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Oracle 9i under Fedora Core 3 - Installation HOWTO

Gaurav Prasad


<gauravpd at gmail dot com>

2005-06-27
Revision History                                                             
Revision v1.0                  2005-06-22          Revised by: MG            
For inclusion in TLDP: Completed XML article structure with articleinfo,     
section IDs for cross-referencing; technical, language, grammar and spelling 
review.                                                                      
Revision v1.0-pre1             2005-04-01          Revised by: GP            
Added miscellaneous errors section.                                          
Revision v0.1                  2005-03-25                                    
First publication.                                                           


This tutorial describes how to install Oracle 9i on Fedora Core 3 or greater.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. 1. Introduction
    1.1. What you need to know
    1.2. Acknowledgments
    1.3. Availability and Feedback
    1.4. Licensing Information and Liability
   
   
2. Get Oracle 9i
    2.1. CD Installation
    2.2. Download
    2.3. Install
   
   
3. Prepare for Configuration
    3.1. Create Users and Groups
    3.2. Create Directories
   
   
4. Set Environment Variables
5. Set Kernel Parameters
    5.1. Edit /etc/sysctl.conf
    5.2. Edit /etc/security/limits.conf
   
   
6. Install GCC 2.9 Compat libraries
    6.1. Install GCC 2.96 Compat packages
    6.2. Create symbolic links
   
   
7. Run Installer
    7.1. Apply the libwait.c patch
    7.2. Configure the Display
    7.3. Start the Installation
    7.4. Fix nodeinfo
   
   
8. Create a Startup Script
9. Miscellaneous Errors

1. 1. Introduction

1.1. What you need to know

This tutorial was written due to my frustration on installing Oracle 9i on
FC3. Basically 9i installation on RAS 1,2,3 RH 9, FC1, FC2 is documented
fairly well but it is hard to find anything worthwhile on FC3; some people
even suggested that installing Oracle 9i on FC3 is not possible. This HOWTO
attempts to condense all my experience and findings with any such info
peculiar to FC3, which was before scattered all over the web, into one
concise but useful document.

I hope you will find this short tutorial useful.

If you need to install Oracle 9i on FC3, you should be aware of the following
facts:

 1. Fedora is not *Officially Supported* by Oracle Corp.
   
 2. Oracle 9i installation is difficult but possible on FC3.
   
 3. Oracle 9i CANNOT be linked with the libraries used by gcc 3.4. On FC3 you
    need to use the FC2 GCC compat libraries.
   
 4. The Oracle 10 G installation method does NOT WORKS with 9i.
   
 5. This HOWTO deals with RedHat products >= FC3 or higher or gcc version
    greater than 2.9. If you are installing any other RedHat product you
    might want to have a look at other excellent tutorials, for instance
    [http://www.puschitz.com/OracleOnLinux.shtml] http://www.puschitz.com/
    OracleOnLinux.shtml and [http://oracle-base.com/] http://oracle-base.com
    /.
   

Also keep in mind:

 1. This HOWTO aims only to assist you. This is not an OFFICIAL Oracle
    document.
   
 2. I am not a DBA. Please do not contact me for matters other than the
    content of this document. I will not help you to set up your database. If
    you need help with that, check the Oracle forums.
   
 3. The next step for me is probably to write some Bash or Perl scripts to
    fully automate this tedious and boring, frustrating, manual process but
    that depends on spare time I get. Your ideas are welcome.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.2. Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Jean Fran�ois for helping me out with the most tricky
parts.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Availability and Feedback

The latest version can be found at [http://www.pagux.com/
oracle9ionfedora3.html] http://www.pagux.com/oracle9ionfedora3.html.

I rely on you, the reader, to make this HOWTO useful. If you have any
suggestions, corrections or comments, please send them to me and I will try
to incorporate them in the next revision.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.4. Licensing Information and Liability

Copyright 2005 Gaurav Prasad

This HOWTO is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any
later version. A copy of the license is available at [http://www.gnu.org/
copyleft/fdl.html] http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.

This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without
any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness
for a particular purpose. No liability for the contents of this document can
be accepted. Use the concepts, examples and information at your own risk.
There may be errors and inaccuracies, that could be damaging to your system.
Proceed with caution, and although accidents are highly unlikely, the author
(s) do not take any responsibility.

Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

 All copyrights are held by their by their respective owners, unless
specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Naming
of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Get Oracle 9i

2.1. CD Installation

If you got Oracle 9i on a CD then mount it:

mount -r -o loop=/dev/loop0 ora9id1.iso Disk1/
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Download

Otherwise download it from [http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/
products/oracle9i/htdocs/linuxsoft.html] http://www.oracle.com/technology/
software/products/oracle9i/htdocs/linuxsoft.html.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. Install

Extract all three files:

gunzip ship_9204_linux_disk1.cpio.gz

cpio -idmv -I ship_9204_linux_disk1.cpio

Don't forget the -I option or you will get errors during the extraction.

This command will expand the cpio archive to the Disk1 directory. Repeat the
process for the other two archives.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Prepare for Configuration

3.1. Create Users and Groups

Execute the following commands as root:
# groupadd oinstall                                                          
# groupadd dba                                                               
# groupadd oper                                                              
# groupadd apache                                                            
# useradd -g oinstall -G dba oracle                                          
# passwd oracle                                                              

Set the password for user oracle.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Create Directories

The final destination of the software will be here:
# mkdir /u01 /u02                                                            
# chown oracle.dba /u01 /u02                                                 
# chmod 755 /u01 /u02                                                        
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Set Environment Variables

Log in as the oracle user:

su - oracle

Edit .bash_profile in oracle's home directory and add the following, for
instance using vim:
########## Oracle Variables ##########                                       
echo " Welcome to oracle";                                                   
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle                                                  
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle; export ORACLE_OWNER                                     
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM                                        
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0                                
ORACLE_SID=ORTD                                                              
LD_PRELOAD=$HOME/libcwait.so                                                 
export DISPLAY=172.28.66.39:0.0                                              
PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin                                                  
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$ORACLE_HOME/network/lib   
                                                                             
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib         
export CLASSPATH                                                             
                                                                             
LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=2.4.1; export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL                              
THREADS_FLAG=native; export THREADS_FLAG                                     
TMP=/tmp; export TMP                                                         
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR                                                   
                                                                             
export PATH ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_SID LD_LIBRARY_PATH LD_PRELOAD    
########## End of Oracle variables ##########                                
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Set Kernel Parameters

5.1. Edit /etc/sysctl.conf

Add the following lines to the /etc/sysctl.conf file:
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648                                                   
kernel.shmmni = 128                                                          
kernel.shmall = 2097152                                                      
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128                                               
fs.file-max = 65536                                                          
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000                                    
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. Edit /etc/security/limits.conf

Additionally the following lines can be added to the /etc/security/
limits.conf file:
oracle soft nofile 65536                                                     
oracle hard nofile 65536                                                     
oracle soft nproc 16384                                                      
oracle hard nproc 16384                                                      

Adding lines into these files requires a reboot before the new settings take
effect.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Install GCC 2.9 Compat libraries

6.1. Install GCC 2.96 Compat packages

From Fedora Core TWO:

��*�compat-libstdc++-7.3-2.96.126.i386.rpm
   
��*�compat-libstdc++-devel-7.3-2.96.126.i386.rpm
   
��*�compat-gcc-7.3-2.96.126.i386.rpm
   
��*�compat-gcc-c++-7.3-2.96.126.i386.rpm
   

Caution Don't overwrite existing packages                                    
�       Make sure that you keep your existing GCC installation, or a large   
        part of your software will not work or can not be compiled any more. 
        In case these packages are already installed on your system with     
        newer version numbers, use rpm -i --force to install the older ones  
        next to the newer ones.                                              

From the Fedora Core THREE subtree, get the compat-db package.

If you don't install GCC compat libraries as above you get a zillion linking
errors.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Create symbolic links

Put gcc296 and g++296 first in your $PATH variable by creating the following
symbolic links:
# mv /usr/bin/gcc /usr/bin/gcc323                                            
# mv /usr/bin/g++ /usr/bin/g++323                                            
# ln -s /usr/bin/gcc296 /usr/bin/gcc                                         
# ln -s /usr/bin/g++296 /usr/bin/g++                                         

Note that should you already have upgraded your system, GCC versions might be
different.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Run Installer

7.1. Apply the libwait.c patch

Before running the installer, do the following in order to overcome some
weird errors:

��*�In /home/oracle,create a file name libwait.c and as described below and
    compile it :
    Ceate a file called libcwait.c in the                                              
    oracle                                                                             
    user's home directory to avoid getting                                             
    an error when running the Oracle installer. The libcwait.c file should contain the 
    following text:                                                                    
    /*                                                                                 
    gcc -O2 -shared -o $HOME/libcwait.so -fpic $HOME/libcwait.c                        
    */                                                                                 
    #include                                                                           
    #include                                                                           
    #include                                                                           
    Deploying Oracle 9i on Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3                               
    Page 11                                                                            
    #include                                                                           
    pid_t                                                                              
    __libc_wait (int *status)                                                          
    {                                                                                  
    int res;                                                                           
    asm volatile ("pushl %%ebx\n\t"                                                    
    "movl %2, %%ebx\n\t"                                                               
    "movl %1, %%eax\n\t"                                                               
    "int $0x80\n\t"                                                                    
    "popl %%ebx"                                                                       
    : "=a" (res)                                                                       
    : "i" (__NR_wait4), "0" (WAIT_ANY), "c" (status), "d" (0), "S" (0));               
    return res;                                                                        
    }                                                                                  
    Next, compile this file in the                                                     
    oracle                                                                             
    user's home directory by executing the                                             
    following command:                                                                 
    gcc -02 -shared -o $HOME/libcwait.so -fpic $HOME/libwait.c                         
   
    gcc -shared -o libcwait.so libcwait.c -fpic -O
   
��*�Then add this library to the environment of the database user:
   
    export LD_PRELOAD=/home/oracle/libcwait.so
   
    Earlier, we put a similar line in .bash_profile.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.2. Configure the Display

Execute the following commands as oracle User :
oracle@9iserver ~> xhost +localhost                                          
oracle@9iserver ~> export DISPLAY=localhost:0.0                              

You can now connect to your desktop or optionally run the installation
remotely, for instance using VNC.for instance running the installer from your
Windows desktop
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Start the Installation

Start the graphical installation application:

/path/to/oracle/Disk1/runInstaller

Now carry with Graphical setup (if you are not sure choose Standard
database). From here the rest of the installation process is obvious.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4. Fix nodeinfo

Now installation should proceed without any linking errors but you will get
one error in the end:
Parameter "nodeinfo" = NO_VALUE                                              
Agent Service Failed                                                         

In order to fix this, run the following for starting the wizard after setup
has finished:

netca &

Now change into $ORACLE_HOME and run ./lsnrctl start.

Check that the process is running:

ps afx | grep LISTEN
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Create a Startup Script

In order for the Oracle server to start automatically at system boot time,
create the file /etc/init.d/oracle like this:
#!/bin/bash                                                                  
#                                                                            
# Run-level Startup script for the Oracle Instance and Listener              
#                                                                            
# chkconfig: 345 91 19                                                       
# description: Startup/Shutdown Oracle listener and instance                 
                                                                             
ORA_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0"                                 
ORA_OWNR="oracle"                                                            
                                                                             
# if the executables do not exist -- display error                           
                                                                             
if [ ! -f $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart -o ! -d $ORA_HOME ]                          
then                                                                         
        echo "Oracle startup: cannot start"                                  
        exit 1                                                               
fi                                                                           
                                                                             
# depending on parameter -- startup, shutdown, restart                       
# of the instance and listener or usage display                              
                                                                             
case "$1" in                                                                 
    start)                                                                   
        # Oracle listener and instance startup                               
        echo -n "Starting Oracle: "                                          
        su - $ORA_OWNR -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/lsnrctl start"                      
        su - $ORA_OWNR -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart                              
        touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle                                        
        echo "OK"                                                            
        ;;                                                                   
    stop)                                                                    
        # Oracle listener and instance shutdown                              
        echo -n "Shutdown Oracle: "                                          
        su - $ORA_OWNR -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop"                       
        su - $ORA_OWNR -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut                               
        rm -f /var/lock/subsys/oracle                                        
        echo "OK"                                                            
        ;;                                                                   
    reload|restart)                                                          
        $0 stop                                                              
        $0 start                                                             
        ;;                                                                   
    *)                                                                       
        echo "Usage: $0 start|stop|restart|reload"                           
        exit 1                                                               
esac                                                                         
exit 0                                                                       

Now run chkconfig oracle for updating the run level information.

Try service oracle start|stop|restart to check that everything works as
expected now.

If you reached this step without errors: congratulations. Else, check Section
9 for troubleshooting suggestions.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Miscellaneous Errors

ERROR:
ORA-01034: ORACLE not available                                              
ORA-27101: shared memory realm does not exist                                
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory                                    

This error happens when you reboot and try to login. You will get lots of
errors when the database instance is not mounted/started automatically.

Solution:

 1. Check /etc/oratab and make sure that *:/opt/oracle/OraHome1 and ordb:/opt
    /oracle/OraHome1 are set to "Y" (YES).
   
 2. Try to initialize the database: $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbstart.
   

ERROR:
No start entry for SID * at /opt/oracle/OraHome1 in /etc/oratab              

This might be caused by a bug in the dbstart script which searches for the
sid file in the wrong place.

Solution:

 1. cp $ORACLE_BASE/admin/$ORACLE_SID/pfile/init_*.ora \
   
    $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora
   
 2. As user oracle:
    $ sqlplus                                                                
    SQL> create pfile from spfile;                                           
    SQL> exit                                                                
   
 3. Run the dbstart script: $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbstart.
   





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