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  Linux off-line mailing method (offline mailaddr with 1
  Gunther Voet, - Belgium (CompuMed/TuCSRV)
  v1.3.3, 4 June 1998

  Use your linux mailing system offline, receive mail for multiple users
  with only one email address, and without being 24-24 online on the
  net.  If you are unable to pay a direct line to stay online for 24-24
  and still want your users to receive mail on your linux box; as well
  not pay for a multi-drop box at your isp, you can use this system
  using only one email address to divide to your users email addresses.
  It is as well 24-24 reachable since the server where your account
  resists will receive the mail.  ``This howto is Copyright (c)1997-98
  by Gunther Voet.''

  Table of Contents

  1. Notes by the author (preface).

     1.1 Legal stuff
     1.2 Copyrights
     1.3 Feedback
     1.4 Distribution
     1.5 Changes
     1.6 What am i using ?
     1.7 Thanks go out to ...

  2. Preliminaries

     2.1 Preface & Description
     2.2 Points of interest ...
     2.3 Things you should know
     2.4 there are 2 different ways ...

  3. Requirements

     3.1 A linux machine
     3.2 A extra account at your linux machine
     3.3 Fetchmail
     3.4 Procmail
     3.5 A mail account
        3.5.1 A DNS record (MX)
        3.5.2 A "forward" to your account-account :)

  4. I got it all, what now ?

     4.1 Creating a .fetchmailrc file
     4.2 Creating a .procmailrc file
        4.2.1 For "header (to:)" transportation
        4.2.2 For "subject: touser" transportation
     4.3 "nosuchuserfile"
     4.4 "crontab files".
        4.4.1 checkformail
        4.4.2 crontab
     4.5 "At the admins site".
        4.5.1 (old sendmail) add some lines to
        4.5.2 (new sendmail) Adding some lines to
        4.5.3 (new sendmail)editing the /etc/ (or /yourdir/ file
        4.5.4 creating a /etc/maildomains file
        4.5.5 let it work !

  5. Automation

     5.1 The "skeleton".
        5.1.1 the ".procmailrc-header" file
        5.1.2 the .procmailrc-footer file ..
     5.2 addmail script

  6. Help! (sigh)

     6.1 The automation script just doesn't work:
     6.2 What do you mean by "anonymous mailserver"?
     6.3 My cat died
     6.4 My dog died
     6.5 Linux?
     6.6 Can you help me with finding a mail account?
     6.7 Why is the "maybe later i'll make some addition ..." removed ?
     6.8 How do i get a "domain" ?
     6.9 Why are you so f*cking lame using this?
     6.10 Nosuchuserfile?
     6.11 Can my users write/send mail too?
     6.12 Does every user need a shell account at my server?
     6.13 skeletion?
     6.14 Addmail?
     6.15 Why are you so cruel?
     6.16 Didn't you get a complaint of excessive language ?
     6.17 Why is this howto different than most others?
     6.18 locally my domain works, but remote it seems not to receive
     6.19 My dog died

  7. The End


  1.  Notes by the author (preface).

  In this chapter i'm just going to put myself safe for any damages and
  flames - since even *I* could be wrong ... If you got any questions or
  suggestions to add to this faq, even if you find any faults - there is
  a feedback section in it ...

  Some "need to know" point is, all filenames & files/types are
  indicated with the line:

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     .procmailrc

  This means, this is a file, called ".procmailrc" containing text. The
  text variable can also be code. It shows you what name of file to use.
  Without a path means it can be variable/choosen by you (in the most
  cases this files resists in the homedirectory of the mail"user" like

  1.1.  Legal stuff

  Neither the author nor the distributors of this HOWTO are in any way
  responsible for physical, financial, moral damage incurred by
  following the suggestions and examples of this text. The information
  in this document contains the best of my knowledge and experience, but
  i could still make any mistakes as well in the information as in the
  examples. Any trademarks are property of their respective holders (i
  ain't using any commercial thingy's here - but well - IF i'm going to
  add some text, i don't need to change this disclaimer). If your cat
  dies 'coz this document was too heavy - i am not responsible as well

  1.2.  Copyrights

  This document and contents are Copyright (c)1997-98 by Gunther Voet.
  Unauthorized (re)production in any form is explicitly allowed and even
  strongly encouraged as long you don't change the contents of it
  without contacting the author (Gunther Voet). If you quote the
  document as whole or a part of it, there needs to be a Copyright
  "hint" or link to the derived work. "The HOWTO documents are
  copyrighted by their respective authors". The "HOWTO copyright" will
  discuss what can be done and what cannot be done with this document.
  If it is used in a commercial way, the author should been noticed for
  such distributions. Exceptions on this copyright may be granted under
  certain conditions with a written letter or e-mail to the author. For
  more info about the standard HOWTO disclaimer, please contact linux-

  *PLEASE* *IF* you are going to make a system based on this HOWTO, then
  PLEASE give me the copyright :) heh ... - i am not that cruel :)). I
  mean by a system "a package" - NOT the mailsystem itself - altough it
  is some appreciative thingy i would be included :)) i can always use
  one email address more for more flaming :)) (just kiddin').

  1.3.  Feedback

  Well, i expect from you and the users who read this HOWTO, they will
  make this HOWTO useful. If you got any suggestions, corrections,
  comments (except flame-mail :)) - please send them to me at or and i will make the
  corrections, comments or suggestions happen in the next revision. If
  you publish this document on a commercial way, a complimentary copy
  would be appreciated - you can mail me for my postal address. For
  flames - you could send them to me, but they will end at /dev/null ...
  so - don't even mind to waste bandwidth for it !.  Since i can exclude
  some users to receive mail from (explained in this document) (evil
  grin). My alias (name) is freaker btw :)). You can always try
  "". (note the changed address !!)

  1.4.  Distribution

  The latest revision of this document can been get from:


  (also checkout could be down at the time of current writing!

  1.5.  Changes

   v1.0.0       - Preliminary release, internal testing, we tried it before
                  we gave it out to you :) .. since - it GOT to be usefull
                  and needs to work? rite ? :)
   v1.1.0       - Fixed a lot of errors in the texts, put chapters in it,
                - fixed some small errors and typo's ...
   v1.2.0       - fixed grammatical errors.
                - added a "what-are-we-using" chapter.
                - added Sunsite address.
   v1.3.0       - Added "virtual mail support" for admins
                - New site and email addresses
                - Thanks go to ...
   v1.3.1       - Converted to SGML and fixed some minor details.
   v1.3.2       - Major errors corrected (filenames .fetchmailrc to
                  .procmailrc) etc... (thx to Tetsu Isaji)
                - Added support for the "new" sendmail, v8.8.0+
                - Fixed some minor errors
                - Upgraded my system YAY!
                - Japanese version will come out soon, location
                  will be mentioned when known ... (thx to Tetsu Isaji)
   v1.3.3       - Added CC support, changed email addr to

  1.6.  What am i using ?

  I'm using Linux 2.0.30, Pentium-166, ATI pci-mach64 card, Accelerated-
  X (Metro) and a connection to my isp (currently ibmnet) via ppp using
  a ZyXEL 28k8 modem, and occasionally a Bausch 28k8.

  Now i upgraded to Linux 2.0.33, installed a USRobotics modem, it still
  works as it should work :) (everybody should upgrade their linux
  versions as soon there comes out a patch :) believe me :) you could
  spare a lot of time & seeking for errors when doing this one :)

  1.7.  Thanks go out to ...

  �  Fred, (for allowing the pages & bot)

  �  Lifesaver, (for allowing the new pages, helping with
     this faq for mailing, since, it is all working overthere and here
     ... make some visit to his cyber-cafe ... heard they got great
     coffee :))

  �  The server admins at to continue this project.

  �  Now i'll need a new server since has been sold :(

  2.  Preliminaries

  Well, how does this system works ? what can you do with it ? what is
  it anyway ? and ... am i used to read it ? ... to all those questions
  - there is an answer ...

  2.1.  Preface & Description

  This HOWTO is dedicated to all the off-line linux users/servers ...
  You got a group, or organization, and you want all your members to
  have a contact (email) address, without paying for the 24/24 direct
  line or for the email accounts ... Or you got a internal network -
  with a masq'd server and you want to give all the users using it a
  email address, you could use this way to do it. I personally am using
  it to give my users & members of a demogroup all a e-mail account
  without being 24/24 online; since it is a non-commercial demogroup -
  and we don't got THAT much money to pay a direct line with instant
  email access - and different ip's. Everybody got a email address, even
  when they don't got internet access. The ones with internet access can
  receive their mail on their personal email address - viavia the system
  described below. Your users can still send mail as they used to do,
  since - your system will hold the mail queue from the users. The only
  thing what should be changed for the users - is that they add their
  "email address" wether (described below) it is the method with the
  subject line, or with the header "to" ...

  2.2.  Points of interest ...

  �  A organization with members, for all a email address, so they can
     be contacted when neccesary.

  �  A anonymous mailservice - they can't read your "mail setup file" -
     so they don't know where the mail is forwarded/rerouted to.

  �  A group who doesn't got enuf money (don't laugh), or is free, and
     don't WANT to spend money for it (eheh) - and still wants to
     provide the members a email address.

  �  A masq'd network - with a server connected to the internet, where
     the users using the masq'd network need to have a email account

  �  You want to put some documents "autoreplied" - like i do with my
     HOWTO, statistics, or documents ... like "info@yourmail.dom" or

  �  You only need one account at the "main" server to fetch from, for
     the +200 email accounts you can create at your server ...

  �  I used the "B" method with +- 300 email accounts - with a public
     server; 80486DX4-100 - and was processed in 1 minute.

  2.3.  Things you should know

  �  Not every (free) mailservice is happy when you are going to
     distribute mail to other users, or putting up an anonymous mail
     server, so, please try to contact your mailserver administrator
     before "just doing it".

  �  It is slower than a direct 24/24 connection, since your server will
     need to get online before it will process the mail.

  �  It needs a administrative force to administrate the "mailrouting"
     and to add the user ... you will need work with it ! - it is not
     that automatic.  (well - i made it "semi-automatic" with my server
     :) you could try it as well).

  �  Bandwidth and space is needed when you got many users - on the
     mailserver you are working on ... and sure - when they send files -
     you need to have enough space on it !.

  �  All mail will be transferred into "one step" - so - the last mail
     received on your server will be last sent to the recipient. "first
     in - first out".

  �  In the first method (to:) there is no prob with the usernames - but
     in the second "cheaper" method - users can't put in a subject line,
     since that one will be used to send the mail to the recipient. Many
     users forget to use the "subject" ... - or they will need to know
     it clearly.

  �  If you poll enough for your mail, (for example 4 times a day) - the
     mail will be sure be delivered to as from a recipient the least
     every 6hrs. So the processing will go a little smoother.

  �  you CAN use it as a "online" mail server as well :) since it will
     poll for it's mail for every XX minutes. but - when you are online
     - why using another server ? and not asking your own domain for
     your own server ?  (dough).

  2.4.  there are 2 different ways ...

  1. method 'A' - now called "(m(A))".

     The "mailsystem" will look to the header, and will see to the "to:"
     line.  This is the best way, since it are "real email addresses".
     You will need another account on some server *AND* you need a DNS
     (MX) entry (your own domain for instance). If the system
     administrator wants to help you with that, then there will be no
     problem !. The system administrator will need to reroute ALL mail
     sent to your (MX) maildomain -> to your account !.  This will take
     some time for him to do it :) so be really nice to him :)) Thanks
     to my system administrator (Fred) i got my maildomain and the user-
     services of my "free" demogroup. It can be a DNS entry costs
     something, what you will need to consider to take it or not.

  2. method 'B' - now called "(m(B))".

     The "mailsystem" looks to the subject line, and will forward to the
     user indicated into the subject line. If the user is not found, it
     will bounce a mail back. This will need a pop server with only one
     useraccount, and don't need your own DNS or you don't need to be
     nice to your system- administrator who arranges you the mail
     address :). You can use a public mailserver, as well your own
     mailserver or a private one. You can even sacrifice your own email
     address for it :). I used this approach as first what worked for me
     for over a year now ... I know this is sloppy, but, i ain't telling
     you need to use this way, so don't shoot ME - since i'm only
     offering you some solutions to your mail problems :) - you could
     use method A what isn't that sloppy !

  3.  Requirements

  Well, you need (of'course) a Linux machine, what can be connected to
  the internet - So! (i am smart - i am smart :)) - you probably got a
  modem, right?  a phoneline - or any way to connect yourself with the
  server you are running.  You will also need some software like
  Fetchmail, Procmail, an extra account, and your email account or DNS
  with email account.

  3.1.  A linux machine

  This can be ANYthing ... even a 8086 ... - but preferable - since
  there will be some load on it - minimally a 80386 :). as faster the
  machine - as faster the software will run (rite eh)? :).

  3.2.  A extra account at your linux machine

  You need to create a extra account on your Linux machine. I am using
  as example (in this HOWTO) "mailservice". This can be as well
  "mailserver" or "mailtousers" - as long it is some name what can be
  recognized by you!.

  ! It doesn't need to have ANY root privileges !

  This mailaccount will forward all mail to the users on your system, or
  to external users (not on your system :)). Just create it as an
  ordinary user.  You will need to test things under this account, and,
  the mail "administrator" can use this account to administrate the mail
  account without being root even .. so - pretty safe !.

  3.3.  Fetchmail

  I am using v1.9 patch level 9 ... i found it at, and,
  i am using only this mail-fetcher in my example - if you want to use
  another one, you are on your own ! since i am happy with it :). For
  extended features you should read the man of Fetchmail :). This can be
  installed as root - as well for the user itself ... - best is to
  install it as root :) since i know it will work for sure then :)))

  3.4.  Procmail

  I am using v3.10 - found it again at, and - i like
  this as the best mda (mail delivery agent) around ... It delivers
  nicely - and it is better than using it by the "original" system mda -
  since it will deliver user-per-user ! ... The same as above - it can
  be installed as root, or as user - and :) best is to install it as
  root - since i know it will work for sure then (again!) :)... how
  repetetive ...

  3.5.  A mail account

  You always need to have a mail account - where you can "poll" your
  mail from.  The server needs to be a POP server - where you can poll
  from when you want, and where users can send their mail 24/24 to. It
  can be a free-mail service, as well commercial - even your mailaccount
  is sufficient enough. In the "subject" method (m(B)) - you don't need
  something more - in method A - with the "to" fields - you NEED more -
  as written below !

  3.5.1.  A DNS record (MX)

  Needed to run your own "domain" - email domain ... it is needed since
  the administrator of the server can't use it's own domain for your
  users - since there are users who need to be contacted on his server
  as well - what could interfere with your users. And your mailheader
  must be filtered on that domain. So - an apart domain - pointing to
  HIS server. This can be an additional cost - or you can ask your
  system administrator to add a "non- authorative address" - pointing to
  his server ... - however - it needs to be another domain than he is
  using !

  3.5.2.  A "forward" to your account-account :)

  Well, the system administrator needs to forward *ALL* mail to your
  domain to YOUR account ... - it is easy for him when he knows how to
  do it :) ..  else he will need to read the sendmail manual :)) (or
  qmail - whatever).  You will poll for your mail at your account and
  voila ! filtering on YOUR own email domain.

  4.  I got it all, what now ?

  Now you created the extra account, you got the mail address - and/or
  the DNS entry & forwarding to your account ... As well installed
  Procmail & Fetchmail so we can rock the place ! :) .. here we go !

  1. You need to create a .procmailrc file, what will contain the
     "delivery" info to your users.

  2. You need to create a "nosuchuserfile" - so the writer knows his
     mail isn't delivered well.

  3. For best work :) you could use crontab to check for mail. This is a
     easy way to check your mail every XX minutes when on the internet.

  4.1.  Creating a .fetchmailrc file

  You will need to create a .fetchmailrc file, what will contain the
  information (username & password, as well the Mail Delivery Agent
  (mda) to proces the mail to). Here is some example file ...

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     .fetchmailrc

       proto pop3
       user myaccountthere
       pass deepestsecrets
       mda /usr/bin/procmail

  This file will be used to fetch your mail. Please test it by using the
  fetchmail program "fetchmail -vv" - and see your mail is being
  transferred right ... There will be some errors - since the procmail
  control file hasn't been created yet. You can wait by testing AFTER
  making the procmailrc file, but - i'll warn ya - IF there is something
  fault :) it CAN be this file :) It needs to be owned by the user
  account itself - in my case "mailservice" and needs to be "user
  readable" but NOT group/world readable - since it contains the "main
  password" :)). (chmod 600 .fetchmailrc will do).

  4.2.  Creating a .procmailrc file

  This control file will forward all mail to the users in it. There are
  2 ways as described before - the "to:" (header) way - and the
  "subject" (sloppy) way.  The file will contain the usernames to
  transport to. All the "#" are comments and are absolutely not needed
  when not wanted - it's only so you know what i am doing ... - you can
  as well best chmod it 600 - so the rest of the world or group doesn't
  need those private addresses eh :) ... It needs also to be owned by
  the user (like "mailservice") :)). The "nosuchuserfile" is a "bounce"
  to the writer - if the user isn't found (so mail not delivered) in the
  procmailrc file ... - so the writer knows the mail isn't delivered

  4.2.1.  For "header (to:)" transportation

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     .procmailrc

  # this line is for debugging purposes only ! it should be removed for
  # ethical purposes - since you can read all mail passed trough your mail-
  # server ... - all mail will be copied to the file "passtrough" before
  # going to the users ... herein you can look what went wrong ...
  :0 c

  # the mail with header "to:" will be forwarded directly
  # to me, the other mail will pass this option ...
  * ^To:.*
  ! freaker

  # the mail to will be forwarded to root ... as well postmaster!
  * ^To:.*
  ! root

  * ^To:.*
  ! postmaster

  # the mail to will be forwarded to barbara AND will be
  # forwarded to her private email address !

  :0 c
  * ^To:.*

  * ^To:.*
  ! barbara

  # the mail to and will be forwarded to johnny

  * (^To:.*|(^To:.*
  ! freaker

  # the mail to and all carbon copys will be forwarded to hans

  * (^To:.*|(^CC:.*
  ! hans

  # this lines will BOUNCE the mail to the sender - when it is not delivered to
  # one of above users ... it will send the file "nosuchuser" into the mail
  # body as reply ... be aware ! you need to make such file ! - mine contains
  # "well, the user you wanted to reach does not exist on this server, please
  # try again, it could be the user is not present anymore".
    |(/usr/bin/formail -r -k \
       -A"X-loop: mailservice@mydomain.dom "| \
         /usr/bin/gawk '{print }\
         /^/ && !HEADER \
           { system("/bin/cat nosuchuser"); \
           print"--" ;\
           HEADER=1 }' ) |\
           /usr/bin/sendmail -t

  4.2.2.  For "subject: touser" transportation

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     .procmailrc

  # this line is for debugging purposes only ! it should be removed for
  # ethical purposes - since you can read all mail passed trough your mail-
  # server ... - all mail will be copied to the file "passtrough" before
  # going to the users ... herein you can look what went wrong ...
  :0 c

  # the mail with header "to:" will be forwarded directly
  # to me, the other mail will pass this option ... When you got a "dedicated"
  # email address to receive your "mailservice thingy's" on - you don't need
  # to use this line :)
  * ^To:.*
  ! freaker

  # all mail with as subject "root" will be forwarded to root !
  * ^Subject:.root
  ! root

  # all mail to "subject: barbara" will be forwarded to barbara ...
  * ^Subject:.barbara
  ! barbara

  # all mail to "subject: paul" will be forwarded to his external email addr.
  * ^Subject:.paul
  ! paul@his.personal.emailaddress

  # all mail to "subject: john" will be forwarded to his account at your server
  # and a copy will go to his private email address ...
  :0 c
  * ^Subject:.john
  ! john@his.personal.emailaddress

  * ^Subject:.john
  ! john

  # All the mail from ibm, with their updates and information, will go to
  # freaker, as he is the one who will administrate the mailservice, and
  # as ibm doesn't want to get the bounce putten below !! ... this is
  # neccesary if your mail provider sends "newsletters" etc...
  * ^From:.*
  ! freaker

  # All messages from the daemon should been thrown away, or in my case, will
  # be saved to a file ... (use /dev/null to throw to endless pits of The Abyss)

  # this lines will BOUNCE the mail to the sender - when it is not delivered to
  # one of above users ... it will send the file "nosuchuser" into the mail
  # body as reply ... be aware ! you need to make such file ! - mine contains
  # some text like "user not found in subject line, please use "Subject: user"
  # to write a mail to the user, like example "subject: freaker" would send a
  # mail to freaker." The file can be long, but also small :) ... the
  # "mailservice@mydomain.dom" will prevent to loop between your server and
  # the other server - it needs to have the EXACT email address used !.
  # Else you could create an endless loop with a server what sends mail
  # to "your email address" with as subject something like "don't spend 500$
  # at your ..." etc...
    |(/usr/bin/formail -r -k \
       -A"X-loop: mailservice@mydomain.dom "| \
         /usr/bin/gawk '{print }\
         /^/ && !HEADER \
           { system("/bin/cat nosuchuser"); \
           print"--" ;\
           HEADER=1 }' ) |\
           /usr/bin/sendmail -t


  4.3.  "nosuchuserfile"

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     nosuchuser


       The user you wanted to contact is not present at this system.

       Please use the subject line as recipient - example "subject: freaker" would
       send mail to freaker on this system.

  4.4.  "crontab files".

  If you don't know how crontab works :) better read the manual :) ...
  You need to create a "checkmail" file - what will see if the link is
  up, as well the cronfile itself ... - i am using a ppp link :) so -
  this is an example how to look when the ppp link is up - and to poll
  every 10 minutes using cron. Looks sloppy - but isn't !.

  4.4.1.  checkformail

  the .checkformail file will be called (needs to be executable as well)
  - and will look if the ppp link is up. If it is up - then it will
  fetch for mail.  Crontab will use this file when you are using the
  below cronentry ...

       (*** < file > *** code ***)     .checkformail


          cd /home/mailservice

          if [ -f /var/run/ ]; then
          /usr/local/bin/fetchmail -s > /dev/null 2>&1

  4.4.2.  crontab

  This cronentry file needs to been loaded into crontab, and will call
  the .checkformail - every 10 minutes. It won't write any mail or give
  any info to the console - since i'm redirecting everything to null.

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     cronentry

       0,10,20,30,40,50 * * * *  /home/mailservice/.checkformail 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null

  4.5.  "At the admins site".

  Well, this should be done when using the "A method" ... at the admin's
  site, so the email goes all from a complete domain, to one username.
  It is pretty simple, and once you've done it - it works like hell.
  this is NOT neccesary if your system administrator (the uplink) got
  another method, and is NOT neccesary at YOUR side !!!!

  When using a newer version of sendmail, the "old sendmail" trick
  probably won't work, so please refer to the "new sendmail" topics to
  let your mailrouting work.

  4.5.1.  (old sendmail) add some lines to

  add the following lines to your /etc/ file, so the domains
  file will be read.  please be noted that the "ruleset 98" is added as
  underhere, since - once you got errors :) it's a hell to find 'm out !
  (and i can know it :) DuH).

       (*** < file > *** add ***)    /etc/

  # Database of handled domains

  Kmaildomains btree /etc/maildomains.db

  # Add these lines *IN* Ruleset 98 ! (under Ruleset 98).

  R$+ < @ $+  . >         $: $1 < @ $2 > .
  R$+ < @ $+ > $*         $: $(maildomains $1@$2 $: $1 < @ $2 > $3 $)
  R$+ < @ $+ > $*         $: $(maildomains $2 $: $1 < # $2 > $3 $)
  R$+ < @ $* > .          $: $1 < @ $2 . >

  4.5.2.  (new sendmail) Adding some lines to

  With the newer sendmail releases (tested with sendmail v8.8.7, 8.8.8).
  Ignore method A, and add the next lines ...

       (*** < file > *** add ***)    /etc/

       # Database of handled domains

       Kvirtuser btree /etc/maildomains.db


       Kvirtuser btree /yourhomedir/maildomains.db

  4.5.3.  (new sendmail)editing the /etc/ (or /yourdir/send� file

  If you are using another "location" for the file, then
  please replace the "/etc/" to
  "/yourhomedirectory/". The pro points of putting this file into your homedirectory is that you don't need root
  to change the domains to receive on. tough - this can give security
  risks if not used properly !

  This file can already exist, or needs to be created, if it already
  exists be sure you don't overwrite the older data - or i need to refer
  you to my fine disclaimer :)

  First create a /etc/ file, what will be used to "send" a
  domain to a specific user ... here is an example ... (as you already
  knew, the name "mailservice" can be anything you want - it can even be
  your loginname (like mine is freaker).

       (*** < file > *** text ***) /etc/

       mydomain.dom            mailservice

  4.5.4.  creating a /etc/maildomains file

  First create a /etc/maildomains file, what will be used to "send" a
  domain to a specific user ... here is an example ... (as you already
  knew, the name "mailservice" can be anything you want - it can even be
  your loginname (like mine is freaker). (you could have this
  /etc/maildomains in /yourhomedir/maildomains as mentioned before, just
  change the paths :)

  With the OLDER sendmail versions:

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     /etc/maildomains

       mydomain.dom            mailservice

  With the NEWER sendmail versions:

       (*** < file > *** text ***)     /etc/maildomains

       @mydomain.dom           mailservice

  4.5.5.  let it work !

  With the old & new sendmail versionsyou need to generate the btree
  (database) files, you'll need to do the following:

  cd /etc    (or /yourhomedir)
  makemap btree maildomains < maildomains

  after that, kill the sendmail daemon, and restart it. it should now
  WORK!  good luck :)

  5.  Automation

  Well, now, everything above works ... (if it doesn't work - don't even
  think about automation before it WILL work ... - now - we need some
  script so it isn't a pain in the ass for the "mailadministrator" or
  the root user to add users to the procmailrc file ... The below
  example will be for "more experienced users" - since some things NEED
  to be changed as well ... - it is an example with the "B method -
  Subject lines". It can be easily adapted to the "A method". Since the
  "B method" will be more used (cheaper) than the "A" method - i decided
  to use the "B method" ... Am i sounding repetitive or not ? .. well -
  i meant to write it in this way :)) to bug you :)))..

  5.1.  The "skeleton".

  Since the footer needs to be as footer (everything below won't be
  processed since we are bouncing there); there needs to be a header and
  a footer file.

  5.1.1.  the ".procmailrc-header" file

  This file will now be the "header & user" file .. since here will
  users been added and removed - it will be a important file ... - best
  take a backup from it each time you add a user ... - there COULD be
  something wrong sometime ..  A system can fail ...

       (*** < file > *** text ***) .procmailrc-header

  :0 c

  * ^To:.*
  ! freaker

  * ^Subject:.root
  ! root

  * ^Subject:.barbara
  ! barbara

  * ^Subject:.paul
  ! paul@his.personal.emailaddress

  :0 c
  * ^Subject:.john
  ! john@his.personal.emailaddress

  * ^Subject:.john
  ! john

  * ^From:.*
  ! freaker


  5.1.2.  the .procmailrc-footer file ..

  As mentioned above, this file needs to be as footer - since all data
  BELOW it won't be used to deliver - this footer contains the "bounce"
  code to bounce the users not found *ABOVE* this footer !. it is the
  ABSOLUTE end of the file !

       (*** < file > *** text ***) .procmailrc-footer


    |(/usr/bin/formail -r -k \
       -A"X-loop: mailservice@mydomain.dom "| \
         /usr/bin/gawk '{print }\
         /^/ && !HEADER \
           { system("/bin/cat nosuchuser"); \
           print"--" ;\
           HEADER=1 }' ) |\
           /usr/bin/sendmail -t


  5.2.  addmail script

  This script will add a user to the header file, attach the header &
  footer to eachother - so it will be a complete .procmailrc file. the
  "#" (comments) are not really needed - and are for your info :).

       (*** < file > *** code ***)     addmail   (* chmod 500 *)

  # Copyright (c)1997 by Gunther Voet. rev 1.0.1
  # please leave the Copyright in it when it is distributed with any
  # system using this thingy ...

  echo ""
  echo "Addmail v1.0.1 by Gunther Voet, Freaker / TuC'97-98 (21/04/97)"
  echo ""

  if [ $1 ]; then

          if [ $2 ]; then

  # make a backup file !

          cp /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-header /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-backup

  # APPEND (>>) the information to the header file ...

          echo ":0" >> /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-header
          echo "* ^Subject:.$1" >> /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-header
          echo "! $2" >> /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-header
          echo "" >> /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-header

  # copy the header file to .procmailrc - and append the footer file to it !

          cat /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-header > /home/mailserv/.procmailrc
          cat /home/mailserv/.procmailrc-footer >> /home/mailserv/.procmailrc

  # make sure it is owned by "mailserv" and the read/write priveleges are ONLY
  # for the user "mailserv" itself ...

          chown mailserv /home/mailserv/.procmailrc
          chgrp users /home/mailserv/.procmailrc
          chmod 600 /home/mailserv/.procmailrc
          echo "No DESTINATION mail address has been given ..."

          echo "usage:"
          echo ""
          echo "syntax:  addmail from_user to_user(domain)"
          echo ""
          echo "example: addmail freaker freaker@myemail.dom"
          echo ""

  Now, this script will append the information of the user, as well the
  email address to the header file, it will copy it to the .procmailrc
  file, and will add the footer to it, so you got a complete .procmailrc
  to process the mail.  If you want to delete a user- just edit the
  .procmailrc-header file, and at the next user added it will be deleted
  at the .procmailrc. To do a instant delete, just delete the user from
  both the files .procmailrc & .procmailrc- header.

  I guess you are smart enough to write a script that'll automatically
  add your users when using both methods - when doing a "adduser" at
  your box.

  6.  Help! (sigh)

  Well, you need help - isn't :) ... hmm .. i could be sarcastic and
  just say "you could better do it again, 'coz it looks a messy enuf" -
  or .. i could help ... - I wrote down some common problems - IF you
  got any problem NOT listed in this HOWTO (section) - then mail me -
  and i'll put it in this howto even with your name/email addr in it :).
  **BEFORE** mailing to me - please look if you didn't forgot anything -
  and IF you want some help from me - send me the MOST DETAILED
  information - included the scripts & things you needed.  i DON'T need
  any binaries - since i won't run them.

  6.1.  The automation script just doesn't work:

  �  is it executable ?

  �  is your (default shell) located at /bin/sh ?

  6.2.  What do you mean by "anonymous mailserver"?

  �  Well, you could make accounts like "anon0001@yourdom.dom" - and
     forward it to another email address ... nobody needs to read the
     .procmailrc file, so YOU ONLY know the address !.

  6.3.  My cat died

  �  Well, next time don't print this HOWTO out on 200 gram papers,
     since it are 10 pages it would be 2KG for the cat - it is JUST TOO
     HEAVY !

  6.4.  My dog died

  �  hmm - can't do anything about that one - why askin' me ? ...  Just
     bury it ....

  6.5.  Linux?

  �  A free-unix - posix compatible - made by Linus Torvalds ... Why are
     you reading this if you even don't know what Linux is ?

  6.6.  Can you help me with finding a mail account?

  �  No! - this is a howto for YOUR side, i don't care about the side of
     your isp, nor how to get your email address.

  6.7.  Why is the "maybe later i'll make some addition ..." removed ?

  �  Read point 5.5 very carefully :) and you'll see why .. it's 'coz i
     needed to add it on general request :)

  6.8.  How do i get a "domain" ?

  �  Ask your local ISP/provider - he will help you with it. It could
     take days/ even weeks when asking to the Internic - your provider
     can help.

  6.9.  Why are you so f*cking lame using this?

  �  coz i don't want to spend money - and - 'coz i feel like being
     f*cking lame USING it - i *AM* using it - so why bother?

  6.10.  Nosuchuserfile?

  �  You can put in it what you want - as long you put some "needed"
     info so the original writer knows what happened with his "never
     delivered" mail.

  6.11.  Can my users write/send mail too?

  �  This has nothing to do with the system i explained to you, read the
     sendmail manual ... - this is to RECEIVE mail - to be "always
     available at an email address".

  6.12.  Does every user need a shell account at my server?

  �  Nope .. - but - it will be really hard for users not having
     internet access :) ... You could have a masq'd network - and use a
     computer connected to it - so the users can get their mail that
     way, or you can generate a link between a bulletin board and his
     mail, you could even forward it to a fidonet gate :) ... reasons
     enough not to give a shell!.

  6.13.  skeletion?

  �  i know it is a typo - but - i like this word better.

  6.14.  Addmail?

  �  No questions - for automation - you better be sure about what you
     are going to do ... since - it COULD be a trojan ya know :))) (it
     isn't but what means you need to know what scripting is before
     asking questions) It IS easy enough to interprete - that's even why
     i put the comments with it. *IF* you are going to distribute this
     script - leave my Copyright in it please ! thanks :).

  6.15.  Why are you so cruel?

  �  I am not cruel :) i am nice :) i am the nicest guy of the world, of
     the universe ! NOW SCRAM! (i just want to be complete in my HOWTO,
     and not TOO much "drifting away" from my original point in the doc
     - so :) that's all).

  6.16.  Didn't you get a complaint of excessive language ?

  �  Not yet, but, could be i'm filtering everything containing
     'excessive' and language :) i don't know :))

  6.17.  Why is this howto different than most others?

  �  coz sometimes reading plain howto's CAN be boring ... i wanted to
     add something next to it ...

  6.18.  locally my domain works, but remote it seems not to receive

  �  Check out your "" file, since the domains NEED to be
     added in it !

  6.19.  My dog died

  �  the rulesets don't work, i can't receive any mail, or sendmail dies
     Refer to the new section "new sendmail" - and disregard the old
     sendmail tricks. The newer sendmail should be easier to use with
     virtual domains.

  7.  The End

  This sounds like the end ... If you find any unwanted bugs (or
  features :)), then leave some feedback ... any comments & suggestions
  -> mail them :).  if you are still bored after reading this, please go
  to:  hehehe.

  My thanks go out to:

  Hannes van de Vel: for supporting me (hum) Tetsu Isaji: the japanese
  offline-mailing & notifying me about errors :) Greg Hankins: for
  notifying me about some errors in the sgml version.  Linus torvalds:
  of'course ... without his help this howto wouldn't be here!

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