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  Oracle 9i under RedHat Linux 8.x and 9.x - Simple Installa�
  tion HOWTO
  Evgueni Tzvetanov
  v1.1, 23 June 2003

  This document describes an example of an Oracle 9i Standard Edition
  database installation under RedHat Linux 8.x and 9.x.
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents



  1. Introduction

     1.1 Overview
     1.2 Copyright
     1.3 Disclaimer
     1.4 Credits

  2. Getting started

     2.1 Downloading Oracle 9i database
     2.2 Creating the CDs
        2.2.1 Creating the CD images
        2.2.2 Burning the CDs

  3. Pre-installation

     3.1 System Requirements
        3.1.1 Hardware requirements
        3.1.2 Software requirements
        3.1.3 De-facto installation environment
     3.2 Environment variables and profiles
     3.3 JRE
     3.4 Setup tasks to perform as root user
        3.4.1 Kernel Tune-up
           3.4.1.1 Read and set the semaphore parameters
           3.4.1.2 Read and set the shared memory parameters
           3.4.1.3 File handles
           3.4.1.4 Sockets
           3.4.1.5 Process Limit
        3.4.2 Groups and accounts
        3.4.3 Mount points and permissions
        3.4.4 Permissions for file creation
     3.5 Setup tasks to perform as

  4. Installation

     4.1 Mounting the CDs (before or during the installation)
     4.2 Running the installer
     4.3 Installation screens and steps
        4.3.1 Welcome Screen
        4.3.2 UNIX Group Name Screen
        4.3.3 File Locations Screen
        4.3.4 Available Products Screen
        4.3.5 Installation Types Screen
        4.3.6 Database Configuration Screen
        4.3.7 Database Identification Screen
        4.3.8 Database File Location Screen
        4.3.9 Database Character Set Screen
        4.3.10 Summary Screen
        4.3.11 Install Screen
        4.3.12 Configuration Tools Screen
        4.3.13 Troubleshooting
           4.3.13.1 Net Configuration Assistant
           4.3.13.2 Database Configuration Assistant
           4.3.13.3 Troubleshooting updates

  5. Post-installation

     5.1 Editing the oratab file
     5.2 Script for automatic startup on boot
     5.3 Testing your installation with SQL*Plus

  6. Clients

  7. Final Words

  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction



  I assume that the reader is familiar with Linux file systems, commands
  and tools, utilities, shells and shell scripts.

  1.1.  Overview

  This document intends to show a simplified installation sequence for
  Oracle 9i database on RedHat Linux 8.x and 9.x. It is meant only as an
  example and if one intends to follow it, he/she should have in mind
  their own version of Linux, Oracle distribution and specific
  parameters of their own PC system.

  This document also limits the installation information to Linux only,
  and is not intended to be used for other UNIX brands. To install
  Oracle 9i in other operating environments, use the Oracle Installation
  Guide.

  I am not a DBA, nor I intend to show high skills in Oracle
  Administration, so please, do not ask me DBA questions. I will leave
  this task to the experienced DBAs :)

  1.2.  Copyright

  This document is Copyright 2003 by Evgueni Tzvetanov (Speedy).
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
  any later version published by the Free Software Foundation with no
  Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

  For the full text of the license, please visit the GNU Free
  Documentation License <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

  1.3.  Disclaimer

  Use the information in this document at your own risk. I disavow any
  potential liability for the contents of this document. Use of the
  concepts, examples, and/or other content of this document is entirely
  at your own risk.

  All copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically noted
  otherwise.  Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as
  affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

  Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as
  endorsements.

  You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before
  major installation and backups at regular intervals.

  1.4.  Credits

  This document was created, using knowledge, gained from  different
  sources -- books and web sites.


  �  Oracle 9i Installation Guide

  �  Oracle 9i Database Administrator's Guide

  �  DBA's guide to databases on Linux

  �  Oracle 8i: A beginner's guide

  �  Oracle web site (http://www.oracle.com)

  I want to express my sincere thanks to their authors!

  I also want to thank the people who gave me hints and led this update
  to wider range of solutions.


  �  Steve Schladel, a colleague and DBA in UMDNJ, who gave me a hint
     about a variable which solved the blocking of the installation
     process under RedHat 9.x.

  �  Rene Bauer, who sent a detailed explanation on the problems
     encountered with JRE version differences, related to gcc 2.9.x vs.
     gcc 3.2 distributions, and Legato Single Server Version
     instalation.


  Some of the experiences listed in the examples were gained with a lot
  of tests and experiments. Please feel free to experiment; that's the
  main key to finding a desired solution.  Even you crush a system or
  two, it helps you in your creativity and you learn from your mistakes.

  Feel free to send any comments or suggestions to evgueni@email.com

  2.  Getting started

  2.1.  Downloading Oracle 9i database

  Obtaining a copy of the Oracle 9i database is easy. Just go to the
  Oracle web site <http://www.oracle.com>, click on Download and follow
  the path based on the distribution. There are few pages you must read
  before you get to the download links. These pages contain copyright
  and agreement information, which I suggest you read carefully. All the
  other information is just statistics.  If you are not a member, you
  have to register on the Oracle web site to be granted access to any
  distribution, which can be downloaded for free.

  The server distributions are in 3 files, named something like:

  �  lnx_920_disk1.cpio.gz

  �  lnx_920_disk2.cpio.gz

  �  lnx_920_disk3.cpio.gz

  Other versions might have different names, but the installation could
  be considered similar.

  According to Oracle's installation instructions there are 2 sources,
  that can be used - CDs and Hard Disk Installation. I used the first
  one. Downloading the distribution files and creating the CDs (see next
  item) is a time consuming operation, so arm yourself with patience.
  This will also require a lot of hard disk space. The 3 distribution
  files are around 1.5 GB. You will need as much as 3 times this space
  if you intend to keep the archives, the directories and CD images on
  your hard disk until you are sure that the CDs are created correctly.

  Assuming that you are in the directory where the distributions are
  downloaded, execute the following with all 3 distribution files from a
  shell:



  gunzip lnx_920_disk1.cpio.gz
  cpio -idmv < lnx_920_disk1.cpio


  These commands will create 3 directories, called Disk1, Disk2 and
  Disk3.

  2.2.  Creating the CDs

  Writing information to CD in Linux is covered completely in CD-
  Writing-HOWTO, so the following will be only specific steps for the
  Oracle distributions.

  2.2.1.  Creating the CD images

  The first step is to create the CD images for the 3 CDs of the Oracle
  distribution. Just execute the following sequence for all 3
  directories, changing the filenames and directory names for each
  command:


       mkisofs -r -o ora9id1.iso Disk1/


  This will create 3 ISO CD images, which will be used further in the
  installation process. The command may generate a lot of warnings for
  name substitutions. Don't worry. The images will contain the correct
  directory tree information. To check if this is true, mount the images
  to a directory by using the loopback device (your kernel should
  support loopback devices to perform this test) as described in CD-
  Writing-HOWTO:


       mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 cd_image mount_dir


  where cd_image is your resulting CD image from the mkisofs command.
  After mounting, you can change directory and check the mounted
  directory tree to ensure it looks okay. If everything is fine, you can
  move to the next step.

  2.2.2.  Burning the CDs

  Burning the CD images on CDs can be done with any command line or GUI
  program that uses ISO CD images to create CDs. See CD-Writing-HOWTO
  for details. Make sure however, that after burning the CDs they
  contain exactly the same directory trees as directories Disk1, Disk2
  and Disk3. This can be done by mounting the new CDs and using whatever
  means you find convenient to walk through the directory tree. The
  images can be written on any CD writer or computer, using any software
  that will support CD writing from ISO images.

  The mkisofs command may generate empty directories in the root
  directory of the CD image itself. These are not a problem for the
  installation contents. Just disregard them.

  3.  Pre-installation

  There are few steps to be performed before the installation process.
  They are divided into the following categories:

  3.1.  System Requirements



  3.1.1.  Hardware requirements

  Oracle 9i is a tough bit, you better have a good machine.  Here is
  what the Installation Guide says (summary):



       Parameter       Required        Sufficient (tested)
       ---------------------------------------------------
       CPU             PII or K6       K6/2 *(1)
       RAM             512 MB          256 MB
       HDD space       3.5 GB          2.5 GB *(2)
       Swap space      1GB or RAMx2    512 MB or more



  (1) Dual CPUs are recommended for large databases. Usually a high
  performance CPU couple (Xeon or Athlon MP) or even quad system is
  considered a good choice.

  (2) Using SCSI HDD with RAID or separate HDD for each database, if
  multiple database instances will be installed, is recommended.

  3.1.2.  Software requirements

  Oracle requires a minimal version of the kernel and JRE software:



       Parameter       Required        Sufficient (tested)
       ---------------------------------------------------
       Kernel Version  2.4.7           later is fine
       JRE             1.1.8v3         1.1.8v3



  Since (and including) version 8i, the installation processes are GUI-
  based and built with Java, so a main requirement is X server and a
  Window Manager. At least the JRE version 1.1.8v3 should be installed.
  This installation was done with version 1.1.8v3 of JRE. I can not
  guarantee that other versions can do the job. Test it at your own
  risk.

  These requirements are valid if you decide to install the Enterprise
  Server. For the Standard Edition the sufficient values are fine. Even
  in some cases these parameters could be lower.

  3.1.3.  De-facto installation environment

  Here is the installation environment I used for this example:



       CPU             K6 III /400
       RAM             512 MB
       HDD space       2.3 GB
       Swap space      512 MB
       CD ROM          24x
       Kernel version  2.4.18-24.8.0
       JRE             1.1.8v3



  It seems that this environment is enough for testing with small
  database sizes, but as recommended before, if you need to use a large
  or very large database, choose better hardware.

  3.2.  Environment variables and profiles

  The installation requires a few environment variables to be set before
  it starts. These variables can be set into one's profile directly by
  putting the lines in the .bash_profile of every account, which will be
  used to access the database, or in a more generic approach -- in the
  file /etc/profile (as this installation). Here is a simple list and
  example values for the variables (current example):


  ______________________________________________________________________

  ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
  ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0
  ORACLE_SID=ORTD

  PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin
  LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$ORACLE_HOME/network/lib

  export PATH ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_SID LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  ______________________________________________________________________



  Everything so far is valid for both RedHat 8.x and 9.x, but it seems
  that Oracle has thought of another variable, which must be set in
  RedHat 9. It must be included with the previous ones and exported
  accordingly. It is necessary to set it if you don't want to be stuck
  into an infinite loop during installation:


  ______________________________________________________________________
  LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=2.4.1
  ______________________________________________________________________



  Thanks to Steve Schladel, a colleague and a DBA, the installation
  continued smoothly without a problem.

  The ORACLE_SID variable I set by using the abbreviation of ORacle Test
  Database. It is up to you what you will set as SID. This will be your
  default database name and part of the global database name.

  For more information on the meanings of the variables, please refer to
  the Oracle Administrator's Manual or Reference.

  3.3.  JRE

  The JRE (Java Runtime Environment) can be downloaded from Blackdown
  website <http://www.blackdown.org>. Pick 1.1.8v3 if you don't know
  what to download and unpack the tarball in the /usr/local directory.
  This will create a directory, named after the version of the JRE. Make
  the following link in /usr/local/:


       ln -s jre118_v3 jre


  for the JRE 1.1.8v3 distribution. If a newer version is used, change
  the command correspondingly. Now add to the PATH variable the bin
  directory of your JRE:


       PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/jre/bin
       export $PATH


  or mix the lines here with those in the profile as you find efficient.

  3.4.  Setup tasks to perform as root user

  Before starting the installation, the Linux environment and directory
  structure should be prepared. There are few steps and they are listed
  below with a description of each step. Remember, these steps are the
  minimum required steps for installation of the Standard Edition. If
  one intends to install Enterprise and additional services, I suggest a
  thorough study of the Oracle 9i Installation Guide.

  Log in as root and follow the list.

  3.4.1.  Kernel Tune-up

  If the following section is not quite clear, please refer to IPC
  programmers reference for Linux.

  >From version 2.2.1 on, the kernel has dynamically set parameters
  through the /proc file system and does not need to be re-compiled.
  For this purpose the /proc file system can be used with great
  flexibility.  Here are the steps needed to update the kernel and set
  up scripts to run on boot, so that the parameters are set every time
  the system is booted.

  Change current directory to /proc/sys/kernel.

  Listed below, are the minimum required sets to be updated (if
  necessary).

  3.4.1.1.  Read and set the semaphore parameters

  The values of the semaphore parameters SEMMSL, SEMMNS, SEMOPM, SEMMNI
  can be read with the following command:


       cat sem


  The output should be similar to:


       250  32000   32      128


  which is the list of values of the parameters in the above list order.
  Now set the values with the following command:


       echo 100 32000 100 100 > sem


  3.4.1.2.  Read and set the shared memory parameters

  Shared memory parameters SHMMAX, SHMMIN, SHMMNI, SHMSEG can be read by
  using the following command:



  cat shm_param


  where shm_param is one of shmmax, shmmin, shmmni, shmall, etc. Now use
  the following commands to set values for the necessary parameters:


       echo 2147483648 > shmmax
       echo 4096 > shmmni
       echo 2097152 > shmall


  The above set of commands can be combined in a shell script and can be
  run on boot in the run level, to decide which Oracle database will be
  used, but keep in mind these parameters should be set before the
  database instance is started up. Please refer to the Linux
  Administrator's guide for more information on run-levels and startup
  init scripts.

  3.4.1.3.  File handles

  Set the file handles using the following commands:


       echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
       ulimit -n 65536


  3.4.1.4.  Sockets

  Set the sockets using the following command:


       echo 1024 65000 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range


  3.4.1.5.  Process Limit

  Set the process limit using the following command:


       ulimit -u 16384


  3.4.2.  Groups and accounts

  As with all Oracle databases, 9i requires an account for the owner,
  traditionally named oracle. The requirements for the groups are a bit
  unusual; there must be a group for OSDBA, which by default is named
  dba. Oracle requires also second group (usually called oinstall) to
  assign authority to install software.  Another group for operators
  should also be present (but is optional), used to grant operator
  access to certain groups of users. So here is the sequence of commands
  to create the groups:


       groupadd dba
       groupadd oinstall
       groupadd oper


  After the groups are created, we can add an account for the Oracle
  owner:



  useradd -c DBA -g oinstall -G dba oracle


  which will create the oracle account, with primary group oinstall and
  secondary - dba.

  In addition, users who will use this database instance can be added to
  the dba group in the /etc/group file.

  3.4.3.  Mount points and permissions

  Oracle 9i installation requires a minimum of two mount points -- one
  for the software and one for the database files. If OFA (Optimal
  Flexible architecture) is used, then the minimum mount points are four
  -- one for the software and three (or more) for the database files.

  Oracle documentation recommends each mount point to be on a separate
  physical disk, but for a minimal use as in this case, the mount point
  could be directories. The names of the mount points are traditionally
  /u01, /u02, /u03, etc. They can be created as subdirectories anywhere
  on the system and linked with root directory links. In my case I
  created the directories (only 2 of them - /u01 and /u02) under the
  root directory.

  Here is a short list of commands to create and prepare the mount point
  (as root):


       mkdir /u01 /u02
       chown oracle.dba /u01 /u02
       chmod 755 /u01 /u02


  The last two commands set the ownership of the installation
  directories to the user authorized to install Oracle 9i, but after the
  installation by administrator's choice the topmost directories can be
  switched back to root ownership.

  3.4.4.  Permissions for file creation

  In most cases the umask should be set to 0022. When installing Oracle
  databases it is recommended that the umask is checked and set to 0022
  if not set properly. This will ensure that all the files during the
  installation are created with proper attributes. Use the following
  commands:


       umask


  to test the mask, and:


       umask 0022


  to set the mask. This command can also be set on the profile in case
  it isn't the default value of 0022.

  3.5.  Setup tasks to perform as oracle  user

  Before starting the installation log in as user oracle in an X
  terminal and make sure that the DISPLAY and PATH variables contain the
  proper values. The DISPLAY variable should specify the name, server
  number and the screen number of the system, and where the Oracle
  Universal Installer will be run. This step is only necessary if you
  are using remote X server. In case of local installation, if you can
  run X Window Manager you will be able to run the installer without a
  problem. If there is a problem running the installer because of the
  DISPLAY variable, execute:


       xhost +localhost
       export DISPLAY=localhost:0.0


  This should do the trick.

  In addition as oracle user execute:


       env


  and check for all the previously mentioned environment variables. If
  there is a suspicion that one or more are not set properly, they
  should be corrected and the environment reloaded.

  4.  Installation

  4.1.  Mounting the CDs (before or during the installation)

  Usually RedHat Linux has automount, which mounts the CD after the CD-
  ROM door is closed, but in case this has to be done manually, here it
  is briefly.

  Invoke a terminal window and become superuser. Leave the terminal open
  during the course of the installation. It will become handy in time.

  Place the first CD in your CD-ROM device. Check if you have a
  directory to mount the CDs in. Usually it should be /mnt/cdrom, but if
  this is not your favorite, just name it as you wish. Now execute the
  following command (assuming that the mount directory is /mnt/cdrom):


       mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom


  This will mount your CD onto the /mnt/cdrom directory. This will be
  your source installation directory.

  During the installation, Oracle Universal Installer will ask for a CD
  change, so if the CD can't be unmounted automatically, go to your root
  terminal and do the following:


       cd /mnt
       eject


  This will unmount the CD and open your CD-ROM. Now place the next CD
  and close the CD-ROM. Use the mount command again if the CD is not
  mounted automatically and switch to your installation screen to
  continue with the process.

  4.2.  Running the installer

  After mounting the first disk, invoke a new terminal window and change
  directory to /mnt/cdrom. This is your installation mount point. From
  here run:


       ./runInstaller &


  Additionally the file index.html from the same directory can be opened
  in a browser and from there you can read and follow Oracle
  documentation during the installation procedure.

  4.3.  Installation screens and steps

  Oracle Universal Installer 2.2 has a simple and intuitive interface.
  You may choose to skip this section of the Installation item and
  follow your instincts, which might be a very good decision. The
  screens are self-explanatory and very nicely ordered in a good,
  logical queue.

  In case you want to verify where you are in the installation, just
  compare your process with the following descriptions of screens and
  steps.

  4.3.1.  Welcome Screen

  >From the welcome screen you may select to install or uninstall
  products. If this is the first installation, click Next to continue.

  A new dialog window (Inventory Location) appears. It prompts you for
  an inventory directory for the installation(s) now and in the future.
  Click OK if you agree, otherwise enter the desired inventory
  directory.

  4.3.2.  UNIX Group Name Screen

  This screen asks for your Oracle Installation Group, which by default
  is ointsall. If you wish to change this name or use another (special)
  group for further installation, now is the time to tweak the groups.
  Otherwise enter ointsall and click Next. A dialog appears, showing
  that you have to use your root terminal (remember when we opened it
  before). Go to the root terminal and follow the instructions on the
  screen, which are simply to execute the script in /tmp/ called
  orainstRoot.sh

  If successfully run, you should see on the screen:


       Creating Oracle Inventory pointer file (/etc/oraInst.loc)
       Changing groupname of /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory to oinstall.


  Now switch back to the dialog and click Continue.

  4.3.3.  File Locations Screen

  This screen shows the source and destination file locations for the
  installation process. If your environment variables are okay you
  should not change anything, but if you wish to do so, do it carefully
  and know what you are doing! You can simply click Next.

  What follows is a long reading of the disk and a progress bar on the
  top right of this screen. Just be patient.

  4.3.4.  Available Products Screen

  This screen shows the available products in this installation set.
  Since we are installing only the database, the first option (which is
  the default) is the one that is interesting to us. It actually
  includes some of the products listed in the next sections.  Click
  Next.
  4.3.5.  Installation Types Screen

  Since our example shows Standard Edition Installation, click Standard
  Edition. You may select Enterprise, but the path from this point on
  might be different and you might need to select other options. Anyway,
  it is the choice of the person who is installing.

  Click Next. Another pause (not long) and then you will go to the next
  step.

  4.3.6.  Database Configuration Screen

  This screen allows the operator to select what purpose the database
  will serve, so that the installation will be able to adjust parameters
  accordingly. I've chosen General Purpose and clicked Next. There is
  another wait period (short also).

  4.3.7.  Database Identification Screen

  Here the operator is prompted to enter a global database name. The
  text on this screen is quite explanatory. For our example I entered:


       ORTD.zeus


  since my database server's hostname is zeus. Use your hostname in its
  place and click Next.

  4.3.8.  Database File Location Screen

  This screen prompts you to enter the location where the physical
  database files will be situated. It also recommends you put the data
  files on a separate disk (directory). That's why I entered:


       /u02/oradata


  instead of the default value. Click Next when done.

  4.3.9.  Database Character Set Screen

  This screen allows you to choose different character sets for your
  database. I have left it as it is:  Use the Default Character Set.
  Click Next.

  4.3.10.  Summary Screen

  If you see this screen, your preparation for the installation process
  with the OUI is done. Now you may browse the contents of the
  installation tree and see what you have chosen. This might make you go
  back and fix stuff, if you don't agree with the list. Otherwise click
  Install, and the installation process will start.

  4.3.11.  Install Screen

  This is a very long-lasting, boring screen, which requires CD changing
  from time to time. It displays a progress bar and counts the
  percentage to display the overall progress by items.

  The installation process is very long. First the software components
  are installed and then everything is linked.

  Just find something to kill some time with and from time to time peek
  at the screen to see if the CD needs changing.
  IMPORTANT!  In my case (I did the installation twice) there was an
  Error screen around 79% in the linkage process. The error dialog
  showed the following information:


       Error in invoking target install of makefile
       /u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0/ctx/lib/ins_ctx.mk


  I clicked Ignore and in both installations it seemed there was no
  problem to finish the linkage.

  A dialog is popped up when the linkage is finished. It prompts for
  some terminal commands that have to be executed before the
  installation process completes. Basically, there is a script called
  root.sh in the $ORACLE_HOME directory, which should be executed as
  root, from your root terminal. The execution itself takes some time
  and a lot of HDD activity, so be patient and don't worry.

  4.3.12.  Configuration Tools Screen

  The configuration tools screen tries to execute 3 tasks and reports
  failures for all of them. Here is how I solved the problem. In the
  $ORACLE_HOME directory there is a link, named JRE, which links to the
  Oracle JRE directory. Delete this link and create one to your own JRE
  distribution, which was described earlier. Here is the list of
  commands:


       rm -f JRE
       ln -s /usr/local/jre/ JRE


  After executing these commands, try selecting one by one the items in
  the Tool Name column of the table and clicking Retry. If this does not
  work, don't worry. These are optional in the installation session and
  you can do them later.

  4.3.13.  Troubleshooting

  If the last (optional) tasks do not execute, I have a special set of
  instructions on how to do at least two of them. But first, I want to
  stress on having Oracle documentation handy, and that you try to read
  between the lines sometimes when you troubleshoot your installation.
  If the conditions are right, you should not get any serious errors in
  your session, but in case you get one, check all the initial
  conditions, file and directory permission,s and disk space.

  You can easily delete everything and start from scratch if you just
  purge the contents of the Oracle mount point directories (/u01, /u02,
  etc.), and delete the file oratab in the /etc directory. There is one
  more set of files you may need to delete so that there is no trace of
  Oracle on your system. They are in the /usr/local/bin directory and
  the names are oraenv, coraenv and dbhome. However you may leave them
  there and on your next installation the installer will ask you if you
  want to keep them.

  Now the optional tasks:

  4.3.13.1.  Net Configuration Assistant

  To run this, go to the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and from there just
  execute:



  ./netca &


  This application will setup one of four tasks. Listener is what you
  really want to set. The others are not as important, but try setting
  them as well. Before setting the listener, you might have a listener
  already running. Check this by executing the following command:


       ps afx | grep LISTEN | grep -v grep


  If you get a line similar to:


       15922 ?  S  0:00 /u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0/bin/tnslsnr LIS�
       TENER


  you've got a listener running. Stop the listener with the following
  command from the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory:


       ./lsnrctl stop


  You might need to also delete the existing listener and create a new
  one. This depends on you completely. Just follow the natural flow of
  the application. At the final round the new listener will be started
  if created a new one of course.

  4.3.13.2.  Database Configuration Assistant

  To run this, go to $ORACLE_HOME/bin and execute:


       ./dbca &


  This application is probably the most important in the set. It helps
  you create and configure your database. If a database was not created
  during the installation session or a restart of the applications, as
  mentioned before, this is the one you would want to run to create your
  database.

  While you have not used the database yet, you might want to delete and
  recreate it. You may do it from here. This document can not include
  all the functionality of the application, but since it is a GUI, it is
  fairly easy to perform tasks with it.

  Personally I prefer to create it from here, so that I have control of
  all the parameters needed, especially the directories where the data
  files will be created. Choose Typical when prompted for the database
  parameters. The next screen, with the tree-like structure allows you
  to set the location of your database files. Instead of {ORACLE_BASE},
  you can put /u02 for example. This will put the database files to be
  used in your /u02/oradata/SID directory. This is just an example. It
  is up to you to decide how to spread your database(s) directory tree.

  At the end of the database creation you will be prompted for passwords
  for the users SYS and SYSTEM. Enter them (with confirmations),
  remember them, and exit (this works as OK if you haven't guessed it
  already).  That should be it. Now execute:



  ps afx


  and the screen should contain lines similar to the following:


  ______________________________________________________________________

  PID     TTY      STAT   TIME COMMAND
      1   ?        S      0:04 init
      2   ?        SW     0:01 [keventd]

  ..... Lots of other lines we are not interested in...

  11665   ?        S      0:00 ora_pmon_ORTD
  11667   ?        S      0:00 ora_dbw0_ORTD
  11671   ?        S      0:00 ora_lgwr_ORTD
  11673   ?        S      0:00 ora_ckpt_ORTD
  11675   ?        S      0:00 ora_smon_ORTD
  11677   ?        S      0:00 ora_reco_ORTD
  11679   ?        S      0:00 ora_cjq0_ORTD
  11681   ?        S      0:02 ora_qmn0_ORTD
  11683   ?        S      0:00 ora_s000_ORTD
  11685   ?        S      0:00 ora_d000_ORTD
  11812   pts/1    S      0:00 /u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
  ______________________________________________________________________



  If you see this picture, this is your database instance running. The
  last line in the above example is the listener (it might be somewhere
  else on your screen).

  Congratulations! You've successfully finished your installation!

  4.3.13.3.  Troubleshooting updates

  The following is an update, courtesy of Rene Bauer. You may encounter
  problems with the following items:

  �  JRE version compatibility

  �  Missing database configuration file

  �  Legato Single Server Version installation failure

  The JRE compatibility problem was not reported only by Rene, but I've
  got few more emails about it. The problem exists because RedHat 8 and
  9 come with gcc version 3.2.x, but some older versions of JRE are
  compiled with gcc 2.9.x. The solution is to download the latest JRE
  version.  At the time of this update the version is 1.4.1, and since
  there is no jre executable, run the following command to create the
  proper sym link:

       ln -s $JRE_DIR/bin/java $JRE_DIR/bin/jre


  where $JRE_BIN is your jre bin directory.

  The second update is in regard to a missing configuration file after
  database creation. The file init{ORACLE_SID}.ora should be created by
  default in your $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/ directory.

  Rene's solution is: The installer creates a file called
  spfile{ORACLE_SID}.ora, so a sym link can be created to mimic the
  missing file. Change your working directory to be $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/
  and execute:

       ln -s spfile{ORACLE_SID}.ora init{ORACLE_SID}.ora


  My solution: There is always a file after the installation with
  database creation called init.ora. I simply copied this file to
  init{ORACLE_SID}.ora. Change your working directory to be
  $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/ and execute:

       cp init.ora initORTD.ora


  The third problem is in regard to Oracle's installation process,
  installing Legato Single Server Version. I did not have this sort of
  problem, but here is Rene's version, which I'll try to make as short
  as possible:  The last root.sh file, executed on Oracle installation's
  request had caused an error while attempting to install LSSV.
  According to Rene, RedHat 8 and 9 come with ncurses5, but by default
  the ncurses4 compatibility package is not installed, so after it is
  installed, the LSSV installation problem disappears.

  These may be not the last problems to be solved, so I encourage any
  comments and additions, which I can add to the Troubleshooting
  section.  I'd appreciate any feedback, which can improve quality of
  this document.

  5.  Post-installation

  The Oracle Installation Guide describes a very long list of procedures
  to be done after the installation process. Some of them are necessary,
  some of them probably in your instance you will never need, but most
  importantly this document will not repeat them.

  Please refer to the Installation Guide for this procedures. Here I
  will describe steps that are very helpful for the minimal installation
  that I used, and seem enough for the basic database operations.

  5.1.  Editing the oratab file

  There is one step in particular that is important, so that you may
  start and shutdown the database from the command prompt any time, or
  to allow the database to be autostarted during boot. Go to the /etc
  directory and edit the file oratab. In the line:


       ORTD:/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0:N


  set the last value to Y and it should read:


       ORTD:/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0:Y


  Now save the file and go back to your Oracle home directory.

  5.2.  Script for automatic startup on boot

  It is generally a good idea to automate the database startup at boot
  time on your database server. In this case you will need a script,
  which can be included in the run-level sets. Here is an example only.
  Please, tune it to your own machine and run-levels!



  ______________________________________________________________________

  #!/bin/bash
  #
  # Run-level Startup script for the Oracle Instance and Listener
  #
  # chkconfig: 345 91 19
  # description: Startup/Shutdown Oracle listener and instance

  ORA_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0.1.0"
  ORA_OWNR="oracle"

  # if the executables do not exist -- display error

  if [ ! -f $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart -o ! -d $ORA_HOME ]
  then
          echo "Oracle startup: cannot start"
          exit 1
  fi

  # depending on parameter -- startup, shutdown, restart
  # of the instance and listener or usage display

  case "$1" in
      start)
          # Oracle listener and instance startup
          echo -n "Starting Oracle: "
          su - $ORA_OWNR -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/lsnrctl start"
          su - $ORA_OWNR -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart
          touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle
          echo "OK"
          ;;
      stop)
          # Oracle listener and instance shutdown
          echo -n "Shutdown Oracle: "
          su - $ORA_OWNR -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop"
          su - $ORA_OWNR -c $ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut
          rm -f /var/lock/subsys/oracle
          echo "OK"
          ;;
      reload|restart)
          $0 stop
          $0 start
          ;;
      *)
          echo "Usage: $0 start|stop|restart|reload"
          exit 1
  esac
  exit 0
  ______________________________________________________________________



  You can simply copy and paste this file into your system and change it
  according to your settings.

  Once you copy and edit the file, move it to the /etc/rc.d/init.d
  directory and change it's ownership and the attributes to be the same
  as the other files in the directory.

  To do that and the following operations, you will need to be logged as
  root user.

  The fifth line of this code reads:


       # chkconfig: 345 91 19


  It is used by the chkconfig command when setting the scripts in the
  run-levels. The value 345 lists the run-levels in which we allow
  Oracle to run, so if you want to be able to run an Oracle instances
  only in levels 3 and 5, then change this value to 35. The next value
  (91) describes the order number in the startup sequence. This means
  that if there are 100 startup processes, the Oracle startup will be
  the 91st to run. The next number is the shutdown number, meaning that
  when the system is shutdown and there are for example 100 processes to
  be shutdown, the Oracle process will be 19 in order. These numbers are
  used to set the relative position of the Oracle startup and shutdown
  processes. They are set here as an example. You can change them, but
  keep in mind that Oracle instancse can not be run without some
  processes in the system running beforehand.

  Now execute the following command:


       chkconfig -add oracle


  This will add the corresponding links in the run-level directories as
  listed in the beginning of the script.

  To test the newly created automation, you have to reboot your system,
  but remember that before this automation runs, the kernel parameters
  should be set.  In fact you may include the kernel tune commands in
  your start) section of the above script.

  5.3.  Testing your installation with SQL*Plus

  If you have installed a typical database, there should be a user
  created called scott.  The password is tiger.  Just execute the
  following:


       sqlplus scott/tiger


  which should run the SQL*Plus interpreter and log in as user scott.
  You should see the screen like the following:


  ______________________________________________________________________

  SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production on Fri Feb 21 10:55:45 2003

  Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.

  Connected to:
  Oracle9i Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production
  JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production

  SQL>quit
  Disconnected from Oracle9i Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production
  JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production
  ______________________________________________________________________



  Before exiting you can do some SQL on your own to just see the tables
  in this database schema or whatever you have in mind.


  >From this point on it is a matter of your own creativity and purpose.

  6.  Clients

  The Client Software for the Oracle 9i database can be run on any
  platform, so you may download the client for the platform you desire
  (whichever is available of course). I personally like to have client
  software on both DB server and on a MS Windows workstation. This makes
  me experience multi-platform database control, or so I think. :)

  Download and prepare the CD with the client on the same platform you
  will run it from. It is not necessary, but it is recommended you have
  a CD with it. Although you may run the installation process from your
  HDD where you downloaded the client, I recommend you spend few pennies
  on a CD burner. It always becomes handy.

  The client is also using the Oracle Universal Installer, so this might
  seem pretty easy after all the previous hassle.

  When you first run the Enterprise Management Console, it will lead you
  to connect to the database. Provide your full database and your SID
  names and try to connect as user SYS with SYSDBA privileges. At some
  point you have to enter the IP address of the database server and
  chose a port the client should connect to. I left the default values
  (as with the network setup on the server as well).

  If you don't see any error messages, that's it. You have done it.

  Enjoy your server and client playgrounds!

  7.  Final Words

  Oracle 9i is a huge complex with very useful, and most of all very
  secure applications. This document slightly touches the surface and is
  not intended to be a comprehensive guide. I hope that it can help
  solving some problems during the initial installation, but it is
  important to analyze your own situation and turn to more reliable
  sources.

  Some of the operations could be executed manually using SQL*Plus.
  This could be a more flexible way to tune and set up the installation.
  I will leave this in more experience hands.

  I haven't mentioned so many things, that are described in details in
  Oracle documentation itself. So explore the genuine source in depth!

  Good luck!







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