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Nvidia OpenGL Configuration mini-HOWTO

Robert B Easter

��������reaster@reaster.com
��������
Revision History                                                             
Revision v1.10            2002-01-31           Revised by: rbe               


This mini-HOWTO is about how to install the [http://www.opengl.org/] OpenGL
drivers for [http://www.nvidia.com/] Nvidia graphics cards on [http://
www.linux.org/] Linux. In addition to just installing the Nvidia drivers,
this mini-HOWTO also explains how to install [http://www.XFree86.org/]
XFree86, the OpenGL Utility library (part of [http://www.mesa3d.org/] Mesa),
the OpenGL Utility Toolkit ([http://reality.sgi.com/mjk/glut3/] glut), the
full set of OpenGL manpages, [http://www.trolltech.com/] Qt and its OpenGL
extension, and [http://www.blackdown.org/] Java and its Java 3D extension so
that a user can have a complete runtime and development environment for
OpenGL applications on Linux.

Note that some of this material may be out of date. The author has attempted
to update this material but has not had time to test all the procedures.
Nevertheless, this document should still provide a decent overview of what is
involved. If you spot errors please contact the author.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
New Versions of this Document
Copyright and Licenses
Disclaimer
Contributors
1. Introduction
2. Download the software packages
    2.1. Linux Kernel >= 2.2.12 Required
    2.2. XFree86 4.0 or later
    2.3. OpenGL man pages
    2.4. Mesa 3D
    2.5. Qt
    2.6. NVIDIA drivers (Mesa libGL replacement)
    2.7. Java 2 SDK, Java 3D extension, and Java PlugIn for Netscape
        (optional)
   
   
3. Install Software
    3.1. README and INSTALL files
    3.2. Install XFree86
    3.3. Install Mesa
    3.4. Install Nvidia OpenGL drivers
    3.5. Install Qt
    3.6. Install GLUT 3.7 Distribution (optional)
    3.7. Install Java 3D (optional)
   
   
4. Final Comments
A. GNU Free Documentation License
    A.1. GNU FDL Version, and Copyright Notice
    A.2. PREAMBLE
    A.3. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
    A.4. VERBATIM COPYING
    A.5. COPYING IN QUANTITY
    A.6. MODIFICATIONS
    A.7. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
    A.8. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
    A.9. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
    A.10. TRANSLATION
    A.11. TERMINATION
    A.12. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
    A.13. How to use this License for your documents
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
New Versions of this Document

The latest version of this mini-HOWTO can be found at:

[http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Nvidia-OpenGL-Configuration/] http://
www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/mini/Nvidia-OpenGL-Configuration/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Copyright and Licenses

    Copyright (c) 2001, 2002 Robert B. Easter. Permission is granted to copy,
    distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free
    Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the
    Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover
    Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in
    the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Disclaimer

No liability for the contents of this documents can be accepted. Use the
concepts, examples and other content at your own risk.

All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless specifically noted
otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting
the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Contributors

I thank the following contributors for their input into this document:

��*�Jan De Luyck (jandeluyck at gmx.net) -- Provided information about
    tweaking os-registry.c to change AGP settings and how to monitor the nv
    settings with cat /proc/nv/card0. Thanks !
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter 1. Introduction

The installation of the NVIDIA drivers under Linux can be quite easy in
itself. However, there is a little more to it sometimes than just unpacking
the driver files.

Since certain versions of the NVIDIA drivers require upgrading your XFree86
to work, I've included some material on installing XFree86. If upgrading
XFree86 is necessary for you, you can read this document but also carefully
read the information at [http://www.XFree86.org/] XFree86.org.

The NVIDIA driver is only concerned with installing the OpenGL libGL library.
But since there is more to a complete OpenGL installation than just libGL, I
cover the installation of defacto standard OpenGL add-on libraries like GL
Utility (libGLU) and GL Utility Toolkit (libglut).

Going a little beyond the basics, I cover the installation of some other
libraries you might want to consider: [http://www.trolltech.com/] TrollTech's
Qt C++ Library and the Java language [http://java.sun.com/products/java-media
/3D/] Java 3D API.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 2. Download the software packages

2.1. Linux Kernel >= 2.2.12 Required

First of all, the OpenGL drivers for the Nvidia cards currently require a
system with Linux kernel 2.2.12 or later. Recent releases of kernel 2.4.x are
supported and are recommended since most new development happens in the 2.4
kernels. If you don't have it, then you will have to upgrade your system's
Linux kernel; see [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html] The Linux
Kernel HOWTO for details.

The Linux kernel can be downloaded at: [http://www.kernel.org/] http://
www.kernel.org/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. XFree86 4.0 or later

The current version of XFree86 is 4.2.0 as of this writing. It can be
downloaded as source or binaries. It is generally recommended to download the
binaries these days. See [http://www.xfree86.org/] http://www.XFree86.org for
the lastest official information on installation of XFree86. Later in this
document, I describe only the very basic procedure for compiling and
installing from the source.

XFree86 source code comes in three files:

��*�X420src-1.tgz
   
��*�X420src-2.tgz
   
��*�X420src-3.tgz
   
��*�doctools-1.3.tgz
   
��*�utils.tgz
   

Doctools is the DocBook SGML package used by XFree86 to prepare the X
documentation. Utils contains the source for the "extract" program, which is
a modified GNU tar with gzip support. Extract is only important if you are
installing a binary distribution of XFree86 on top of your existing XFree86
to upgrade it. Extract unlinks old existing files that are being extracted/
updated instead of skipping them. Extract comes with the binary distributions
so utils.tgz is only important for making your own binary distribution.

You can download XFree86 from its ftp site: [ftp://ftp.xfree86.org/] ftp://
ftp.xfree86.org/

XFree86 includes [http://www.sgi.com/software/opensource/glx/] GLX, the
OpenGL X interface functions. Each window system has to provide the
platform-specific interfaces between OpenGL and the window system for mapping
a GL rendering context to a window system widget. Recent versions of XFree86,
like version 4.2.0, now also include libGLU and the OpenGL manual pages.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. OpenGL man pages

XFree86 prior to version 4.2.0 comes with only the GLX and (maybe) GLU man
pages. If you wanted a full set of OpenGL man pages, you had to get them
yourself.

��*�mangl.tar.Z
   
��*�manglu.tar.Z
   
��*�manglx.tar.Z (you don't need this one)
   

If you are using XFree86 4.2.0 or later, you should already have the manglx
OpenGL interface extension man pages, mangl OpenGL library man pages, and the
manglu GL Utility library pages too. If you are using XFree86 prior to 4.2.0,
you'll have to see what you have included with your XFree86 version and get
some of the packages above. As time goes on, XFree86 has been including more
of these manual pages and other standard OpenGL add-on libraries.

These packages can be found at: [ftp://ftp.sgi.com/sgi/opengl/doc/] ftp://
ftp.sgi.com/sgi/opengl/doc/

These man page packages are in a format ready to be unpacked into the XFree86
source distributions (if needed/missing), see below.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Mesa 3D

��*�MesaLib-4.0.1.tar.gz
   
��*�MesaDemos-4.0.1.tar.gz
   

[http://mesa3d.sourceforge.net/] http://mesa3d.sourceforge.net/

Mesa is the library that provides the foundation for the 3D support included
in XFree86. Originally, Mesa included a software-only libGL that only claims
to be "similar to that of OpenGL." Mesa now also supports hardware
acceleration for a growing number of cards (see their site for details). The
Mesa package also includes an implementation of the libGLU Utility library
and the libglut GL Utility Toolkit library. Some versions of XFree86 only
included the libGL from Mesa and some header files. With recent releases of
XFree86, like 4.2.0, more has been added from Mesa, like libGLU and the
manual pages. libglut may still be missing from your XFree86 distribution, so
you may still like to get it from the Mesa distribution or from the GLUT
distribution directly.

As shipped, XFree86 will support software OpenGL rendering (painfully slow)
using the Mesa libGL. It may also support hardware accelerated OpenGL for
some cards that have a fully open source driver. But for NVIDIA, the subject
of this document, there is no fully open sourced hardware accelerated OpenGL
driver included in XFree86. The NVIDIA GLX/OpenGL driver we download from
[http://www.nvidia.com/] NVIDIA.com is a binary, closed source driver that is
a drop-in hardware accelerated replacement for the Mesa libGL.so file.

libGLU is a library built on top of libGL to provide some higher-level
functions for applications. OpenGL itself, libGL, is considered a low-level
library. GLU is a standard part of most OpenGL installations and many
programs make use of it.

MesaDemos provides many OpenGL demo programs and, more importantly, the
[http://www.opengl.org/developers/documentation/glut/index.html] GL Utility
Toolkit (libglut) library. GLUT provides a window system independent
interface between OpenGL and any supported window system. For instance, on
the X Window System, it hides the details of using glX functions to setup a
window. Programmers can write code once and can compile it to work on MS
Windows or X, etc provided that a GLUT library is available on the target
platform. Like libGLU, libglut is a standard part of most OpenGL
installations and is required by many programs.

While GLUT is bundled with MesaDemos, it is also available as separate
packages:

glut-3.7.tar.gz glut_data-3.7.tar.gz

from [http://www.opengl.org/developers/documentation/glut/index.html] http://
www.opengl.org/developers/documentation/glut/index.html

You may use either the GLUT included with MesaDemos (preferred and easier) or
the GLUT from its project website. Don't install both! It's recommended at
this time to go with the GLUT packaged with MesaDemos, but instructions on
how to install the other GLUT are still provided in the next section as an
option. Note that MesaDemos does not include the glut manpages, so you may
want to download the project GLUT package just to install its man pages.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. Qt

qt-x11-2.2.4.tar.gz or later version

[http://www.troll.no/] http://www.troll.no/

Qt is a cross-platform GUI library that makes it easy to create X
applications with standard GUI elements (widgets) like menubars, scollbars,
dropdown lists, checkboxes, buttons, multiple document interface, and many
other GUI things. Using Qt, a program can be compiled for both MS Windows and
X without changing any code. Its a very popular GUI library and is used to
create the core libraries of KDE ([http://www.kde.org/] http://www.kde.org/).

Qt has functions (previously as an extension in $QTDIR/extensions/opengl) for
OpenGL that provides for creating OpenGL rendering contexts in Qt windows.
This provides some alternative to both GLUT and using the glX functions
directly, plus the added benefit of full access to the excellent Qt widgets
and cross-platform portability.

This is useful if you want to compile or develop programs based on Qt (e.g.,
KDE2 and its apps).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.6. NVIDIA drivers (Mesa libGL replacement)

��*�NVIDIA_kernel-1.0-2314.tar.gz
   
��*�NVIDIA_GLX-1.0-2313.tar.gz
   

Note that XFree86 4.0.1 and later is required with driver 0.9-6 and later. If
you have XFree86 4.0.0, then you'll have to download the older 0.9-4 version.
You should try to use the lastest XFree86 and NVIDIA drivers.

Download the drivers at: [http://www.nvidia.com/] http://www.nvidia.com/

Tip See the updated FAQ at Nvidia.com while you are downloading. It has      
    important installation information not in this HOWTO.                    

The NVIDIA drivers provide a kernel driver: /lib/modules/
kernel.version.number/video/NVdriver and libGL.so and libGLcore.so files that
go into /usr/lib/ to replace and Mesa ones that might be in there. libGL.so
is OpenGL. These files are Nvidia's own hardware accelerated OpenGL
implementation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.7. Java 2 SDK, Java 3D extension, and Java PlugIn for Netscape (optional)

The following file is available at [http://www.blackdown.org/] http://
www.blackdown.org/:

��*�java3d-1.2.1_01-fcs-linux-i386-sdk.tar.bz2
   

Note that to install these Java files, your system needs to have glibc 2.1.3
or later. To check your version of glibc:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                ls -l /lib/libc*                                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
On rpm-based systems (like RedHat and Mandrake), you can try:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                rpm -q glibc                                               |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

To use any Java on your system, you must also install the Java Software
Development Kit (JSDK) 1.3.1 or later from [http://java.sun.com/]
java.sun.com. The Blackdown version of the JSDK will also work.

The [http://java.sun.com/products/java-media/3D/index.html] Java 3D media
extension contains many 3D demo programs/applets and takes advantage of the
OpenGL hardware acceleration on the system. The Java 3D API uses the OpenGL
API internally. The demos run as normal Java applications and also as applets
inside Netscape via the Java PlugIn, or inside [http://www.kde.org/] KDE's
[http://www.konqueror.org/] Konqueror by directly using the Java runtime
(JRE).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 3. Install Software

3.1. README and INSTALL files

During the installation of all these packages, always read the README and
INSTALL files etc. that come with them for the lastest, most authoritative
information. Take some time to browse the website for each package for
additional documentation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Install XFree86

Installation of the software packages requires root login, which can be
obtained easily via the superuser/setuser command: su - (see, man su).

The following explains the installation of XFree86 from source in only the
most basic terms. Make sure to read all the XFree86 documentation to learn
about special options.

If you have a version of XFree86 installed already, you may want to move it
or delete it. However, installing over an existing X is generally OK and
preserves any programs or libraries you might have installed into the X
directories (not that you should really do that):
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr                                                            |
|        mv X11R6 X11R6-old                                                 |
|        cd /etc                                                            |
|        mv X11 X11-old                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|        # you may have an X directory in /var also                         |
|        cd /var                                                            |
|        mv X11R6 X11R6-old                                                 |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If these locations are not correct for your distribution of Linux, you will
have to look around your filesystem a bit - try looking in /var

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr/src                                                        |
|        mkdir release                                                      |
|        cd release                                                         |
|        tar -xvzf X420src-1.tgz                                            |
|        tar -xvzf X420src-2.tgz                                            |
|        tar -xvzf X420src-3.tgz                                            |
|        tar -xvzf doctools-1.3.tar.gz                                      |
|                                                                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you are using an old version of XFree86 for some reason, you may want to
use the man page packages. XFree 4.2.0 and later has all these man pages
already. Skip using the man page packages if you don't need them. Check in /
usr/src/release/xc/doc/man to see what all is included with your XFree86.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # unpack the man pages if they are missing.                        |
|        cd /usr/src                                                        |
|        tar -xvzf mangl.tar.Z                                              |
|        tar -xvzf manglu.tar.Z                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

A file has to be edited to allow these man pages to compile/install with the
rest of the distribution:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr/src/release/xc/doc/man/GL                                  |
|        # Edit the file: Imakefile                                         |
|        #       SUBDIRS = glx gl glu                                       |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

When you unpacked the man*.tar.Z files above, two new directories where
added: gl glu

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr/src/release                                                |
|        cd doctools                                                        |
|                                                                           |
|        # Having this variable set confuses the sgml docs build.           |
|        # With it unset, the build uses the proper defaults.               |
|        unset $SGML_CATALOG_FILES                                          |
|                                                                           |
|        make                                                               |
|        make install                                                       |
|                                                                           |
|        # Note: doctools installs the perl program sgmlfmt to              |
|        # /usr/local/bin.  It looks for the perl executable                |
|        # at /usr/local/bin/perl.  If perl is installed                    |
|        # on your system at /usr/bin/perl, then it will not                |
|        # find perl and the sgml docs build will fail!                     |
|        # Make a symlink if needed (or edit the script):                   |
|        cd /usr/local/bin                                                  |
|        ln -s /usr/bin/perl perl                                           |
|                                                                           |
|        cd /usr/src/release                                                |
|        cd xc/config/cf                                                    |
|        vi host.def                                                        |
|        # add the following three lines to host.def:                       |
|        #       #define HasSgmlFmt YES                                     |
|        #       #define BuildAllDocs YES                                   |
|        #       #define HasZlib YES                                        |
|        # See the README file in doctools and xc/config/cf.                |
|        # HasZlib YES instructs XFree86 not to build and install           |
|        # it's own old zlib.  If you do not have zlib installed            |
|        # (check /usr/lib/libz*), then omit the HasZlib line or            |
|        # go download it and install it first:                             |
|        #       http://www.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/zlib/                  |
|        # A common zlib conflict occurs when a system already              |
|        # has zlib installed and XFree86 installs it's also.               |
|        # In this case, deleting /usr/X11R6/lib/libz.a fixes               |
|        # the problem.                                                     |
|                                                                           |
|        cd /usr/src/release/xc                                             |
|        make World                                                         |
|        # before installing, make sure you have moved                      |
|        # or deleted prior installation of X                               |
|        # unless you are sure you want to just overwrite                   |
|        make install                                                       |
|        make install.man                                                   |
|                                                                           |
|        # make symlinks                                                    |
|        cd /usr/include                                                    |
|        ln -s ../X11R6/include/DPS DPS                                     |
|        ln -s ../X11R6/include/GL GL                                       |
|        ln -s ../X11R6/include/X11 X11                                     |
|        ln -s ../X11R6/include/bitmaps bitmaps                             |
|        cd ..                                                              |
|        ln -s X11R6 X11                                                    |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Add /usr/X11R6/lib to your /etc/ld.so.conf file, then run the command 
ldconfig to update /etc/ld.so.cache so the libraries will be visible.

The GL/GLX/GLU HTML documentation is located at /usr/src/release/xc/doc/
hardcopy/GL. This directory can be copied as follows:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/src/release/xc/doc/hardcopy                        |
|                cp -r GL /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/html                       |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The index.html file in the docs might point to manindex5x.html, but the
filename may actually be manindex5.html. Just make a symlink to fix it if
needed:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/html                             |
|                ln -s manindex5.html manindex5x.html                       |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

When X is up and running (later), try using the xman program to see that the
gl,glx,glu and glut man pages are in section 3. If you have KDE2, khelpcenter
allows man-page browsing.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Install Mesa

Note: This gives you the libGLU* and libglut* files that may be missing in 
XFree86. XFree86 used to only come with the OpenGL core library, libGL (based
on Mesa). This also installs Mesa's libGL, but we will delete that since it
is to be replaced by the Nvidia libGL.

You should look in /usr/X11R6/lib to see if you already have libglut.* and
libGLU.*. If you do, you can skip installing Mesa. Recent releases of XFree86
have been including more of Mesa as standard.

It's best to uninstall any old Mesa version you may have installed before
installing a new Mesa. Uninstalling software can be a dangerous operation, so
know what you are doing! If you have software depending on your old Mesa, you
might need to keep it and just install the new Mesa along with it.

To completely uninstall any Mesa libs that may have come with Slackware:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                removepkg mesa                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
For rpm-based systems (like RedHat and Mandrake), try:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                # see what will be removed first                           |
|                rpm -e --test Mesa | less                                  |
|                # if ok, proceed                                           |
|                rpm -e Mesa                                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
For Debian, you can try:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                apt-get remove Mesa                                        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Procedures vary for other distributions. If there is no clear way to
uninstall an existing Mesa, then at least confirm where it is installed:
normally either under /usr or /usr/local. The example below assumes that Mesa
is installed (or going to get installed) under /usr. Installing over an old
version is probably harmless. Look for /usr/lib/libMesa* or /usr/local/lib/
libMesa* and delete them unless you have programs that need them.

+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # IF you are going to use the project GLUT distribution of GLUT, then  |
|        # unpack the Glut-3.7 packages ...                                     |
|        # Mesa's compile looks for it                                          |
|        cd /usr/src                                                            |
|        tar -xvzf glut-3.7.tar.gz                                              |
|        tar -xvzf glut_data-3.7.tar.gz                                         |
|        # IF you are using this GLUT, use the --with-glut=/usr/src/glut-3.7    |
|        # parameter with Mesa's ./configure below in addition to the --prefix  |
|                                                                               |
|        cd /usr/src                                                            |
|        tar -xvzf MesaLib-4.0.1.tar.gz                                         |
|        tar -xvzf MesaDemos-4.0.1.tar.gz                                       |
|        cd Mesa-4.0.1                                                          |
|        ./configure --prefix=/usr                                              |
|        make                                                                   |
|        make install                                                           |
|        ldconfig                                                               |
|                                                                               |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Important: At this point, Mesa installed its own version of the glx.h include
files over the ones that XFree86 installed. This will cause some programs to
fail to compile and is corrected by copying the XFree86 GL include files from
the X source back to your system:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cp /usr/src/release/xc/include/GL/*.h /usr/X11R6/include/GL        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. Install Nvidia OpenGL drivers

3.4.1. Install NVIDIA kernel driver package

First, unpack the kernel driver source.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr/src                                                        |
|        tar -xvzf NVIDIA_kernel-1.0-2314.tar.gz                            |
|        tar -xvzf NVIDIA_GLX-1.0-2313.tar.gz                               |
|        cd NVIDIA_kernel-1.0-2314                                          |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Now, before building and installing this kernel driver, it has some AGP
options that can affect performance. You shouldn't really attempt to use
these options during your first attempt at getting your card working and not
unless you are using a very recent 2.4 kernel and the lastest nvidia drivers.

The Linux kernel source can be compiled with an AGP character device that the
Nvidia driver can use to get better performance. If your kernel does not have
the AGP driver for your motherboard chipset compiled in, then the Nvidia
kernel driver uses its own built-in AGP support if your video card is an AGP
card. If you want to experiment with the Linux kernel AGP support, you should
be able to rebuild and install your kernel with the appropriate support:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr/src/linux                                                  |
|        make menuconfig                                                    |
|        # Go to Character devices and put a * by /dev/agpgart support      |
|        # and also put a * by your motherboard chipset type.               |
|        # Go to the Processor type and features and put a * by             |
|        # MTTR support.                                                    |
|        # Save the config.                                                 |
|        make                                                               |
|        make modules                                                       |
|        make install                                                       |
|        make modules_install                                               |
|        reboot                                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Futher tweaking can be done to the file os-registry.c in the NVIDIA kernel
source. Looking though this file, you will see many flag variables (they can
be set to 0 or 1) to control options that affect performance and stability!
You should try your configuration with this file unmodified first to see that
your system works. If it does, you can try these options. Among the options
you can try here are:

��*�Enabling AGP 4x on VIA chipsets (by default constrained to only 2x)
   
��*�Enabling Side Band Addressing (your card needs to support this)
   
��*�Enabling Fast Writes (IIRC, this must be enabled in your motherboard BIOS
    too)
   

Tip If you experience problems starting X, see the files TNT_USERS_README and
    M64_USERS_README. These files explain how to tweak the kernel driver.    
    They were written to fix problems with TNT and TNT2 M64 cards but these  
    tweaks are reported to help the GeForce2 MX also. Try bypassing the BIOS 
    as explained in M64_USERS_README.                                        

After you have tweaked (or not tweaked) your Linux kernel and os-registry.c
file, you can build and install the kernel module.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # The make command will build and install the driver:              |
|        make                                                               |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
After the driver is loaded, you can see the driver configuration with cat /
proc/nv/card0
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4.2. Install NVIDIA GLX package

Installing the Nvidia OpenGL library package is nothing too special. First
you need to clean up some old files.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # delete the libGL.* files that come with XFree86 / Mesa ...       |
|        # the nvidia libGL.* should replace them                           |
|        # The more recent Nvidia Makefile installer does this for you.     |
|                                                                           |
|        cd /usr/X11R6/lib                                                  |
|        rm libGL.*                                                         |
|        cd modules/extensions                                              |
|        rm libGL*                                                          |
|        rm libglx*                                                         |
|        cd /usr/lib                                                        |
|        rm libGL.*                                                         |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

With the conflicting old files gone, you can begin the installation.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd ..                                                                          |
|        cd NVIDIA_GLX-1.0-2313                                                         |
|        make                                                                           |
|        ldconfig                                                                       |
|                                                                                       |
|        # make might not install the C header files that come with                     |
|        # the libraries in the NVIDIA_GLX package so, do this:                         |
|        cd usr/include/GL                                                              |
|        cp *.h /usr/include/GL                                                         |
|        # usr/include/GL is a subdirectory in the NVIDIA_GLX package.                  |
|        # /usr/include/GL should be a symlink to /usr/X11R6/include/GL                 |
|        # so you could copy to there instead if you want.                              |
|                                                                                       |
|        # Make a basic XF86Config file using the "nv" driver:                          |
|        cd /etc/X11                                                                    |
|        xf86config                                                                     |
|        # Follow the prompts and fill in the information xf86config asks for.          |
|        # Select the Nvidia GeForce or appropriate name.                               |
|        # You can test X with this XF86Config file, or continue for OpenGL:            |
|                                                                                       |
|        # You must edit XF86Config and set the following:                              |
|        vi XF86Config                                                                  |
|        #       Load "glx"                                                             |
|        #       Replace 'driver "nv"' with 'driver "nvidia"'                           |
|        #       Put "1600x1200" first (or your preferred screen resolution)            |
|        #       Copy ttf fonts from Windows into a font directory and add a font path. |
|    #            Use ttmkfdir (check freshmeat.net) to a fonts.dir file.               |
|        #       A good place to keep your own fonts is /usr/local/share/fonts ...      |
|                                                                                       |
|        # Nvidia drivers do NOT use the dri module - don't load it.                    |
|                                                                                       |
|        # You may like to edit /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc to have run "startkde"           |
|        # or "gnome-session" instead of twm.                                           |
|                                                                                       |
|        # Note: /usr/include/GL should be a symlink to /usr/X11R6/include/GL           |
|                                                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Specifying "nvidia" for the driver in the XF86Config makes that take effect
each time you startx. But the NVdriver kernel driver will have to be loaded
before you startx. It can be loaded with:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                # to load it                                               |
|                insmod NVdriver                                            |
|                # If you need to unload it:                                |
|                rmmod NVdriver                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
You should not have to use insmod manually. The NVdriver installation should
have inserted a line into /etc/modules.conf (or conf.modules) that looks
something like:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                alias char-major-195 NVdriver                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
If this line is present, NVdriver is loaded automatically when X is started.
You can check if its loaded using the command, lsmod.

In my experience, your video system will become unstable if you compile,
load, and unload the NVdriver module. You should reboot your system after
rebuilding this module to help make sure your system doesn't lock inside X.
Its possible that your screen will go black and the keyboard will become
unresponsive after switching NVdriver. It is advisable to always have another
computer with telnet or ssh that you can use to get into your Linux box to
shut it down properly if this happens.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.5. Install Qt

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # for Qt, there is no "make install", just place the source        |
|        # where you want it to live:                                       |
|        cd /usr/local                                                      |
|        tar -xvzf qt-x11-2.2.4.tar.gz                                      |
|        ln -s qt-2.2.4 qt                                                  |
|        cd qt                                                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Read the INSTALL file about environment variables to setup before you try to
build Qt. You can add the following to /etc/profile:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                QTDIR=/usr/local/qt                                        |
|                PATH=$PATH:$QTDIR/bin                                      |
|                MANPATH=$MANPATH:$QTDIR/man                                |
|                LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$QTDIR/lib                |
|                export QTDIR PATH MANPATH LD_LIBRARY_PATH                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
LD_LIBRARY_PATH is optional if you include an entry in /etc/ld.so.conf for
the library path: /usr/local/qt/lib, then run ldconfig to update /etc/
ld.so.cache.

+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # note: configure has some options you can try, to see them                     |
|        # see ./configure --help                                                        |
|        ./configure                                                                     |
|                                                                                        |
|        # NOTE: when you run make as suggested on the next line, you may                |
|        # encounter a make error that halts the build IF you run make                   |
|        # from outside X.  The program $QTDIR/bin/uic (the User Interface Compiler)     |
|        # may Segmentation Fault when run from a Linux console.  You can run            |
|        # "startx" and use the twm (tiny window manager) and xterm (or whatever you     |
|        # might have setup for X) to run the rest of the Qt build.  If for some         |
|        # reason twm is not even available, then you can run "XFree86 &", use           |
|        # "CTRL-ALT-F1" to get to a console, start an xterm as                          |
|        #  "xterm -display localhost:0.0 &", then switch back to X with "ALT-F7".       |
|                                                                                        |
|        make                                                                            |
|                                                                                        |
|    # Only for old versions of Qt before 2.1.0 or so ...                                |
|        # compile the opengl extension                                                  |
|        # Note that in qt 2.2.0 on, the OpenGL support has been moved out of extensions |
|        # and is now a standard part of the library that is installed if configure      |
|        # finds OpenGL installed on your system.  If you were to not want OpenGL        |
|        # support in Qt, you'd have to pass the -no-opengl option to configure.         |
|        cd extensions/opengl/src                                                        |
|        # Check the Makefile and ensure there are not Mesa references.                  |
|        make                                                                            |
|                                                                                        |
|                                                                                        |
|        ldconfig                                                                        |
|        cd ../examples                                                                  |
|        # Try compiling and running the examples.                                       |
|                                                                                        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.6. Install GLUT 3.7 Distribution (optional)

If you installed the MesaDemos/MesaLib package, then you have already
installed GLUT 3.7 since it is included with MesaDemos. However, you may be
interested in installing the GLUT manpages and you can skip right to the
"Install GLUT manual pages", below ...

Installing GLUT is a bit tricky. I'm not too familiar with imake, the program
that it uses to manage the Makefiles, and didn't quite see how to get GLUT to
install to where I wanted it (/usr/lib, but MesaDemos will do this without
any trouble though). It can be done manually anyhow:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd /usr/src                                                        |
|        tar -xvzf glut-3.7.tar.gz                                          |
|        cd glut-3.7                                                        |
|                                                                           |
|        Read the file: README.linux                                        |
|        cd linux                                                           |
|        READ the file: README                                              |
|        cp Glut.cf ..                                                      |
|        cd ..                                                              |
|        Edit Glut.cf: remove any Mesa references.                          |
|        Replace any -lMesaGL -lMesaGLU with -lGL -lGLU if needed.          |
|        In particular, replace:                                            |
|                OPENGL = $(TOP)/../lib/libMesaGL.so                        |
|                GLU = $(TOP)/../lib/libMesaGLU.so                          |
|        with:                                                              |
|                OPENGL = -lGL                                              |
|                GLU = -lGLU                                                |
|                                                                           |
|        ./mkmkfiles.imake                                                  |
|        cd lib/glut                                                        |
|        cp /usr/src/glut-3.7/linux/Makefile .                              |
|        Edit the Makefile: remove any Mesa references.                     |
|        Replace any -lMesaGL -lMesaGLU with -lGL -lGLU if needed.          |
|        In particular, replace:                                            |
|                OPENGL = $(TOP)/../lib/libMesaGL.so                        |
|                GLU = $(TOP)/../lib/libMesaGLU.so                          |
|        with:                                                              |
|                OPENGL = -lGL                                              |
|                GLU = -lGLU                                                |
|                                                                           |
|        make                                                               |
|        ln -s libglut.so.3.7 libglut.so                                    |
|        ln -s libglut.so.3.7 libglut.so.3                                  |
|        cp -d libglut.* /usr/lib                                           |
|        cd ..                                                              |
|        cd gle                                                             |
|        # make a shared lib for libgle                                     |
|        make                                                               |
|        gcc -shared -o libgle.so.3.7 *.o                                   |
|        ln -s libgle.so.3.7 libgle.so                                      |
|        ln -s libgle.so.3.7 libgle.so.3                                    |
|        cp -d libgle.* /usr/lib                                            |
|        cd ..                                                              |
|        cd mui                                                             |
|        # make a shared lib for libmui                                     |
|        make                                                               |
|        gcc -shared -o libmui.so.3.7 *.o                                   |
|        ln -s libmui.so.3.7 libmui.so                                      |
|        ln -s libmui.so.3.7 libmui.so.3                                    |
|        cp -d libmui.* /usr/lib                                            |
|                                                                           |
|        # Install the GLUT manual pages (not included with MesaDemos)      |
|        cd /usr/src/glut-3.7                                               |
|        make SUBDIRS=man Makefile                                          |
|        cd man/glut                                                        |
|        make install.man                                                   |
|        ldconfig                                                           |
|                                                                           |
|        cd ../../progs/demos/ideas                                         |
|        # edit the Makefile, change OPENGL = -lGL and GLU = -lGLU          |
|        make                                                               |
|        ./ideas                                                            |
|        # test compiling some demos                                        |
|        # take a look at which libraries have to be linked (-lX11 ...) in  |
|        # the Makefiles.  Qt's tmake program available at www.troll.no     |
|        # is a quick way to make a Makefile but you have to edit it        |
|        # and add the -l needed.                                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.7. Install Java 3D (optional)

If you already have a Java Software Development Kit (JSDK) or Java Runtime
Environment (JRE) installed, then you can skip parts of this section. If you
are using a JRE only, you'll have to get the JRE version of the Java 3D
package and adapt these instructions.

It is recommended that you have the lastest version of Netscape, which at
this time of writing is 6.2.1, if you plan to install the Java PlugIn for 
netscape. It works, but you may (or may not) experience Segmentation Faults
when leaving a page that contained a Java 3D applet. KDE [http://
www.konqueror.org/] Konqueror can also be used to view Java 3D applets.

If you have not installed the Java SDK yet, you should have downloaded it
already at least. Installing the JSDK is simple. You should follow the
instructions that comes with it or follow my example below, based on using
the Sun download.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                        # The Sun download is a type of binary shell archive (man shar). |
|                        # Make it executable and run it to unpack its contents           |
|                        chmod 744 j2sdk-1_3_1_02-linux-i386.bin                          |
|                        ./j2sdk-1_3_1_02-linux-i386.bin                                  |
|                        mv jdk1.3.1_02 /usr/local                                        |
|                        cd /usr/local                                                    |
|                        ln -s jdk1.3.1_02 jdk                                            |
|                                                                                         |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Next is to unpack Java 3D and finish setting up the environment for the Java
SDK.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        cd jdk                                                             |
|        tar -xvyf ~/java3d-1.2.1_01-fcs-linux-i386-sdk.tar.bz2             |
|        cd jre/lib/ext                                                     |
|        cp j3d* ..                                                         |
|        cp vecmath.jar ..                                                  |
|        cd /usr/local                                                      |
|        chown -R root:root jdk1.3.1_02                                     |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Edit /etc/profile or, as on many systems, you can add a new file like java.sh
to the directory /etc/profile.d/. To either file, add:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                        JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdk                           |
|                        PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin                          |
|                        MANPATH=$MANPATH:$JAVA_HOME/man                    |
|                        export JAVA_HOME PATH MANPATH                      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
If you used a separate file java.sh, remember to make it executable. Start a
new login terminal for these changes to take affect.

This completes the installation of the Java 2 SDK, which includes the JRE and
the Java 3D extension.

You can install the Java PlugIn for netscape:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        # go to where netscape is installed                                                  |
|        cd $MOZILLA_HOME                                                                     |
|        cd plugins                                                                           |
|        ln -s /usr/local/jdk/jre/plugin/i386/ns600/libjavaplugin_oji.so libjavaplugin_oji.so |
|        # This installs it globally for all users                                            |
|        # Each user can run ControlPanel to customize the Java Plugin preferences.           |
|        ControlPanel                                                                         |
|        # Then try it out:                                                                   |
|        netscape &                                                                           |
|                                                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
When netscape loads, go to Edit+Preferences->Advanced and Enable Java and
Enable Java Plugin, then exit Netscape.

Test Java 3D demos:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                cd $JAVA_HOME/demo/java3d/GearTest                         |
|                java GearBox &                                             |
|                # runs as normal java application                          |
|                netscape GearBox_plugin.html &                             |
|                # runs in netscape as an applet                            |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you experience trouble with Java, you can try deleting ~/.java and related
files in your home directory, then try again. These files left over from a
prior Java installation can cause problems.

If all works well, you should have a complete Java Developement and Runtime
Environment for both normal apps and high-performance 3D apps. See [http://
java.sun.com/] http://java.sun.com/ for further information about Java and
the Java 3D extension.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter 4. Final Comments

I believe that is about it! At this point you should have a fully functioning
OpenGL system for running and developing OpenGL apps.

You can try building the demos in /usr/src/Mesa-4.0.1/{demos,xdemos} by using
the Makefile.X11 as Makefile and running "make targets" or "make teapot" etc.
They should build and link with the hardware accelerated libGL and run very
fast! Qt has a OpenGL example in $QTDIR/examples/gear, that you should be
able to run as simply as "make;./gear".

Just about any standard GL/GLX/GLU/glut app should run fine, such as WolfGL,
GLQuake, glqwcl.glx (GLQuakeWorld), quake2, and of course ... quake3!!!

HAVE FUN!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License

A.1. GNU FDL Version, and Copyright Notice

Version 1.1, March 2000

   
    Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite
    330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.2. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.3. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics,
a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could
be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related
matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says
that the Document is released under this License.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the
Document is released under this License.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the general
public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for
automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup
has been designed to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers
is not Transparent. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a
publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for
human modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.4. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.5. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of
the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the
covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as
they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be
treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the general
network-using public has access to download anonymously at no charge using
public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter option, you must
take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies
in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you
distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of
that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them
a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.6. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified
Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the
role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:

 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
    that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should,
    if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
    may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
    that version gives permission.
   
 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
    together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
    of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
   
 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified
    Version, as the publisher.
   
 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
    the other copyright notices.
   
 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
    the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
    License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
   
 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
    required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
   
 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
 I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an
    item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
    Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section
    entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year,
    authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
    add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
    sentence.
   
 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
    locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
    These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
    location for a work that was published at least four years before the
    Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
    gives permission.
   
 K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
    section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone
    of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
    therein.
   
 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
    text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not
    considered part of the section titles.
   
 M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
    title with any Invariant Section.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply
endorsement of any Modified Version.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.7. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if
known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
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A.8. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the
collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim
copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
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A.9. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
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A.10. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
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A.11. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
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A.12. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
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A.13. How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:

   
    Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute
    and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
    Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A
    copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
    Documentation License".
   
If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead
of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write
"no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise
for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.





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