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  Oracle Database HOWTO
  Paul Haigh, paul@nailed.demon.co.uk
  v1.2, 4 August 1998

  A guide to installing and configuring the Oracle Database Server on a
  Linux system
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents



  1. Introduction

     1.1 Version History
     1.2 Copyright
     1.3 Disclaimer
     1.4 Aim of the HOWTO
     1.5 Requirements
     1.6 News From Oracle Corporation

  2. Installing the Oracle Software

     2.1 Server Preparation
        2.1.1 Creating an Oracle User
     2.2 Installing from CDROM
     2.3 Post Installation Tasks
        2.3.1 Tasks for Root
        2.3.2 Tasks for Oracle
        2.3.3 Things you can remove

  3. Creating a Database

     3.1 Create the Initialisation File
     3.2 Creating the Database Install Script
     3.3 Running the Database Installation Script
     3.4 Starting the Database
     3.5 Stopping the Database
     3.6 Create a Default User

  4. Configuring SQL*Net on the Server

     4.1 tnsnames.ora
     4.2 listener.ora
     4.3 sqlnet.ora
     4.4 Starting and Stopping the Listeners

  5. Client Configuration

     5.1 Windows Clients
     5.2 Unix Clients

  6. Automatic Startup and Shutdown

     6.1 dbstart & dbstop
     6.2 init.d & rc.d

  7. Other Bits

     7.1 Intelligent Agent

  8. Troubleshooting

     8.1 I cannot create a database when using Oracle 7.2.x.
     8.2 I'm getting segmentation faults in svrmgrl under version 7.3.4.x.

  9. Credits



  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction

  1.1.  Version History



  �  v0.1 - 21 Feb 1998 - Paul Haigh - Original Version.

  �  v0.2 - 01 Mar 1998 - Paul Haigh - Comments From Proofreaders Added.

  �  v1.0 - 10 Mar 1998 - Paul Haigh - First Release to LDP.

  �  v1.1 - 20 Jun 1998 - Paul Haigh - Added troubleshooting section &
     general tidyup.

  �  v1.2 - 04 Aug 1998 - Paul Haigh - Added Oracle Corp News & Removed
     Section on Future Enhancements.

  1.2.  Copyright

  The Oracle Database HOWTO copyright (c) 1998, Paul Haigh.

  Like all Linux HOWTO documents, this may be reproduced and distributed
  in whole or in part, in any medium, physical or electronic, so long as
  this copyright notice is retained on all copies.

  Commercial redistribution is allowed and encouraged; however the
  author would like to be notified of such distributions. You may
  translate this HOWTO into any language whatsoever provided that you
  leave this copyright statement and disclaimer intact, and that you
  append a notice stating who translated the document.

  1.3.  Disclaimer

  While I have tried to include the most correct and up to date
  information available to me, I cannot guarantee that usage of
  information in this document does not result in loss of data or
  equipment. I provide NO WARRANTY about the information in the HOWTO
  and I cannot be made liable for any consequences resulting from using
  the information in this HOWTO.

  1.4.  Aim of the HOWTO

  In this HOWTO I will attempt to cover installation and basic admin of
  an Oracle database running on a Linux machine.  In particular I will
  cover Oracle server installation, SQL*Net configuration and client
  configuration.


  This document is not an in depth tutorial on using or administering an
  Oracle database, if that is what you are looking for there are great
  books on those subjects published by O'Reilly and others.


  I am also not going to cover the development of Oracle programs under
  UNIX.  If this is absolutley necessary to you then I would recommend
  that you purchase the SCO development system (with OpenServer 5.x)
  from SCO, which I am told can be obtained for a very reasonable US
  $19, from www.sco.com.

  1.5.  Requirements

  I am assuming a number of items that you will need for following the
  HOWTO.

  �  Oracle Server CD for SCO Openserver (Version 7.3.3.0.0.)

        This must be a legal copy.  Remember that Oracle are a profit
        making company and charge for their products.  If you want a
        free SQL compliant database use PostgresSQL or similar.

        It is also possible to install oracle, using a 60 day evaluation
        licence, from a downloadable tar file from the Oracle web site.
        I have not personally tried this and it is completely
        unverified.



  �  A Linux Server


        You wouldn't be reading this without one...would you?



  �  Kernel 2.0.30+


        I cannot guarantee that these instructions will be accurate for
        any other Kernel.  (Not that I am guaranteeing it for 2.0.30
        either...).



  �  iBCS


        It is very important to have this installed and working with the
        latest possible version for your platform.  (I am using
        iBCS-2.0-10.i386.rpm from Redhat Linux).



  �  Lots of disc space


        600 Mb+ is a reasonable amount.  It is possible to install with
        less but you need to make some sacrifices, and I never like
        starting with those.  However, I will attempt to point out areas
        in which space can be freed up.



  �  32Mb+ Ram


        I know that this sounds like a lot, especially in Linux terms,
        but remember that Oracle is a complex piece of software.  You
        wouldn't have the same reservations on SCO!


        I am not saying that Oracle doesn't work with less, just that it
        is less than Oracle recommend and I wouldn't suggest it.



  �  Licenses from Oracle


        I know that I have already mentioned this but I want to be clear
        that this is important.  Using software from Oracle without a
        license is illegal.



  1.6.  News From Oracle Corporation

  Oracle have bowed into pressure from the Linux community.  Oracle
  Corporation have decided to officially support Oracle 8 on the Linux
  (i386) platform.  This should be released in December 1998, according
  to the Oracle website.


  Better still Oracle will also be porting Oracle Applications to the
  linux platform.  This should be available in the first half of 1999,
  according to the Oracle website.

  References:

  �  http://www.oracle.com/html/linux.html

  �  http://www.news.com/News/Item/0,4,24436,00.html

  �  http://www.zdnet.com/pcweek/news/0720/20morac.html


  2.  Installing the Oracle Software

  2.1.  Server Preparation

  2.1.1.  Creating an Oracle User

  Unsurprisingly we require a user to hold the Oracle database.  Since
  we have no desire to relink the Oracle kernel (more about that later)
  we have to accept the Oracle defaults for user name and group name.
  This includes the user ORACLE and the group DBA.


  1. Login as Root


  2. Create the oracle user and the group dba.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ groupadd dba
       $ useradd  oracle
       ______________________________________________________________________



  3. Ensure a home directory is created for the user oracle.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ mkdir /home/oracle
       $ mkdir /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0 (Version of Oracle)
       $ chown -R oracle.dba /home/oracle
       ______________________________________________________________________



  2.2.  Installing from CDROM

  Unfortunately the Oracle Installer on the SCO disc will not work.  A
  variety of problems can be experienced, from core dumps to hangs.  As
  a result we need to copy the files from the CDROM manually and
  uncompress them:
  (Ensure the CDROM is mounted on the system).

  1. Log on as Oracle

  2. Change directory to /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0.

  3. Copy all install files from CDROM


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ cp -a /mnt/cdrom/* .
       ______________________________________________________________________



  4. Un-compress all Oracle files on CDROM.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ find . -name *_ -exec ~/7.3.3.0.0/orainst/oiuncomp {} \;
       ______________________________________________________________________



  2.3.  Post Installation Tasks

  2.3.1.  Tasks for Root

  Add the following lines to /etc/profile or add to the .profile for
  each user who is going to use Oracle.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       # Oracle Specific
       ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0
       ORACLE_SID=orcl
       ORACLE_TERM=vt100
       export ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_SID ORACLE_TERM

       # Alter path for Oracle
       PATH="$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin"
       ______________________________________________________________________



  We also need to change the owner and permissions of the Oracle ulimit
  increase utility.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ chown root.root $ORACLE_HOME/bin/osh
       $ chmod u+s $ORACLE_HOME/bin/osh
       ______________________________________________________________________



  2.3.2.  Tasks for Oracle

  Change permissions for the Oracle files to ensure correct operation.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ chmod +x $ORACLE_HOME/bin/*
       $ chmod u+s $ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle
       ______________________________________________________________________



  Oracle tools require the messages to be in the
  $ORACLE_HOME/tool_name/mesg directory.  So, move the msb files from
  the msg_ship directories to the mesg directories.


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ mv $ORACLE_HOME/plsql/mesg/mesg_ship/* $ORACLE_HOME/plsql/mesg/.
       $ mv $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/mesg/mesg_ship/* $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/mesg/.
       $ mv $ORACLE_HOME/svrmgr/mesg/mesg_ship/* $ORACLE_HOME/svrmgr/mesg/.
       ______________________________________________________________________



  Create the following directories if they do not exist:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ mkdir $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/log
       $ mkdir $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit
       $ mkdir $ORACLE_HOME/network/log
       ______________________________________________________________________



  2.3.3.  Things you can remove

  The following directories can safely be removed:

  �  $ORACLE_HOME/guicommon2/

  �  $ORACLE_HOME/ctx/

  �  $ORACLE_HOME/md/

  �  $ORACLE_HOME/mlx/

  �  $ORACLE_HOME/precomp/

  �  $ORACLE_HOME/slax/

  3.  Creating a Database

  Now the Oracle server is installed we need to create a database to
  test the installation.

  If you are using Oracle 7.2.x or earlier, please read the
  troubleshooting section below.



  3.1.  Create the Initialisation File

  Copy the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init.ora to $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initorcl.ora:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
       $ cp init.ora initorcl.ora
       ______________________________________________________________________



  Modify it by adding the following lines:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       db_name = orcl
       COMPATIBLE=7.3.3.0.0
       ______________________________________________________________________



  3.2.  Creating the Database Install Script

  Create a script file called makedb.sql in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
  directory:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       connect internal
       startup nomount
       set echo on
       spool makedb.log
       create database orcl
               maxinstances 1
               maxlogfiles  8
               datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_syst_01.dbf' size 40M reuse
               logfile
                       '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_redo_01.dbf' size 1M reuse,
                       '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_redo_02.dbf' size 1M reuse,
                       '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_redo_03.dbf' size 1M reuse;
       @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catalog.sql
       create tablespace rollback
               datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_roll_01.dbf' size 8.5M reuse;
       create tablespace temp
               datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_temp_01.dbf' size 5M reuse
               temporary;
       create tablespace users
               datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/orcl_user_01.dbf' size 10M reuse;
       create rollback segment r1 tablespace rollback
               storage ( optimal 5M );
       alter rollback segment r1 online;
       connect system/manager
       @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catdbsyn.sql
       connect internal
       @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catproc.sql
       connect system/manager
       @$ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin/pupbld.sql
       spool off
       exit
       ______________________________________________________________________

  3.3.  Running the Database Installation Script

  Start svrmgrl and run the script:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
       $ svrmgrl

       Oracle Server Manager Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994, 1995. All rights reserved.

       Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
       PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       SVRMGR> connect internal
       Connected.
       SVRMGR> startup nomount
       ORACLE instance started.
       Total System Global Area       4313312 bytes
       Fixed Size                       41876 bytes
       Variable Size                  4140364 bytes
       Database Buffers                122880 bytes
       Redo Buffers                      8192 bytes
       SVRMGR> @makedb
       <loads of messages>
       SVRMGR> exit
       Server Manager complete.
       ______________________________________________________________________



  3.4.  Starting the Database

  Firstly, we need to bring up the database by hand (we will automate
  this later on).  To startup an Oracle database we need to issue the
  startup command when connected internally:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ svrmgrl

       Oracle Server Manager Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994, 1995. All rights reserved.

       Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
       PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       SVRMGR> connect internal
       Connected.
       SVRMGR> startup
       ORACLE instance started.
       Total System Global Area       4313316 bytes
       Fixed Size                       41876 bytes
       Variable Size                  4140368 bytes
       Database Buffers                122880 bytes
       Redo Buffers                      8192 bytes
       Database mounted.
       Database opened.
       SVRMGR> exit
       Server Manager complete.
       ______________________________________________________________________

  3.5.  Stopping the Database

  It is worth mentioning here that restarting a Linux server without
  shutting down the Oracle database first there is a high risk of
  corrupting the database.

  So, before we issue the Linux shutdown command it is wise to bring
  down the database:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ svrmgrl

       Oracle Server Manager Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994, 1995. All rights reserved.

       Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
       PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       SVRMGR> connect internal
       Connected.
       SVRMGR> shutdown
       Database closed.
       Database dismounted.
       ORACLE instance shut down.
       SVRMGR> exit
       Server Manager complete.
       ______________________________________________________________________



  3.6.  Create a Default User

  The database, as created, has a two special users which are
  automatically created.  These are:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       Username                Password

       SYSTEM                  MANAGER
       SYS                     change_on_install
       ______________________________________________________________________



  These users are typically used to hold the standard data dictionary
  information for the database.  It is a good idea to change the
  passwords from the defaults as soon as possible.

  This can be achieved by:



  ______________________________________________________________________
  sqlplus system/manager

  SQL*Plus: Release 3.3.3.0.0 - Production on Sat Feb 21 12:43:33 1998

  Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1979, 1996.  All rights reserved.


  Connected to:
  Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release

  SQL> alter user system identified by <newpassword>;

  User altered.

  SQL> alter user sys identified by <newpassword>;

  User altered.

  SQL> exit;
  Disconnected from Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
  PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production
  ______________________________________________________________________



  Since the user system/manager is similar to using root on a UNIX
  machine, we need to create a user with less ability to cause damage.
  (remember to bring up the database before attempting to create a user)

  Connect to SQL*Plus and create a user:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ sqlplus system/manager

       SQL*Plus: Release 3.3.3.0.0 - Production on Sat Feb 21 12:43:33 1998

       Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1979, 1996.  All rights reserved.


       Connected to:
       Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
       PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production

       SQL> create user <user> identified by <psw>
         2  default tablespace users
         3  temporary tablespace temp;

       User created.

       SQL> grant connect, resource to <user>

       Grant succeeded.

       SQL> exit
       Disconnected from Oracle7 Server Release 7.3.3.0.0 - Production Release
       PL/SQL Release 2.3.3.0.0 - Production
       ______________________________________________________________________



  Now that you have a new user on the system you can play with the new
  system.  To login to the Oracle database:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ sqlplus <user>/<password>
       ______________________________________________________________________



  If this completes with no error messages then you have a working
  Oracle database.  If you never want to connect to this database from
  anywhere but this server then the job is complete, enjoy!

  If, however, like most people you want to configure the networking
  software so that you can connect from other machines, keep on reading.

  4.  Configuring SQL*Net on the Server

  All of these files configure the Oracle networking software (SQL*Net,
  aka Net8 for Oracle8).  These files should all be created on the
  server in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.

  4.1.  tnsnames.ora

  The TNSNAMES.ORA file identifies services available from the machine.
  On our instance here we will describe all databases that the server
  has mounted.  For each database instance on your server add a section
  like below:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       orcl.world =
         (DESCRIPTION =
           (ADDRESS_LIST =
               (ADDRESS =
                 (COMMUNITY = tcp.world)
                 (PROTOCOL = TCP)
                 (Host = <INSERT HOST NAME OF SERVER HERE> )
                 (Port = 1521)
               )
               (ADDRESS =
                 (COMMUNITY = tcp.world)
                 (PROTOCOL = TCP)
                 (Host = <INSERT HOST NAME OF SERVER HERE> )
                 (Port = 1526)
               )
           )
           (CONNECT_DATA = (SID = ORCL)
           )
         )
       ______________________________________________________________________



  4.2.  listener.ora

  The listener.ora file contains the descriptions of the services that
  other machines are allowed to connect to and any configuration that is
  required for the server listener.

  It contains sections for the listener name, listener address,
  databases served by the listener and configuration parameters.

  Here is an example:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       # Name of listener and addresses to listen on
       LISTENER =
               ( ADDRESS_LIST =
                       (ADDRESS =
                               (PROTOCOL=tcp)
                               (HOST=<INSERT HOST>)
                               (PORT=1521)
                               (COMMUNITY=UK_SUP_TCPIP)
                       )
                       (ADDRESS =
                               (PROTOCOL=ipc)
                               (KEY=700)
                               (COMMUNITY=UK_SUP_TCPIP)
                       )
               )

       # List of services served by this listener
       SID_LIST_LISTENER=
               (SID_LIST=
                       (SID_DESC=
                               (SID_NAME=orcl)
                               (ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0)
                       )
               )

       # Start of configuration parameters.
       TRACE_LEVEL_LISTENER=OFF
       TRACE_FILE_LISTENER = "listener"
       LOG_FILE_LISTENER = "listener"
       CONNECT_TIMEOUT_LISTENER = 10
       STOP_LISTENER = YES
       DBA_GROUP = dba
       ______________________________________________________________________



  4.3.  sqlnet.ora

  The sqlnet.ora file contains configuration for the particular node of
  the network.  This is independent of the number of databases or the
  number of listeners.  The most important thing in this file is the
  Dead Connection Timeout configuration variable.

  Dead connection timeout checks every incoming process to a database
  instance and ensures that the client end of it is still responding.
  If the client (of whatever type) is not responding then the Oracle
  server shadow process is killed.

  This is very useful if you have many clients accessing a database,
  especially during a developmental phase when those clients are more
  likely to be failing to exit cleanly from the Oracle database.

  Below is a copy of my own sqlnet.ora file for you to puruse:



  ______________________________________________________________________
  TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT = OFF
  sqlnet.expire_time = 30         # The number of seconds between client checks.
  names.default_domain = world
  name.default_zone = world
  ______________________________________________________________________



  4.4.  Starting and Stopping the Listeners

  Now that the configuration of the listeners and SQL*Net is complete we
  can attempt to connect to the database using the networking software.
  (Before we were using direct links to the database, whereas here we
  are simulating a connection from a remote client machine).

  To start the listener using the above configuration:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ lsnrctl

       LSNRCTL for SCO System V/386: Version 2.3.3.0.0 - Production on 23-FEB-98 20:38:25

       Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994.  All rights reserved.

       Welcome to LSNRCTL, type "help" for information.

       LSNRCTL> start
       Starting /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0/bin/tnslsnr: please wait...

       TNSLSNR for SCO System V/386: Version 2.3.3.0.0 - Production
       System parameter file is /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0/network/admin/listener.ora
       Log messages written to /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0/network/log/listener.log
       Listening on: (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(DEV=6)(HOST=192.168.1.1)(PORT=1521))
       Listening on: (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(DEV=10)(KEY=700))

       Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=magic.com)(PORT=1521)(COMMUNITY=UK_SUP_TCPIP))
       STATUS of the LISTENER
       ------------------------
       Alias                     LISTENER
       Version                   TNSLSNR for SCO System V/386: Version 2.3.3.0.0 - Production
       Start Date                23-FEB-98 20:38:50
       Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
       Trace Level               off
       Security                  OFF
       SNMP                      ON
       Listener Parameter File   /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0/network/admin/listener.ora
       Listener Log File         /home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0/network/log/listener.log
       Services Summary...
         orcl          has 1 service handler(s)
       The command completed successfully
       LSNRCTL> exit
       ______________________________________________________________________



  To stop the listeners:



  ______________________________________________________________________
  $ lsnrctl

  LSNRCTL for SCO System V/386: Version 2.3.3.0.0 - Production on 23-FEB-98 20:43:20

  Copyright (c) Oracle Corporation 1994.  All rights reserved.

  Welcome to LSNRCTL, type "help" for information.

  LSNRCTL> stop
  Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=magic.com)(PORT=1521)(COMMUNITY=UK_SUP_TCPIP))
  The command completed successfully
  LSNRCTL> exit
  ______________________________________________________________________



  If you have a DNS setup which doesn't return the IP address for the
  hostname specified then starting and stopping the listener can take
  some time (2-3 mins. dependant on the DNS timeout variable).  If this
  is the case, don't worry, be patient.



  5.  Client Configuration

  5.1.  Windows Clients

  SQL*Net configuration on the PC using newer versions of the Oracle
  Client Software is very easy.  The best (and easiest) way of achiving
  a fully working client installation is to use the SQL*Net Easy
  Configuration tool supplied by Oracle.

  This toolhas a wizard type interface to take you through the
  installation of the tnsnames.ora and sqlnet.ora files.

  Select "Add Database Alias" and enter a name for the alias when
  prompted.  This alias is the name you will refer to the database
  instance as, and as such should be the same as the instance name (orcl
  in this case).

  Select TCP/IP as the protocol, and when prompted the hostname of the
  machine hosting the database and the instance name of the database.

  That's it.

  However, if you do not have the SQL*Net Easy Configuration Tool then
  don't worry.  You can simply create the tnsnames.ora and the
  sqlnet.ora files in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on the
  client exactly as they are on the server.  This will provide an alias
  the same as on the server (always a good idea anyway).

  5.2.  Unix Clients

  UNIX clients are not very different that windows clients.  If you have
  the Network Manager from Oracle then user that in the same way as
  above, if not then you can, again, just use the same configuration
  files as the server in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.

  6.  Automatic Startup and Shutdown

  6.1.  dbstart  & dbstop

  The automatic startup and shutdown of the Oracle database can be
  achieved (in 7.3.3.0.0) with the files dbstart and dbshut both
  provided by Oracle.  These files rely on the existance of the file
  /etc/oratab to work (although by altering the dbshut and dbstart files
  this can be moved).

  The format of the /etc/oratab file is as follows:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       SID:ORACLE_HOME:AUTO
       ______________________________________________________________________



  An example:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       orcl:/home/oracle/7.3.3.0.0:Y
       leaveup:/home/oracle/7.3.2.1.0:N
       ______________________________________________________________________



  6.2.  init.d  & rc.d

  To start and stop the database when the machine comes up and goes down
  by modifying the startup routines for the Linux machine.  This is
  quite easy, although I should point out here that this may change
  depending on which flavour of Linux (slackware, debian, redhat, etc).
  I will show examples which work for Redhat Linux 5.0.  To modify these
  for your own flavour of Linux, please see your Linux documentation
  sets.  (Although it should hold true for any Sys V type UNIX).

  Firstly, we need to create the script which will run dbshut and
  dbstart in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory.  Create the following file
  as /etc/rc.d/init.d/oracle:



  ______________________________________________________________________
  #!/bin/sh
  #
  # /etc/rc.d/init.d/oracle
  # Description: Starts and stops the Oracle database and listeners
  # See how we were called.
  case "$1" in
    start)
          echo -n "Starting Oracle Databases: "
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          date +"! %T %a %D : Starting Oracle Databases as part of system up." >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          su - oracle -c dbstart >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "Done."
          echo -n "Starting Oracle Listeners: "
          su - oracle -c "lsnrctl start" >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "Done."
          echo ""
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          date +"! %T %a %D : Finished." >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle
          ;;
    stop)
          echo -n "Shutting Down Oracle Listeners: "
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          date +"! %T %a %D : Shutting Down Oracle Databases as part of system down." >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          su - oracle -c "lsnrctl stop" >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "Done."
          rm -f /var/lock/subsys/oracle
          echo -n "Shutting Down Oracle Databases: "
          su - oracle -c dbshut >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "Done."
          echo ""
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          date +"! %T %a %D : Finished." >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          ;;
    restart)
          echo -n "Restarting Oracle Databases: "
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          date +"! %T %a %D : Restarting Oracle Databases as part of system up." >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          su - oracle -c dbstop >> /var/log/oracle
          su - oracle -c dbstart >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "Done."
          echo -n "Restarting Oracle Listeners: "
          su - oracle -c "lsnrctl stop" >> /var/log/oracle
          su - oracle -c "lsnrctl start" >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "Done."
          echo ""
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          date +"! %T %a %D : Finished." >> /var/log/oracle
          echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
          touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle
          ;;
    *)
          echo "Usage: oracle {start|stop|restart}"
          exit 1
  esac
  ______________________________________________________________________



  It is worth checking that this file actually correctly stops and
  starts the databases for your system.  Check the log file,
  /var/log/oracle for error messages.

  Once this script is working we need to create start and kill symbolic
  links in the appropriate runlevel directories /etc/rc.d/rcX.d.

  The following commands will ensure that the databases will come up in
  runlevels 2,3 and 4:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ ln -s ../init.d/oracle /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S99oracle
       $ ln -s ../init.d/oracle /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99oracle
       $ ln -s ../init.d/oracle /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/S99oracle
       ______________________________________________________________________



  To stop the databases on reboot or restart we need the following
  links:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ ln -s ../init.d/oracle /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K01oracle          # Halting
       $ ln -s ../init.d/oracle /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K01oracle          # Rebooting
       ______________________________________________________________________



  7.  Other Bits

  7.1.  Intelligent Agent

  If you have a need for the Oracle Intelligent Agent, I found that you
  can run it without any configuration changes.  To start the IA try:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ lsnrctl dbsnmp_start
       ______________________________________________________________________



  To stop the IA try:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       $ lsnrctl dbsnmp_stop
       ______________________________________________________________________



  There do not appear to be any messages indicating a sucessful or
  otherwise start or stop of the intelligent agent.  However, the IA
  responded to Enterprise manager on the client side so I can only
  assume that it is working.



  8.  Troubleshooting

  See below for various troubleshooting hints.

  8.1.  I cannot create a database when using Oracle 7.2.x.

  The files shipped by Oracle in the 7.2.x product are incorrect in
  assuming that you want to setup a parallel server configuration.  The
  shipped init.ora file has the following line in it:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       # define parallel server (multi-instance) parameters
       ifile = ora_system:initps.ora
       ______________________________________________________________________



  To fix the problem simply comment it out:


       ______________________________________________________________________
       # define parallel server (multi-instance) parameters
       #ifile = ora_system:initps.ora
       ______________________________________________________________________



  8.2.  I'm getting segmentation faults in svrmgrl  under version
  7.3.4.x.

  I've had this problem reported to me by a number of people.  Gerald
  Weber gerald_weber@master.co.at solved it:



  ______________________________________________________________________
  Hi Paul,

  first of all thanks for your help,but none of the possible problems you are
  thinking about were responsible for my problem.
  The problem is the iBCS-emulator itself.
  It seems that Oracle performs an sysconf-calls which isn't supported in the
  current version of iBCS.
  Look at the trace :

  <7>[22]615 sysconf(34)
  <7>iBCS2 unsupported sysconf call 34
  <7>[22]615 sysconf error return linux=-22 -> ibcs=22 <Invalid argument>
  <7>[24]615 sysconf(34)
  <7>iBCS2 unsupported sysconf call 34
  <7>[24]615 sysconf error return linux=-22 -> ibcs=22 <Invalid argument>

  Solution:  patching the iBCS-source.apply the following diff-pach :


  --- sysconf.c   Sun Apr 19 19:19:15 1998
  +++ sysconf.c.ori       Sun Apr 19 19:28:45 1998
  @@ -60,7 +60,6 @@
   #define _SC_JOB_CONTROL        5
   #define _SC_SAVED_IDS  6
   #define _SC_VERSION    7
  -#define _SC_HACK_FOR_ORACLE 34

   #define _SC_PAGESIZE   11

  @@ -97,11 +96,6 @@
                  case _SC_SAVED_IDS: {
                          return (1);
                  }
  -
  -               case _SC_HACK_FOR_ORACLE: {
  -                 return (1);
  -               }
  -

                  case _SC_PAGESIZE: {
                    return PAGE_SIZE;
  ______________________________________________________________________



  9.  Credits

  This document was based on a document written by Bob Withers,
  bwit@pobox.com.  Additional information taken from documents written
  by Georg Rehfeld, rehfeld@wmd.de and David Mansfield,
  david@claremont.com.

  Additional proof reading done by Bob Withers, Mark Watling,
  mwatling@mjw-ltd.demon.co.uk, Peter Sodhi, petersodhi@unn.unisys.com
  and Greg Hankins, greg.hankins@cc.gatech.edu.

  My thanks go to the tremendous support from all the people involved in
  this document and the research that has gone into it.  Particular
  thanks to Bob Withers and Mark Watling for the additional comments and
  help they have provided.







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