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Lotus Domino R5 for Linux mini-HOWTO

Mykola Buryak


<1upus@gmx.ch>
������������������

Mary Gardiner - Editing for style and consitency, conversion from text to
DocBook v4.1.2 (XML)

Dan Scott - The document structure from DB2 Version 7.1 for Linux HOWTO

January 2003
Revision History                                                             
Revision 1.0                               2003-01-18                        
Initial Release, reviewed by LDP (Tab)                                       
Revision 0.1.2                             2003-01-13                        
Corrected some factual and grammatical mistakes. Submitted document to LDP.  
Revision 0.1.1                             2003-01-01                        
Mary Gardiner converts mini-HOWTO into Docbook XML 4.1.2.                    
Revision 0.1                               2002-09-20                        
My first mini-HOWTO, wrote install instructions Lotus Domino 5.08 & 5.09a for
Mandrake Linux 8.1 and SuSE 7.3 Professional.                                
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Why a Domino R5 installation mini-HOWTO?
    1.2. Who should read this mini-HOWTO?
    1.3. About the author
    1.4. Acknowledgements
    1.5. License & Copyright
   
   
2. Prerequisites
    2.1. Hardware
    2.2. Software
   
   
3. Preparing your distribution for Domino R5
    3.1. Mandrake Linux 8.1
    3.2. SuSE 7.3 Professional
   
   
4. Installing Domino R5
    4.1. Mandrake Linux 8.1
    4.2. SuSE 7.3 Professional
    4.3. For all Linux distributions
   
   
5. Resources
6. GNU Free Documentation License
    0. PREAMBLE
    1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    2. VERBATIM COPYING
    3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    4. MODIFICATIONS
    5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    8. TRANSLATION
    9. TERMINATION
    10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    How to use this License for your documents
   
   

  This mini-HOWTO gives you explicit instructions on installing Lotus Domino
R5 for Linux on the Intel x86-based distributions of Mandrake Linux 8.1 and
SuSE 7.3 Professional. After installing Domino R5, you can connect to your
Domino server from a remote Notes machine, and administer it locally (on the
same Linux machine) using the Web Administrator.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Introduction

1.1. Why a Domino R5 installation mini-HOWTO?

  I faced Domino for Linux in February 2002. It happened because of unstable
Domino R5 functioning on an Windows NT Server with powerful hardware
resources. I read the "Understanding Domino for Linux" white paper and I
decided to move our Domino server to Linux. My first Linux distribution was
Mandrake 8.1. I know this French distribution is one of the easiest and
friendly for a newbie. Now it has worked pretty well for more than 10 months
without any interference. Cool :) A few months ago the chairmen decided to
implement one more Domino server at our high school; we had no money to
purchase a powerful server and I made up my mind to deploy it on Linux again
with existing hardware. Now we have a very stable second one on SuSE 7.3 (I
have studied this distribution already) with poor hardware (CPU: Celeron 400,
RAM: 192MB, HDD: 20GB IDE).

  As time permits, I hope to provide hints and tips for improving performance
of Domino on Linux, and for configuring the environment on various Linux
distributions.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Who should read this mini-HOWTO?

  If you plan to save your employer's money and get amazing stability (and
save your time) you should think about Domino on Linux. This mini-HOWTO helps
you to install and configure Domino on the Linux distributions supported by
IBM Lotus Software (SuSE) and others (Mandrake). I describe specific
prerequisites and quirks for each distribution. I do not want anyone to
repeat my sleepless nights and all-day-long red eyes.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. About the author

  Mykola Buryak is the originator and current maintainer of this mini-HOWTO.
Please send all suggestions for improvement, criticisms, or more-or-less
related questions to me at <m.b.@gmx.co.uk> or <1upus@gmx.ch>. Please do not
send me spam or hate mail.

  Mykola Buryak has been employed by National Mining University, Ukraine, as
Lotus System Administrator since September 2000. Before that time he was
working as Computer/Network Technician there. He has 3 year experience with
Web Development, 2 year in Lotus Domino/Notes Administration, 1 year in Linux
and IBM DB2 UDB. In his spare time he teaches RUP and Python at the
Geoinformatics Department, National Mining University. He holds an Hon.
Masters Degree in Information Control Systems and Technologies and the
following certifications for the present:

��*�  Certified Lotus Specialist - Domino R5 System Administrator
   
��*�  IBM Certified Specialist - DB2 UDB V6.1/V7.1 User
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4. Acknowledgements

  Mary Gardiner did an awesome job of editing the original version for style
and consistency.

  Additional thanks to Dan Scott and his DB2 Version 7.1 for Linux HOWTO
which I got the document structure from.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. License & Copyright

  Copyright (c) 2002, 2003 Mykola Buryak

  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no invariant
sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, with no Back-Cover Text. A copy of the
license is included in Section 6.

  This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See Section 6 for more details.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Prerequisites

  What are prerequisites? Prerequisites are what you, your machine, and your
distribution require before you will be able to successfully install or use
Lotus Domino R5. The required prerequisites come straight from Notes, Domino
and Domino Designer RELEASE NOTES, Chapter 2. The suggested prerequisites
come from experience. For your convenience, I've divided them into hardware
and software requirements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. Hardware

CPU
      x86 compatible (for example, Intel, AMD, or Cyrix). I've successfully
    installed Domino Application Server 5.08 on an AMD Duron 800, Intel
    Celeron 400 and Enterprise Server 5.09a on an AMD Athlon 1000. Your
    experiences with other x86 processors would be appreciated.
   
RAM
      I've found 128 MB of RAM is enough to run a single Domino Application
    Server and test out your applications. In my case, I was working with a
    AMD Duron 800 processor and 128 MB of RAM. However, more memory is
    recommended if you're putting your application into production or running
    multiple services. Swap file should be 3 times the physical RAM or
    greater.
   
HDD
      For a typical non-partioned installation of the Lotus Domino R5
    Application Server, you will need about 300 MB of free disk space.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2. Software

  You must have selected the following packages during Linux install or
setup:

��*�  C Development;
   
��*�  Development Libraries;
   
��*�  C++ Development.
   
��*�  Also you need the libjitc.so file from the IBM Developer Kit for Java
    1.1.6.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Preparing your distribution for Domino R5

3.1. Mandrake Linux 8.1

  Domino for Linux will need to be able to find a certain file with filename
libjitc.so. This required file is absent from Mandrake Linux 8.1. You will be
unable to work correctly with the Agent Manager and Statistic Agent if you
ignore this section of mini-HOWTO.

 1.   To find out if the file is absent, you can use the locate command.
   
      First, issue the following command at the command prompt (login as 
    "root"):
            bash# updatedb                                                   
                                                                             
   
      This command searches the hard drive and updates a database for the
    locate command in use. It can take a few minutes to run, but probably it
    will take only 20-30 seconds or so. Afterwards, issue the command:
            bash# locate libjitc.so                                          
                                                                             
   
      If libjitc.so is on your hard drive somewhere, locate will find it and
    list where it is. If not, locate will list nothing. If libjitc.so is
    already there, it is probably already in your search path, until you get
    an error trying to work with Agent Manager and Statistic Agent indicating
    otherwise, just assume it is. If you do not have libjitc.so, you will
    need to get it separately; it is not included as a part of the Domino for
    Linux package.
   
      The file libjitc.so is included as a part of the IBM Developer Kit for
    Linux, which is IBM's port of Sun's JDK (Java Development Kit) 1.1.8 to
    Linux/x86. libjitc.so is the Java "Just-In-Time" compiler. The reason
    that this file is absent from SuSE 7.3 is that this Linux distribution
    comes with a different Java package named Kaffe Virtual Machine.
   
 2.   You can download the IBM Developer Kit for Linux from [http://
    www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/118/linux/?dwzone=java] http://
    www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/118/linux/?dwzone=java.
   
 3.   Prepare a directory to download JDK into. Change to the /root
    directory:
            bash# cd /                                                       
            bash# cd /root                                                   
                                                                             
   
      and make a new directory named jdk118:
            bash# mkdir jdk118                                               
                                                                             
   
 4.   Download the JDK into /root/jdk118. Install the IBM Developer Kit for
    Java by issuing the following command as root:
            bash# rpm -ivh IBMJava118-SDK-1.1.8-5.0-i386.rpm                 
                                                                             
   
 5.   After successful installation of the IBM Developer Kit you need to copy
    libjitc.so to the /lib directory:
            bash# cp /usr/jdk118/lib/linux/native_threads/libjitc.so /lib    
                                                                             
   
 6.   You can uninstall the IBM Developer Kit with Software or Package
    Manager to clean things up, but consider keeping the rpm file
    IBMJava118-SDK-1.1.8-5.0-i386.rpm. You may decide later that JDK 1.1.8 is
    something you want to install (for example, it's necessary for using the
    IBM DB2 UDB V7.x Linux Control Center).
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.2. SuSE 7.3 Professional

  Domino for Linux will need to be able to find a certain file with filename
libjitc.so. This required file is absent from SuSE 7.3 Professional. You will
be unable to work correctly with the Agent Manager and Statistic Agent if you
ignore this section of mini-HOWTO.

 1.   To find out if it is absent, you can use the locate command. First,
    issue the following command at the command prompt (log in as "root"):
            bash# updatedb                                                   
                                                                             
   
      This command searches the hard drive and updates a database for the
    locate command in use. It can take a few minutes to run, but probably it
    will take only 20-30 seconds or so. Then issue the command:
            bash# locate libjitc.so                                          
                                                                             
   
      If libjitc.so is on your hard drive somewhere, locate will find it and
    list where it is. If not, locate will list nothing. If libjitc.so is
    already there, it is probably already in your search path, until you get
    an error trying to work with Agent Manager and Statistic Agent indicating
    otherwise, just assume it is. If you do not have libjitc.so, you will
    need to get it separately; it is not included as a part of the Domino for
    Linux package.
   
      The file libjitc.so is included as a part of the IBM Developer Kit for
    Linux, which is IBM's port of Sun's JDK (Java Development Kit) 1.3 to
    Linux/x86. libjitc.so is the Java "Just-In-Time" compiler. The reason
    that this file is absent from SuSE 7.3 is that this Linux distribution
    comes with a different Java package named Java 2 SDK, Standard Edition.
   
 2.   Install IBM Developer Kit version 1.3 with YaST2 control center. IBM
    Developer Kit is located on one of the seven SuSE 7.3 Professional
    installation CD-ROMs.
   
 3.   After successful installation of the IBM Developer Kit, you need to
    copy libjitc.so to /lib:
            bash# cp /usr/lib/jdk1.3/jre/bin/libjitc.so /lib                 
                                                                             
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Installing Domino R5

4.1. Mandrake Linux 8.1

 1.   Log in as "root". Open a terminal session. Add a user and group to your
    system called notes:
            bash# adduser notes                                              
                                                                             
   
 2.   Give this new user a password by entering:
            bash# passwd notes                                               
                                                                             
   
 3.   Mount the CD-ROM, and enter the following command to install the Lotus
    Domino R5 package:
            bash# /mnt/cdrom/dom509ux/linux/install                          
                                                                             
   
      The install program displays a series of screens about the IBM Lotus
    license agreement. Use the TAB key to accept a setting and advance to the
    next screen, the ESC key to back up to the previous screen, the space bar
    to toggle through possible choices other than the default, and ENTER to
    edit a text field.
   
 4.   Select a setup type. Choose Domino Mail Server, Domino Application
    Server, or Domino Enterprise Server and press TAB.
   
 5.   Select the program file location. The default is /opt/lotus. Make sure
    you have enough space. The installed files in the program directory are
    approximately 70 MB. If you select a program directory other than /opt/
    lotus, then a soft link will be created from your program directory to /
    opt/lotus so that commands may be executed from that path.
   
 6.   Indicate if you plan a number of Domino servers on the current physical
    machine. The default is No.
   
 7.   Select the data file location. The default is /local/notesdata. If you
    do not have a large root partition it will not work. If so, change the
    directory to /usr/local/notesdata. If you ignore this during installation
    process, later you will get an error like this one:
            Error validation settings:                                                
            There is not enough disk space for the data directory at /local/notesdata 
            125889K is required, and only 95370K would be available.                  
            Make sure you have enough space.                                          
                                                                                      
   
      The installed files in the data directory are approximately 160 MB.
   
 8.   Select the user and group for this server. Choose the default that you
    set up earlier (notes in the example).
   
 9.   The install program displays the settings you selected. Use the TAB key
    to accept these settings and begin the installation, or press the ESC key
    to back up to change any settings. The install program will then begin
    installing the files.
   
10.   During installation process you may see the warning:
            The following system commands were not located: rsh.             
                                                                             
   
      It does not influence the local server installation.
   
11.   After successful installation, this message will be displayed among
    others:
            The installation completed successfully.                         
                                                                             
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2. SuSE 7.3 Professional

 1.   Log in as "root." Open a terminal session. Add a user and group to your
    system called notes:
            bash# groupadd notes                                             
            bash# useradd notes -g notes                                     
                                                                             
   
 2.   Give this new user a password by entering:
            bash# passwd notes                                               
                                                                             
   
 3.   Mount the CD-ROM, and enter the following command to install the Lotus
    Domino R5 package:
            bash# /mnt/cdrom/dom509ux/linux/install                          
                                                                             
   
      The install program displays a series of screens about the IBM Lotus
    license agreement. Use the TAB key to accept a setting and advance to the
    next screen, the ESC key to back up to the previous screen, the space bar
    to toggle through possible choices other than the default, and ENTER to
    edit a text field.
   
 4.   Select a setup type. Choose Domino Mail Server, Domino Application
    Server, or Domino Enterprise Server and press TAB.
   
 5.   Select the program file location. The default is /opt/lotus. Make sure
    you have enough space. The installed files in the program directory are
    approximately 70 MB. If you select a program directory other than /opt/
    lotus, then a soft link will be created from your program directory to /
    opt/lotus so that commands may be executed from that path.
   
 6.   Indicate if you plan a number of Domino servers on the current physical
    machine. The default is No.
   
 7.   Select the data file location. The default is /local/notesdata. It
    works perfectly. Make sure your have enough space. The installed files in
    the data directory are approximately 160 MB.
   
 8.   Select the user and group for this server. Choose the default that you
    set up earlier (notes in the example).
   
 9.   The install program displays the settings you selected. Use the TAB key
    to accept these settings and begin the installation, or press the ESC key
    to back up to change any settings. The install program will then begin
    installing the files.
   
10.   After successful installation, this message will be displayed among
    others:
            The installation completed successfully.                         
                                                                             
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.3. For all Linux distributions

4.3.1. Run the Domino Server Setup program

 1.   Log on to Linux as the user you established earlier (notes in the
    example).
   
 2.   Change to the directory /usr/local/notesdata (/local/notesdata for
    SuSE) by entering:
            bash# cd /                                                       
            bash# cd /usr/local/notesdata                                    
            and then enter the following:                                    
            bash# /opt/lotus/bin/http httpsetup                              
                                                                             
   
 3.   A series of messages indicate the start of the Domino server. For
    example:
            05/09/2002 8:39:09 PM Created new log file as                    
            /usr/local/notesdata/log.nsf                                     
            05/09/2002 8:39:09 PM                                            
            ***************************************                          
            * Lotus Domino Server Setup           *                          
            * To setup this server, please connect*                          
            * your web browser to port 8081       *                          
            * Example: http://example.com:8081    *                          
            ***************************************                          
            05/09/2002 8:39:09 AM JVM: Java Virtual Machine initialized.     
            05/09/2002 8:39:10 AM HTTP Web Server started                    
                                                                             
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.3.2. Continuing setup and configuration

 1.   You begin the configuration process by connecting to your Linux server
    with a Web browser, either from an external machine, or the Linux
    machine.
   
      To perform setup from another machine, enter:
            http://example.com:8081                                          
                                                                             
   
      To perform setup from the Linux machine, enter:
   
     
    http://localhost:8081                                                    
    or
    http://linux:8081                                                        
    for SuSE 7.3 Professional.
   
      where example.com is either the IP address or DNS name of your Linux
    server. At this point, the standard Domino configuration screens are
    displayed in your browser. Follow the instructions on these screens and
    click the Finish button on the final screen to complete the initial
    configuration. Online help is available on each of these screens.
   
 2.   The HTTP Setup program will have created SERVER.ID and CERT.ID files in
    /usr/local/notesdata. The USER.ID file is attached to a person document
    in NAMES.NSF.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.3.3. Starting the Domino Server

  Before starting your Domino server, make sure no other Web server is
running because it will block the Domino HTTP task from operating correctly,
and you will be unable to use a Web browser to administer your server after
the initial setup.

 1.   Log on to Linux as the user you established earlier (notes in the
    example).
   
 2.   From the /usr/local/notesdata directory (/local/notesdata for SuSE),
    enter:
            bash# /opt/lotus/bin/server                                      
                                                                             
   
      The server starts and the usual server console messages appear.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.3.4. Extracting your administrator ID file

  Before you can perform any more administration on your Domino for Linux
server, you will need to extract the administrator ID file and move it to the
machine you plan to use for administration.

 1.   After the HTTP Web Server task has started, switch to your
    administration machine and use a Web browser to connect to your new
    server:
            http://example.com                                               
                                                                             
   
      where example.com is either the IP address or DNS name of your Linux
    server. The default Lotus Domino navigator screen displays.
   
 2.   Now open the address book by entering:
            http://example.com/names.nsf                                     
                                                                             
   
 3.   Click to the People view and open the Person document for the
    administrator you created earlier and download the USER.ID file to your
    administration machine. If you are using a Netscape browser, you may have
    to rename the id file to USER.ID.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Resources

Lotus Developer Domain: The Documentation Library
      This web site contains white papers, redbooks, FAQs etc., published by
    IBM about Lotus Domino/Notes.
   
Lotus Developer Domain: Downloads
      You can download a 90-day trial version of Domino/Notes and other Lotus
    products here.
   
Lotus Developer Domain: Domino for Linux Feedback Forum
      Very useful, but archived Lotus Domino for Linux Feedback Forum.
   
HOWTO Install Lotus Domino Server 5.0.9 on Caldera OpenLinux '99 Server
    Release 3.1.1
      This HOWTO explains how to install Domino Server on the Caldera
    OpenLinux Server3.1.1.
   
[http://advisor.com] Advisor Magazine
      Advisor presents the unmatched advice of top experts in a full range of
    media, including magazines, journals, e-mail newsletters, conferences,
    seminars, workshops, CDs, on-site training, and dozens of Web sites. The
    expertise presented by Advisor comes from hard-won hands-on involvement
    with the leading technology products (as Lotus Domino/Notes) and
    services, and technical and business practices.
   
SearchDomino.com: The Domino Specific Search Engine
      It's a Domino Specific Search Engine. Recommended for all Lotus Domino/
    Notes newbies.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

   
    Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite
    330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics,
a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could
be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related
matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers
is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for
human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
    that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
    if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
    may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
    that version gives permission.
   
 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
   
 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
    the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
    License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
    required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
 I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an
    item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
    Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section
    entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year,
    authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
    add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
    sentence.
   
 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
    locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
    These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
    section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone
    of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
    therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
    text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
    title with any Invariant Section.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
      Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A
    copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
    Documentation License".
   
If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead
of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write
"no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise
for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.





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