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MMBase Installation HOWTO

Adrian Offerman


����<tldp@NOSPAM.offerman.net>
����
minor corrections


Copyright � 2003 - 2006 Adrian Offerman

June 25, 2006
Revision History                                                             
Revision 0.3.5            2006-06-25            Revised by: AO               
Tomcat init script                                                           
Revision 0.3.4            2005-09-18            Revised by: AO               
minor corrections                                                            
Revision 0.3.2            2005-01-25            Revised by: AO               
MMBase 1.7.3, Java 1.5.0-01                                                  
Revision 0.3.1            2004-12-26            Revised by: AO               
Email module                                                                 
Revision 0.3.0            2004-12-25            Revised by: AO               
MMBase 1.7.2, Tomcat 5.5.4, Java 1.5.0, MySQL Connector/J 3.0.16-ga, Jikes   
1.22                                                                         
Revision 0.2.6            2004-07-27            Revised by: AO               
minor additions                                                              
Revision 0.2.5            2004-02-28            Revised by: AO               
Creative Commons copyright license adjusted                                  
Revision 0.2.4            2004-01-22            Revised by: AO               
Creative Commons copyright license; minor additions and corrections          
Revision 0.2.3            2003-12-26            Revised by: AO               
minor additions and corrections                                              
Revision 0.2.2            2003-12-20            Revised by: AO               
copyright adjusted                                                           
Revision 0.2.1            2003-12-18            Revised by: AO               
minor corrections                                                            
Revision 0.2.0            2003-12-15            Revised by: AO               
JK 2 Connector setup added                                                   
Revision 0.1.0            2003-12-10            Revised by: AO               
initial draft                                                                


  This document describes the installation of the MMBase content management
system on a Red Hat Linux distribution, using the Tomcat application server,
and integrating it with MySQL and Apache.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Installation
3. Installing Java
4. Installing Tomcat
5. Replacing Tomcat's default JSP compiler Jasper with IBM's Jikes compiler
6. Installing ImageMagick
7. Installing MMBase
8. Connecting MMBase to MySQL using MySQL Connector/J
9. Installing MMBase additional applications
    9.1. Installing the CloudContext Security module
    9.2. Installing the Media module
    9.3. Installing the Email module
   
   
10. Configuring initial MMBase settings
11. Running MMBase
12. Connecting Apache and Tomcat using mod_jk2
13. Installing an Apache reverse proxy as a front-end to your MMBase server
14. Installing more MMBase servers on a single Tomcat server
15. Acknowledgements
16. Contributers
17. Revision history
18. Disclaimer
19. Copyright

 This document describes the installation of the MMBase content management
system on a Red Hat Linux distribution, using the Tomcat application server,
and integrating it with MySQL and Apache.

 Version: 0.3.5; June 25, 2006.

 Author: [http://www.offerman.net/] Adrian Offerman

 The latest version of this document can be found at:
  [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/] http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/  

 Feedback is welcome at:
  [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/feedback.html] http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/feedback.html  

 For questions, check out the MMBase website:
  [http://www.mmbase.org/] http://www.mmbase.org/                            

 You can find the MMBase documentation at:
  [http://www.mmbase.org/docs/] http://www.mmbase.org/docs/                  

 Good luck!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Introduction

 >From the MMBase website ([http://www.mmbase.org] www.mmbase.org):

   
     "MMBase is a Web Content Management System with strong multimedia
    features. MMBase has a large installed base in The Netherlands, and is
    used by major Dutch broadcasters, publishers, educational institutes,
    national and local governments. MMBase is written in Java, it is Open
    Source Software (MPL) and all standards used are as 'open' as possible.
    The system can be used with all major operating systems, application
    servers and databases."
   
 Unfortunately, the installation of MMBase is not well documented.
Furthermore, when searching the internet looking for installation clues and
trying out tips, it turns out that the details of the installation have
changed frequently.

 This document describes the installation of the MMBase content management
system on a Red Hat Linux distribution, using the Tomcat application server,
and the integration with MySQL and Apache.

 It is based on our own experience and compiled to the benefit of the
community.

 These are the ingredients we used to cook up this recipe ourselves:

��*� Red Hat 8.0 distribution running a 2.4.20 kernel, with Alan Cox 2 and EA
    /ACL extensions.
   
��*� Java 2 Software Developers Kit (SDK) and Java 2 Run-time Engine (J2RE)
    from Sun's Java 2 Platform Standard Edition 5.0 (J2SE) (version 1.5.0-01)
    ,
   
��*� Apache Jakarta Tomcat 5.5.4,
   
��*� ImageMagick 6.1.3-7,
   
��*� MMBase 1.7.3 with various modules,
   
��*� MySQL Connector/J 3.0.16-ga,
   
��*� Jikes 1.22.
   

And before:

��*� Red Hat 8.0 distribution running a 2.4.20 kernel, with Alan Cox 2 and EA
    /ACL extensions.
   
��*� Java 2 Software Developers Kit (SDK) and Java 2 Run-time Engine (J2RE)
    from the Blackdown Java 2 JDK version v1.4.1-01,
   
��*� Apache Jakarta Tomcat 4.1.27,
   
��*� ImageMagick 5.4.7-5,
   
��*� MMBase 1.6.5 for JDK 1.4,
   
��*� MySQL Connector/J 3.0.8,
   
��*� Jikes 1.18.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Installation

 Although we installed MMBase on a kernel with the Alan Cox and EA/ACL
extensions, these features are no prerequisites.

 We assume that you have already installed and configured Apache and MySQL on
your server.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Installing Java

 Download the latest versions of the Java 2 Development Kit (JDK) or Run-time
Engine (JRE), and the accompanying documentation from:
  [http://java.sun.com/] http://java.sun.com                                 

 Installation instructions and release notes for the JDK and JRE are
available at the download page.

 Make the binary distribution of the JDK executable and extract in a new
directory:
                                                                             
  chmod +x jdk-xxx.bin                                                       
  cd /usr/local/                                                             
  .../jdk-xxx.bin                                                            
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Install the JDK documentation by unzipping it in the JDK directory:
                                                                             
  cd /usr/local/jdk-xxx/                                                     
  unzip .../jdk-xxx-doc.zip                                                  
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Change the ownership of the JDK directory and make it available as /usr/
local/j2sdk/:
                                                                             
  chown -R root:root /usr/local/jdk-xxx/                                     
  ln -s /usr/local/jdk-xxx /usr/local/j2sdk                                  
                                                                             
                                                                             

 If you need only the JRE, the installation would be like this:
                                                                             
  chmod +x jre-xxx.bin                                                       
  cd /usr/local/                                                             
  .../jre-xxx.bin                                                            
  chown -R root:root /usr/local/jre-xxx/                                     
  ln -s /usr/local/jre-xxx /usr/local/j2re                                   
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Warning Using JDK version 1.5.0 caused our Tomcat server to crash every now   
        and then:                                                             
                                                                              
          #                                                                   
          # An unexpected error has been detected by HotSpot Virtual Machine: 
          #                                                                   
          #  SIGSEGV (0xb) at pc=0x4042db3f, pid=11991, tid=16386             
          #                                                                   
          # Java VM: Java HotSpot(TM) Server VM (1.5.0-b64 mixed mode)        
          # Problematic frame:                                                
          # V  [libjvm.so+0x3abb3f]                                           
          #                                                                   
                                                                              
                                                                              
        Upgrading to version 1.5.0-01 seemed to solve these problems.         

 

Note For the (previously used) BlackDown Java for Linux distribution:                                       
                                                                                                            
     Find yourself a mirror for the BlackDown Java Development Kit at:                                      
       [http://www.blackdown.org/java-linux/mirrors.html] http://www.blackdown.org/java-linux/mirrors.html  
                                                                                                            
     There you can download the latest versions of the J2 Software Development Kit (SDK) and Run-time Engine
     (RE).                                                                                                  
                                                                                                            
     Make sure you pick out the right version for the gcc library installed on your system. You can find out
     the version currently installed by typing:                                                             
                                                                                                            
       rpm -q libgcc                                                                                        
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
     Installation instructions for the Java Development Kit are available as INSTALL-j2sdk and INSTALL-j2re.
                                                                                                            
     Make the binary distribution of the SDK executable and extract in a new directory:                     
                                                                                                            
       chmod +x j2sdk-xxx.bin                                                                               
       cd /usr/local/                                                                                       
       .../j2sdk-xxx.bin                                                                                    
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
     Change the ownership of the J2SDK directory and make it available as /usr/local/j2sdk/:                
                                                                                                            
       chown -R root:root /usr/local/j2sdk-xxx/                                                             
       ln -s /usr/local/j2sdk-xxx /usr/local/j2sdk                                                          
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
     Do the same for the RE:                                                                                
                                                                                                            
       chmod +x j2re-xxx.bin                                                                                
       cd /usr/local/                                                                                       
       .../j2re-xxx.bin                                                                                     
       chown -R root:root /usr/local/j2re-xxx/                                                              
       ln -s /usr/local/j2re-xxx /usr/local/j2re                                                            
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            

 Since we didn't install the JDK and JRE in our path, we have to add the bin/
directories to our $PATH environment variable. To make sure the Java
distributions and classes can be found, we set the $JAVA_HOME and $CLASSPATH
variables as well.

 For the Bourne shells, create a file /etc/profile.d/java.sh:
                                                                               
  if ! echo ${PATH} | grep -q /usr/local/j2sdk/bin ; then                      
    export PATH=/usr/local/j2sdk/bin:${PATH}                                   
    fi                                                                         
  if ! echo ${PATH} | grep -q /usr/local/j2re/bin ; then                       
    export PATH=/usr/local/j2re/bin:${PATH}                                    
    fi                                                                         
  export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/j2sdk                                            
  export CLASSPATH=.:/usr/local/j2sdk/lib/tools.jar:/usr/local/j2re/lib/rt.jar 
                                                                               
                                                                               

 Set its ownership and access rights:
                                                                             
  chown root:root /etc/profile.d/java.sh                                     
  chmod 755 /etc/profile.d/java.sh                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Do the same for C shells, by creating the file /etc/profile.d/java.csh:
                                                                               
  if ( "${path}" !~ */usr/local/j2sdk/bin* ) then                              
    set path = ( /usr/local/j2sdk/bin $path )                                  
    endif                                                                      
  if ( "${path}" !~ */usr/local/j2re/bin* ) then                               
    set path = ( /usr/local/j2re/bin $path )                                   
    endif                                                                      
  setenv JAVA_HOME /usr/local/j2sdk                                            
  setenv CLASSPATH .:/usr/local/j2sdk/lib/tools.jar:/usr/local/j2re/lib/rt.jar 
                                                                               
                                                                               

 and setting its ownership and access rights:
                                                                             
  chown root:root /etc/profile.d/java.csh                                    
  chmod 755 /etc/profile.d/java.csh                                          
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Now the JDK should be available to everyone on your system.

 

Tip You can test the Java engine by typing:                                  
                                                                             
      java -version                                                          
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
    or create a file Test.java:                                              
                                                                             
      public class Test {                                                    
        public static void main(String[] args) {                             
          System.out.println("Hello world");                                 
          }                                                                  
        }                                                                    
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
    and test the compiler:                                                   
                                                                             
      javac Test.java                                                        
      java Test                                                              
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Installing Tomcat

 Download a binary distribution of Tomcat from the Apache Jakarta website:
  [http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/] http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/      

 If you don't want to run the Tomcat daemon as root, create a new user/group 
tomcat (first make sure that the UID and GID you use are still available by
checking the files /etc/passwd and /etc/group):
                                                                                         
  groupadd -g 220 tomcat                                                                 
  useradd -u 220 -g tomcat -c "Tomcat" -r -d /usr/local/tomcat -s "/sbin/nologin" tomcat 
                                                                                         
                                                                                         

 

Warning You really should not use the root account to run the Tomcat daemon; 
        (using Tomcat version 4.1.27) we found out that this allows the      
        MMBase admin user to write backup dumps of his sites anywhere on the 
        system.                                                              

 <TODO: better solution available?>

 Extract the Tomcat distribution in a new directory:
                                                                             
  cd /usr/local/                                                             
  tar -zxvf .../jakarta-tomcat-xxx.tar.gz                                    
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Note Version 4.1.27 came with a hot-fix:                                     
                                                                             
       cd /usr/local/jakarta-tomcat-xxx/                                     
       tar -zxvf .../xxx-hotfix-xxx.tar.gz                                   
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Change the ownership of the Tomcat directory and make it available as /usr/
local/tomcat/:
                                                                             
  chown -R tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/jakarta-tomcat-xxx                       
  ln -s /usr/local/jakarta-tomcat-xxx /usr/local/tomcat                      
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Open up the firewall for web access to the Tomcat server by adding to the
file /etc/sysconfig/iptables:
                                                                             
  -A RH-Lokkit-0-50-INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 8080 --syn -j ACCEPT         
                                                                             
                                                                             

 You need to reboot your system to make this rule effective or restart the 
iptables firewall:
                                                                             
  service iptables restart                                                   
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip Since (for some odd reason) some network managers allow outgoing web     
    connections only to TCP port 80, there might be people around that cannot
    access your Tomcat (and MMBase) server through port 8080. Further below  
    we will explain how to install a JK 2 mapping or a reverse proxy in      
    Apache, so Tomcat and MMBase can be accessed through the Apache web      
    server at port 80. Apart from the port issue, this has the advantage that
    you can use Apache to manage you SSL connections and use your existing   
    Apache logs and statistics facilities for Tomcat and MMBase as well.     
                                                                             
    If you decide to use Apache as a front-end to your Tomcat and MMBase     
    server, there's no need to open up port 8080 in your firewall.           

 To run Tomcat, set the $CATALINA_HOME environment variable:
                                                                             
  CATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat                                            
                                                                             
                                                                             

 and fire it up:
                                                                             
  /usr/local/tomcat/bin/startup.sh                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Now you can access Tomcat's home page through (replace <hostname> with your
hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>:8080/                                                    
                                                                             
                                                                             

 which should give you the Tomcat welcome screen.

[ApacheTomcat-600x420]

 To shutdown again:
                                                                             
  /usr/local/tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh                                          
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Since we want to automate the starting up and shutting down of the Tomcat
server, we create a file /etc/rc.d/init.d/tomcat to do this for us:
                                                                               
  #!/bin/sh                                                                    
  #                                                                            
  # Startup script for the Jakarta Tomcat Java Servlets and JSP server         
  #                                                                            
  # chkconfig: - 85 15                                                         
  # description: Jakarta Tomcat Java Servlets and JSP server                   
  # processname: tomcat                                                        
  # pidfile: /var/run/tomcat.pid                                               
  # config:                                                                    
                                                                               
  # Source function library.                                                   
  . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions                                                 
                                                                               
  # Source networking configuration.                                           
  . /etc/sysconfig/network                                                     
                                                                               
  # Check that networking is up.                                               
  [ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0                                           
                                                                               
  # Set Tomcat environment.                                                    
  export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/j2sdk                                            
  export CLASSPATH=.:/usr/local/j2sdk/lib/tools.jar:/usr/local/j2re/lib/rt.jar 
  export CATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcat                                       
  export CATALINA_OPTS="-server -Xms64m -Xmx512m -Dbuild.compiler.emacs=true"  
  export PATH=/usr/local/j2sdk/bin:/usr/local/j2re/bin:$PATH                   
                                                                               
  [ -f /usr/local/tomcat/bin/startup.sh ] || exit 0                            
  [ -f /usr/local/tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh ] || exit 0                           
                                                                               
  export PATH=$PATH:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin                                    
                                                                               
  # See how we were called.                                                    
  case "$1" in                                                                 
    start)                                                                     
          # Start daemon.                                                      
          echo -n "Starting Tomcat: "                                          
          /usr/local/tomcat/bin/startup.sh                                     
          RETVAL=$?                                                            
          echo                                                                 
          [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/tomcat                     
          ;;                                                                   
    stop)                                                                      
          # Stop daemons.                                                      
          echo -n "Shutting down Tomcat: "                                     
          /usr/local/tomcat/bin/shutdown.sh                                    
          RETVAL=$?                                                            
          echo                                                                 
          [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f /var/lock/subsys/tomcat                     
          ;;                                                                   
    restart)                                                                   
          $0 stop                                                              
          $0 start                                                             
          ;;                                                                   
    condrestart)                                                               
         [ -e /var/lock/subsys/tomcat ] && $0 restart                          
         ;;                                                                    
    status)                                                                    
          status tomcat                                                        
          ;;                                                                   
    *)                                                                         
          echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|status}"                         
          exit 1                                                               
  esac                                                                         
                                                                               
  exit 0                                                                       
                                                                               
                                                                               

 Set its ownership and access rights:
                                                                             
  chown root:root /etc/rc.d/init.d/tomcat                                    
  chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/tomcat                                          
                                                                             
                                                                             

 And add this init script to chkconfig:
                                                                             
  chkconfig --add tomcat                                                     
  chkconfig tomcat on                                                        
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip Instead of creating your own init script, you can use the script that    
    comes with the Tomcat package: /usr/local/tomcat/bin/catalina.sh. Make   
    sure you set the Tomcat environment at the start of this script. Or      
    create a short init script that calls the original Tomcat init script.   
                                                                             
    See [http://www.jguru.com/faq/view.jsp?EID=425628] How can I start Tomcat
    as a daemon in Linux?.                                                   

 

Tip To install two (or even more) versions of Tomcat server on the same       
    system, increase the port numbers of the second server (e.g. by 10), by   
    editing the configuration file /usr/local/tomcat55/conf/server.xml:       
                                                                              
      <Server port="8015" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">                                
      ...                                                                     
      <!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080 -->               
      <Connector port="8090"                                                  
          maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"          
          enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8453" acceptCount="100"         
          connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />            
      ...                                                                     
      <!-- Define a SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->                   
      <!--                                                                    
      <Connector port="8453"                                                  
          maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"          
          enableLookups="false" disableUploadTimeout="true"                   
          acceptCount="100" scheme="https" secure="true"                      
          clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS" />                             
      -->                                                                     
      ...                                                                     
      <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->                       
      <Connector port="8019"                                                  
          enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8453" protocol="AJP/1.3" />     
      ...                                                                     
      <!-- Define a Proxied HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8082 -->               
      <!-- See proxy documentation for more information about using this. --> 
      <!--                                                                    
      <Connector port="8082"                                                  
          maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"          
          enableLookups="false" acceptCount="100" connectionTimeout="20000"   
          proxyPort="80" disableUploadTimeout="true" />                       
      -->                                                                     
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                                              
    Complete this second Tomcat server installation as above for the first    
    server, using adjusted directory and file names.                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Replacing Tomcat's default JSP compiler Jasper with IBM's Jikes compiler

 Since IBM's Java compiler Jikes is performing better than Tomcat's own JSP
compiler Jasper, it's recommended to install Jikes instead.

 Download the sources of Jikes from IBM's Research website:
  [http://jikes.sourceforge.net/] http://jikes.sourceforge.net/              

 Extract and compile Jikes:
                                                                             
  ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/jikes                                      
  make                                                                       
  make check                                                                 
  make install                                                               
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Check support for the -encoding option:
                                                                             
  /usr/local/jikes/bin/jikes -help                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 To have Jikes output its error messages in a Jasper compatible way, add this
$CATALINA_OPTS environment variable to /etc/rc.d/init.d/tomcat:
                                                                             
  export CATALINA_OPTS="-Dbuild.compiler.emacs=true"                         
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip If you get an error message saying Jikes can not use UTF8 encoding, add  
    the following option as well:                                            
                                                                             
      -DjavaEncoding=ISO-8859-1                                              
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Make Jikes your JSP compiler for Tomcat by adding to /usr/local/tomcat/conf/
web.xml:
                                                                             
  <init-param>                                                               
      <param-name>compiler</param-name>                                      
      <param-value>jikes</param-value>                                       
  </init-param>                                                              
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Since entering the full path to Jikes in /usr/local/tomcat/conf/web.xml
doesn't seem to work (version 4.1.27), make the jikes program available in
your path:
                                                                             
  ln -s /usr/local/jikes/bin/jikes /usr/local/bin/jikes                      
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Installing ImageMagick

 MMBase uses ImageMagick's convert tool to build and convert its images.

 ImageMagick is already part of the Red Hat distribution. Check its
availability using:
                                                                             
  rpm -q ImageMagick                                                         
                                                                             
                                                                             

 If ImageMagick is not available on your system, install it using up2date:
                                                                             
  up2date                                                                    
                                                                             
                                                                             

 or download it from the Red Hat Network:
  [https://rhn.redhat.com/] https://rhn.redhat.com/                          

 and install it by hand:
                                                                             
  rpm -ihv ImageMagick-xxx.rpm                                               
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Installing MMBase

 Download the binary distribution of MMBase, and the additional applications
you need (i.e. CloudContext Security, Media, Email) (see the next section),
from:
  [http://www.mmbase.org] http://www.mmbase.org/ --> Download --> Releases   

 

Warning MMBase version 1.7.2 contained a nasty bug, resulting in problems    
        with the editwizards. The 1.7.3 release includes a bugfix for this   
        problem.                                                             

 Make sure you pick out the right version for the Java 2 JDK installed on
your system. You can find out the version currently installed by typing:
                                                                             
  java -version                                                              
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Extract the binary distribution of MMBase, copy it into the Tomcat
directory, and change the ownership of the MMBase directory:
                                                                             
  unzip mmbase-xxx.zip                                                       
  cd /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/                                              
  mkdir mmbase-webapp/                                                       
  cp -R .../mmbase-x.x.x/mmbase-webapp/* ./mmbase-webapp/                    
  chown -R tomcat:tomcat ./mmbase-webapp/                                    
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Warning Installing MMBase version 1.7 on Tomcat version 5 resulted in version    
        incompatibilities:                                                       
                                                                                 
          FATAL org.mmbase.servlet.MMBaseStartThread -                           
              Could not find the MMBase module!Class                             
              javax/servlet/http/HttpServletResponse violates loader constraints 
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
        We had to disable the RMMCI library to get this installation up and      
        running:                                                                 
                                                                                 
          mv /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/web-app/WEB-INF/lib/mmbase-rmmci.jar \    
              /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/web-app/WEB-INF/lib/mmbase-rmmci.jar.org 
                                                                                 
                                                                                 

 For MMBase version 1.7 running on Tomcat version 5, enable the Xerces
libraries:
                                                                                
  mv /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xalan.renametojar \    
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xalan.jar             
  mv /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xerces.renametojar \   
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xerces.jar            
  mv /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xml-apis.renametojar \ 
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xml-apis.jar          
                                                                                
                                                                                
Or you will have fatal errors like:
                                                                             
  FATAL org.mmbase.servlet.MMBaseStartThread -                               
      Could not find the MMBase module!org/apache/xpath/XPathAPI             
                                                                             
                                                                             

 For MMBase version 1.6 running on Tomcat version 4, replace the Tomcat 
Xerces libraries by those coming with MMBase:
                                                                             
  mv -i /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xercesImpl.jar ~/                  
  mv -i /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xmlParserAPIs.jar ~/               
  cp /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xalan.jar \         
      /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/                                     
  chown tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xalan.jar            
  chmod 644 /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xalan.jar                      
  cp /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xerces.jar \        
      /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/                                     
  chown tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xerces.jar           
  chmod 644 /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xerces.jar                     
  cp /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/xml-apis.jar \      
      /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/                                     
  chown tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xml-apis.jar         
  chmod 644 /usr/local/tomcat/common/endorsed/xml-apis.jar                   
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip If you will not be using an Apache JK 2 mapping or reverse proxy (see further below) as a  
    front-end to your MMBase server, you can add to the file /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml:
                                                                                               
      <Context path="/mmbase" docBase="/usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp" debug="0">     
      <!-- if you want symlinks to work: -->                                                   
      <Resources className="org.apache.naming.resources.FileDirContext" allowLinking="true" /> 
      </Context>                                                                               
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
    This will allow you to access your MMBase server using (replace <hostname> with your       
    hostname):                                                                                 
                                                                                               
      http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase                                                            
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
    instead of:                                                                                
                                                                                               
      http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp                                                     
                                                                                               
                                                                                               

 Check if the ImageMagick convert tool is in your path:
                                                                             
  which convert                                                              
                                                                             
                                                                             

 If not, add it to /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/
applications/Resources/builders/images.xml. For example:
                                                                                 
  <property name="ImageConvert.ConverterCommand">/usr/bin/X11/convert</property> 
                                                                                 
                                                                                 

 Make sure that the directory /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF
/config/builders/applications is writable by the servlet engine user (for
auto-installing builders):
                                                                                                   
  chown tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/builders/applications 
  chmod 775 /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/builders/applications           
                                                                                                   
                                                                                                   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Connecting MMBase to MySQL using MySQL Connector/J

 We can connect MMBase to our MySQL database server using MySQL Connector/J.
This JDBC driver for MySQL can be downloaded from:
  [http://www.mysql.com/downloads/api-jdbc.html] http://www.mysql.com/downloads/api-jdbc.html  

 Copy the JDBC driver to the MMBase lib/ directory:
                                                                                                           
  cp mysql-connector-java-xxx-bin.jar /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/                 
  chown tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/mysql-connector-java-xxx-bin.jar 
  chmod 664 /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/mysql-connector-java-xxx-bin.jar           
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           

 Make this your JDBC driver for MMBase by editing /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/
mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/modules/jdbc.xml. Substitute the database name
(mmbase), user (mmuser) and password (mmpass) with the database settings
you'd like MMBase to use.
                                                                                          
  <property name="url">jdbc:mysql://$HOST:$PORT/$DBM</property>                           
  <property name="user">mmuser</property>                                                 
  <property name="password">mmpass</property>                                             
  <property name="supportclass">org.mmbase.module.database.DatabaseSupportShim</property> 
  <property name="database">mmbase</property>                                             
  <property name="connections">20</property>                                              
  <property name="host">localhost</property>                                              
  <property name="driver">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>                                
  <property name="port">3306</property>                                                   
  <property name="querys">256</property>                                                  
  <property name="probetime">30</property>                                                
                                                                                          
                                                                                          

 Set the ownership and access rights of this configuration file. Since it
contains your database name, user name and password, make sure other users
can not read this file.
                                                                                              
  chown tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/modules/jdbc.xml 
  chmod 640 /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/modules/jdbc.xml           
                                                                                              
                                                                                              

 Now create the MySQL database you've just defined for MMBase:
                                                                             
  mysql -u root -p                                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 
                                                                             
  CREATE DATABASE <mmbase>;                                                  
  USE <mmbase>;                                                              
  GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP ON <mmbase>.* TO             
      <mmuser>@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '<password>';                               
  GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP ON <mmbase>.* TO             
      <mmuser>@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '<password>';                         
  GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP ON <mmbase>.* TO             
      <mmuser>@localhost.<domainname> IDENTIFIED BY '<password>';            
    # RH bug fix                                                             
  GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP ON <mmbase>.* TO             
      <mmuser>@<hostname> IDENTIFIED BY '<password>';                        
  flush privileges;                                                          
  exit;                                                                      
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Substitute the hostname (<hostname>) and domain name (<domainname>) with
your own hostname and domain name, and the database name (<mmbase>), user (<
mmuser>) and password (<password>) with the values you just entered in the
JDBC driver configuration file.

 

Tip To quickly empty your MySQL database, i.e. after you've updated your     
    MMBase configuration or application (replace the database name <mmbase>  
    with your own):                                                          
                                                                             
      mysqladmin -u root -p drop <mmbase>                                    
      mysqladmin -u root -p create <mmbase>                                  
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip If you are already using quite some MySQL connections (for example for   
    authentication by and as a back-end to your mail daemons and Apache      
    servers), the MySQL server might run out of connections (its maximum     
    number defaults to 100). Then Tomcat could simply refuse to start or give
    an error message when initiating the MySQL connection pool, or your IMAP 
    or POP servers will have problems authenticating their clients.          
                                                                             
    You can increase the maximum number of connections to MySQL by adding to 
    the configuration file /etc/my.cnf:                                      
                                                                             
      [mysqld]                                                               
      set-variable = max_connections=200                                     
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Installing MMBase additional applications

 With the release of version 1.7 MMBase was reworked into a more modular
structure. The developers decided to take several modules (i.e. CloudContext
Security, Media, Email) from the MMBase tree, and make these available as
separate entities. However, at this moment MMBase doesn't have a module
interface at all. So, to use these additional applications, the library and
other files need to be placed into the installation tree and the
configuration needs to be added into the existing configuration files by
hand.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.1. Installing the CloudContext Security module

 >From the MMBase website ([http://www.mmbase.org] www.mmbase.org):

   
     "Cloud security uses the object mmbaseuser to store information used for
    authorisation and authentication of users. The two main advantages of
    this security implementation are that the user administration can be
    carried out by using a webbrowser (instead of editing a file on the
    filesystem) and that the users of your MMBase installation are available
    as objects in the cloud. For instance, it is possible to create groups of
    users, which are allowed to carry out certain tasks."
   
     "A context exists of a set of rights which describe what you can do
    within this context with an object of MMBase. For example you define read
    access to a the context which is used by anonymous visitors of your site
    and you can define a context with edit rights for registered users of
    your site. "
   
 Move the library and other files of the CloudContext Security module into
the MMBase installation tree:
                                                                             
  mv -i web-app/WEB-INF/lib/* \                                              
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/                   
  mv -i web-app/WEB-INF/config/applications/* \                              
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/applications/   
  mv -i web-app/WEB-INF/config/builders/* \                                  
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/builders/       
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Save the documentation files for later reference:
                                                                                          
  mv -i web-app/README.txt web-app/README-PACKAGE.txt web-app/documentation web-app/src \ 
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/mmdocs/security/                            
                                                                                          
                                                                                          

 Make sure all these new files are owned by your tomcat user as well:
                                                                             
  chown -R tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp             
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Disable the existing configuration in the security configuration file /usr/
local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/security/security.xml:
                                                                                                                       
  <!--                                                                                                                 
  <authentication class="org.mmbase.security.implementation.context.ContextAuthentication" url="context/config.xml" /> 
  -->                                                                                                                  
  ...                                                                                                                  
  <!--                                                                                                                 
  <authorization class="org.mmbase.security.implementation.context.ContextAuthorization" url="context/config.xml" />   
  -->                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       

 And add (from web-app/WEB-INF/config/security/security.xml):
                                                                                                 
  <!--                                                                                           
  Example security.xml to switch on Cloud Context Security.                                      
  No other configuration needed                                                                  
  (Cloud Context Security is configured in the cloud)                                            
  @version $Id: security.xml,v 1.1 2003/06/17 16:44:01 michiel Exp $                             
  -->                                                                                            
  <authentication class="org.mmbase.security.implementation.cloudcontext.Authenticate" url="" /> 
  <authorization  class="org.mmbase.security.implementation.cloudcontext.Verify"       url="" /> 
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 

 

Note Make sure to include the configuration above before the <sharedsecret> statement, or you will get an   
     error like this:                                                                                       
                                                                                                            
       ERROR org.mmbase.util.XMLErrorHandler - security.xml line:71 column:12:                              
           The content of element type "security" must match "(authentication,authorization,sharedsecret)". 
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                            
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2. Installing the Media module

 <TODO>
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.3. Installing the Email module

 The Email module makes it possible to send email with MMBase, using either 
SendMail or JMSendMail.

 Move the library and other files of the Email module into the MMBase
installation tree:
                                                                             
  mv -i web-app/WEB-INF/lib/* \                                              
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/lib/                   
  mv -i web-app/WEB-INF/config/builders/* \                                  
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/builders/       
  mkdir /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/email-examples/              
  cp -iR web-app/examples/* \                                                
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/email-examples/                
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Save the documentation files for later reference:
                                                                                          
  mkdir /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/mmdocs/email/                             
  mv -i web-app/README.txt web-app/README-PACKAGE.txt web-app/documentation web-app/src \ 
      /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/mmdocs/email/                               
                                                                                          
                                                                                          

 Make sure all these new files are owned by your tomcat user as well:
                                                                             
  chown -R tomcat:tomcat /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp             
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Edit the email configuration file /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/
WEB-INF/config/modules/sendmail.xml (from web-app/WEB-INF/config/modules/
sendmail.xml):
                                                                             
  ...                                                                        
  <status>active</status>                                                    
  ...                                                                        
  <classfile>org.mmbase.applications.email.SendMail</classfile>              
  ...                                                                        
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Add to Tomcat's root Context (in /usr/local/tomcat/conf/context.xml for
Tomcat version 5, in /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.xml for Tomcat version 4)
(replace <smtp.domain.tld> with the adres of your SMTP server):
                                                                             
  Resource name="mail/Session" auth="Container"                              
           type="javax.mail.Session"/>                                       
    <ResourceParams name="mail/Session">                                     
      <parameter>                                                            
        <name>mail.smtp.host</name>                                          
        <value>smtp.domain.tld</value>                                       
      </parameter>                                                           
    </ResourceParams>                                                        
    <ResourceLink name="linkToGlobalResource"                                
                  global="simpleValue"                                       
                  type="java.lang.Integer"/>                                 
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Failing to do this, results in a fatal error:
                                                                             
  FATAL org.mmbase.module.JMSendMail -                                       
      JMSendMail failure: Name mail is not bound in this Context             
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Warning Installing the Email module in MMBase version 1.7 running on Tomcat  
        version 5 resulted in a fatal error:                                 
                                                                             
          FATAL org.mmbase.servlet.MMBaseStartThread -                       
          Could not find the MMBase module!javax/mail/Session                
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. Configuring initial MMBase settings

 Here are some initial configuration settings for MMBase.

 Change the default password admin2k for the administrator admin by editing /
usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/security/context/
config.xml:
                                                                             
  <user name="admin" context="admin">                                        
      <identify type="name/password" rank="administrator">admin2k</identify> 
  </user>                                                                    
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Also, outcomment or remove the user foo/bar.

 Since this file contains your administrators password, make sure other users
can not read it:
                                                                                               
  chmod 640 /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/security/context/config.xml 
                                                                                               
                                                                                               

 To use the MMBase builder mmbaseuser (using the mmbaseuser table in your 
MySQL database) for user authentication, set the authentication class in the
configuration file /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/
security/security.xml to:
                                                                                          
  <authentication class="org.mmbase.security.implementation.cloud.Authenticate" url="" /> 
                                                                                          
                                                                                          

 and set the authorization class to:
                                                                                   
  <authorization class="org.mmbase.security.implementation.cloud.Verify" url="" /> 
                                                                                   
                                                                                   

 In the same file change the shared secret used to communicate with remote
builders (on other MMBase servers):
                                                                             
  <sharedsecret>yoursharedsecret</sharedsecret>                              
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip You can set the language for MMBase by editing /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/
    mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/modules/mmbaseroot.xml:                     
                                                                             
      <property name="language">en</property>                                
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip You can set the SMTP gateway by editing /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/       
    mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/modules/sendmail.xml:                       
                                                                             
      <property name="mailhost">localhost</property>                         
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11. Running MMBase

 Now you are ready to start Tomcat:
                                                                             
  service tomcat start                                                       
                                                                             
                                                                             

 and access your new MMBase server through (replace <hostname> with your
hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/                                      
                                                                             
                                                                             

 If everything you just did worked out, you should get the MMBase welcome
screen where you can change the settings, look at the demos, and install the
samples.

[MMBase-600x415]

 When asked for a login use the name admin and the password you just set in
the security configuration file /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/
WEB-INF/config/security/context/config.xml.

 MMBase users (i.e. front-end developers) will typically add their web files
to the /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/ directory. Applications
(defining the content) will be placed in the /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/
mmbase-webapp/WEB-INF/config/applications/ directory.

 

Caution Tomcat consumes far more CPU and memory resources than Apache. Make  
        sure the dimensions of your Tomcat/MMBase server system meet these   
        requirements.                                                        

 

Tip Shutting down (or restarting) the Tomcat server (version 1.6) in our case always left a last process running.  
    If you experience this same problem, kill the process by hand before starting it up again:                     
                                                                                                                   
      [root@hostname root]# service tomcat stop                                                                    
      [root@hostname root]# ps -ax |grep j2                                                                        
      24535 ?        S      4:12 /usr/local/j2sdk/bin/java -server -Xms64m -Xmx512m-Dbuild.compiler.emacs=true ... 
      [root@hostname root]# kill 24535                                                                             
      [root@hostname root]# service tomcat start                                                                   
      [root@hostname root]#                                                                                        
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   

 

Tip You can save the original index.jsp file by renaming it to mmbase.jsp:   
                                                                             
      mv -i /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/index.jsp \              
          /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-webapp/mmbase.jsp                 
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
    This will allow you to always access the original MMBase home page       
    through (replace <hostname> with your hostname):                         
                                                                             
      http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/mmbase.jsp                        
                                                                             
                                                                             

 In case of any problems, check the Tomcat and MMBase log files in the
directory /usr/local/tomcat/logs/ for hints.

 >From here, we refer to the documentation on the MMbase website to complete
your configuration and start using MMBase:
  [http://www.mmbase.org/docs/] http://www.mmbase.org/docs/                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

12. Connecting Apache and Tomcat using mod_jk2

 Since (for some odd reason) some network managers allow outgoing web
connections only to TCP port 80, there might be people around that cannot
access your Tomcat (and MMBase) server through port 8080. You can install a 
JK 2 mapping or a reverse proxy in Apache, so Tomcat and MMBase can be
accessed through the Apache web server at port 80. Apart from the port issue,
this has the advantage that you can use Apache to manage you SSL connections
and use your existing Apache logs and statistics facilities for Tomcat and 
MMBase as well.

 Here we describe the installation and configuration of the JK 2 Connector
connecting Apache and Tomcat. In this way, Tomcat paths can be mapped into 
Apache.

 >From the JK 2 Connector website ([http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/
tomcat-4.1-doc/config/jk2.html] http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/
tomcat-4.1-doc/config/jk2.html):

   
     " The JK 2 Connector element represents a Connector component that
    communicates with a web connector via the AJP protocol. This is used for
    cases where you wish to invisibly integrate Tomcat 4 into an existing (or
    new) Apache installation, and you want Apache to handle the static
    content contained in the web application, and/or utilize Apache's SSL
    processing. In many application environments, this will result in better
    overall performance than running your applications under Tomcat
    stand-alone using the HTTP/1.1 Connector. However, the only way to know
    for sure whether it will provide better performance for your application
    is to try it both ways. "
   
 If you will only be needing a simple configuration-- typically a single 
Tomcat server sitting on the same system as your Apache server-- Apache
reverse proxies might be an easier solution for you. Although these are
simpler in terms of the interconnection features, reverse proxies provide
more flexibility in fiddling with your paths and other options. The
configuration of Apache reverse proxies is described in the next section.

 However, if you plan to build or grow to a farm of several Tomcat servers
behind an Apache front-end or build a high-performance system, deploying the 
JK 2 Connector is the way to go.

 Download the sources of the JK 2 Connector from the Apache Jakarta website:
  [http://jakarta.apache.org/site/sourceindex.cgi] http://jakarta.apache.org/site/sourceindex.cgi  
                                                                                                   

 Extract and compile the JK 2 Connector:
                                                                             
  tar -zxvf jakarta-tomcat-connectors-jk2-src-xxx.tar.gz                     
  cd jakarta-tomcat-connectors-jk2-src/jk/native2/                           
  ./configure \                                                              
    --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs                                  
  make                                                                       
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Make sure your $JAVA_HOME environment variable is set and the Java binaries
are in your $PATH or add this option to your ./configure command:
  --with-java-home=/usr/local/j2sdk                                          
                                                                             

 Copy the module files mod_jk2.so and jkjni.so to the modules/ directory of 
Apache:
                                                                             
  cp -i ../build/jk2/apache2/*.so /usr/local/apache/modules/                 
  chmod 755 /usr/local/apache/modules/mod_jk2.so                             
  chown root:root /usr/local/apache/modules/mod_jk2.so                       
  chmod 755 /usr/local/apache/modules/jkjni.so                               
  chown root:root /usr/local/apache/modules/jkjni.so                         
  libtool --finish /usr/local/apache/modules                                 
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Copy the sample configuration file workers2.properties to the configuration
directory of Apache:
                                                                             
                                                                             
  cp -i ../../jk/conf/workers2.properties /usr/local/apache/conf/            
  chown root:root /usr/local/apache/conf/workers2.properties                 
  chmod 644 /usr/local/apache/conf/workers2.properties                       
                                                                             
                                                                             

 and adjust it to your own needs.

 Here is a simple configuration that should get you up and running:
                                                                                     
  [logger]                                                                           
  # outcomment this in production use                                                
  level=DEBUG                                                                        
                                                                                     
  [config:]                                                                          
  file=${serverRoot}/conf/workers2.properties                                        
  debug=0                                                                            
  debugEnv=0                                                                         
                                                                                     
  [uriMap:]                                                                          
  info=Maps the requests. Options: debug                                             
  debug=1                                                                            
                                                                                     
  [shm:]                                                                             
  info=Scoreboard. Required for reconfiguration and status with multiprocess servers 
  file=${serverRoot}/logs/jk2.shm                                                    
  size=1000000                                                                       
  debug=0                                                                            
  disabled=0                                                                         
                                                                                     
  [workerEnv:]                                                                       
  info=Global server options                                                         
  timing=1                                                                           
  debug=0                                                                            
                                                                                     
  [status:]                                                                          
  info=Status worker, displays runtime informations                                  
                                                                                     
  [uri:<hostname>/jkstatus/*]                                                        
  info=Display status information and checks the config file for changes.            
  group=status:                                                                      
                                                                                     
  [channel.socket:localhost:8009]                                                    
  info=Ajp13 forwarding over socket                                                  
                                                                                     
  # Define the worker                                                                
  [ajp13:localhost:8009]                                                             
  channel=channel.socket:localhost:8009                                              
                                                                                     
  [uri:<hostname>/mmbase-webapp/*]                                                   
  info=MMBase                                                                        
                                                                                     
                                                                                     

 Most of this configuration is pretty standard. The last uri declaration
(replace <hostname> with your hostname) is what this is all about; it maps
all client requests starting with /mmbase-webapp/ from Apache to your Tomcat
server.

 

Note When we made a virtual host mapping, somehow the general mappings no    
     longer worked for this virtual host (other virtual hosts on the same IP 
     address had no problem at all). We had to explicitly add the general    
     mappings for this virtual host to make these work again. A bug? Or a    
     consequence of the way Apache implements name based virtual hosts?      

 So now, the same application you accessed through Tomcat as (replace <
hostname> with your hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/                                      
                                                                             
                                                                             

 will be available through Apache as:
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>/mmbase-webapp/                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Important Only name based virtual hosts are supported this way. Make sure you
          add the virtual host name (pointing to this very same (web) server)
          to the /etc/hosts file (replace <hostname> with your hostname):    
                                                                             
            192.168.3.17 <hostname>                                          
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
          or things will not work (running DNS is not sufficient here!).     

 If your Apache installation is serving only a single website, you can leave
out the hostname:
                                                                             
  [uri:/mmbase-webapp/*]                                                     
  info=MMBase                                                                
                                                                             
                                                                             

 which will serve the mapped /mmbase-webapp/ directory on every address and
site of your Apache installation.

 

Note Using JK Connector version 2, all configuration settings will be in the 
     workers2.properties file. Even though Tomcat comes with its own JK 2    
     configuration file /usr/local/tomcat/conf/jk2.properties, there's no    
     need to edit this as long as you stick with the standard port 8009.     
                                                                             
     If you do have to edit this file (for example when changing the port),  
     make sure that you do it when your Tomcat server is not running; the    
     file is auto-edited by Tomcat itself.                                   

 After adding the mod_jk2 module to your Apache configuration (in the file /
etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf or in a new file jk2.conf in the Apache
configuration directory /etc/httpd/conf.d):
                                                                             
  # Load mod_jk2 module                                                      
  LoadModule jk2_module modules/mod_jk2.so                                   
                                                                             
                                                                             

 
                                                                             
  chown root:root /etc/httpd/conf.d/jk2.conf                                 
  chmod 644 /etc/httpd/conf.d/jk2.conf                                       
                                                                             
                                                                             

 you can now restart Apache and give your new entrance a try: (replace <
hostname> with your hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>/mmbase-webapp/                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 To check the status of the JK 2 Connector (replace <hostname> with your
hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>/jkstatus/                                                
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Tip You can reread the configuration in /usr/local/apache/conf/              
    workers2.properties by (re)loading the JK Status page. This allows you to
    add new mappings without restarting Apache or having it reload its       
    configuration. However, existing mappings can not be removed this way and
    require Apache to reconfigure.                                           
                                                                             
    Although it's also possible to place the JK 2 configurations (in a       
    slightly different form) in your Apache configuration file, this is a    
    good reason to stick with the workers2.properties setup.                 

 

Important To protect access to the JK Status page, add an authentication     
          declaration to the Apache configuration. For example:              
                                                                             
            <Location /jkstatus/>                                            
            AuthType Basic                                                   
            AuthName "JK 2 Connector Status"                                 
            AuthUserFile /etc/httpd/conf/users                               
            AuthGroupFile /etc/httpd/conf/groups                             
            Require group admin                                              
            </Location>                                                      
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
          This will prompt for a login from a user from the admin group.     

 In case of any problems, check the JK 2 Connector log messages that will be
written to your Apache error_log.

 

Tip In case the JK 2 Connector has difficulties connecting to Tomcat, check  
    whether Tomcat is indeed available on port 8009:                         
                                                                             
      netstat -tln                                                           
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Access requests mapping to Tomcat will be logged in the access_log's and
error_log's of Apache.

 For more information on the workers2.properties configuration, check the
documentation at:
  [http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-4.1-doc/jk2/jk2/configwebcom.html] http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-4.1-doc/jk2/jk2/configwebcom.html  
                                                                                                                                                         

 There you will read about setting up more (remote) Tomcat workers, grouping
these together in load-balancing pools, setting up RPC channels, using Unix
sockets, using the Java Native Interface (JNI) to interconnect with Tomcat
directly (in-process), setting up alternative loggers, and optimizing your
time-outs.

 

Tip Apache is far more efficient than Tomcat in serving ordinary content     
    files. You could have both the Apache and Tomcat document directories    
    point to the same directory on your filesystem and only forward requests 
    for JSP pages and Java Servlets. For example (in workers2.conf):         
                                                                             
      #[uri:/examples/servlet/*]                                             
      #info=Prefix mapping                                                   
                                                                             
      #[uri:/examples/*.jsp]                                                 
      #info=Extension mapping                                                
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
    However, now you need to protect Tomcat's WEB-INF/ directories (and other
    directories and files you don't want visitors to have access to) from    
    being served by Apache. For example (in Apache's httpd.conf):            
                                                                             
      <Location "/examples/WEB-INF/">                                        
      AllowOverride None                                                     
      deny from all                                                          
      <Location>                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             
    Also, realize that a setup like this bypasses any security constraints   
    you may have configured in the file /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/examples/  
    WEB-INF/web.xml.                                                         

 You can find more general information about the JK 2 Connector at:
  [http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-4.1-doc/jk2/] http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-4.1-doc/jk2/  
                                                                                                               
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

13. Installing an Apache reverse proxy as a front-end to your MMBase server

 Installing an Apache reverse proxy is an easy alternative to the JK 2
Connector to use Apache as a front-end to your Tomcat server.

 Add to your Apache (virtual) server configuration (replace <hostname> with
your hostname):
                                                                             
  ProxyPass /tomcat/ http://<hostname>:8080/                                 
  ProxyPassReverse /tomcat/ http://<hostname>:8080/                          
  ProxyPass /mmbase/ http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/                   
  ProxyPassReverse /mmbase/ http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/            
                                                                             
                                                                             

 This allows you to access your Tomcat server as (replace <hostname> with
your hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>/tomcat/                                                  
                                                                             
                                                                             

 and your MMBase server as (replace <hostname> with your hostname):
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>/mmbase/                                                  
                                                                             
                                                                             

 

Caution Our MMBase version 1.7 installation used absolute directory paths in the 
        web pages it generated. In order to get the reverse proxies to work      
        properly, the Apache proxy paths had to be the same (replace <hostname>  
        with your hostname):                                                     
                                                                                 
          ProxyPass /mmbase-webapp/ http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/        
          ProxyPassReverse /mmbase-webapp/ http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-webapp/ 
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14. Installing more MMBase servers on a single Tomcat server

 If you want to support more instances of MMBase, for example if you would
like to make MMBase available to more or all of your users, you can create
several MMBase installations and have these all run on the same Tomcat
server.

 Install MMBase in the home directory of the user <user> performing all steps
before:

��*� create a directory mmbase/ in the users home directory,
   
��*� copy all MMBase files into the directory /home/<user>/mmbase/,
   
��*� build the directory structure and configuration files in the very same
    way we did before,
   
��*� for MMBase version 1.7 running on Tomcat version 5, enable the Xerces
    libraries,
   
��*� for MMBase version 1.6 running on Tomcat version 4, remove the Xerces
    libraries in MMBase (after you have copied these from MMBase to Tomcat
    the first time),
   
��*� install the MySQL JDBC driver and create a new MySQL database for this
    user.
   

 Make sure both the user and the Tomcat server have access to the MMBase
installation:
                                                                             
  chown -R <user>:tomcat /home/<user>/mmbase/                                
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Make sure that the directory /home/<user>/mmbase/WEB-INF/config/builders/
applications is writable and accessible by the servlet engine user (for
auto-installing builders):
                                                                             
  chmod 770 /home/<user>/mmbase/WEB-INF/config/builders/applications         
  chmod 750 /home/<user>/mmbase/WEB-INF/config/builders/                     
  chmod 750 /home/<user>/mmbase/WEB-INF/config/                              
  chmod 750 /home/<user>/mmbase/WEB-INF/                                     
  chmod 750 /home/<user>/mmbase/                                             
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Now the home directory of this user has to be accessible to the Tomcat
server as well. You can change the group owner of the users home directory to
the tomcat user group:
                                                                             
  chown -g tomcat /home/<user>/                                              
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Or, if you don't want this, use the Access Control Lists (ACL's) to
accomplish the same:
                                                                             
  setfacl -m u:tomcat:r-x /home/<user>/                                      
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Finally, link the new MMBase installation to the Tomcat server:
                                                                             
  ln -s /home/<user>/mmbase /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/mmbase-<user>          
                                                                             
                                                                             

 and restart Tomcat:
                                                                             
  service tomcat restart                                                     
                                                                             
                                                                             

 which will make this users MMBase installation available through:
                                                                             
  http://<hostname>:8080/mmbase-<user>/                                      
                                                                             
                                                                             

 Again, you can set up a JK 2 mapping or a reverse proxy in Apache like we
did before.

 

Important In order to run several instances of MMBase on a single Tomcat     
          server, make sure you increase the available memory resources, i.e.
          by adding to the $CATALINA_OPTS environment variable in /etc/rc.d/ 
          init.d/tomcat:                                                     
                                                                             
            -Xms64m -Xmx512m                                                 
                                                                             
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

15. Acknowledgements

 This document is a follow-up on the "MMBase Mini-HOWTO: Installation on 
Debian Woody", by Casper Joost Eyckelhof, University of Twente, The
Netherlands.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

16. Contributers

 

��*� Felipe Caballero Gil,
   
��*� Andr� van Elst, [http://www.finalist.nl] Finalist, The Netherlands.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
17. Revision history

 

��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.3.5.DocBook.html] Version 0.3.5, June 25,
    2006: Tomcat init script,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.3.4.DocBook.html] Version 0.3.4, September
    19, 2005: minor corrections,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.3.2.DocBook.html] version 0.3.2, January 25,
    2005: MMBase 1.7.3, Java 1.5.0-01,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.3.1.DocBook.html] version 0.3.1, December 26,
    2004: Email module,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.3.0.DocBook.html] version 0.3.0, December 25,
    2004: MMBase 1.7.2, Tomcat 5.5.4, Java 1.5.0, MySQL Connector/J
    3.0.16-ga, Jikes 1.22,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.6.DocBook.html] version 0.2.6, July 27,
    2004: minor additions,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.5.DocBook.html] version 0.2.5, February 28,
    2004: Creative Commons copyright license adjusted,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.4.DocBook.html] version 0.2.4, January 22,
    2004: Creative Commons copyright license; minor additions and
    corrections,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.3.DocBook.html] version 0.2.3, December 26,
    2003: minor additions and corrections,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.2.DocBook.html] version 0.2.2, December 20,
    2003: copyright adjusted,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.1.DocBook.html] version 0.2.1, December 18,
    2003: minor corrections,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.2.DocBook.html] version 0.2, December 15,
    2003: JK 2 Connector setup added,
   
��*� [http://www.offerman.net/MMBase-Installation-HOWTO/
    MMBase-Installation-HOWTO-0.1.DocBook.html] version 0.1, December 10,
    2003: initial draft.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
18. Disclaimer

 This document is provided "as is", without any expressed or implied
warranties. Use the ideas, concepts, scripts, examples, helping hands and
other information at your own risk.

 The specific products and their respective manufacturers are not to be taken
as endorsements of, nor commercials for, the manufacturer.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

19. Copyright

 Compiled, Copyright � 2003 - 2006, by [http://www.offerman.net/] Adrian
Offerman.

 [CreativeCommons..] This document is licensed under the [http://
www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0/] Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike copyright license.

 This allows you to copy, distribute, display, and print this work, and make
derivative works, and make commercial use of the work, under the conditions
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be waived if you get permission from the author. Your fair use and other
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