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Linux on the Sun JavaStation NC HOWTO

Robert S. Dubinski

Copyright � 1999, 2000, 2001 by Robert S. Dubinski

2001-Oct-31


 This is a HOWTO document describing how to enable the GNU/Linux OS on the
Sun JavaStation NC.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. META Information
    1.1. The Purpose of this Document
    1.2. Acknowledgments
    1.3. History
    1.4. Document Copyright and Licenses
    1.5. Location of the Latest Version and Source
    1.6. Reporting Bugs Found In or Additions to the HOWTO
    1.7. TODO List for this HOWTO
   
   
2. What is a JavaStation?
    2.1. What is a JavaStation NC?
    2.2. Definition of an NC including the Differentiation from PC's
    2.3. Description of the JavaStation Model Line including Hardware Specs
    2.4. Reasons for Running Linux and NC Myths Dispelled
    2.5. Why JavaStations are No Longer Produced
    2.6. Where to Purchase a JavaStation
   
   
3. Background Requirements for Linux on a JavaStation
    3.1. Complete Hardware Requirements
    3.2. Network Service Requirements
    3.3. Understand the JavaStation Boot Sequence
    3.4. Additional Software Requirements: Replacement Firmware (PROLL)
    3.5. Decide on your Filesystem-type: NFS-Root, or Embedded?
    3.6. Support Sites to Check Out: Zaitcev's Linux Site
   
   
4. Build Your Kernel
    4.1. Before you begin
    4.2. Make sure you use 32-bit mode
    4.3. Supported Linux Kernel Versions
    4.4. Required Kernel Configuration Options
    4.5. Necessary Patch for "Embedded-Root" FS Configurations
    4.6. Build the JavaStation-Ready Kernel
    4.7. Convert Kernel from ELF to a.out format
    4.8. JavaStation-Ready Kernel Images, System.map and .config File Samples
   
   
5. Build A JavaStation-Ready FileSystem
    5.1. Preparing Yourself to Build Your Own Filesystem
    5.2. Contents of the "/etc/fstab" File
    5.3. The "Embedded-Root" Image Creation Procedure
    5.4. Sample FileSystems
    5.5. Sample X Servers
    5.6. Outside Sample Filesystems
   
   
6. "Out of the Box" JavaStation Boot File Solutions
    6.1. Simple Solution #1
   
   
7. Set up Your Server
    7.1. Preface
    7.2. Setting up the RARP service
    7.3. Setting up the DHCP service
    7.4. Set up NFS service ("NFS-Root Options" Only)
    7.5. Setting up for Boot with TFTP
   
   
8. Booting Your JavaStation
    8.1. What to See When Booting Linux
   
   
9. Questions and Troubleshooting
    9.1. When booting, the message "The file just loaded does not appear to
        be executable." Why?
    9.2. When booting, the message "no a.out magic" appears and halts the
        boot. Why?
    9.3. I tried booting a Krups but JavaOS comes up. I don't even have
        JavaOS!
    9.4. Cannot Boot an "Embedded-Root" image > 10 MB on my JavaStation. Why?
    9.5. After Booting, Typing Anything Yields Garbage Characters. Why?
    9.6. In X Sessions to a Solaris server, the font server "xfs" crashes.
        Why?
    9.7. Performing Indirect XDMCP to a  Solaris Server Results in Session
        Login Failures. Why?
    9.8. TFTPd config doesn't work on SUSE 6.3. Why?
    9.9. Regarding RARP: Is it Needed or Not?
    9.10. Can One Use the Smart Card Reader on the Espresso models?
    9.11. Can One Use the Solaris DHCP server instead of ISC?
    9.12. Can One Pass Arguments to "/sbin/init" in a Diskless Boot like
        This?
    9.13. Enabling X on the JavaStation
    9.14. Is There Mailing List Help?
    9.15. Can One Boot a JavaStation from Onboard Flash Memory?
    9.16. Does "Piggyback" work for the x86 too?
    9.17. I put new memory in, but now it doesn't boot. Why?
    9.18. Now that JavaStations work with Linux, what about other Free OSs?
    9.19. Do the Linux 2.4 kernels work? What's the latest that works?
    9.20. Can I compile the kernel on a non-SPARC machine?
    9.21. Can I get an ok> prompt like other Sun equipment?
    9.22. My keyboard isn't recognized. What can I do?
    9.23. Proll reports "TFTP: ARP Timeout". Why?
    9.24. Why Can't I Get TrueColor on Krups?
    9.25. I followed this HOWTO, but my Dover doesn't work. Why?
    9.26. Can framebuffer be loaded following a serial console
        initialization?
    9.27. I really need a complete out-of-the-box solution, pronto!
    9.28. You Didn't Answer My Question.
   
   
10. Reference Docs
    10.1. Mr. Coffee Jumper Info
    10.2. Krups Jumper Info
    10.3. JavaStation Press Release
    10.4. JavaOS 1.0 Download
    10.5. Espresso IDE circuit
    10.6. JavaStation Boot Monitoring Key Combinations
    10.7. JavaStation Photo Gallery
   
   
A. GNU Free Documentation License
    0. Preamble
    1. Applicability and Definitions
    2. Verbatim Copying
    3. Copying in Quantity
    4. Modifications
    5. Combining Documents
    6. Collections of Documents
    7. Aggregation with Independent Works
    8. Translation
    9. Termination
    10. Future Revisions of this License
    How to use this License for your documents
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. META Information

 This section lists the meta-information of this document. The hows, whys,
location and changes to the structure of the document are documented here.
The main content begins in the next chapter.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. The Purpose of this Document

 This document is to serve as a comprehensive HOWTO and FAQ collection
regarding the Sun JavaStation NC and enabling the GNU/Linux OS on it.

 The intended audience of this document is anyone who has an interest in
enabling Linux on the Sun JavaStations. The document structure is laid out to
serve as either a top-to-bottom read for a newcomer, or as quick reference on
a single topic for advanced users. Pointers to sample files submitted by
users are included for extremely hurried readers.

 The author of this document is Robert Dubinski <rsd@dubinski-family.org>.
Robert is the former computer technician and UNIX systems administrator for
[http://www.marquette.edu] Marquette University's Math, Statistics and
Computer Science Department, where he had 125 JavaStations running Linux.
These machines were all configured using the information, techniques and
files presented in this document.

 In early 1999, Eric Brower <ebrower@usa.net> wrote the first informal HOWTO
for the JavaStation. Parts of this document are inspired by his work, and all
unique information presented there have since been merged into this document.
Eric's original mini-HOWTO is saved for posterity at:  http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/texts/eric_brower_js_howto_19980218.txt

 This HOWTO also aims to serve as a member document of the Linux
Documentation Project. The LDP can be reached at: [http://www.linuxdoc.org]
http://www.linuxdoc.org
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Acknowledgments

 Enabling Linux on the JavaStations , and allowing this HOWTO to come to be
would never have been possible without the fine work of the following people:

 

��*�  Pete Zaitcev <zaitcev@yahoo.com> (Primary JavaStation kernel mod
    author)
   
��*�  Eric Brower <ebrower@usa.net> (XFree mods and author of the original
    embedded-build HOWTO)
   
��*�  Varol Kaptan <varol@ulakbim.gov.tr> (made available his Krups images
    and patches. Backported kernel support to 2.2.x series)
   
��*�  David Miller <davem@redhat.com> (the original Linux/SPARC kernel
    porter)
   
��*� The Linux/SPARC kernel porters and mailing list
   
��*� The thousands of contributors to the Linux kernel
   

 The HOWTO author wishes to give a second thank-you to Pete and Eric for
their work:
�       Pete got me going with Linux on the JavaStation in December  �      
        1998, has been the main kernel programmer adding in support         
        for the JavaStation line, and despite his busy work schedule        
        was nice enough to find time to answer all my email queries         
        for help over the last 15 months.                                   
                                                                            
        Eric worked on bringing X support to the JavaStation when it        
        had none. He had been working on a dedicated server for the         
        JavaStation in early 1999, and kept me informed of his              
        progress. In mid-1999, he switched tactics and sent a               
        working framebuffer example to test out. He also wrote the          
        first comprehensive mini-HOWTO for the JavaStations,                
        answered my email questions, and got me interested in the           
        embedded solution which I employ here at Marquette.                 
                                                                            
        Thank-you Pete and Eric!                                            
                                       --Robert Dubinski, March 2000 �      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2.1. Document Contributors

 The following people have contributed to this specific document:

��*�  Pete Zaitcev <zaitcev@yahoo.com> (Proofreading and factual corrections
    of initial drafts)
   
��*�  Eric Brower <ebrower@usa.net> (Proofreading and factual corrections of
    initial drafts)
   
��*�  Richard Tomlinson <Richard.Tomlinson@one2one.co.uk> (Document reader,
    Krups tester, feedback)
   
��*�  Michael R. Eckhoff <foobar@null.net> (feedback on sample kernel)
   
��*�  John Bodo <sales_nospam@bodoman.com> (JavaStation prototype info)
   
��*�  Simon Whiting <Simon.Whiting@mysun.com> (Typo Fix in DHCP config)
   
��*�  Alex Cellarius<alexc@mail.systems104.co.za> ("Dover" info and pic)
   
��*�  Matt Lowry<mclowry@cs.adelaide.edu.au> (Suggestion of Boot Sequence
    Visuals Section)
   
��*�  David Tinker<david@hemtech.co.za> (Dover model info)
   
��*�  David O'Brien<obrien@NUXI.com> (Fox prototype info)
   
��*�  Olaf Pueschel<olf@olmos.de> (OBP info, true color info)
   
��*�  Richard Tomlinson<richard@sysgen.co.uk> (Boot monitoring key
    combinations)
   
��*�  Zachary Drew<zach@math.umn.edu> (Troubleshooting Suggestions)
   
��*�  Robert Thornburrow<robert@tsac.fsnet.co.uk> (non-SPARC piggyback info)
   
��*�  Bill Childers<bill@nulldevice.net> (Assorted Dover Info)
   
��*�  Simon Kuhn<address_lost!> (Donated a Sun4 for kernel builds)
   
��*�  Nate Carlson<address_lost!> (supplied pre-compiled kernels, but the
    HOWTO author lost the info during disk failures.)
   

 If you contributed a tidbit of info and are not listed, please email the
document author to get yourself listed. Everyone deserves recognition helping
this document evolve.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. History

 
Revision History                                                             
Revision 1.30                           31 Oct 2001                          
Many major changes: restructured for better layout, new chapters added,      
updated files and file pointers, new master distribution location, source    
broken into parts, new sample files, md5sums on all sample files, overall    
update and proofread of materials. Thank-you very much to Simon Kuhn for     
donating an old Sun4 to enable more sample files be made. Thank-you also to  
Nate Carlson for donating sample kernels (unfortunately that info was lost   
during a disk crash...Nate, please contact me.). If anyone contributed items 
between May 31 and Oct 31 and it does not show up in this revision, please   
resubmit it.                                                                 
Revision 1.25                           30 Oct 2001                          
This is called the "@#!$?" release. It is called such because there were some
small-mid size changes to the document which were lost in a disk failure,    
prior to me re-uploading to the LDP site. To give you an idea of how bad the 
situation was, the last version I had on backup was in Docbook SGML, while I 
had switched to Docbook XML many months prior. Simply put, any contributed   
changes or email contacts I had with contributors were lost, and are         
hopefully on their way back in with this release. If you contributed         
something, and it disappeared, please contact me immediately, and it'll get  
back in. --RSD                                                               
Revision 1.22                           31 May 2001                          
Changed file links, some sample file formats, and clarified info relating to 
the sample files, following requests on the sparclinux mailing list.         
Revision 1.20                           08 May 2001                          
Information Refresh up to the current date, and change to GNU Free           
Documentation License 1.1                                                    
Revision 1.15                           01 May 2001                          
Migrate source to DocBook XML 4.12                                           
Revision 1.13                           02 Feb 2001                          
Minimal Bugfixes                                                             
Revision 1.12                           29 Dec 2000                          
Additional info on the "Fox" model                                           
Revision 1.11                           23 Nov 2000                          
Krups truecolor blurb, removed one acknowlegement per email request          
Revision 1.1                            15 Nov 2000                          
Numerous updates and additions revisions                                     
Revision 1.05                           16 Jun 2000                          
Requested Format Changes and Fixes                                           
Revision 1.04                           13 Jun 2000                          
Suggested Fixes and Added Requests                                           
Revision 1.03                           04 May 2000                          
Minor Fixes, Requests                                                        
Revision 1.02                           28 Apr 2000                          
Small fixes.                                                                 
Revision 1.01                           25 Apr 2000                          
"Brown Paper Bag" Revision.                                                  
Revision 1.0                            24 Apr 2000                          
First submission to the LDP.                                                 
Revision 0.9                            18 Apr 2000                          
Continued reorganization and final merges.                                   
Revision 0.7                            15 Apr 2000                          
Migration from LinuxDoc DTD to Docbook DTD.                                  
Revision 0.71                           14 Apr 2000                          
Received word doc was forwarded inside Sun.                                  
Revision 0.7                            14 Apr 2000                          
Linked on Metabyte Website.                                                  
Revision 0.6                            9 Apr 2000                           
First semi-public release.                                                   
Revision 0.4                            24 Mar 2000                          
First move to comprehensive HOWTO.                                           
Revision 0.2                            15 Oct 1999                          
More notes collected and merged.                                             
Revision 0.1                            24 Jun 1999                          
Initial scraps put together.                                                 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Document Copyright and Licenses

      Copyright (c) 1999-2001 Robert S. Dubinski. Permission is granted to
    copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU
    Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by
    the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being: "Why
    JavaStations are No Longer Produced", with one Front-Cover Text: "Linux
    on JavaStation HOWTO", and with one Back-Cover Text: "This document was
    written by Robert S. Dubinski in the hope that more people can put their
    JavaStation hardware to good use. Thank-you to the Linux kernel hackers
    who made this happen, and thank-you to Sun for a rock-solid piece of
    hardware." A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
    Free Documentation License".
   
 The document author makes no warranties that all the information presented
here is completely accurate, and cannot be held liable to any loss you
experience as a result of the information you use from here.

 Best efforts have been made to ensure everything included is accurate as of
the publication date listed at the beginning of this document, but there is
always a possibility something may be wrong. In this case, doublecheck with
alternative sources first before considering implementing anything at a
production-level. If you find something wrong, drop the author a line at <
rsd@dubinski-family.org> or send a patch to the document source, and
corrections will be made immediately.

 This document is an official member document of the [http://
www.linuxdoc.org] Linux Documentation Project.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Location of the Latest Version and Source

 The latest online version of this document can be found at: [http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto]  http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto .

 The pre-processed XML source to this document, written to the Docbook DTD,
version 4.1.2, is available from: [http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/doc/
src/] http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/doc/src/

 The pre-processed XML source to the GNU Free Documentation License, written
to the Docbook DTD, and which this document is licensed under, is available
from: [http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/doc/src/gfdl.xml] http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/doc/src/gfdl.xml

 Copies of this document are also available from the Linux Documentation
Project at: [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/JavaStation-HOWTO/] http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/JavaStation-HOWTO.

 This project used to be available at the URL 'http://
javastation-howto.homeip.net'. In Spring 2001, homeip.net discontinued their
free service and moved to a fee based scheme. Given the hundreds of mirrors
of LDP documents, I do not find the fees justifiable. I have changed all
references in this document back to my home server. Between my server's
address, [http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto]  http://dubinski-family.org/
~jshowto, the LDP website, and its hundreds of mirrors, you should be able to
always find the JavaStation-HOWTO. If this is not the case, email me
immediately at either <rsd@dubinski-family.org> or <dubinski@mscs.mu.edu>.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6. Reporting Bugs Found In or Additions to the HOWTO

 Any problems or concerns about the HOWTO should be reported via email to the
author, Robert Dubinski, at <rsd@dubinski-family.org>. Do NOT send document
bug reports to the SparcLinux mailing list, the debian-sparc mailing list, or
the Linux Documentation Project. The folks on there really do not care about
my typos or server misconfigurations, so please don't trouble them.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.7. TODO List for this HOWTO

 1.  As NetBSD now supports JavaStations as well, it would be good to talk
    about support and sample files for it too.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. What is a JavaStation?

 This chapter explains to the reader what the JavaStation line is, its
components, NC concepts, how to get one, and why one would choose the Linux 
OS for it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. What is a JavaStation NC?

 The JavaStation NC is a model line of network computers built and sold by
[http://www.sun.com] Sun Microsystems between November 1996 and March 2000.
The JavaStation line was Sun's low-cost terminal option during that
timeframe. It was the marketed successor to the Xterminal 1 and is succeeeded
by the SunRay, although all three machines are fundamentally different.

 The JavaStation hardware ran Sun's own JavaOS and either Sun's  Hotjava web
browser, Sun's HotJava Views task-manager software, or custom Java 
applications of the customer's choice.

 The JavaStation was originally billed in November 1996 sneak previews as a
low-cost desktop terminal, providing customers access to hot new Java
applications, "legacy" X applications, and "legacy" MS Windows apps. During
its lifetime, The JavaStation's marketed functionality was changed twice from
"desktop terminal" to "single-app desktop device" to finally a "browser-based
kiosk device".

 At no time did Sun market the JavaStation as capable of running its flagship
[http://www.sun.com/solaris] Solaris operating system the [http://
www.linux.com] Linux OS, or any other OS than Sun's JavaOS.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Definition of an NC including the Differentiation from PC's

 A network computer, or NC, was hailed as "the next big thing" in computing
from late 1995 to early 1998. Conventional PC's, called "fat clients", were
expected to be minimized in businesses by thin-client NC's.

 Thin-clients get their OS, applications, and data files entirely through the
network. They are different from dumb-terminals; they run full-scale
graphical applications. Thin-clients are also different than graphical
X-terminals. X-terminals typically run an X server and display the client
programs of a remote server. Thin clients generally run full-scale graphical
programs locally, such as a web browser, a Java application, or a 
"legacy-connectivity program", which enables the thin-client to display X
apps or MS Windows apps which run on more powerful servers.

 Advantages of NC's include:

��*� "Zero-Administration". (Add a new NC and it will get everything it needs
    off the network, without an admin ever needing to visit it.)
   
��*� Lower Total-Cost-of-Ownership (TCO) (No internal hard drives, floppy
    drives or CD players reduces form-factor, repair expenses, selling price
    and thus total-cost-of-ownership.)
   
��*� Access to all web-based apps as well as "legacy" X and MS Windows apps.
   
��*� Quick upgrades (just upgrade your server and the changes propogate
    throughout)
   
��*� Longer lifespan (just upgrade the software, growing hard disk and memory
    requirements is not an issue)
   
��*� Smaller OS footprint (when running brower-based apps)
   

 Disadvantages of NC's:

��*� No local access to data files (all your files stored on a remote server)
   
��*� Requires fast, stable networks
   
��*� NC's generally have a low maximum amount of memory. Though not as bad as
    with fat-clients, this does eventually become a liability for the
    thin-client.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3. Description of the JavaStation Model Line including Hardware Specs

 Depending on who you talk to, the number of JavaStation models that were
created is anywhere from one to six. The descriptions below will explain why.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.1. JavaStation-1 [ "Mr. Coffee"] ["the brick"] [Sun Option No. JJ-xx]

 This model is the most prevalent JavaStation model you are likely to find,
although it wasn't the one and only JavaStation model Sun wished to sell to
the public. The JavaStation-1 was the first generation JavaStation, released
in November 1996 to pilot deployments as Sun's "proof of concept" of the Java
NC design.

 Hardware-wise, the JavaStation-1 is a Sun4M architecture machine. It is
based on the SPARCStation-4 design, with some deletions and PC-like
modifications. It is powered by a 110 Mhz MicroSPARC IIe CPU and has no SCSI,
internal disks , floppy, CD or expansion slots. The Mr. Coffee motherboard is
Sun Part No. 501-3141.

 Instead of using the Sun-type keyboard and mice, JavaStation-1 uses PC-like 
PS2 parts instead. One of the original marketing highlights of the 
JavaStation was that it would use standard PC parts wherever possible to keep
overall price down.

 The "brick" has four PC-like SIMM slots. The SIMMs taken are
industry-standard 60ns, 32-bit, 72-pin, 5V fast page SIMMs, installed in
pairs. Each slot is capable of holding up to a 16MB SIMM, bringing the
maximum total capacity of the unit to 64MB. The "xx" in the Sun Option# of
the unit indicated how much memory the unit shipped with.

 For video display, the JavaStation-1 utilizes the Sun TCX framebuffer,
capable of 1024x768@70Hz in 8-bit color. The port connector however, is a 
standard VGA jack , enabling the user to use standard PC monitors if desired
(again, low cost in mind). The on-board audio is a Crystal CS4231 chip , and
the network interface is the Sun Lance 10Mbps interface. In addition, the 
"brick" also came with a 9-pin serial port and 1/8" audio out jack on its
back.

 The JavaStation-1 was fitted into the Sun "unidisk" form factor case, and
has been seen in a number of color schemes. JavaStations have been fitted
with casings in the white with light blue trim scheme used in Sun
workstations, as well as the dark blue-grey "new desktop" scheme. Some say 
"JavaStation" and have the Java coffee cup logo written on it, others do not.
Collectors may wish to collect all case variations.

 The JavaStation-1 was used in early Sun demos, and sold to pilot sites. When
first brought out, the cost to pilot sites was $699US. This was at a time
when PC 's were still higher than $1000US. By the end of the pilot run, Sun
was selling any remaining or used units for $299-$399US, in anticipation for
its "real" JavaStation model.

 See the JavaStation-1 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos
/mr_coffee_front_view.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.2. JavaStation-NC [" JavaStation-10"] [" Krups"] ["the tower"] ["the
percolator"] [ Sun Option No. JK-xx]

 This model is the second most prevalent JavaStation model you are likely to
find. When you talk to industry people about the "JavaStation", this is
typically the model remembered first. Delayed numerous times, the Krups model
officially went on sale to the general public Mar. 26, 1998 at the annual
JavaOne conference.

 Though generation two of the JavaStation line, the Krups model was the
JavaStation . Sporting a completely different board design than JavaStation-1
, Krups establishes what was to be the characteristic JavaStation
architecture.

 Krups is powered by a 100Mhz MicroSPARC IIep chip, (note the 'p'). Its
mainboard had the internal addition of a PCI bus, about a year before this
standard bus made its well-publicized appearance on the Sun Ultra workstation
line. The Krups motherboard is Sun Part no. 501-4267.

 Krups keeps the PS2 keyboard and PS2 mouse ports from JavaStation-1 ,
keeping in mind the low-cost, interoperable goal of generation 1.

 With the new board design, came new memory chip sockets. Instead of SIMMs,
the "tower" moved to  168-pin DIMMs. DIMMs had begun to make their way from
the workstation realm to PC's in the time between generations one and two of
the JavaStation line, so it was fitting for Sun to switch to it in
anticipation of their status low-cost commodity memory chips. The DIMMs
accepted by the "tower" are 168pin, 3.3V unbuffered EDO DIMMs (not SDRAM).
With two sockets capable of holding a 32MB DIMM each, the Krups has a maximum
capacity of 64MB RAM. As with the JavaStation-1 , the number "xx" in the Sun
option number refers to the amount of memory shipped with the unit.

 For video display, the JavaStation-NC utilizes the PCI-based IGS C1682
framebuffer, capable of 1280x1024@80Hz in 24-bit "true color". This is a step
up from the 8-bit display on JavaStation-1 . The port connector remained a 
standard VGA jack like JavaStation-1, enabling the user to use standard PC
monitors if desired. The on-board audio remains a Crystal CS4231 chip like 
JavaStation-1. The network interface on Krups is the Sun HappyMeal 10/100
Mbps interface, another step up from the original offering of JavaStation-1.

 The "tower" came with the 9-pin serial port and 1/8" audio out jack as 
JavaStation-1, but it also added a 1/8" audio-in jack, to do sound recording
with.

 Another addition in the JavaStation-NC is a flash memory SIMM. This allows
one to load the current revision of the OS onboard, increasing boot-speed
tremendously.

 Perhaps the thing most memorable about the JavaStation-NC is its case
design. The Krups comes in an aesthetically appealing casing. The mainboard
is mounted vertically, and the shell entraps it, giving it the "tower " or 
"percolator" shape referred to. With the streamlined case, the power supply
is moved outside to small transformer. The Krups unit gives off so little
heat that there are no onboard cooling fans, making the Krups a dead-silent
machine. Imagine the difference in noise when replacing a lab of traditional
desktops with the Krups! This case design earned Krups a" 1998 Industrial
Design Excellence Award" from the Industrial Designers Society of America.
This award announcement is still available for read at:   http://www.idsa.org
/whatis/seewhat/idea98/winners/javastation.htm" . It is also archived locally
via "fair use" for future readers at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/
Files/texts/krups_idsa_award.txt"

 The Krups had an initial base price of $599US, $100US cheaper than Mr.
Coffee's rollout price. Due to it being the only model formally sold by Sun
to the general public, this is how Krups is sometimes referred to as the only
JavaStation, and not one model of a product line.

 See the JavaStation-NC at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/krups_front_view.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.3. JavaStation-E ["Espresso"] [Sun Option No. JE-xx]

 This model is extremely rare to find. It was never available for sale in
quantities to either the general public or the initial JavaStation
deployments, limiting the model's production quantity. To call this 
"Generation Three" of the JavaStation may be improper, as Espresso is nothing
like the generation three JavaStation written about in early Sun marketing
literature.

 The Espresso was designed as an extension of the Krups. It was geared to
sites that wanted a little bit more functionality and expansion capability
from their JavaStations: a cross between an NC and a workstation.

 Espresso is powered by the same 110Mhz MicroSPARC IIep chip as Krups . It's
mainboard is similar to Krups, with the addition of PCI slots and an IDE
channel for local hard disks. The IDE on Espresso was not enabled in the demo
units. Those who have tried to make it work have concluded the wiring is
incorrect, and it requires a hardware rework to get going.

 Espresso continues with the PS2 keyboard and PS2 mouse ports from  Mr.
Coffee and Krups.

 Espresso uses the same 168-pin, 3.3V unbuffered EDO DIMMs as Krups. The
maximum amount of memory for Espresso is reported to be 96MB. As with the Mr.
Coffee and Krups , the number "xx" in the Sun option number refers to the
amount of memory shipped with the unit.

 For video display, the Espresso uses the PCI-based IGS C2000 framebuffer,
along with the same standard VGA port connector as Krups and Mr. Coffee. The
on-board audio remains a Crystal CS4231 chip like Krups, and the network
interface remains a Sun HappyMeal 10/100 Mbps interface like Krups as well.

 Espresso came with the 9-pin serial port and 1/8" audio out and 1/8" audio
in jacks of Krups, and a new addition of a parallel port, and a second 9-pin
serial port. Espresso also comes with the flash memory to load your OS on and
bypass the network boot cycle.

 One new addition to the Espresso is a smart card slot.

 The Espresso comes in a "pizza box" style case like the old Sun
SparcStations, only a little taller, and not quite as wide.

 The Espresso was never sold to the public. There was an internal testing
period at Sun, but the units never went into mass-production.

 One Espresso user mentioned he now uses his unit as both a server and
router, with the addition of an IDE disk and 3C905 ethernet card,
demonstrating the expandability of this unit.

 See the JavaStation-E at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos
/espresso_front_view.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.4. JavaEngine-1 ["JE-1"]

 Like the Espresso, this unit is also an extremely rare find.

 This unit is supposed to be of similar board design to the Krups, but in an
ATX form factor, with soldered onboard flash memory, and with a regular SVGA
video chipset.

 Gleb Raiko <raiko@niisi.msk.ru)> with the help of Vladimir Roganov <
roganov@niisi.msk.ru> did initial the Linux kernel support on "JE-1". Pete
Zaitcev <zaitcev@yahoo.com> later obtained a "JE-1" unit and restored full
support in Linux kernel 2.3.x+ .

 As the author of this document has never seen a "JE-1", submissions from the
public are welcome.

 See the JavaEngine-1 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos/
je1_overhead_view.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.5. The "Dover" JavaStation model

 This is another box which does not exist officially outside of Sun. Little
was known of it at the first revision of this HOWTO. Since then, proud owners
have stepped forward. Basically, the Dover takes the Espresso theme and moves
it to stock X86 parts.

 Dover comes in a case similar to the Espresso, but there's nothing where the
'JavaStation-E' tag would be. Dover can be situated in a vertical position by
removable feet. All that is printed on the case is "Sun MicroSystems 1998",
and typically a serial number sticker of '12345678' and 'Made in Taiwan'.

 The motherboard is 'baby ATX' in configuration, but not quite totally. Near
the the front of the case is a fan that points at the CPU heat sink. The CPU
heat sink has another fan on top of it. The motherboard has a Socket 7 CPU
socket that houses a Cyrix MediaGCm-266GP CPU. There are typical PC
motherboard jumpers with silk-screened legends for setting both clock speed
and multiplier. The motherboard accepts a PC100 DIMM (max. size unknown) and
a powersupply with AT-type power connectors. Included among them are two
floppy and regular hard drive type plug. There are two small jumpers going to
the motherboard, JPSB1 and JAUTO1, possibly for power management.

 Expansion in Dover is via a two-card riser, with one PCI and one shared PCI/
ISA slot. As mentioned earlier, the motherboard deviates slightly from
standard ATX. Along the back edge under the cards are connectors for audio
out, audio in, mic, HD15F video, two USB ports, D25F parallel printer,
stacked PS/2 keyboard/mouse ports, and four 9-pin serial ports, marked A
through D. Unlike other JavaStation models, there is no on-board ethernet.
Instead, it typically is provided by a supplied 3COM 3C905B-TX Fast Etherlink
XL PCI card (with a wake-on-LAN cable going to the motherboard). There is a
standard Sun MAC address label on the back of the case.

 Video is via a Cyrix CX5530 chip, but with the MediaGX chip, may be just an
auxilliary chip. There exist both a FDD and HDD headers on the motherboard,
but nowhere to mount a FDD in the case and no provision for an HDD bracket
either. There is a simple piezo buzzer mounted to the motherboard and
additionally a speaker with a cable leading back near the audio out jacks.
Like the Espresso, there is a smart-card reader as well, and what looks like
a compact-flash socket inside.

 When booting it up, you get a blue JS screen. Under the exclamation point,
are two memory card icons and a <...> icon. It reads:
Boot device: /ethernet   Arguments:                                                  
MAC Address: 08:00:20:95:5b:49                                                       
Open Boot 3.0, Built February 16, 1999 17:38:37                                      
NIC: 10b7,9055 ethernet in PCI1                                           64MB SDRAM 
Non-Volatile Device Memory Module Not Installed                                      
SmartCard Reader Found                                                               
CPU Speed:  266 MHz                                                                  
                                                                                     
                                                                                     
Can't open boot device                                                               
                                                                                     
ok                                                                                   

The Dover model, since it is based on an x86 chip, is supported by Linux.
This HOWTO however focuses on the SPARC-based JavaStations, so the procedures
presented here will not work with it. However, there's plenty of x86
documentation at large to work from.

 See the Dover at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos/
dover_inside.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.6. The Generation 3 "Super JavaStation"

 Sun originally envisioned three generation models of the  JavaStation: Mr.
Coffee, the Krups, and the "Super JavaStation". Generation Three was billed
in early literature as going to be the fastest JavaStation offered, with a
high-speed CPU and a JavaChip co-processor to translate Java-bytecode in
hardware.

 All indications are that it never got beyond the mental stage, and was more
of a marketing myth than anything else.

 First, consider that the cost of higher performance CPU as a factor. If Sun
packaged a high-performance CPU into a JavaStation, the low-cost advantage of
an NC goes away.

 Next, Sun did have their PicoJava chip available to decode Java bytecode,
but rumor is the performance was not as good as expected, and the complete 
JavaChip project was shelved in the Summer of 1998, not long after Krups was
formally released.

 The "Dover" project was being worked on, but the "Corona " project, which
would go on to become the Sun Ray , was the final nail in the JavaStation 's
coffin.

 So all indications are that this model is a piece of "vaporware". It is
included here though, for the sake of completeness.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.7. The Pre-Mr. Coffee JavaStation Prototype

 After the original publishing of this HOWTO, word of one more "JavaStation"
model surfaced. John Bodo, a reseller of JavaStation equipment, chimed in
that he has a motherboard of a pre-JavaStation machine. It was made by Diba
Corporation, which was later bought out by Sun. The unit was released as an
early embededded Java platform that developers could use to build embedded
Java machines. It has a Motorola 68030 CPU, 14.4k bps modem, ethernet
interface, standard VGA interface and even a TV output. The prototype's date
is circa 1996.

 See the JavaStation Prototype at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/
Files/photos/pre_js_1.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3.8. The Pre-Mr. Coffee JavaStation/Fox

 After receiving word of the JavaStation prototype from Diba, yet more
information has come regarding another pre-Mr. Coffee model. This one though,
has a greater known history we can share here.

 This model was the JavaStation development box used by the developers of
early JavaStation software. Basically it was a SS4/110 in a smaller, custom
case similar to the Mr. Coffee enclosure, with more squarish profile.

 The case has an off-white color with lateral stripe in Sun gray. It sits
like a Mr. Coffee would on its side. The front was a 1/2 cyclinder i design
in Sun gray, has the Sun Logo, the word "Sun" under that, and the Java cup
logo at the bottom.

 When booting up it claims to be a "JavaStation/Fox". The motherboard does
not have a normal Sun part number. The CPU is a microSPARC-II running at
110MHz. The box has an onboard external SCSI connector, dual A and B serial
ports, audio in and out sound ports (Crystal Semiconductor 4231, lance
ethernet network interface, onboard PCMCIA (stp4020), one SBUS expansion
slot, one AFXbus expansion slot, 2 72-pin SIMM slots (double-banked SIMMs
only), and no on-board video. One would then add their own S-Bus frame
buffer, or the 24-bit frame buffer from a ss5. Also, an optional internal
SCSI laptop hard drive could be put in.

 The motherboard's part number is 501-2785. The CPU is dated 1995 while the
NCR chips are dated 1994, establishing the time frame of the Fox.

 The NetBSD/SPARC FAQ has a few more words on the Fox at:   http://
www.netbsd.org/Ports/sparc/faq.html#fox

 See the JavaStation/Fox at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/fox_face.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Reasons for Running Linux and NC Myths Dispelled

 It turns out that Linux makes the JavaStations perform more than adequately
on the desktop. Thanks to the dedicated work of the Linux developer
community, the JavaStations offer users the low-cost, zero-admin, versatile
desktop NC's they were originally billed to be, but with the added freedom
granted by the Linux OS.

 While low-cost PC's now eclipse the JavaStation in terms of default CPU
speed and RAM size, the JavaStations running Linux are still well-suited for
a number of tasks:

��*� Diskless X-Terminal. (Gives the JavaStations the capability of the Sun
    Xterminal 1 hardware that they replaced).
   
��*� The NC solution, Linux-style: local X + a java-capable browser can make
    the JavaStations perform like they did with JavaOS/ HotJava, only many
    times faster.
   
��*� A beowulf node, or a dedicated RC5/ SETI@HOME client. The JavaStation
    running Linux makes a stable, long-lasting number cruncher.
   
��*� A small, standalone machine. While a task more suited on today's
    low-cost machines, there's not much that prevents the  JavaStation from
    performing as a full-fleged standalone UNIX machine by itself. Just
    remember to set your expectations appropriately when doing so; they were 
    "low-budget" clients when they were sold, and should not be directly
    compared to today's workstation offerings.
   
��*� A small router and server, particularly with the Espresso model decked
    out with added IDE disks and NIC.
   

 In all of the above scenarios, there is little to no maintenance of the
machine once configured properly. Such is the advantage of the NC hardware.

 JavaStations run so much better with Linux than JavaOS, one would think that
even Sun should have offered it as an option. Unfortunately, Sun had killed
the line in favor of the Sun Ray . While the performance of the Sun Ray is
good, keep in mind it is not intended as a dedicated computing device, and
due to its firmware is little more than a graphics display hanging off your
Sun server, which can give you some unexpected bonus features (translation: 
"brand-name product lock"). The performance on the JavaStations with Linux 
will be similar to what you can get with a Sun Ray, but if ever you want to
do something different with your machines, you have the flexibility to do so
with the JavaStations. There was rumor of work to try and override the
default behavior of the SunRay firmware, and make it into an adjustable
computing device, but until that happens, running another OS on a SunRay is
just a pipe-dream.

 Lastly, if you're thinking of switching to diskless Xterminals on your
network, you might consider the JavaStations over stripped down PC's. The
hardware is standardized, smaller, and you do not need to worry about burning
boot PROMs and the like.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. Why JavaStations are No Longer Produced

 Sun's official stance is that the JavaStation line was terminated in favor
of the new Sun Ray line. A trip to the former JavaStation section of Sun's
website at [http://www.sun.com/javastation]  http://www.sun.com/javastation
verifies this formal positioning. (fair use archival copy at:  http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/texts/sun_js_site_death.txt )

 As the Sun Ray is not an NC in the traditional sense (it has a MicroSparc
IIep CPU, but the firmware on the device prevents anyone from grasping it),
there is no explanation why the two products could not co-exist.

 In talking to the users of the JavaStations in the pre-Linux era, you will
find strong opinions as to why the JavaStations are no more. The common
thread in almost all opinions collected is that the software provided by Sun
was inadequete for a production environment. Here are collected opinions from
users of the Sun-provided software, included with their permission:
�       I only used the Java Stations last summer while teaching 51  �      
        and 55/154. GoJoe was incredibly slow and I seem to remember        
        having to login to several different screens and browsers           
        just to be able to start anything.                                  
                                                                            
        I had to apologize to my students for the slow and                  
        inconvenient machines --- I remember making some jokes about        
        technological progress.                                             
   --Dr. Alex Ryba, Former Professor at Marquette University (Quoted �      
                                                         March 2000)        

�       Well, of course the old JavaStations were practically        �      
        unusable. It's not a matter of just my opinion; we used to          
        have CU 310 full of students using the Xterms all the time.         
        As soon as the JavaStations appeared there were NO STUDENTS         
        in there at all. The JavaStations killed CU 310. Now that           
        the JavaStations are (thanks to you) back up to speed,              
        students are beginning to come back, but they've gotten out         
        of the habit of working in our lab, and are used to working         
        on their own in the dorms. I think this is a big loss --            
        they don't learn anything from talking to each other in the         
        labs anymore.                                                       
                                                                            
        Ghostview was slow, etc, but even vi was too slow. I am used        
        to typing quickly, and when the cursor can't keep up with           
        me, I can't handle it. I would also have worked at home if I        
        didn't have to be here. And there were those annoying red           
        squares left all over the Xterm window when you were in vi.         
        I had to type ^L every few lines to get rid of them to see          
        what I was typing... The pits. The whole setup made me lose         
        a lot of respect for Sun (although I try to separate the            
        different product lines as much as possible); I also think          
        Sun will not get respect for hyping a product like the              
        JavaStation so strongly, and then just dumping it. I would          
        wonder why anyone would not just dump Sun...                        
                                                                            
        BTW, the JavaStations, now that they are fast, are quite            
        fine. I really like mine, and don't see why they aren't a           
        viable product.                                                     
 --Dr. Mark Barnard, Professor at Marquette University (Quoted March �      
                                           2000) <markb@mscs.mu.edu>        

�       I believe that it was the triple combination of Sun's        �      
        JavaOS, the Hotjava software, and GraphOn's GoJoe                   
        X-connectivity software which ultimately doomed the                 
        JavaStation line.                                                   
                                                                            
        JavaOS was always sluggish in performance for us. It was            
        rated as having one of the slowest Java VMs by a ZDNet              
        Online Magazane review at [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/              
        features/javaguide/jfgr10.htm] http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/          
        features/javaguide/hfgr10.htm . I speculate this was the the        
        main cause of delaying the JavaStation's formal public              
        release to April 1998.                                              
                                                                            
        (fair use archive copy of the PC mag review at: http://             
        dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/texts/                           
        pcmag_js_jvm_review.txt )                                           
                                                                            
        JavaOS also always lagged behind the current Java developer         
        spec (ie running Java 1.0 when Java 1.1 was prevalent, and          
        Java 1.1 when Java 1.2 was issued). It was tough explaining         
        to students why the books they were buying were all using           
        the new event-model of Java 1.1, but they could not program         
        to it and have it run on "the Java machine ". There were            
        also some implementation problems with some of the AWT peers        
        which sometimes made programming across platforms difficult.        
                                                                            
        These performance and implementation problems were never            
        addressed in subsequent build of JavaOS for the duration we         
        ran it. I believe the last edition we had used a Java 1.1.4         
        runtime, when we had a Java 1.2 development kit on the              
        server.                                                             
                                                                            
        The HotJava browser software suffered from not being able to        
        handle web standards HTML4, cascading style-sheets, or the          
        ECMA javascript. All of these standards were employed in            
        commercial sites at the time, resulting in many sites that          
        weren't viewable by the JavaStations. The Hotjava Browser           
        engine also had serious printing problems with certain              
        webpages, some of which appeared on Sun's own website!              
                                                                            
        The HotJava Views task selector software also was rough.            
        Users could have multiple apps running, but only one                
        displayed at a time. Manipulation of multiple window panes          
        was difficult (no minimization, no quick list to all apps,          
        resizing not always possible). Flexibility users had grown          
        accustomed to was tossed out in favor of this task-selector         
        approach. On Sun's Java website there was a page boasting of        
        a committee formed that decided this was the "right way" to         
        make a desktop. Tell that to our users.                             
                                                                            
        The GraphOn Go-Joe software was by far the most damaging            
        piece of software to the JavaStation line. This was an              
        X-connectivity software Sun licensed from GraphOn to give           
        users access to the Solaris servers' X apps. The                    
        connectivity worked via a daemon installed on the Solaris           
        server, which was connected to by a Java connectivity applet        
        on the NC side. This small applet (only about 250K) simply          
        threw up the latest display state and sent back to the              
        daemon the mouse and keyboard strokes of the user. Unlike           
        Xterminals though, the actual Xserver process was spawned           
        and communicated with on the remote server-side by the              
        daemon. Communication between the GraphOn client applet and         
        the server daemon was supposedly done by a patented protocol        
        to compress communication and speed things up. However, the         
        performance of X under Go-Joe was terribly sluggish, with           
        horrible refresh rates (10-seconds for some page scroll             
        refreshes). Many sites operators I spoke to elected to not          
        run the Go-Joe software past a trial period for this reason.        
        We had to run it though, as our users were heavily X                
        dependant. Alternatives like Weird/X were not available at          
        this time, and VNC proved not up to snuff given the slow            
        JavaOS VM.                                                          
                                                                            
        This performance in Go-Joe alone was enough to give                 
        uninformed users the impression that the JavaStation was an         
        underpowered machine, especially when placed side-by-side           
        with the low-cost, end-of-lifed Sun Xterminal 1 hardware it         
        was meant to replace. Our students left labs in droves,             
        faculty were upset, and giving demos to outsiders was               
        downright embarrassing. In reality the hardware was solid           
        and stable, but was hampered by this new, untested OS and           
        new, untested applications running on a new, untested               
        hardware architecture. This triple-threat combination, and          
        Sun's timeline for fixing the problems is what I feel truly         
        doomed the JavaStation.                                             
                                                                            
        I remember that in 1998, Sun publicized that it had rolled          
        out 3000 of these machines in-house, including one on Scott         
        McNealy's desk. One who has used the JavaStations with the          
        Sun software would have to wonder whether he ever turned it         
        on and used it solely for a day? Had he done so, I'm sure           
        he'd demand things be done differently. (update Oct. 2001:          
        many ex-Sun employees who've contacted me say they made             
        great doorstops and paper weights.)                                 
                                                                            
        Why Sun never ported and released its tried and tested              
        XTerminal software to the JavaStation, or even a                    
        mini-Solaris, remained a mystery to us the whole time before        
        we switched to Linux. It was only after we moved to Linux           
        and the JavaStation line was formally killed by Sun when we         
        learned from some inside Sun sources that Solaris actually          
        was ported to Mr. Coffee, but released only internally at           
        Sun. As a heavily invested customer site who had begged for         
        help, this was not only disheartening, but insulting to             
        discover.                                                           
                                                                            
        Lastly, the customer support we received at the time was            
        horrible. We pled our case on more than a few occassions,           
        but requests always seemed to fall on deaf ears. Calling up         
        SunSolve for JavaStation help always resulted in a transfer         
        to a Java Language engineer. If the Sun employees do not            
        know their own products, that's a problem!                          
                                                                            
        >From our view, there no doubt was politics involved in             
        this, and as customers, we were the ones to bear the results        
        of this. We continue using Sun equipment when it comes to           
        the proven models like the Enterprise-class servers and disk        
        arrays, but on the latest low-cost desktop offerings, we            
        will be forever cautious given the JavaStation history.             
                                                                            
        Linux now proves the JavaStations are adequate machines, and        
        Sun could take this bait and go with it. If they sell the           
        JavaStations for $250 a piece and the JavaStation running a         
        proven OS like Linux (or Solaris) with proven apps (X), the         
        JavaStation makes for a great network appliance. The recent         
        NetPliance I-Opener Linux hack and subsequent controversy           
        proves there certainly is a market for this type of low-cost        
        device. (Oct. 2001 addition: After the publishing of the            
        Linux hack, NetPliance made their new hardware unhackable,          
        and subsequently ran out of business. The demand for cheap          
        diskless stations still exist. Today's hackable units are           
        set-top receivers and failed internet toasters like the 3Com        
        Audrey)                                                             
  --Robert Dubinski, former Computer Systems Technician at Marquette �      
            University (Quoted March 2000) <rsd@dubinski-family.org>        

 More comments and rebuttal statements by Sun employees are always welcome.

 (update Oct 2001): A year and a half of this document's existance and not a
single rebuttal statement by Sun. There were a couple initial requests to
omit this section, but I refused. After all, imagine a new reader who never
saw a JavaStation before: They'd read to this section, think "Wow, what a
great little machine..let me get one!", and then ask themselves, "If it did
all this, why don't they make them anymore?". The bad must be included with
the good, and to leave this section out is a disservice to all the users who
suffered through the poor software and support during the official lifetime
of the JavaStation. This section, therefore, is a necessity, and although
this document is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, the
eagle-eyed reader will note that this section has been labeled as "invariant"
to protect it from entities who may wish to bury it (which is precisely the
reason why the Invariant clause of the GFDL exists).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.6. Where to Purchase a JavaStation

 Since Sun has canceled production of the JavaStation line, it no longer
sells them through their official channels. Sun contacts have informed me
that all internal JavaStation stock was cleaned out and dumped in 2000.
Therefore, All JavaStations are now found out in the wild.

 Your best bet to get JavaStations though is out on the open market.
Educational institutions which received a handful from Sun as demo units are
now trying to offload them any way they can (too bad they don't read this
HOWTO). Search around the auction sites like Ebay and Yahoo Auctions, and you
should be able to turn some up.

 A great resource for JavaStations used to be "Bodoman's JavaStation site"
at: [http://www.bodoman.com/javastation/javastation.html]  http://
www.bodoman.com/javastation/javastation.html. Sadly, as of October 2001, the
domain bodoman.com seems to no longer resolve. Ebay may now be your best bet.

 Mr. Coffee is the most widespread JavaStation model, and has tended to sell
around $30-80US consistently for the last year or so.

 Krups models more rare and sell at higher prices, probably because the
stylish case still stands out today. Prices on Ebay are always over $100, but
for Oct. 2001, their technology is definitely no longer worth that much. A
good price would be $80-85US. Many reports have come from the UK telling of
many Krups models getting dumped there.

 The Dover models were a very hush-hush thing when this HOWTO was initially
published, but the secret is out: if you want one, go to South Africa. Dovers
seemed to have been dumped there en masse. Pricing is unknown, but should be
comparable to a Cyrix-266 PC clone.

 The Espresso and JavaEngine models are near impossible to find, so if you
get one, consider yourself lucky. If you have a Fox, well, you're just too
cool. Pricing for these models is likely a premium. (>$100US).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Background Requirements for Linux on a JavaStation

This chapter describes the base hardware and software requirements for
enabling Linux on the JavaStation .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Complete Hardware Requirements

 For hardware, you will need one or more JavaStation clients and a server to
feed it its Linux image from, all networked on the same net segment.

 This server you use can be any server which supports DHCP and TFTP, and RARP
. These are the base protocols needed to perform a network boot of the  
JavaStations. You may also need NFS service as well, but it is not necessary
in one type of configuration this HOWTO describes. Also, you can get by
without RARP on both the Krups and Espresso models.

 This document will describe how to set up serving the network  Linux OS
image to the JavaStation from a Sun server running SparcLinux. While you do
not need a Sun server to serve your Linux image off of, a Sun SparcLinux
server is recommended should you wish to compile a kernel of your own, or
prototype a new filesystem for your JavaStations to use. Otherwise, you will
need to use prepackaged kernels and filesystems somebody else has pre-built
and made publicly available for use. (You might also use a cross-compiler to
produce the kernel images, but prototyping a filesystem is best done on a Sun
SparcLinux server.)

 Reports of successful boot servers used include Sun boxes running
Sparclinux, Sun boxes running Solaris, and PCs running MS Windows. It is only
when you are building a new kernel or filesystem that a Sun box running Linux
becomes valuable.

 Your network can be a simple 10 Mbps ethernet LAN, but when you begin using
more than 50 JavaStations at once, a switched 100 Mbps network becomes
desirable for your server to handle multiple concurrent boot requests.

 This HOWTO includes pointers to example kernels, filesystems and a complete
out-of-the-box solution for you to use, eliminating your need for a Linux/
SPARC server, but you still need a server of some type to feed the image to
the JavaStations as they boot.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Network Service Requirements

 As discussed in the last section, the JavaStation boot cycle will make use
of DHCP and TFTP with possibly NFS and RARP. To understand why, read up on
the JavaStation boot sequence in the next section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Understand the JavaStation Boot Sequence

 The JavaStations follow a typical  diskless workstation boot sequence.

 When powered on, the JavaStation sends out a broadcast request for its IP.
It gets its IP info via RARP or DHCP. With a DHCP response, it gets
information about the network it is on and where to go download its boot
image from via TFTP.

 There are subtle variations in diskless boots from one diskless machine to
the next. For instance, BOOTP may sometimes be substituted where DHCP is, and
RARP may be eliminated in favor of either of the two. But in general, the
sequence is typically the same between the client and the server:

 1.   C: "Who am I?"
   
 2.   S: "You are xxx"
   
 3.   C: "Where do I go for my boot image?"
   
 4.   S: "You go here."
   
 5.   C: "Give me my image from here...Please?"
   
 6.   S: "Here's your image."
   

 After the kernel is finished loading, your diskless client typically mounts
its root filesystem from the network via NFS. Alternatively, it may load and
mount it from a RAMdisk.

 The original JavaOS and Hotjava Views environment, when run on a
JavaStation, required the setup and maintenance of the core services above,
plus also NIS, HTTP, DNS, POP, and NTP servers. If setting up a JavaStation
boot server seems like a lot of work, imagine adding these extra services
into the mix too.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. Additional Software Requirements: Replacement Firmware (PROLL)

 JavaStations came with two different PROMs installed in them. Version 2.30
shipped with the earliest Mr. Coffee models, and was updated by latter
versions of the Sun Netra J software environment to 3.11. Krups and Espresso
came with 3.x versions of the PROM by default.

 It turns out the later 3.x series of PROMs is not conducive to booting Linux
upon. Fortunately, a complete PROM replacement called PROLL now exists to get
by this limitation.

 PROLL becomes the first image your  JavaStation grabs by TFTP. It then will
load your true kernel image and boot into Linux .

 No matter what PROM revision you have, get  PROLL. This can make
troubleshooting new installs easier.

 The current, master version of PROLL is available from: [http://
people.redhat.com/zaitcev/linux/]   http://people.redhat.com/zaitcev/linux/.

 The current version at the time of this writing is "14".

 PROLL can also be found mirrored on "VGER ", and also on this HOWTO's
distribution site at: [http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/proll/
proll_14.tar.bz2]  http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/proll/
proll_14.tar.bz2 (HOWTO website mirror - version 14)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5. Decide on your Filesystem-type: NFS-Root, or Embedded?

 Before you begin, you must decide upon the root-filesystem type you wish to
use for your diskless JavaStation. There are two possibilities.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5.1. "NFS-Root" Filesystem

 In this setup, after the boot kernel is retrieved off the network, the
running JavaStation makes an NFS connection for its root filesystem. The root
directory "/" is mounted off the network for the duration of the current
session.

 The "NFS-Root" solution is the recommended way to go for beginners, as it is
easier to troubleshoot if there are problems. It also makes it easier to
prototype the proper filesystem, as any changes you make on a running system
can be propogated for the next boot cycle (so long as you are in read-write
mode, of course).

 Drawbacks of this type of system is increased network activity as the
running JavaStations locate and execute files, plus file organization in
large environments.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5.2. "Embedded-Root" Filesystem

 In this setup, the root filesystem is loaded directly into RAM and accessed
from there.

 The advantage of this setup is that there is no NFS traffic to worry about,
resulting in a clean solution.

 The disadvantage of this configuration is that you can no longer do rapid
prototyping of your filesystem, as any changes you make to a running system
are lost. If you have no "NFS-Root" setup available, you develop an embedded
filesystem by making small tweaks and performing reboots to test. Other
disadvantages include the requirement of fitting the full filesystem in
available RAM; due to a limitation of PROLL, this requirement is much lower
on JavaStations than expected. Still, embedded root is the way to go for the
cleanest environment.

 First time users will want to set up an "NFS-Root" configuration. When you
have things stabilized, move to "Embedded-Root" to take use of its
advantages.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6. Support Sites to Check Out: Zaitcev's Linux Site

 One website to keep on reference when you begin thinking about putting Linux
on your JavaStation is kernel hacker Pete Zaitcev's website at: [http://
people.redhat.com/zaitcev/linux/]  http://people.redhat.com/zaitcev/linux/,
referenced throughout this document as the "ZLS" site (short for "Zaitcev's
Linux Site"). Here you will find the latest version of PROLL and many
low-level details about dealing with the JavaStations. Many items on the ZLS
have been merged into this document, but not all.

 Oct. 2001 update: It is in your best interest to review all the information
on Pete's site, in this document, and references pointed to, before diving in
and setting up your JavaStation with Linux. Almost all questions people have
had in setting up their systems are covered in the materials presented.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Build Your Kernel

4.1. Before you begin

 This chapter assumes you wish to compile your own Linux kernel for the 
JavaStation. If this is something you can not do, there are sample kernels
pointed to at the end of this chapter.

 This chapter assumes you already know how to compile Linux kernels in
general, perhaps on a PC, a SPARC server running Linux, or any of the other 
Linux ports. If not, read the Kernel-HOWTO and the README file of your kernel
source.

 Compiling a kernel for a JavaStation is not much different than compiling a 
Linux kernel elsewhere. You just need to know the right options to pick. In
general, you're compiling for a Sun4M class architecture, and enabling 
JavaStation-specific options. The following sections in this chapter will
take you through the steps.

 While it may be possible to compile the JavaStation -enabled kernel on
alternate platforms by way of a cross-compiler, this HOWTO assumes you will
do it on a Linux/Sparc based server running in 32-bit mode. Cross-compiling
will not be covered, and questions regarding it will not be entertained.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Make sure you use 32-bit mode

 When compiling your own JavaStation-capable kernel on a Sun server, you need
to make sure the machine you work on is set to 32-bit mode. So, if you're on
an Ultra-class machine, be sure to first switch to 32-bit mode before you
begin compiling.

 To check what mode you're in, do a uname -a. If it says "sparc", you're in
32-bit mode and don't have to do anything. If it reports "sparc64", then you
should perform a sparc32 bash first to switch to 32-bit mode. A subsequent 
uname -a should reflect the change.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Supported Linux Kernel Versions

 The kernel source revision you should use depends both on which model of 
JavaStation you have, and which series kernel you are using. The current
"stable" series of Linux kernels is 2.4.x, but as we will read in a minute,
this may not be the best bet to use.

 First, a few note on the 2.2.x and 2.3.x series. Mr. Coffee has had kernel
support since about kernel version 2.2.5, and definitely works out of the box
with the RedHat 6.0+/SPARC distribution kernels. Krups support did not work
well out of the box until the latter 2.3.x kernel cycle. Krups support was
added in the early 2.3.x sequence, but the MMU changes to the 32-bit SPARC
kernel had kept it from compiling cleanly until later on.

 Kernels for both Mr. Coffee and Krups compiled cleanly by the HOWTO author
with the Mar. 17, 2000 CVS kernel, and are included in the Sample Kernels
section.. Krups support was backported into the 2.2.x kernels (where x>15).
The latest 2.2.x kernel "should" compile cleanly for the Mr. Coffee and Krups
models, but your mileage may vary.

 Now onto the 2.4.x series.

 The only kernel which has been tested and compiles cleanly for Mr. Coffee
and Krups is version 2.4.2. All other versions are broken or require a patch.

 The reason for this is that the sparc32 branch of the kernel has not had an
active maintainer for many months. Some are contributing fixes, but without
an active maintainer things go slow.

 There is another reason to be weary of the 2.4.x series. From 2.4.0 through
2.4.9, the VM of the kernel was found to be inadequate under heavy loads, and
was subsequently replaced in 2.4.10+. This was a big change for the so-called
"stable" series of kernels.

 To add further insult to injury, there have been security flaws detected in
all of 2.2.x kernel series and up through 2.4.12. This is patched in
pre-2.2.20 and 2.4.12+. As of this writing, 2.4.12+ has not been checked by
the author as functioning on the JavaStations.

 So basically, it has been a crap-shoot over which kernel to choose. Try a
few until you find one that suits you best.

 If you can not get a kernel to compile, or wish to avoid the headache or
trying, you may try the samples pointed to by this document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.4. Required Kernel Configuration Options

 When you do your make config command to enter the kernel configuration
stage, there are a few things you are required to enable. Note that the
following option names are from a 2.2.x kernel, and may be slightly different
on a 2.4.x series kernel. If in doubt, check the sample files later in the
chapter.

 For all JavaStations, you want to enable PCI support:
CONFIG_PCI=y                                                                 

 Don't forget your mouse:
CONFIG_BUSMOUSE=y                                                            
CONFIG_SUN_MOUSE=y                                                           

 You'll want video, done with the Linux framebuffer interface:
CONFIG_FB_TCX=y (for Mr. Coffee)                                             
CONFIG_FB_PCI=y                                                              
CONFIG_FB_IGA=y (for Krups/Espresso)                                         

 Audio is done with the Crystal Audio 4231 chipset:
CONFIG_SPARCAUDIO=y                                                          
CONFIG_SPARCAUDIO_CS4231=y                                                   

 Don't forget your network interface:
CONFIG_SUNLANCE=y (Mr. Coffee)                                               
CONFIG_HAPPYMEAL=y (Krups/Espresso)                                          

 You'll no doubt need to support a filesystem:
CONFIG_EXT2_FS=y                                                             

 You'll want IP autoconfiguration, and RARP/BOOTP support:
CONFIG_IP_PNP=y                                                              
CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP=y                                                        
CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP=y                                                         

 When doing the "NFS-Root" filesystem configuration, you will need both NFS
and NFS-Root support:
CONFIG_NFS_FS=y                                                              
CONFIG_ROOT_NFS=y                                                            

 When doing the "Embedded-Root" filesystem, configure both RAM disks and 
"initial ramdisk" support:
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM=y                                                         
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD=y   (for 2.4.x, also configure size of ramdisk)        

 You can get a working ".config" file which has the required options set
later in this chapter.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5. Necessary Patch for "Embedded-Root" FS Configurations

 If you have decided to go with the "Embedded-Root" filesystem option, you
will want to make a patch to the RAMdisk driver source first.

 The default size of a RAM disk when using the RAM disk driver is 4 MB.
Chances are that you will want an embedded filesystem of more than that size,
particularly when you start thinking about running an X server, or including
a Java runtime.

 You can do this for 2.2.x kernels by a manual edit yourself, or by using the
patch pointed to below. The change is a one-line edit in the file <LINUXROOT>
/drivers/block/rd.c . Look for a line that says:
int rd_size = 4096; /* Size of the RAM disks */                              

 and change it to the size of the RAMdisk you wish. Typically, most embedded
systems are under 16 MB, so a common edit is to change the line to:
int rd_size = 4 * 4096; /* Size of the RAM disks */                          

 If you can not do this, the patch below makes the edit for you.

 4MB to 16MB kernel patch file is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/
Files/patches/ramdisk_patch.txt

 Kernels in the 2.4.x series allow you to select the amount of RAM as a
configuration option. The patch is no longer needed for those kernels.

 It should also be noted in this section that there is currently a limit on
the size of Linux boot image for all JavaStation models, due to the
implementation of PROLL. This limit is technically 8 MB. This topic is
mentioned again in the "Questions and TroubleShooting" section of this
document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6. Build the JavaStation-Ready Kernel

 To build the kernel, you type make vmlinux. If you come from an x86 Linux
background, you might be surprised that you do not perform a make bzImage or 
make zImage. Do not be alarmed: this command is correct.

 When the compile is finished, you will find a file named "vmlinux " in the
kernel source root directory. You are almost ready to put this kernel to use.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.7. Convert Kernel from ELF to a.out format

 You need to make one more change to your kernel before it is ready for use.
You need to convert it from ELF to AOUT executable format. You can do this
with the "elftoaout " utility included in most Linux/SPARC distributions.

 To convert your kernel image to the AOUT executable format, you issue the
command:
elftoaout -o vmlinux.aout vmlinux                                            

 You will probably now want to rename the image file to a longer name which
includes the current date and kernel revision you used, so as not to get
confused with when you have multiple boot kernel images down the road.

 The elftoaout program should come with your SparcLinux distribution. If not,
try VGER or your favorite kernel mirror.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8. JavaStation-Ready Kernel Images, System.map and .config File Samples

 Here are some sample ".config" and JavaStation -ready kernel images. They
were prepared and donated to help get you up-to-speed quickly.

 Warning: Some of these kernel images are considered out of date, and should
be avoided in a production environment. It is up to you to decide how much of
a liability you feel running them holds. The document author and kernel
contributors cannot be held liable for any damage caused by the use of these
kernels. They are provided with absolutely no warranties.

 If for some reason you have troubles downloading, try holding left-shift on
your browser as you click the link. Kernel images are compressed with bzip2
compression. They must be uncompressed before use. Kernel images are already
converted to a.out format.

 If you mirror these files, or can verify they work on a machine not yet
confirmed, PLEASE email me so I can add your information here.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8.1. 2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD

 .config (md5sum c59329ceb2e831f2502c1e410ece141c): [http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD/
config__2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD.txt]   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/
Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD/config__2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD.txt

 kernel (md5sum 8e8d28b13961b92e3f95e4ba98f6f319):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD/
vmlinux__2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD.bz2

 System.map (md5sum 43205a86fcb0b16ecae7313d38fcbb2c):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD/
system.map__2.3.99pre3_embedded_RSD.txt

 Description:

 This kernel is donated by Robert Dubinski. It was used at Marquette
University to build an embedded root boot image. This is based off of the
Mar. 17, 2000 CVS kernel. It includes support for both Mr. Coffee and Krups
machines.

 Tested on Mr. Coffee: YES

 Tested on Krups: YES

 Tested on Espresso: NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8.2. 2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD

 .config (md5sum e715370346ac298555dd7ce099c8f80a): [http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD/
config__2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD.txt]   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/
Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD/config__2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD.txt

 kernel (md5sum fd141e8e8f639df67427d5ecd0ecba76):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD/
vmlinux__2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD.bz2

 System.map (md5sum fd141e8e8f639df67427d5ecd0ecba76):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD/
system.map__2.3.99pre3_nfsroot_RSD.txt

 Description:

 This kernel is donated by Robert Dubinski. It was used at Marquette
University to prototype a filesystem. This is based off of the Mar. 17, 2000
CVS kernel. It includes support for both Mr. Coffee and Krups machines.

 Tested on Mr. Coffee: YES

 Tested on Krups: YES

 Tested on Espresso: NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8.3. 2.4.2_embedded_RSD

 .config (md5sum dd1a9dd2e92b9b175b7ba747c94edca7): [http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.4.2_embedded_RSD/
config__2.4.2_embedded_RSD.txt]   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
kernels/2.4.2_embedded_RSD/config__2.4.2_embedded_RSD.txt

 kernel (md5sum 5a1592b7e0a37909ae16374296a7070e):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.4.2_embedded_RSD/
vmlinux__2.4.2_embedded_RSD.bz2

 System.map (md5sum 1de202e0fab7a9e661bebc80255605b7):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.4.2_embedded_RSD/
system.map__2.4.2_embedded_RSD.txt

 Description:

 This kernel is donated by Robert Dubinski. It is a demonstration kernel for
the 2.4.x series, and has not been tested...yet. It includes support for both
Mr. Coffee and Krups machines.

 Tested on Mr. Coffee: NO

 Tested on Krups: NO

 Tested on Espresso: NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8.4. 2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD

 .config (md5sum cabd1d98613ad169b372666b7eaa869b): [http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD/
config__2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD.txt]   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
kernels/2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD/config__2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD.txt

 kernel (md5sum c24f42f72c58920c00ac7ff7aaffadde):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD/
vmlinux__2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD.bz2

 System.map (md5sum 6af2b374c7d3fc3f97d48ab71b335062):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/kernels/2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD/
system.map__2.4.2_nfsroot_RSD.txt

 Description:

 This kernel is donated by Robert Dubinski. It is a demonstration kernel for
the 2.4.x series, and has not been tested...yet. It includes support for both
Mr. Coffee and Krups machines.

 Tested on Mr. Coffee: NO

 Tested on Krups: NO

 Tested on Espresso: NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8.5. Outside kernel mirrors

 Other sites mirror the kernels here or other kernel samples. Here are a few
known sites as of Oct-31-2001:

 1.   ftp://atari-source.com/pub/javastation/
   
 2.   http://people.redhat.com/pjones/krups
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Build A JavaStation-Ready FileSystem

 This chapter describes how one constructs a filesystem suitable for use on
the Linux-running JavaStations .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. Preparing Yourself to Build Your Own Filesystem

 Building a filesystem for use with the JavaStations is a time-consuming, but
rewarding task for those who undertake it. You will learn more about library
dependencies than you ever thought you could, all the time while trying to
keep the overall image size as small as possible.

 WARNING: This is not an easy task. Creating a lasting filesystem is not for
novices. If you seriously consider undertaking this step, prepare to budget a
bit of time to get things just right, particularly if you plan to make an
embedded-root filesystem which fits in the 8MB limit. You have now been
properly warned.

 There are two common approaches one can take when rolling a new JavaStation
-ready filesystem.

 1.  Start with an established distribution's filesystem and whittle down to
    the core.
   
 2.  Start with an established distribution's "rescue disk" filesystem and
    add desired functionality.
   

 Which path you take, of course, is entirely up to you. The "rescue disk"
build procedure seems to work best though, as more base commands in a rescue
disk are statically linked, increasing the starting image size but causing
less initial library headaches. Commands included on a rescue disk also
happen to be bare-bones, with many extraneous options not compiled in.

 Obviously when building a filesystem in the context of the  JavaStation, you
will be basing off of an existing Linux/SPARC filesystem. The filesystems
that come with the RedHat, SuSE or Debian distributions are good starting
points.

Warning In the future, you will also need to make sure you base off a        
        filesystem built with compiled 32-bit mode executables, as a 64-bit  
        userland project is presently in progress for 64-bit SPARC Linux     
        kernels. As of Oct. 2001, this is still a ways away, but it is being 
        mentioned now for the future.                                        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. Contents of the "/etc/fstab" File

 The configuration lines placed into "/etc/fstab" depend on whether you will
be using the "NFS-Root" or "Embedded-Root" filesystem configuration.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.1. "NFS-Root" Filesystem fstab

Here is an example of an "/etc/fstab" for an "NFS-Root" boot option.
###                                                                            
#                                                                              
your.nfs.server:/path/to/filesystem  /  nfs defaults,rsize=8192,wsize=8192 1 1 
#                                                                              
none                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0    
###                                                                            
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2.2. "Embedded-Root" Filesystem fstab

Here is an example of an "/etc/fstab" for an "Embedded-Root" boot option.
###                                                                          
#                                                                            
/dev/ram /     ext2  defaults                                                
#                                                                            
/proc    /proc    proc  defaults                                             
###                                                                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. The "Embedded-Root" Image Creation Procedure

 Prepping up the "Embedded-Root" boot image requires a number of extra steps.
Due to these extra steps, the "NFS-Root" filesystem option is recommended for
beginners to Linux on the JavaStation. You might also try the samples pointed
to in this document. Should you still wish to build and embedded image on
your own, this section outlines the basic instructions.

 Creating the "Embedded-Root" boot image is a 5-Step Procedure:

 1.  Prototype Your Filesystem
   
     This whole chapter deals with rolling your own filesystem. In this step,
    it is assumed you create your own filesystem, perhaps by prototyping one
    on a working "NFS-Root" filesystem configuration.
   
     One thing to keep in mind is that unlike your "NFS-Root" filesystem, the
    "Embedded-Root" filesystem must fit within the confines of your allocated
    RAMdisk, generally 4-16 MB. Your maximum size is dependant on the setting
    of the RAMdisk driver.
   
 2.  Create an Empty File for Your FileSystem
   
     You now need to create a file-based filesystem "container". This is just
    a file that is the size of your RAMdisk.
   
     To create this, try the dd command:
    dd if=/dev/zero of=./fs_test.img bs=1k count=8000                        
   
     Using this example, you now should have an 8 MB file named "fs_test.img"
    . Note: Be sure the count you use matches the RAMdisk size you allocated
    for in the kernel's RAMdisk driver!
   
 3.  Format your Filesystem "Container"
   
     Now that you have a "container" for your filesystem, it is time to
    format it and place a bare filesystem on it.
   
     In our kernel phase, we added in support for the ext2 filesystem. We'll
    now format our "container" with this filesystem type.
    mkfs.ext2 ./fs_test.img                                                  
   
     Ignore any warnings about the file not being a block device, and proceed
    anyway. This is an expected warning message.
   
 4.  Mount the Filesystem "Container" and Write to It
   
     Now that you have your filesystem container, you can mount it and load
    your prototyped filesystem on it.
   
     To mount the container, use the kernel loopback device. Make sure your
    server's kernel has loopback support enabled and issue a:
    mount -o loop ./fs_test.img /mnt                                         
   
     Copy your files to the filesystem, and make sure "/etc/fstab " has the 
    RAMdisk entries as described elsewhere in this document.
   
     To avoid symbolic links being changed into actual copies of files, use a
    copy tool like "tar" or "cpio" instead of a "cp".
   
 5.  Unmount and Compress the Root Filesystem
   
     Unmount the root filesystem you just created.
    umount /mnt                                                              
   
     Compress the filesystem file with maximum "gzip" compression levels.
    gzip -v9 ./fs_test.img                                                   
   
     You should now have "fs_test.img.gz" file.
   
 6.  Hook the Root-Filesystem Onto the Back of Your Kernel Image
   
     Now you must append the filesystem image onto your kernel.
   
     You do this with a utility program called "piggyback". The piggyback
    program takes care of the task of appending the two and letting the
    kernel know where both it and the filesystem begins and ends.
   
     The "piggyback" program is found in your kernel source tree under <
    LINUXROOT>/arch/sparc/boot. It might also be found on your favorite
    ftp.kernel.org site.
   
     For piggyback to work, it needs your AOUT format kernel image, the
    System.map file from your kernel source root directory, and the
    compressed root-filesystem you just created.
   
     We put it all together with a:
    piggyback vmlinux.aout System.map fs_test.img.gz                         
   
     Be sure to backup your kernel image first, as piggyback used the same 
    "vmlinux.aout" filename for output. Check the filesize of your 
    "vmlinux.aout" file after giving this command and you can verify the
    filesystem has indeed been appended.
   

 Congratulations! You've created an "Embedded-Root" kernel/filesystem boot
image.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.4. Sample FileSystems

 Here are some sample filesystems for you to start with. They have been
contributed by various JavaStation users.

 Warning: Some of these filesystem images may be considered out of date, and
should be avoided in a production environment. It is up to you to decide how
much of a liability you feel running them holds. The document author and
filesystem contributors cannot be held liable for any damage caused by the
use of these files. They are provided with absolutely no warranties.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.4.1. jsroot_varol_19991221

 filesystem (md5sum 450669bc5f3f8a4006fdc75471c0454b):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/filesystems/jsroot_varol/
jsroot_varol_19991221.tar.bz2

 Description:

 This image, created by Varol Kapton <varol@ulakbim.gov.tr>, was based on
RedHat 6/SPARC. It has the Xfree 3.3.5 framebuffer server dated 19990823, but
only works with Krups. If you are working with a Mr. Coffee unit, you must
substitute the other X server discussed later in this HOWTO.

 As the network settings included are configured for Varol's network, you
must first mount this image, and edit /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf
accordingly.

 Confirmed OK: YES

 Good for Mr. Coffee: YES

 Good for Krups: NO

 Good for Espresso: NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.5. Sample X Servers

 One of the most frequently asked questions users have is where to get an X
server from. Here are some sample X servers for you to start with. They have
been contributed by various JavaStation users.

 Warning: Some of these files may be considered out of date, and should be
avoided in a production environment. It is up to you to decide how much of a
liability you feel running them holds. The document author and filesystem
contributors cannot be held liable for any damage caused by the use of these
files. They are provided with absolutely no warranties.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.5.1. XF86_FBDev_3.3.3.1_19990104

 X server (md5sum 88b49bbbfa1c36a5049b62b44c54ed81):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/xfree/XF86_FBDev_3.3.3.1_19990104.bz2

 XF86Config file (md5sum d9fa291efbd178812b3bd253dffb1893):   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/xfree/
XF86Config_FBDev_3.3.3.1_19990104.txt

 Description:

 This is a server for XFree 3.3.3.1 with support for the framebuffers of Mr.
Coffee and Krups.

 Confirmed OK: YES

 Good for Mr. Coffee: YES

 Good for Krups: YES

 Good for Espresso: NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.6. Outside Sample Filesystems

 Of course, other filesystems and tools exist outside this document, and have
been used by JavaStation users. Here are a few files that were reported on
the sparclinux mailing list as having been used.

 1.   http://busybox.lineo.com (a single executable which has dozens of
    common unix tool functions built in)
   
 2.   http://www.ultralinux.org/js (Jim Mintha's filesystems)
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. "Out of the Box" JavaStation Boot File Solutions

 This chapter is for administrators who have neither the time nor energy to
put together files as described in the previous two chapters, or just want to
see Linux on a JavaStation rapidly. In this chapter are complete
kernel+embedded-root-fs solutions for to try.

 The images here perform simple (or meaningless) tasks, but are useful for
verifying a server configuration. Configuring the boot server is covered in
the next chapter.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. Simple Solution #1

 This is simple solution #1, or at least it will be when it gets created.
Right now this section is a stub for the future files.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Set up Your Server

 This chapter describes the configuration steps necessary for the server
machine to hand-off your JavaStation boot image.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1. Preface

 It is now time to setup your server to deliver the OS and filesystem to the 
JavaStation.

 In our examples here, we configure a Linux/SPARC server "lnxserv " at
private IP 192.168.128.100 to deliver a boot image to JavaStation "java01" at
private IP 192.168.128.1. Both are on private network 192.168.128/24. When
using an "NFS-Root" Filesystem, the location on the server of the filesystem
in our sample is at "/path/to/nfsroot ".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Setting up the RARP service

 We first need to set up RARP service on our server, so the JavaStation can
auto-configure its IP.

 First, populate the "/etc/ethers" file with the mapping of the mac address
of the JavaStation to its hostname:
### /etc/ethers                                                              
8:0:20:82:7a:21  lnxserv  # 192.168.128.100 (server is not necessary,)       
#                         #                 (just for completeness)          
#                                                                            
#                                                                            
08:00:20:81:C2:ae java01   # 192.168.128.1 (JavaStation)                     
#                                                                            
###                                                                          

 Next, populate the "/etc/hosts" file with the IP to hostname maps:
### /etc/hosts                                                               
192.168.128.100 lnxserv                                                      
192.168.128.1 java01                                                         
###                                                                          

 Lastly, configure the RARP cache to fill. On 2.2.x based systems, you do
this with the /sbin/rarp command, so fill the cache at startup:
### Part of rc.local                                                         
#                                                                            
# If necessary, first load the rarp module to be able to fill the cache.     
# /sbin/insmod rarp                                                          
#                                                                            
# Now we fill the rarp cache.  You better have the rarp command available.   
if [ -f /sbin/rarp ]; then                                                   
        /sbin/rarp -f                                                        
fi                                                                           
###                                                                          

 On 2.4.x based systems, you must use the userland RARP daemon to answer RARP
requests instead.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Setting up the DHCP service

 You now need to configure your server to deliver DHCP service. This will
help identify the JavaStation, the network it is on, and where to get its
boot image from.

 The following is a sample "dhcpd.conf" file for the ISC DHCP server software
which ships with most Linux/SPARC distributions.
### Sample /etc/dhcpd.conf file for ISC DHCPD                                
#                                                                            
deny unknown-clients;                                                        
#                                                                            
subnet 192.168.128.0 netmask 255.255.255.0                                   
{                                                                            
   range 192.168.128.1 192.168.128.150;                                      
}                                                                            
                                                                             
group                                                                        
{                                                                            
   host java01                                                               
   {                                                                         
      hardware ethernet 08:00:20:81:C2:ae;                                   
      filename "C0A88003";        # "/tftpboot/xxx"                          
      fixed-address java01;       # 192.168.128.1                            
   }                                                                         
}                                                                            
#                                                                            
### End dhcpd.conf file                                                      

 A longer [http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/conf/
petes_dhcpd.conf.txt] dhcpd.conf from the ZLS is mirrored here for
demonstration purposes.

 Note: Some early versions of ISC DHCPD are reported to not work well. It is
recommended you use ISC DHCPD Version 2.0 and above. If you still find
youself having problems, there is a patch to the ISC DHCP server on the ZLS
website.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4. Set up NFS service ("NFS-Root Options" Only)

 When you are serving up an "NFS-Root" filesystem, you need to share the
filesystem you created to the JavaStation client. You do this with the "/etc/
exports" file.
###/etc/exports                                                              
/path/to/nfsroot        java01(rw,no_root_squash)                            
###                                                                          

 Be sure your NFS server gets properly started up at boot-time.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5. Setting up for Boot with TFTP

 Now we need to set up the last step on our server: the TFTP configuration.
For this step, you will need the kernel you created (using the "NFS-Root"
option) or the piggybacked kernel/fs boot image (using the "Embedded-Root"
option), the appropriate PROLL, and some knowledge of hexadecimal numbering.

 The first thing you need to do is verify that "TFTPd" is enabled in your "/
etc/inetd.conf" file:
tftp    dgram   udp     wait    root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.tftpd             

 Now, you move your copy of proll for your JavaStation architecture, along
your kernel or piggybacked kernel image to /tftpboot.

 Now, you create of symbolic link from the hexidecimal version of your IP to
your PROLL image, and a map from "HEXIP.PROL" to your real kernel image. If
you are using "Embedded-Root" option, you point to your "Embedded-Root"
Filesystem plus Kernel image. If you are using the "NFS-Root" option, you
need to point to the normal "vmlinux.aout" image, plus have a separate map of
IP->nfsroot location. For sake of completeness, you might also want a 
"HEXIP.SUN4M" -> "HEXIP " map, as that is the custom way of dealing with net
boot situations with the Sun.

 Example for java01 booting from "NFS-Root":
  $ ls -ld /tftpboot                                                                              
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        89608 Mar 20 10:15 proll.aout.krups.11                      
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        52732 Mar 17 11:52 proll.aout.mrcoffee.11                   
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           19 Mar 20 10:16 proll.krups -> proll.aout.krups.11       
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           22 Mar 17 11:54 proll.mrcoffee -> proll.aout.mrcoffee.11 
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           10 Apr  1 13:00 C0A88001.SUN4M -> COA88001               
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           10 Apr  1 13:00 C0A88001 -> proll.mrcoffee               
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           12 Apr  1 13:00 C0A88001.PROL -> vmlinux.aout            
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root      1456189 May 21 12:53 vmlinux.aout                             
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root      6743821 Apr  1 12:53 vmlinux_embed.aout                       
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           18 Apr  1 12:53 192.168.128.1 -> /path/to/nfsroot        

 Example for java01 booting from "Embedded-Root" boot image:
  $ ls -ld /tftpboot                                                                              
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        89608 Mar 20 10:15 proll.aout.krups.11                      
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        52732 Mar 17 11:52 proll.aout.mrcoffee.11                   
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           19 Mar 20 10:16 proll.krups -> proll.aout.krups.11       
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           22 Mar 17 11:54 proll.mrcoffee -> proll.aout.mrcoffee.11 
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           10 Apr  1 13:00 C0A88001.SUN4M -> COA88001               
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           10 Apr  1 13:00 C0A88001 -> proll.mrcoffee               
  lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root           12 Apr  1 13:00 C0A88001.PROL -> vmlinux_embed.aout      
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root      1456189 May 21 12:53 vmlinux.aout                             
  -rw-r--r--   1 root     root      6743821 Apr  1 12:53 vmlinux_embed.aout                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Booting Your JavaStation

 Once you've selected or built your boot files to use, and configured your
boot server to serve them, it is time to boot your JavaStation with Linux!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1. What to See When Booting Linux

 There are multiple stages to the JavaStation boot cycle. What you see on
screen can give you clues as to whether things are going well or not.
Therefore, it is vital you become familiar with these boot stages, so you can
troubleshoot problems rapidly.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1.1. Stage 1: White Screen

 When you first boot, your JavaStation will start up with a white background
screen and black-text PROM banner on top. You will also see a black
"exclamation mark in triangle" warning logo. This means the system doesn't
yet know who it is, and begins sending RARP/BOOTP requests.

 If you do not get this white screen, there is something wrong with your
JavaStation. Check all connections, particularly your keyboard, monitor and
mouse cords. If the JavaStation does not detect a keyboard or mouse, it
thinks it is being booted into a serial console, and will not use the monitor
(or keyboard/mouse). In exceptional cases, you may need to reset a jumper if
the unit has been set to always boot into the serial console.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1.2. Stage 2: Coffee Cup Logo

 When contact is made with the DHCP server, the logo goes away and changes to
the Java coffee cup logo. The screen is still white background. The logo
should be solid, and not blinking. This step lasts a second or two, as the
unit should already be contacting the TFTP server and downloading the boot
image.

 If your coffee logo is blinking, it means there is a problem getting your IP
address, usually due to a DHCP leasing problem. Check your DHCP server's logs
to see that your JavaStation's mac address is being sent a proper IP address.

 If your JavaStation doesn't even get a blinking coffee cup, check both your
DHCP and RARP server settings. Also, if running the ISC DHCP server, you may
be having a problem with 1514-byte packets and need the patch from the ZLS
website.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1.3. Stage 3: A Window to PROLL

 After the coffee cup logo is solid a few seconds, a white-text on black
background window opens. This is the PROLL window. It'll show status of the
TFTP download in progress, and when finished will give stats on the size of
the file downloaded. The size should match your completed file. When
finished, the screen should read 'Booting Linux'. Although, this goes so fast
you may not see it.

 If you don't see the PROLL window open, confirm your TFTP settings are
correct. Also, verify you are pointing to a version of PROLL specific to your
JavaStation model. In other words, PROLL for Krups is different from PROLL
for Mr. Coffee, and so on.

 If, at the bottom of the PROLL window, the system prints the phrase
'obio_range' and hangs for minutes without end, the boot is halted, and you
are likely running an old version of PROLL. Verify your PROLL version is the
most recent and try again.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1.4. Stage 4: Kernel Boot

 After PROLL finishes its work, the whole screen should go black. You should
see a picture of the Linux logo, Tux the penguin, in the upper left hand of
the screen. At this point, messages relating your kernel should be spilling
down before you. The color of the text is either white or grey depending on
your monitor.

 If the screen didn't flip, and you do not see Tux, chances are you are using
a kernel compiled with framebuffer support for a different JavaStation model
than you are using.

 After the message, 'decompressing kernel' appears and the kernel begins
spitting out its boot messages, any mistakes from this point are due either
to: the filesystem you are using, the filesystem mounting, or missing kernel
drivers which should have been compiled in; in other words, your own fault.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Questions and Troubleshooting

 This chapter is intended to provide solutions to frequently and infrequently
encountered problems in enabling Linux on the JavaStations.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.1. When booting, the message "The file just loaded does not appear to be
executable." Why?

 On systems that have the older OpenBoot version 2.3, and are not set up to
use PROLL, you will get this message when attempting to boot up a kernel
image that is not in AOUT format. Be sure to run elftoaout on your kernel
image, as described in the "Kernel Build" chapter.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2. When booting, the message "no a.out magic" appears and halts the boot.
Why?

 On systems that are set up to use PROLL, you will see this message when
attempting to boot up a kernel image that is not in AOUT format. Be sure to
run elftoaout on your kernel image, as described in the "Kernel Build"
chapter.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.3. I tried booting a Krups but JavaOS comes up. I don't even have JavaOS!

 This likely means you have a flash SIMM install, and the flash SIMM has
JavaOS loaded on it. Remove the SIMM and the problem should go away.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.4. Cannot Boot an "Embedded-Root" image > 10 MB on my JavaStation. Why?

 There is a known limit of 8 MB when using the "Embedded-Root" boot image
option.

 The cause of this is the current version of the PROLL software, which map
only 8 MB of low memory. Any more and banking support would need to be added
to it.

 If needed, this limit can be fixed by someone, as the source to PROLL has
been released under terms of the General Public License (GPL).

 So in reality, the embedded image size limit is really 8 MB , not 10 MB. If
10 MB somehow works for you, it is sheerly by "luck"!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.5. After Booting, Typing Anything Yields Garbage Characters. Why?

 There are a few possibilities for this. Among them:

 1.  You have an incorrect device # for tty0.
   
 2.  The "keytable" loaded is incorrect. Make sure you use "sun" instead of 
    "PC" if you use the keytable program. Look for the keytable configuration
    file if it exists.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.6. In X Sessions to a Solaris server, the font server "xfs" crashes. Why?

 If you do X sessions to a Solaris server, and you find that your sessions
are no longer opening up new windows, chances are the font server on the 
Solaris host has crashed. This is a known bug in  Solaris 2.6 and 2.7 when
you have about 2 dozen  X terminals sessions running.

 The fix is to move the font server to a different OS and point your 
JavaStations there, or to upgrade your Solaris to the 2.7 11/99 maintenance
release or Solaris 8 which both (apparently) have fixes to this problem.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.7. Performing Indirect XDMCP to a  Solaris Server Results in Session Login
Failures. Why?

 Congratulations! You probably have one of patch numbers 107180-12 through
107180-19 installed on a Solaris 7 server. You need to upgrade to 107180-20
or above to fix this problem.

 I (your HOWTO author) reported this problem to Sun in November 1999, at
which time I was told a fix was not scheduled to be made, since I was using
an "unsupported configuration.". Never mind that the client was a piece of
hardware made by Sun itself. Also never mind that indirect XDMCP queries is a
standard itself which was broken by Sun. A call back in late January 2000,
and I learn that the record of my previous call was non-existant, but a fix
was now on its way. The fix finally was made available in April 2000, five
months after first reporting the problem. Considering revisions to this patch
during the broken XDMCP period dealt with fixing system security issues, we
were forced to run the older insecure software for five months while waiting
for a fix to a problem which should have been patched immediately.

 The moral of the story: test your JavaStation configuration against an
upgraded server that is not in production mode.

 If you have XDMCP problems not related to these faulty Solaris patches, it
may be a new problem, so please report it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.8. TFTPd config doesn't work on SUSE 6.3. Why?

 This was reported by a user after this document was first released.

 In SUSE 6.3, using the tftpd from the 'a' package of the netkit rpm, you
must be sure your tftpd line in /etc/inetd.conf has the -s flag. Otherwise
you need to specify a full path.

 Also, it is not necessary to run tftpd as root, so the suggested username
and group for tftpd on SUSE 6.3 is 'nobody' and 'nogroup'

 It is not known whether these changes are needed for newer versions of SUSE.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.9. Regarding RARP: Is it Needed or Not?

 RARP is not needed with the Krups or Espresso models and recent PROLL
software. RARP is required for Mr. Coffee, however.

 This 'Server Configuration' chapter explained how to set up kernel-level 
RARP on 2.2.x systems.

 On servers with kernel versions 2.3.x/2.4.x, kernel-level RARP support is
removed. The ZLS holds a version of ANK userland RARP from Andi Klein of SuSE
that will work with Linux/SPARC. It is available from: http://
people.redhat.com/zaitcev/linux/rarpd-ap1.tar.bz2. The command to use then is
rarpd-ank -e eth0. "-e" makes it ignore /tftpboot checking, and "eth0" is
needed if you are behind a firewall.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.10. Can One Use the Smart Card Reader on the Espresso models?

 This is not currently supported, but the reader follows an ISO standard (ISO
7816-3). On  Espresso, if you look into PROLL, there are definitions for the 
GPIO smartcard data/clock in "eeprom.c". So a programmer should technically
be able to get the Smart Card slot running.

 Whether the smartcard reader on Dover and Espresso are equivalent is not
known.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.11. Can One Use the Solaris DHCP server instead of ISC?

 Yes, this is possible. Earlier ISC daemons had problems dealing with
1514-byte requests of the JavaStations, while the Solaris server was able to
handle them without problems. Also, former users of JavaOS may already have
their Solaris DHCP server active, and wish to keep things on one machine.

 Here is how to configure it:

 First, fill in your /var/dhcp/"networks" file, populating it with ethernet
to IP info, and the appropriate leastime.
# This example uses "infinite" leastime                                      
#                                                                            
0108002081C2AE 03 192.168.128.1  192.168.128.100 -1 java01  # JavaStation    
010800208E4CF6 03 192.168.128.2  192.168.128.100 -1 java02  # JavaStation    

 Next, fill in your /var/dhcp/dhcptab file with entries similar to:
##                                                                                                                                                                      
# First, some network info                                                                                                                                              
#                                                                                                                                                                       
Locale   m  :UTCoffst=21600:                                                                                                                                            
www  m  :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.168.128.100:DNSdmain=my.own.net:DNSserv=192.168.128.100:                                                                           
192.168.128.0  m  :Broadcst=192.168.128.255:Subnet=255.255.255.0:MTU=1500:BootSrvA=192.168.128.100:Router=192.168.128.101:NISdmain=my.own.net:NISservs=192.168.128.100: 
#                                                                                                                                                                       
#  note: BootServA can point to a different TFTP server to get the kernel image                                                                                         
#        off of.                                                                                                                                                        
#                                                                                                                                                                       
#                                                                                                                                                                       
##                                                                                                                                                                      
# Now we define the JavaStation TFTPboot parameters                                                                                                                     
#                                                                                                                                                                       
SUNW.Linux m :Include=www:JOSchksm=0x155dbf97:Rootpath=/tftpboot:BootFile=proll.mrcoffee:BootSrvA=192.168.128.100:TFTPsrvN=lnxserv:                                     
SUNW.Linux.Krups m :Include=www:Rootpath=/tftpboot:BootFile=proll.krups:BootSrvA=192.168.128.100:TFTPsrvN=lnxserv:                                                      
#                                                                                                                                                                       
#                                                                                                                                                                       
#  note: different classes are defined for the different PROLL images.                                                                                                  
#                                                                                                                                                                       
##                                                                                                                                                                      
# Lastly, we list our hosts and which boot class each one gets.                                                                                                         
java01  m  :LeaseTim=-1:Include=SUNW.Linux:                                                                                                                             
java02  m  :LeaseTim=-1:Include=SUNW.Linux.Krups:                                                                                                                       
#                                                                                                                                                                       
#                                                                                                                                                                       
#                                                                                                                                                                       
###                                                                                                                                                                     
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.12. Can One Pass Arguments to "/sbin/init" in a Diskless Boot like This?

 PROLL ships with DHCP options disabled, but it could be changed. You would
then do something like "/tftpboot/0A0A0000.ARGS" to get those parameters in.

 If you boot from flash memory, PROLL picks up SILO options (where SILO is >
version 0.9.6 and PROLL is >= version 11)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.13. Enabling X on the JavaStation

 This is a very frequently asked question.

 Enabling X on the JavaStation is possible.

 First, be sure you have enabled the appropriate framebuffer device in your
kernel's configuration, as described in the "Kernel Build" chapter.

 Next, you'll want to use the generic Sun Framebuffer X server and 
"XF86Config" file. You can build this yourself, or you can try someone's
prebuilt binaries, such as the samples pointed to in the "FileSystem Build"
chapter.

 Recent editions of the framebuffer server coinciding with XFree 4 are
reported not to work. Use the older version based on XFree 3.3, or fix the
new version and be a hero to thousands.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.14. Is There Mailing List Help?

 There are two mailing devoted exclusively to running Linux on SPARC
processor based machines such as the JavaStations.

 The first mailing list is the sparclinux list on VGER, at <
sparclinux@vger.kernel.org>. You should first subscribe to it by sending a
message to <majordomo@vger.kernel.org> with a subject and body line of 
"subscribe sparclinux <your_email_address>". You can leave out your email
address, but it is helpful to put it in if you have multiple valid addresses
at your site.

 Archives of the VGER sparclinux mailing list are kept at: http://
www.progressive-comp.com/Lists/?l=linux-sparc&r=1&w=2"

 The second mailing list is the debian-sparc list at the Debian Project, at <
debian-sparc@lists.debian.org>. You should first subscribe to it by sending a
message to <debian-sparc-request@lists.debian.org> with a subject and body
line of "subscribe <your_email_address>". You can leave out your email
address, but it is helpful to put it in if you have multiple valid addresses
at your site.

 As many of the SPARC kernel hackers run Debian, it is helpful to subscribe
to both lists.

 Please do not report problems about this document to either list, but send
them to <rsd@dubinski-family.org> instead. Also, please use the list
archives. JavaStations have been supported on Linux for a while now, and
chances are any questions you have not answered by this document are answered
in the archives.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.15. Can One Boot a JavaStation from Onboard Flash Memory?

 It is possible to boot a JavaStation-NC from flash, but requires too much
arcane knowledge at the moment to be recommended. One problem even if you do
go this route is that flash can only be mounted read-only. This gets to be a
problem with many things, like X, which require the writing of socket files.
A hybrid ramdisk/flash solution would be required.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.16. Does "Piggyback" work for the x86 too?

 With the great embedded-root solution for the JavaStations, the question
popped up whether something similar can be done for stock x86 hardware. While
there are some x86 NICs that have boot roms on them, you'd also need the
piggyback program to put things together. According to Eric Brower, this
currently is not possible as the piggyback program looks for a header
specific to the SPARC platform. (28-Apr-2000)

 Robert Thornburrow<robert@tsac.fsnet.co.uk> sent a version of piggyback
which runs on non-SPARCLinux architectures like Linux/x86 and Solaris. This
automates the task of creating your embedded root image. You can get his
updated piggyback package at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
tools/piggyback_nonsparc.tar.gz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.17. I put new memory in, but now it doesn't boot. Why?

 Are you using EDO memory by chance? Mr. Coffee uses fast-page memory only,
not EDO.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.18. Now that JavaStations work with Linux, what about other Free OSs?

 JavaStation support is now available with the NetBSD OS as well as Linux.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.19. Do the Linux 2.4 kernels work? What's the latest that works?

 As of this date (Oct 31, 2001), the current stable Linux kernel version is
2.4.13. Kernels in the stable 2.4 series should work with the JavaStations,
but there are a few reasons why they may not work for you. For details, check
the "Kernel Build" chapter's entry on supported kernels.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.20. Can I compile the kernel on a non-SPARC machine?

 It should be technically possible to compile your kernel on a non Sun
workstation, such as a PC. Currently there are no reports of anyone doing
this, but if you wanted, the first place to look is the GCC CrossCompiling
HOWTO.

 Of course, you can also compile a new kernel on a working JavaStation, if
your filesystem image supports it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.21. Can I get an ok> prompt like other Sun equipment?

 A curious thing happens when you send a JavaStation a break: it resets, not
break down to the openboot prom prompt like other Sun equipment. This can be
changed on a Krups by setting jumper J1300, pins 7-8. Doing this gets a OBP
ok prompt with a Ctrl-Alt-Break on a PS/2 keyboard or break through a serial
terminal.

 You can also get the ok prompt on the Dover unit, but it requires a hardware
fix. To do so on this unit, you must solder a 220K ohm resistor in location
R362 (near the FDD connector).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.22. My keyboard isn't recognized. What can I do?

 While it's unlikely, it could be possible that you have a javastation set in
the wrong input device mode. To rectify this, you need to enable the openboot
prom prompt as described elsewhere in this HOWTO, and then set the
'input-device' directive accordingly. Or, as one contributor did before the
OBP setting was discovered, load up NetBSD on your JavaStation and run the
eeprom command there. Convoluted, but it works too.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.23. Proll reports "TFTP: ARP Timeout". Why?

 This has been reported to happen when the file PROLL looks for isn't
available. Doublecheck your configuration before retrying.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.24. Why Can't I Get TrueColor on Krups?

 Truecolor on Krups with Linux is a bit of a controversy. Some believe it is
possible, while others do not.

 First, the Krups is listed as having the IGS C1682 framebuffer, while the
Espresso has the IGS C2000 chip.

 According to an earlier report by one kernel hacker, the reason for Krups
not supporting TrueColor is due to lack of kernel support for the Cyber2000
chip. Perhaps the C2000 for the Espresso is the 'Cyber2000'? And perhaps the
C2000 is near equal to the C1682. Notes on the ZLS website seem to point to
this.

 Recent 2.4.x series kernels have an entry labeled 'Cyber2000'. Perhaps this
works? One contributor tried and failed.

 Ok, there is a userland utility called 'fbset' to change the modes of a
framebuffer. Does that work? One contributor said no.

 In the sparclinux archives is a report of a user using the 24-bit TCX
framebuffer and having success. But TCX chip was in Mr. Coffee, not Krups,
and TCX onboard Mr. Coffee had 8-bit max, not 24.

 So what is the real scoop with 24-bit color on the Krups? Until others try
things and speak up, we don't know.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.25. I followed this HOWTO, but my Dover doesn't work. Why?

 The Dover is not a SPARC-based JavaStation, which this HOWTO caters to. You
must use x86 procedures to make it work properly. You did read the warning in
the Dover introduction section, didn't you?

 I am receiving multiple reports of kernel load failures with the Dover unit.
As more information comes in, this HOWTO will present it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.26. Can framebuffer be loaded following a serial console initialization?

 If you boot a JavaStation via the serial console, the framebuffer console is
completely disabled. Is there any way to activate the framebuffer console
after booting? (asked on Sparclinux mailing list 2001-05-11).

 Not to our knowledge.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.27. I really need a complete out-of-the-box solution, pronto!

 You better get busy then.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.28. You Didn't Answer My Question.

 So ask it. Email <rsd@dubinski-family.org> and I will try to help. If I can
not help, I will direct you to the mailing lists or suitable contacts.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. Reference Docs

 This section is a collection of various reference documents which do not
belong in any other section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.1. Mr. Coffee Jumper Info

Mr. Coffee Jumper Assignments                                                
                                                                             
J0206                   JTAG header, perhaps JSCC compatible.                
J0904   1-2 shortened   Enter POST - output ttya, input ttya                 
        1-2 open        Skip POST - output screen, input ttya                
        3-4             Unused                                               
        5-6             Unused                                               
        7-8             Unused                                               
J1101   1-2 open (dflt) TPE squelch                                          
        1-2 short       Reduced squelch threshold                            
J1102   1-2 open (dflt) 100 Ohm TPE termination                              
            short       150 Ohm TPE termination                              
J1602                   Manufacturing test of unknown sort                   
J1603   1-2             PROM select (unfortunately PROM socket is emply)     
        2-3 (default)   Flash select                                         
J1604   1-2             FPROM write disable                                  
        2-3 (default)   FPROM write enable                                   
                                                                             
J0904 block is a bit block of pullup resistors which a user may shorten.     
They may be read from the keyboard controller with a command 0xDD.           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2. Krups Jumper Info

Krups Jumper Assignments                                                     
                                                                             
J1202   1-2     Use Flash                                                    
        2-3     Select optional diagnostic FLASH PROM in socket J1203        
                (this does not sound quite right ...)                        
J1300   1-2     Software debug use                                           
        3-4     Factory use - PROM switch??                                  
        5-6     Unused                                                       
        7-8     Flash update recovery                                        
J0500           JTAG                                                         
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.3. JavaStation Press Release

 Surprisingly, Sun's website still (as of Oct-31-2001) has the JavaStation
press release online at http://www.sun.com/961029/JES/   http://www.sun.com/
961029/JES Many thanks to Gary <gary@spiritwars.com> for pointing this out.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.4. JavaOS 1.0 Download

 Surprisingly, Sun's JavaOS 1.0 environment for the JavaStations is still
mirrored about on the Internet even today (Oct-31-2001). JDSE 1.0.1 can be
found at:   http://sunsite.tut.fi/javastation Many thanks to Gary <
gary@spiritwars.com> for pointing this out.

 Download the link labeled 'jdse.tar'. JDSE 1.0.1 was one of the first demo
version of JavaOS available, and was a free download. Later, downloads were
restricted to paying customers. This first version is merely a boot image of
JavaOS and the HotJava browser. No telnet or ssh applet, no X Windows applet,
no file manager, no email applet, nothing but the browser. Starting to feel
boxed in? Welcome to the official software of the JavaStation.

 Copies of latter versions of JavaOS as included in the NetraJ software
bundle have not been located online yet. This is probably due to the latter
versions, namely NetraJ 2 and above, was retail software, and never available
for free download from Sun's site.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.5. Espresso IDE circuit

 Pete Zaitcev has written a document describing how to enable IDE on your
Espresso model JavaStation. It is included here with Pete's permission.
By Pete Zaitcev                                                               
1999/11/01                                                                    
2000/08/22                                                                    
                                                                              
I am not responsible for any direct or indirect damages to your               
equiment or yourself resulting from you reading this document.                
USE THIS INFORMATION ON YOUR OWN RISK.                                        
                                                                              
IDE interrupt line is connected "upside down" on the Espresso.                
To have IDE working we need to insert an invertor in it.                      
We borrow the invertor from ISA IRQ3. If you want to use ISA                  
modem, set it to use COM3/IRQ4 (please realize that Linux IRQ                 
level would be programmed in CPU PCIC).                                       
                                                                              
The following picture provides an overhead view:                              
                                                                              
    +==================== wire 1 =======================+                     
    #                                                   #                     
    #           1202                        1200        #            1201     
    #        +-------+                   +-------+      #         +-------+   
    #       -!  REP  !--14            1 -!  INV  !- 14  #         !       !   
    #       -!       !-                 -!       !-     #         !       !   
    #       -!       !-                 -!       !-     #         !       !   
    #     4 -!       !-                 -!       !--11==+         !       !   
    # /---5--!       !-                 -!       !--10====+       !       !   
    #/    6--!--\    !-                 -!       !-  9    #       !       !   
A-> *     7 -!   \---!---8              -!       !-  8    #       !       !   
    !        +-------+   !               +-------+        #       +-------+   
    !                    !                                #                   
    Z                    ! /=========== wire 2 ===========+                   
    Z                    !/                                                   
    Z R2026          B-> +--- ZZZZ ---*                                       
    Z (pullup)               R1208                                            
    !                                                                         
    *                                                                         
                                                                              
I recommend to proceed in the following way:                                  
                                                                              
1. Disconnect 1202 5 & 6. Not knowing if I need them I lifted pins with a     
model knife. You may just cut them with side cutters.                         
                                                                              
2. Lift pins 1200 10 & 11 but do not cut them!                                
                                                                              
3. Run wires from resistor pads "A" to pin 1200 11 and from pad "B" to        
   pin 1200 10. Resistor pads are much easier targets for soldering at home   
   than pads under pins 1202 5 & 6. I am a software engineer, so I did it     
   the easy way.                                                              
                                                                              
   I did not bother to glue wires as a decent electronics hacker would do.    
                                                                              
   You are all set. Get kernel 2.4, hack drivers/block/Config.in and enjoy!   
                                                                              
   P.S. Let me know if you have drawings of hard drive brackets for Espresso. 
                                                                              
                                                                              
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.6. JavaStation Boot Monitoring Key Combinations

 When booting your JavaStation, there are certain key combinations you can
press to enable some boot monitoring functionality.
Javastation Key Combinations                                                  
                                                                              
These are the key combinations that allow you to perform the command monitor  
functions:                                                                    
Press left Alt, left Ctrl key, letter; then turn the power on. You have to    
have the keys pressed when you turn on the power otherwise it will not work.  
                                                                              
Ctrl-Alt-H Help on chords                                                     
Ctrl-Alt-B Show progress banner                                               
Ctrl-Alt-W Show Ether net address and memory size                             
Ctrl-Alt-D Run diagnostics                                                    

 These key combinations do not work with the Mr. Coffee model.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.7. JavaStation Photo Gallery

 This section contains links to pictures of the JavaStation line.

 Front view of Mr. Coffee is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/mr_coffee_front_view.jpg

 Top view of Mr. Coffee is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/mr_coffee_top_view.jpg

 Inside view of Mr. Coffee is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files
/photos/mr_coffee_inside_view.jpg

 Mr. Coffee white case variation #1 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto
/Files/photos/mr_coffee_white_case_1.jpg

 Mr. Coffee white case variation #2 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto
/Files/photos/mr_coffee_white_case_2.jpg

 Front view of krups is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/krups_front_view.jpg

 Side view of krups is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos
/krups_side_view.jpg

 Top view of krups is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos/
krups_top_view.jpg

 Front view of Espresso is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/espresso_front_view.jpg

 Side view of Espresso is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/espresso_side_view.jpg

 Rear view of Espresso is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/espresso_rear_view.jpg

 Inside view of Espresso is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/espresso_inside_view.jpg

 See the JavaEngine-1 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos/
je1_overhead_view.jpg

 View of the JavaStation mousepad is at:   http://dubinski-family.org/
~jshowto/Files/photos/javastation_mousepad.jpg

 View of a Lab of JavaStations running Linux is at:   http://
dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos/lab_of_javastations.jpg

 JavaStation Prototype at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos
/pre_js_1.jpg

 JavaStation Prototype Pic 2 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/pre_js_2.jpg

 JavaStation Prototype Pic 3 at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/pre_js_3.jpg

 "Dover" JavaStation Internal Pic at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/
Files/photos/dover_inside.jpg

 JavaStation Cluster of Eric Brower running a parallel POVRay calculation at:
http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/photos/cluster.jpg

 JavaStation/Fox front view at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/fox_front.jpg

 JavaStation/Fox back view at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/fox_back.jpg

 JavaStation/Fox facing view at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto/Files/
photos/fox_face.jpg

 JavaStation/Fox internal left view at:   http://dubinski-family.org/~jshowto
/Files/photos/fox_internal_left.jpg

 JavaStation/Fox internal right view at:   http://dubinski-family.org/
~jshowto/Files/photos/fox_internal_right.jpg
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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