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Linux NETMEETING HOWTO

Brent Baccala

��������baccala@freesoft.org
������

Martin Schiffers

��������mschiffers@axsi.net
������

Mark F. Komarinski - Conversion from HTML to DocBook 3.1
Revision History                                                            
Revision v1.2          15 January 2002            Revised by: bwb           
Updated ndk-1.2; handles newer versions of openldap. Added pointers to      
mailing list                                                                
Revision v1.1          31 March 2001              Revised by: bwb           
Updated ndk-1.1; handles accented European characters                       
Revision v1.0          13 January 2001            Revised by: bwb           
Initial public release                                                      
Revision v0.11         25 October 2000            Revised by: mfk           
Conversion to DocBook                                                       


This document aims to describe how to make Microsoft NetMeeting interoperate
with Linux.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. OpenH323
    2.1. What is it?
    2.2. Why is it needed?
    2.3. Where to get it?
    2.4. Installation
    2.5. Gatekeepers
   
   
3. NetMeeting directory kit
    3.1. What is it?
    3.2. Why is it needed?
    3.3. How it works
    3.4. Where to get the software
    3.5. Installation
    3.6. Server Security
    3.7. LDAP issues with Windows 2000
    3.8. Interoperation with other LDAP service
   
   
4. Using the Software
    4.1. Direct Connection
    4.2. Directory Operation
    4.3. Linking From A Web Page
    4.4. Permanent Directory Entries
    4.5. Serving Multiple Aliases
    4.6. Using the Answering Machine
    4.7. Conference Calls
    4.8. Routing Calls Through NAT
    4.9. Custom Configurations
   
   
5. Debugging
A. LDAP attributes used by NetMeeting
B. NetMeeting LDAP protocol violations
C. Interoperation with Cisco
D. Thanks

1. Introduction

This is the Linux NETMEETING HOWTO; it describes how to configure Linux for
interoperation with Microsoft NetMeeting. The latest copy of this document is
available at [http://www.freesoft.org/software/NetMeeting/] http://
www.freesoft.org/software/NetMeeting or from the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/]
Linux Documentation Project. <software/NetMeeting@freesoft.org> is a mailing
list to discuss Linux NetMeeting interoperation; consult its [http://
www.freesoft.org/software/NetMeeting/mailinglist/] archive if you have
questions unanswered in this HOWTO.

NetMeeting is Microsoft's client implementation of the H.323 international
standard teleconferencing protocol suite, providing audio and video
conferencing over an IP network. NetMeeting also implements the T.120
protocol suite, providing shared whiteboard, file transfer and application
sharing. As an extension, LDAP is used for directory service. NetMeeting is
included in Windows 2000 and is freely available for download from [http://
www.microsoft.com/windows/netmeeting] http://www.microsoft.com/windows/
netmeeting for Windows 95, 98, and NT.

Linux software is presently (October 2000) available to support H.323 (both
audio and video) and LDAP directory service, but not T.120 shared whiteboard,
file transfer, or application sharing.

If you don't know anything about H.323, I recommend these links:

��*�[http://www.openh323.org/] http://www.openh323.org/
   
��*�[http://www.databeam.com/h323/h323primer.html] http://www.databeam.com/
    h323/h323primer.html
   
��*�[http://www.hut.fi/~tttoivan/index4.html] http://www.hut.fi/~tttoivan/
    index4.html
   
��*�[http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/q21998/articles/art_4.htm]
    http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/q21998/articles/art_4.htm
   

If you don't know anything about LDAP, I recommend these links:

��*�[http://www.openldap.org/] http://www.openldap.org/
   
��*�[http://www.umich.edu/~dirsvcs/ldap/index.html] http://www.umich.edu/
    ~dirsvcs/ldap/index.html
   
��*�RFCs 2251-2256
   

If you have other links to recommend, or other suggestions for improving this
document, please email me at <baccala@freesoft.org>, or even better email <
software/NetMeeting@freesoft.org>
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. OpenH323

2.1. What is it?

OpenH323 is an open source implementation of the H.323 protocol suite. As
such, it can directly interoperate with Microsoft NetMeeting. At the time of
this writing (October 2000), OpenH323 is still early in its development
cycle; buggy and in flux, but useful.

OpenH323 consists of several C++ libraries and some C++ client programs.

The most useful client programs are:


Table 1. List of client applications
+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|ohphone  |H.323 interactive client. Linux equivalent to NetMeeting.        |
|         |Supports audio and video; no shared whiteboard, file transfer, or|
|         |shared applications                                              |
+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|openam   |H.323 answering machine. Plays back a recorded message and       |
|         |records incoming audio. No video support at present.             |
+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|forwarder|Forwards H.323 sessions from one IP address/port to another. Used|
|         |to serve multiple H.323 destinations from a single IP address.   |
+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|openmcu  |Multipoint Control Unit. Connects multiple sessions together into|
|         |a conference call.                                               |
+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
|PSTN     |Allows NetMeeting clients to make phone calls onto the           |
|Gateway  |conventional phone system - the Public Switched Telephone Network|
|         |(PSTN). Requires special hardware.                               |
+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------------+

OpenH323 presently (October 2000) supports audio codecs G.711, G.723.1,
LPC-10, and GSM 06.10, as well as video codec H.261.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Why is it needed?

OpenH323 is needed only if you want to make audio/video connections with
NetMeeting clients directly from your Linux system. It is not needed to
provide LDAP directory service to NetMeeting clients.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. Where to get it?

The main site is [http://www.openh323.org/] http://www.openh323.org/ and
contains links to a download page, mirror sites, mailing lists, and other
resources.

OhPhone, OpenAM, and PSTNgw are available as part of the standard
distribution, in both source and executable formats. forwarder and openmcu
are presently (December 2000) only available from the CVS archive, as modules
named "forwarder" and "openmcu".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Installation

For OhPhone, OpenAM, and PSTNgw, download the executables. If you want to
build from source, perhaps because you need forwarder or openmcu, you'll need
the source code to the programs, as well as to the pwlib and openh323
libraries. Compilation instructions are available on the openh323 website.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. Gatekeepers

OpenH323 doesn't provide any gatekeepers itself, but several are under
construction based on its libraries. As of the end of 2000, most of them are
actively under development and quite primitive. I haven't used any of them
myself, but you want may to examine the following links:

��*�[http://www.opengatekeeper.org/] OpenGatekeeper
   
��*�[http://www.willamowius.de/openh323gk.html] OpenH323 Gatekeeper
   
��*�[http://openh323proxy.sourceforge.net/] OpenGatekeeper H323 Proxy
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. NetMeeting directory kit

3.1. What is it?

Each NetMeeting client can register with an LDAP server and has a directory
window that lists other NetMeeting clients registered with the same server.
The NetMeeting directory kit is an extension to the OpenLDAP server that
provides directory service to NetMeeting clients.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Why is it needed?

While NetMeeting can connect directly to another H.323 device by specifying
an IP address or DNS name, normally you'll want to use an LDAP directory
server. Using an LDAP server lets users see a directory listing of available
destinations, and is required if you need to resolve aliases, for example if
you want to serve multiple H.323 destinations from a single IP address. A
directory server isn't required to connect directly from Linux to a
NetMeeting client; use OpenH323 for this.

The NetMeeting client violates the LDAP protocol in several ways, so you'll
have problems if you try using a standard LDAP server. The NetMeeting
directory kit corrects for these problems and allows an OpenLDAP server to be
used for NetMeeting directory service.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. How it works

+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                 Block diagram of NetMeeting directory kit                      |
|                                                                                |
|___________________         _______    __________________        ______________ |
||    LDAP server  | request |      |   |   LDAP server  | request|            | |
||                 | <-------| Perl |<--|                | <------| NetMeeting | |
|| on private port |         |script|   | on public port |        |  client    | |
||  (i.e, 2345)    |-------> |      |-->|     389        |------->|            | |
||                 | reply   --------   |                |  reply -------------- |
||                 |                    |                |                       |
|-------------------                    ------------------                       |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The directory server consists of a 'master' LDAP server to receive requests,
a Perl script to correctly interpret the Microsoft NetMeeting requests and,
after interrogation of a 'hidden' LDAP server, formats the results in a way
that the NetMeeting client can understand. OpenLDAP's 'shell backend' is used
to call the Perl script. A custom schema is also required. The script
presently handles all of the above problems, with the exception of timing out
entries, which it doesn't do.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. Where to get the software

First of all you need to get the OpenLDAP software.

Note Pre-built OpenLDAP software (i.e, RPMs) won't work unless configured    
     with support for the shell backend.                                     

You can download OpenLDAP from the main site located at [ftp://
ftp.OpenLDAP.org/pub/OpenLDAP/openldap-release/] ftp://ftp.OpenLDAP.org/pub/
OpenLDAP/openldap-release/ or any mirror. I've successfully used OpenLDAP
2.0.7.

The NetMeeting directory kit is available from [http://www.freesoft.org/
software/NetMeeting/download] http://www.freesoft.org/software/NetMeeting/
download.

You need Perl 5, available from [http://www.perl.org/] http://www.perl.org,
but already included in all common Linux distributions. You will also need
the Net::LDAP module from the Perl CPAN archive, which can be downloaded and
installed directly from Perl:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|[root@y2k baccala]# perl -MCPAN -e shell                                   |
|                                                                           |
|cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.58)            |
|ReadLine support enabled                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|cpan> install Net::LDAP                                                    |
|                                                                           |
|... much output omitted ...                                                |
|                                                                           |
|  /usr/bin/make install -- OK                                              |
|                                                                           |
|cpan>                                                                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you've never used CPAN before, you will be prompted first with a series of
configuration questions. Once CPAN is configured, the Net::LDAP module will
be downloaded, compiled, and installed automatically.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5. Installation

Building OpenLDAP will require approximately 60 MB of free disk space. Untar
OpenLDAP and configure it.

Note Be sure to specify the shell backend function "--enable-shell"          

I also recommend specifying "--disable-debug" to prevent OpenLDAP from
exiting if an assertion fails.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ./configure --enable-shell --disable-debug                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Now build and install it with:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ make                                                                 |
|                                                                           |
|... much output omitted ...                                                |
|                                                                           |
|bash# make install                                                         |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

It will normally install under /usr/local:


Table 2. Directories used by OpenLDAP
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/lib     |Shared and static libraries                            |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/bin     |Client binaries for adding, deleting, and searching    |
|                   |LDAP servers                                           |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/sbin    |Utility programs for manipulating the raw database     |
|                   |files. Not needed for normal operation.                |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/libexec |Various server programs, including the slapd binary    |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/etc/    |Contains the default configuration files               |
|openldap           |                                                       |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/etc/    |The different schemas used by the LDAP servers.        |
|openldap/schema    |                                                       |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/var/... |The location of the LDAP databases (in subdirectories) |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|/usr/local/man/... |Documentation                                          |
+-------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+

Once OpenLDAP has been installed, next install the NetMeeting directory kit.
Untar ndk.tgz. It contains these files:


Table 3. NetMeeting directory kit files
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|netmeeting.perl  |Perl script used to correct NetMeeting protocol          |
|                 |violations                                               |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|netmeeting.schema|Custom NetMeeting schema used by the LDAP server         |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|core.schema.patch|Patch to LDAP server's core schema                       |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|slapd.conf       |Sample config file for the master LDAP server            |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|slapd2.conf      |Sample config file for the slave LDAP server             |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|initialize       |Shell script used once to initialize the slave LDAP      |
|                 |database                                                 |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|slapd.rc         |/etc/rc.d/ script                                        |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|nmaddentry       |Perl script to add entries to the NetMeeting directory   |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+
|nmdirectory      |Perl/Tk script to query the NetMeeting directory         |
+-----------------+---------------------------------------------------------+

Copy netmeeting.perl to the /usr/local/libexec directory, netmeeting.schema
to the /usr/local/etc/openldap/schema directory, and copy both slapd.conf and
slapd2.conf to the /usr/local/etc/openldap directory.

Be sure to use core.schema.patch to patch openldap's core schema in the /usr/
local/etc/openldap/schema directory:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ cd /usr/local/etc/openldap/schema                                    |
|bash$ ls                                                                   |
|corba.schema   inetorgperson.schema  misc.schema        nis.schema         |
|core.schema    java.schema           nadf.schema        openldap.schema    |
|cosine.schema  krb5-kdc.schema       netmeeting.schema                     |
|bash$ cp core.schema core.schema.bak                                       |
|bash$ patch core.schema < ~/core.schema.patch                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Create the directory /usr/local/var/openldap-netmeeting to store the LDAP
database, and make it world writable.

Especially if you're using directories from the samples, edit slapd.conf and
slapd2.conf and verify their configuration settings.

You will need to run two copies of slapd. One uses slapd.conf and must be
started as root, since it binds to port 389. The -u option can be specified
to cause slapd to chown to an unprivileged user after binding the port (a
wise precaution). The other slapd uses slapd2.conf, binds to an unprivileged
port, and only needs sufficient privilege to write the database directory.
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash# /usr/local/libexec/slapd -f /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf -u nobody                  |
|bash$ /usr/local/libexec/slapd -h ldap://localhost:2345/ -f /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd2.conf |
|                                                                                                |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You now have to initialize the slave database with a single entry. This is
only done once, by running the initialize script included in the kit. The
"rootdn" and "rootpw" entries are in the slave config file to allow access
for the initialization script, and must match the -D and -w options in the
script. Once you've initialized the database with a single parent entry, you
can comment out the "rootdn" and "rootpw" lines from slapd2.conf, though this
is not critical.

The server should now be up and running. For systems with /etc/rc.d/ style
initialization scripts (like RedHat), the slapd.rc is provided to automate
the starting and stopping of the slapds.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6. Server Security

As shown above, I run both slapds as an unprivileged user, minimizing the
possibility of compromised security due to a bug in either the server
software or the Perl script. Of course, this requires the database directory
to be world writable so that the unprivileged slave server can update it.
This isn't as glaring a hole as it might first appear, since the NetMeeting
clients themselves use no authentication. Thus, even if the database
directory were better protected, anyone on a local or remote host could use
LDAP client programs to delete or modify any of the database entries.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.7. LDAP issues with Windows 2000

Recent NetMeeting releases initially attempt to connect to the LDAP directory
server on port 1002. As described in a [http://www.microsoft.com/TechNet/
chats/trans/iis1208.asp] TechNet chat,

   
    Prior to Windows 2000, an ILS server would listen on port 389 for
    NetMeeting clients. When an ILS server is set up on a Windows 2000
    machine, it will default to port 1002.
   
If a connection to port 1002 is rejected, NetMeeting will fall back on the
standard LDAP port 389. However, at least one user has reported trouble with
a firewall that blocks port 1002, discards the connection attempts, and thus
no replies are received to reject the connection. In this case, NetMeeting
takes about a minute to timeout and fall back to port 389. Opening the
firewall to port 1002 allowed the rejects through and triggered a rapid
fallback.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.8. Interoperation with other LDAP service

The instructions above assume that your LDAP server is only being used for
NetMeeting directory service. Yet what if you want to use a single server for
both NetMeeting directory service and other LDAP service? Only one server can
be bound to port 389, but OpenLDAP allows multiple database sections to be
specified in its configuration file, each serving different parts of the LDAP
namespace. NetMeeting uses only the "objectClass=RTPerson" subtree, so as
long as you avoid this subtree, you can configure additional database
sections to serve other subtrees with other databases. The biggest problem
you are likely to encounter is the custom NetMeeting schema, which conflicts
slightly with the standard schema. Since the NetMeeting schema is more
liberal than the standard schema, I'd suggest commenting out the conflicting
parts of the standard schema. NetMeeting clients won't work with the standard
schema. See the LDAP RFCs and the OpenLDAP documentation for more information
about configuring LDAP servers.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Using the Software

4.1. Direct Connection

You can use OpenH323's ohphone program to connect directly to a NetMeeting
client. Specify the -n option to indicate that you're not using a gatekeeper,
and either the DNS name or IP address of the NetMeeting client:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ohphone -n 208.130.48.22                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You can also start ohphone to receive incoming calls from NetMeeting clients:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ohphone -n                                                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

See the ohphone documentation for more information on its additional
features, including video conferencing, codec selection, and auto-answer.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Directory Operation

Make sure you have an LDAP server running the NetMeeting directory kit, as
described above.

On the NetMeeting client, select the Tools -> Options menu item to display a
configuration dialog. Under the "General" (NetMeeting 3) or "Calling"
(NetMeeting 2) tab, there will be a section for "Directory Settings". Here
you can enter the IP address or DNS name of the server. The client will then
attach to the server and register itself either automatically, if the "Log on
to directory server when NetMeeting starts" checkbox is selected. You can
also log on to the directory server manually, by selecting Call -> Log on .

If the user selects Call -> Directory , a directory window will be displayed
showing all users registered on the LDAP server. Double-clicking on one of
the names will initiate a connection to that user.

Querying the NetMeeting LDAP server from Linux can be done, but is tricky
because the client's IP address is stored in decimal, and I don't mean dotted
decimal. For example, the IP address 63.216.69.197 is stored as 3309688895.
Here's some Perl code to convert back and forth from the NetMeeting IP
address format:
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|# Convert $addr (IP address or DNS name) to a NetMeeting decimal IP address    |
|                                                                               |
|use Socket;                                                                    |
|$bytestring = inet_aton($addr);                                                |
|if (defined $bytestring) {                                                     |
|    ($sipaddress) = unpack('V', $bytestring);                                  |
|} else {                                                                       |
|    die "Can't resolve $addr\n";                                               |
|}                                                                              |
|                                                                               |
|# Convert $sipaddress (from a NetMeeting LDAP server) into dotted decimal form |
|                                                                               |
|$packedipaddr = pack 'V', $sipaddress;                                         |
|$ipaddress = join '.', unpack('C4',$packedipaddr);                             |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Included with the NetMeeting directory kit is nmdirectory, a simple Perl/Tk
script to query a NetMeeting LDAP server and display the clients registered
with it. It's very primitive, and doesn't work well with large databases, but
provides a rudimentary example of how to interpret search results from a
NetMeeting LDAP server.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Linking From A Web Page

Microsoft Internet Explorer understands URLs with a "callto:" scheme that
specify NetMeeting destinations in one of two forms. When a link with a
"callto:" URL is selected, Internet Explorer runs NetMeeting and directs it
to connect to the specified destination.

The first URL form, "callto:destination", where 'destination' is either an IP
address or a DNS name, causes NetMeeting to open an H.323 connection to port
1720 on 'destination'. Use this form to connect directly to another
NetMeeting or OpenH323 client.

The second URL form, "callto:server/alias", causes a directory lookup on LDAP
server 'server', searching for a CN attribute of 'alias'. Assuming a match is
found, a connection is made to the IP address specified in the entry's
sipAddress attribute. NetMeeting clients, by default, register their user's
E-mail addresses in the CN attribute. Use this form to perform a directory
lookup based on E-mail address.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.4. Permanent Directory Entries

NetMeeting clients aren't the only source of LDAP directory entries. In
particular, permanent directory entries can be manually inserted into the
LDAP server using the OpenLDAP client tools. Assuming the attributes are
specified properly, these entries will then appear in NetMeeting directory
listings and can be used as targets in "callto:" URLs. This is useful when
working with OpenH323 clients that don't register themselves by default with
the LDAP server.

To simply creating directory entries, the nmaddentry script is included in
the NetMeeting directory kit. Run it without arguments for a usage message.
For example, if you've started ohphone on "y2k.freesoft.org", you can
register it with the LDAP server on "ils.freesoft.org" using alias
"baccala@freesoft.org" like this:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ nmaddentry -h ils.freesoft.org baccala@freesoft.org y2k.freesoft.org |
|Successfully added cn=baccala@freesoft.org, objectclass=rtperson           |
|bash$                                                                      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This entry will now appear in NetMeeting directory listings and can be
addressed as "ils.freesoft.org/baccala@freesoft.org". The entry will
automatically timeout after 30 minutes. The -p switch creates a permanent
directory listing that won't time out, but this only works on OpenLDAP
servers using the NetMeeting directory kit. To remove a permanent entry, use
the ldapdelete program included with the OpenLDAP distribution, specifying
the LDAP Distinguished Name returned by nmaddentry:
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ldapdelete -h ils.freesoft.org 'cn=baccala@freesoft.org,objectclass=rtperson' |
|bash$                                                                               |
|                                                                                    |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5. Serving Multiple Aliases

The attributes registered by a NetMeeting client include 'sport', the TCP
port number it listens on for incoming H.323 requests, but since this
attribute is never retrieved in search requests, it isn't as useful as it
first appears. In fact, NetMeeting always opens H.323 connections to the
default port (1720), which raises the question of how to serve multiple
aliases from a single IP address.

The key to doing this is the forwarder program, included in the OpenH323 CVS
archive. forwarder listens for connections on port 1720, and can be
configured to redirect them based on the alias being called. This allows
calls for each alias to be sent to a unique port number, where a program like
ohphone or openam is listening.

To use aliases, an LDAP directory is required, with an entry for each alias.
Each alias entry should specify a 'cn' attribute with the alias name, and a
'sipAddress' attribute with the IP address of the host where forwarder is
listening.

I've successfully configured a single host to act as a combination LDAP
server (on port 389), forwarder (on port 1720), and ohphone and openam
clients on various private port numbers and remote systems.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6. Using the Answering Machine

The OpenH323 answering machine, openam, will listen for incoming H.323
connections, play a pre-recorded message, and then record any audio sent to
it into a file. It can optionally be configured to run another program at the
end of the call, to email the recorded audio, perhaps.

It's usefulness is currently (December 2000) limited by the lack of a
gatekeeper program clever enough to redirect calls to it if there's no answer
at the main address. Thus, it will only act as an answering machine if the 
ohphone program is running at the main address, and has been configured to
redirect calls to another address, using the --forward-no-answer and
--forward-busy options.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.7. Conference Calls

The openmcu program, in the OpenH323 CVS archive, implements an H.323
Multipoint Control Unit (MCU). Multiple NetMeeting or ohphone clients can
connect to the MCU and form a conference call. As of December 2000, the
quality and reliability of the connection is problematic, but hopefully this
will improve.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.8. Routing Calls Through NAT

Special support is required on a NAT (IP Masquerade) router to allow H.323
traffic to pass through. If the NAT router is running Linux, two masquerading
modules are available:

��*�[http://www.coritel.it/coritel/ip/sofia/nat/nat2/nat2.htm] http://
    www.coritel.it/coritel/ip/sofia/nat/nat2/nat2.htm
   
��*�[http://netmeetingmasq.sourceforge.net/] http://
    netmeetingmasq.sourceforge.net/
   

Note I have not tested either of these modules.                              
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.9. Custom Configurations

The server capabilities can be customized by modifying the 'netmeeting.perl'
script. For example, calls for stale entries could be redirected to an
"forwarder" configured to hand off to "openam" answering machines. Thus,
calls to a unavailable user would be answered and recorded for later
playback.

As OpenH323's development continues, it's expected that these techniques will
become more sophisticated, for example by ringing the user first and only
forwarding to an answering machine if there's no answer after a given time.
Such functionality would most likely be placed in a gatekeeper.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Debugging

For debugging the NetMeeting directory kit Brent Baccala suggests using 
ethereal ([http://ethereal.zing.org] http://ethereal.zing.org/) to do a
packet trace. It's LDAP support is quite good. There is also a trace file
option in the Perl script "netmeeting.perl" that can be uncommented.

You might also try running the slapds with debugging turned on (-d 768 is a
good start), but their messages are rather confusing.

For debugging H.323, try using the "-t" and "-o" options, supported by all
the OpenH323 client programs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A. LDAP attributes used by NetMeeting

Distinguished Names (DNs) used by NetMeeting must always end in "objectclass=
rtperson". The following LDAP attributes are used by NetMeeting:


Table A-1. NetMeeting LDAP attributes
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|objectClass  |must be "RTPerson"                                |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|cn           |alias used for directory lookups; must be present |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sappid       |must be "ms-netmeeting"                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sprotid      |must be "h323"                                    |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sprotmimetype|typically "text/h323"; unused                     |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|smimetype    |typically "text/iuls"; unused                     |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sflags       |must be 1                                         |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sappguid     |unknown                                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|smodop       |unknown                                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sipaddress   |decimal IP address                                |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sport        |TCP port number; unused                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|ssecurity    |unknown                                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|sttl         |entry timeout value in minutes                    |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|c            |two digit country code                            |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|rfc822mailbox|email address                                     |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|givenname    |optional                                          |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|surname      |optional                                          |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|comment      |optional                                          |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|location     |optional                                          |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|ilsa39321630 |1 = personal; 2 = business; 4 = adult             |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|ilsa32833566 |0 = not audio capable; 1 = audio capable          |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|ilsa32964638 |0 = not video capable; 1 = video capable          |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|ilsa26214430 |0 = not in a call; 1 = currently in a call        |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+
|ilsa26279966 |unknown                                           |
+-------------+--------------------------------------------------+

NetMeeting uses a non-standard means of refreshing dynamic entries. The
Microsoft server maintains an "sttl" attribute, which is a time to live for
the entry in minutes. A search request for attribute "sttl" resets the timer.
If the timer goes to zero, the entry is supposed to disappear from the
database. Of course, the sttl attribute doesn't actually exist in the
database, and the client doesn't bother to give us the whole DN it wants
updated, only supplying the "cn" component in the search request.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. NetMeeting LDAP protocol violations

As mentioned, NetMeeting violates the LDAP protocol in several ways. For the
record, NetMeeting:

��*�Doesn't structure Distinguished Names (DNs) properly
   
       
        NetMeeting puts the most significant elements in the DN first,
        instead of last, using:
       
   
        +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                C=US, O=Microsoft, CN=xxx@abc.com, OBJECTCLASS=rtperson |
        |                                                                        |
        +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
       
   
       
        instead of the proper formating, which is:
       
   
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
        |              CN=xxx@abc.com, O=Microsoft, C=US             |
        |                                                            |
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
       
   
��*�Doesn't include the required "objectclass" attribute
   
       
        Instead, it tacks an "OBJECTCLASS" element to the end of the DN, as
        shown above.
       
   
��*�Doesn't insert parents into the LDAP server
   
       
        This is a clear violation of the LDAP standard, which requires
        parents to exist before children can be created. I.e, to insert this
        DN:
       
   
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
        |              CN=xxx@abc.com, O=Microsoft, C=US             |
        |                                                            |
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
       
   
       
        this DN must already exist:
       
   
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
        |                O=Microsoft, C=US                           |
        |                                                            |
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
       
   
       
        as must this one:
       
   
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
        |              C=US                                          |
        |                                                            |
        +------------------------------------------------------------+
       
   
��*�Doesn't understand attribute aliases, and is therefore unable to
    recognize that "sn" and "surname" refer to the same attribute.
   
��*�Requires that attributes in a search request be returned in exactly the
    same order they were requested, a requirement not guaranteed by the
    OpenLDAP server.
   
��*�Specifies "base" scope in search requests, when it really should use
    "sub", since it wants a list of entries, not just one
   
��*�Uses the "%" character as wildcard in search requests, instead of the "*"
    character specified by the standard.
   
��*�In name attributes ("surname", "givenname"), encodes accented European
    characters as 8-bit ISO 8859-1, instead of multi character UTF-8
    sequences as required by LDAP (RFCs 2252 and 2256).
   
��*�Uses a non-standard means of refreshing dynamic entries.
   
    The Microsoft server maintains an "sttl" attribute, which is a time to
    live for the entry in minutes. A search request for attribute "sttl"
    resets the timer. If the timer goes to zero, the entry is supposed to
    disappear from the database. NetMeeting 2 supplies an "sttl" attribute,
    but NetMeeting 3 doesn't actually create the "sttl" attribute at all.
    Also, the client doesn't bother to give us the whole DN it wants updated,
    only supplying the "cn" component.
   

Windows 2000 implements a modified DNS SRV ([http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/
Orig/rfc2782.txt] RFC 2782), an enhanced means of locating network servers,
including LDAP. Basically, if your NetMeeting server name is
"ils.freesoft.org", Microsoft Active Directory will expect to use a subzone
called "_msdcs.ils.freesoft.org". Within this subzone, the domain controller
will be called "dc._msdcs.ils.freesoft.org" and its LDAP SRV record will be
called "_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.ils.freesoft.org", as [http://
support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q178/1/69.ASP] described by
Microsoft. Got it? To specify the default port number (389) on the same host,
your DNS SRV entry would look something like this:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|$ORIGIN ils.freesoft.org.                                                  |
|                                                                           |
|_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs     IN     SRV     1 1 389 ils.freesoft.org.          |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

I've recently (March 2001) tested this myself, and found that it doesn't
really do much of anything. The port number appears to be completely ignored.
UDP packets are sent to port 389 on the listed host, but the standards don't
specify LDAP over UDP and OpenLDAP doesn't support it.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

C. Interoperation with Cisco

Both NetMeeting and OpenH323 can interoperate with Cisco's voice capable
routers. To successfully initiate calls from a Cisco to an OpenH323 (i.e,
Linux) client, the G.711 codec must be explicitly specified. For example,
with the following configuration, dialing "911" on the Cisco will place a
call to a Linux system (10.1.1.1) running OpenH323:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|dial-peer voice 911 voip                                                   |
| destination-pattern 911                                                   |
| session target ipv4:10.1.1.1                                              |
| codec g711ulaw                                                            |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

To call from Linux to a Cisco, use ohphone with a number@host argument.
number should be a phone number that's been configured on the Cisco using a 
dial-peer statement. For example, this will call number "111" on a Cisco
(10.1.1.10):
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|bash$ ohphone -n 111@10.1.1.10                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

To call from NetMeeting to a Cisco, select the Cisco as a gateway. To do this
from NetMeeting, select Tools->Options. For NetMeeting 2, select Audio, check
the box labeled "Use H.323 gateway", and enter the Cisco's DNS or IP address.
For NetMeeting 3, select General+Advanced Calling..., check the box labeled
"Use a gateway..." (not gatekeeper) and enter the Cisco's address. Now, you
can type a phone number directly into NetMeeting's address panel and it will
be relayed to the Cisco and resolved there, using the Cisco's configured
dialing rules. If you're using NetMeeting 2, you'll need to select "H.323
Gateway" from the "Call using:" list when you initiate the call.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

D. Thanks

Many thanks have to go to Brent Baccala, who wrote the NetMeeting directory
kit, also for his 24-hour E-mail tech support, and encouragement. Without him
I would have passed a many nights more to set it up at my own.





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