and run the
following commands:
  $ mkfontdir                                                                
  $ xset fp rehash                                                           
In case you want to place your new Indic fonts in some other directory, you
must use xset to add the new FontPath. Please see the xset man-page for
further assistance. You can check the new installed fonts by running the 
xlsfonts command. In case you don't see any Indic fonts using this command,
you may need to restart X.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2.2. Devanagri Keyboard Layout

  The IndiX system comes with a keyboard map file for xmodmap. You can use
the utility xmodmap to map a Devanagri keyboard. For most distributions, when
you start X, the X-Server will look for a Xmodmap in /etc/X11/ directory. If
that file does not exist, the server will look for a .Xmodmap in your $HOME.
Just putting the .Xmodmap in your $HOME will be okay. When you start the X
server, it will load this file. You can also load .Xmodmap from the command
line:
  $ xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap                                                       

Note If you are using XFree86 version 4.0 or later, you need to add the line 
     XkbDisable in InputDevice section of XF86Config-4 file. You may config  
     the keyboard section like the following sample.                         
       Section "InputDevice"                                                 
       Identifier  "Keyboard0"                                               
       Driver      "keyboard"                                                
       Option      "XkbDisable"                                              
       EndSection                                                            
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Locale Setup

4.1. Files and the kernel

  You can now use any Unicode characters in file names. No kernel or file
utilities need modifications. This is because file names in the kernel can be
anything not containing a null byte, and '/' is used to delimit
subdirectories. When encoded using UTF-8, non-ASCII characters will never be
encoded using null bytes or slashes. All that happens is that file and
directory names occupy more bytes than they contain characters. For example,
a filename consisting of five greek characters will appear to the kernel as a
10-byte filename. The kernel does not know (and does not need to know) that
these bytes are displayed as greek.

  This is the general theory, so long as your files reside on Linux. On
filesystems which are used from other operating systems, you have mount
options to control conversion of filenames to or from UTF-8:

��*�  The "vfat" filesystems has a mount option "utf8". See file /usr/src/
    linux/Documentation/filesystems/vfat.txt. When you give an "iocharset"
    mount option different from the default (which is "iso8859-1"), the
    results with and without "utf8" are not consistent. Therefore, it is not
    I recommend to use the "iocharset" mount option.
   
��*�  The "msdos", "umsdos" filesystems have the same mount option, but
    appear to have no effect.
   
��*�  The "iso9660" filesystem has a mount option "utf8". See file /usr/src/
    linux/Documentation/filesystems/isofs.txt.
   
��*�  Since Linux 2.2.x kernels, the "ntfs" filesystem has a mount option
    "utf8". See file /usr/src/linux/Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt.
   

  The other filesystems (nfs, smbfs, ncpfs, hpfs, etc.) don't convert
filenames; therefore they support Unicode file names in UTF-8 encoding only
if the other operating system supports them. Please note that to enable a
mount option for all future remounts, you add it to the fourth column of the
corresponding /etc/fstab line.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Locale environment variables

  You should have the following environment variables set, containing locale
names:

LANGUAGE
    override for LC_MESSAGES
   
LC_ALL
    override for all other LC_* variables
   
LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_COLLATE, LC_NUMERIC, LC_MONETARY, LC_TIME
    individual variables for: character types and encoding, natural language
    messages, sorting rules, number formatting, money amount formatting, date
    and time display.
   
LANG
    default value for all LC_* variables. (See `man 7 locale' for a detailed
    description.)
   

  In order to tell your system and all applications that you are using UTF-8,
you need to add a codeset suffix of UTF-8 to your locale names. For example,
if you want to run an application in UTF-8 Hindi locale then with bash shell,
you can specify which environment variable to be passed to the application.
  $ LANG=hi_IN.UTF-8 xman                                                    
In order to set locale the Hindi locale globally for a particular user, you
can append the following line in ~/.bashrc file.
  export LANG=hi_IN.UTF-8                                                    
After that you need not to set the LANG environment variable each time you
run a specific application.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Applications with Devanagri

5.1. Browsers

5.1.1. Netscape Navigator

  Netscape 6.01 or later can display HTML documents in UTF-8 encoding. All a
document needs is the following line between the <head> and </head> tags:
  <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">        

  To setup Netscape so that it displays Hindi characters:

 1. Goto, Edit -> Preferences
 2. Select category, Appearance -> Fonts
 3. Select Language encoding "Unicode"
 4. Set Variable-width and Fixed-width fonts to "raghu"
 5. Check button "Always use my font settings, overriding web page font"

  Also, ensure that the character coding scheme is set to UTF-8

 

 1. Goto, View -> Character Coding
 2. Select "Unicode (UTF-8)" from the list

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.1.2. Konqueror

  Konqueror has good support for Unicode. To setup konqueror so that it
displays Hindi characters:

 1. Goto, Settings -> Configure Konqueror
 2. Select "Konqueror Bowser" from the left pan
 3. Goto "Appearance" tab on the right pan
 4. Select charset "iso106460-1"
 5. Set all fonts to "raghu" for this encoding and also set Default encoding
    to "utf8"

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.2. Editors

5.2.1. yudit

  yudit by G�sp�r Sinai ([http://czyborra.com/yudit/] http://czyborra.com/
yudit/) is an excellent unicode text editor for the X Window System. It
supports simultaneous processing of many languages, input methods,
conversions for local character standards etc. It has facilities for entering
text in all languages with only an English keyboard, using keyboard
configuration maps. Customization is very easy. Typically you will first want
to customize your font. From the font menu, choose "Unicode". Next, you
should customize your input method. The input methods "Straight", "Unicode"
and "SGML" are most remarkable. For details about the other built-in input
methods, look in /usr/local/share/yudit/data/. To make a change the default
for the next session, edit your $HOME/.yuditrc file. The general editor
functionality is limited to editing, cut and paste and search and replace.
There is no provision for an undo. yudit can display text using a TrueType
font. But it doesn't seem to support combining characters.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.2. Vim

  Vim (as of version 6.0) has good support for UTF-8. When started in an
UTF-8 locale, it assumes UTF-8 encoding for the console and the text files
being edited. It supports double-wide (CJK) characters as well and combining
characters and therefore fits perfectly into UTF-8 enabled ncst-term.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.3. gedit

  gedit is an editor developed using GtkText widget. gedit-0.9.0 does not
support FontSet. This means that you can't edit both English and Hindi text
simultaneously. But if you choose a proper font then you will be able to use
any one language at a time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.4. xedit

  With XFree86-4.0.1, xedit is capable of editing UTF-8 files if your locale
is set appropriately. Add the line
  "Xedit*international: true"                                                
to your $HOME/.Xdefaults file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. Mailers

  Mail clients released after January 1, 1999, should be capable of sending
and displaying UTF-8 encoded mails, otherwise they are considered deficient.
But these mails have to carry the MIME labels:
  Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8                                    
  Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit                                            

  Simply piping an UTF-8 file into "mail" without caring about the MIME
labels will not work. Mail client implementors should take a look at [http://
www.imc.org/imc-intl/] http://www.imc.org/imc-intl/ and [http://www.imc.org/
mail-i18n.html] http://www.imc.org/mail-i18n.html.

  Now about some of the individual mail clients (or "mail user agents"):
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.1. kmail

  kmail (as of KDE 1.0) does not support UTF-8 mails at all.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.2. Netscape Mail

  Netscape Mail can send and display mails in UTF-8 encoding, but it needs a
little bit of manual user intervention. To send an UTF-8 encoded mail:

 1. After opening the "Mail" window, but before starting to compose the
    message, select from the menu "View -> Character Coding -> Unicode
    (UTF-8)".
   
 2. Then compose the message and send it.
   

  When you receive an UTF-8 encoded mail, Netscape does not display it in
UTF-8 right away, and does not even give a visual clue that the mail was
encoded in UTF-8. You have to manually select from the menu View -> Character
Coding -> Unicode (UTF-8).

  For displaying UTF-8 mails, Netscape uses different fonts. You can adjust
your font settings in the Edit -> Preferences -> Fonts dialog by selecting
the "Unicode" font category.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3. exmh

  exmh 2.1.2 with Tk 8.4a1 can recognize and correctly display UTF-8 mails if
you add the following lines to your $HOME/.Xdefaults file.
  !                                                                          
  ! Exmh                                                                     
  !                                                                          
  exmh.mimeUCharsets: utf-8                                                  
  exmh.mime_utf-8_registry: iso10646                                         
  exmh.mime_utf-8_encoding: 1                                                
  exmh.mime_utf-8_plain_families: fixed                                      
  exmh.mime_utf-8_fixed_families: fixed                                      
  exmh.mime_utf-8_proportional_families: fixed                               
  exmh.mime_utf-8_title_families: fixed                                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. References and sites

IndiX links
    ��+�[http://rohini.ncst.ernet.in/indix/] IndiX Homepage
    ��+�[http://rohini.ncst.ernet.in/indix/download/] IndiX Download
   
Centurion Linux and Exodus GNU/Linux
    The good guys at Centurion Linux have finished work on Exodus GNU/Linux,
    a 100% Free Software distribution featuring full Hindi language support
    for GNOME and KDE. The much awaited Exodus GNU/Linux (code named
    BitterCoffee) is expected to be released in the Indian market shortly.
   
    ��+�[http://centurionlinux.com/] Centurion Linux Homepage
    ��+�[http://cl-india.sourceforge.net/] The Official GNOME i18n Team -
        India (hindi)
   
Unicode
    ��+�[http://www.unicode.org] The official Unicode website
    ��+�[http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.html] UTF-8 and Unicode FAQ
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

7.1.   I can't start the X windows system. It gives an error "Could not open
    default Indic font 'xyz'".
7.2.   Can I use any other font as the default system font instead of the
    raghu font shipped with the IndiX system?
7.3.   I have installed IndiX system but it doesn't show Hindi characters.
    Why?
7.4.   Why are some of the pixels in Hindi characters distorted?
7.5.   All Hindi characters are displayed, but why are they not rendered
    properly?
7.6.   Why can't I download ISO images of Exodus GNU/Linux, yet?

7.1. I can't start the X windows system. It gives an error "Could not open
default Indic font 'xyz'".

Please make sure that the font 'xyz' is correctly installed and is in the
current FontPath. The Indic fonts usually reside in the /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/
fonts/TrueType/ directory. Your FontPath is defined in the /etc/X11/
XFree86Config-4 file. To learn more about howto specify your FontPath, read
the section on X Window System (3.2) in this HOWTO.

7.2. Can I use any other font as the default system font instead of the raghu
font shipped with the IndiX system?

You can load an Indic script font by giving command line server option while
starting X Window System. e.g.
  $ startx -- -devanagari "my_devanagari_font"                               
or
  $ startx -- -tamil "my_tamil_font"                                         
Here, "my_devanagari_font" and "my_tamil_font" should be replaced by the font
name that you want to load. You can either specify alias name or full XLFD
name for the font. However alias name must be there in fonts.alias file and
XLFD name in fonts.dir file.

7.3. I have installed IndiX system but it doesn't show Hindi characters. Why?

This could possibly be due to the fact that your Hindi locale has not been
setup correctly. To change/set the locale you should set LANG environment
variable. Append the line
  export LANG=hi_IN.UTF-8                                                    
in your ~/.bashrc and ~/.bash_profile files. Restart your terminal emulator
program and run the application. After this the application should display
Hindi characters.

7.4. Why are some of the pixels in Hindi characters distorted?

This is probably because the X Font Server (xfs) is running and is still in
the current FontPath. You can either shutdown the X Font Server or remove it
from the current FontPath. To shutdown xfs issue the following command after
becoming root:
  # /etc/rc.d/init.d/xfs stop                                                
To remove xfs from the current FontPath, read the section Section 3.2 in this
HOWTO.

7.5. All Hindi characters are displayed, but why are they not rendered
properly?

IndiX system uses an OpenType font to render Indic script characters, as it
is the most suitable font format for Indic scripts. If you use some other
kind of font, for example a TrueType font or a Bitmap font, then the font
does not have enough information that is required to render Indic script text
properly. So it is recommended to use only OpenType fonts for Indic scripts.
Also, in case you are already using an OpenType font, please update your
glibc.

7.6. Why can't I download ISO images of Exodus GNU/Linux, yet?

The good guys at Centurion Linux are looking for sponsors who can take care
of their hosting needs. If you are interested in helping Centurion Linux out,
please contact me on <bali@centurionlinux.com>.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Acknowledgements and Copyright

  Parts of this HOWTO have been taken from [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/
Unicode-HOWTO.html] The Unicode HOWTO by Bruno Haible and The Devanagri HOWTO
by Keyur Shroff.

  I would also like to take this opportunity to thank my papa, mummy and my
brothers Manvinder and Kulvinder for their unconditional love and support,
without whom I could never have achieved anything in life. Forever, I love
you. Loshaca :)

  To Girija, my girlfriend: :) Thanks for everything.

  I am very grateful to Keyur Shroff for allowing me to modify and
redistribute his Devanagri HOWTO. Special thanks go out to him for his
guidance, help, and support.

  Thanks to Rohan D'Sa and Manvinder Bali of Centurion Linux for having
helped me with various UTF-8 and Indic scripts issues. Also, thanks for
representing Centurion Linux at the Business Technology meet organised by
Ministry of Information Technology, New Delhi.

  Once again, special thanks to Dan Scott for converting the HOWTO to DocBook
XML format. Thanks Dan :)

  This HOWTO is copyrighted ?? 2001-2002 by Maninder Bali, <
bali@centurionlinux.com> and is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License (GFDL) stated below.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A. GNU Free Documentation License

A.1. 0. PREAMBLE

  The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

  This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

  We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.2. 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

  This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

  A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

  A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the 
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics,
a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could
be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related
matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

  The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License.

  The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the 
Document is released under this License.

  A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers
is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

  Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for
human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
purposes only.

  The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus
such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this
License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do
not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most
prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body
of the text.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.3. 2. VERBATIM COPYING

  You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

  You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you
may publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.4. 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

  If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

  If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly,
you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the
actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

  If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

  It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the 
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.5. 4. MODIFICATIONS

  You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

��*�A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
    from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which
    should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the
    Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the
    original publisher of that version gives permission.
   
��*�B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
   
��*�C. State on the Title Page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
��*�D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
��*�E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
��*�F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms
    of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
��*�G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
��*�H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
��*�I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it
    an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of
    the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section
    entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year,
    authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
    add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
    sentence.
   
��*�J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
    public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the
    network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was
    based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a
    network location for a work that was published at least four years before
    the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it
    refers to gives permission.
   
��*�K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve
    the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and
    tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
    therein.
   
��*�L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in
    their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
    considered part of the section titles.
   
��*�M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
��*�N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict
    in title with any Invariant Section.
   

  If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices
that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

  You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

  You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of 
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

  The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.6. 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

  You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

  The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

  In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled 
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.7. 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

  You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

  You may extract a single document from such a collection, and dispbibute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.8. 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

  A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document , on
account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative
works of the Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is
applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than
one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise
they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.9. 8. TRANSLATION

  Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing 
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.10. 9. TERMINATION

  You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.11. 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

  The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

  Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If
the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or
any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms
and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that
has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.12. Addendum

  To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
      Copyright ?? YEAR YOUR NAME.
   
      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any
    later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the 
    Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts
    being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the
    license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation
    License".
   
  If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts,
write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST";
likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

  If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.





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