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PCTel HSP MicroModem Configuration mini-HOWTO

Sayamindu Dasgupta

�<unmadindu_NO_SPAM_@Softhome.net>�

Jan Stifter

�<j.stifter_NO_SPAM_@medres.ch>�
Revision History                                                             
Revision 2.5.10                 2002-12-04                                   
Added new FAQ entry, and other minor clean ups.                              
Revision 2.5.9                  November 11th 2002                           
Added new driver info, made corrections and clarifications in the GCC 3 FAQ .
Revision 2.5.8                  November 10th 2002                           
Added information on GCC 3, fixed typos, and other minor corrections.        
Revision 2.5.6                  September 21st 2002                          
Changes in the FAQ section based on reader suggestions, and general error    
cleanups.                                                                    
Revision 2.5.5                  August 17th 2002                             
Made changes in driver section, and other additions                          
Revision 2.5.1                  July 20th 2002                               
Made changes in driver section, and misc. additions                          
Revision 2.50                   June 6th 2002                                
Made changes in the drivers and FAQ section, added the database info, other  
corrections                                                                  
Revision 2.00                   March 30th 2002                              
Made changes in the drivers section, other corrections                       
Revision 1.10                   December 4th 2001                            
Cleaning up of sgml by Greg Ferguson, Relicensed under the GFDL, minor       
corrections                                                                  
Revision 1.00                   November 26th 2001                           
First Release                                                                


The purpose of this document is to guide you to make your PCTel HSP
MicroModem work in GNU/Linux.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Copyright Information
    1.2. Disclaimer
    1.3. New Versions
    1.4. Credits
    1.5. Feedback
    1.6. Translations
    1.7. Conventions used in this document
   
   
2. Purpose of the mini-HOWTO
3. Where to get the drivers
4. Choosing a suitable driver
5. Compiling and installing the drivers
    5.1. Installing the 2.2x drivers.
    5.2. Installing the pctel-0.9.6 driver
    5.3. Installing the pctel-0.8.6 driver
   
   
6. Testing the drivers
7. A few other points that must be noted.
    7.1. The unofficial PCTel winmodem-Linux compatibility database.
    7.2. Loading the modules at automatically
    7.3. Country codes
    7.4. Other options while loading the modules.
    7.5. The sequence of loading/unloading the modules.
    7.6. Bugs in the pctel-0.9.6 and the 0.8.6 versions.
    7.7. Directory of the kernel source files
    7.8. PnP BIOS issues
    7.9. AMR modems
    7.10. Possible conflict with sound modules
   
   
8. FAQ/Troubleshooting
    8.1. Compiling Problems
    8.2. Problems while loading the modules.
    8.3. General modem based problems.
    8.4. I have a problem that is not listed in this section. What do I do?
   
   
9. Appendix
    9.1. A sample script file to load the modules.
    9.2. Web Resources
    9.3. Other drivers that are available
    9.4. Identifying the chip set of the modem
    9.5. Helping the author
    9.6. GNU Free Documentation License
   
   

1. Introduction

1.1. Copyright Information

    Copyright © 2002-2003 Sayamindu Dasgupta, Jan Stifter. Permission is
    granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms
    of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version
    published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections ,
    with no Front-Cover Texts , and with no Back-Cover Texts . A copy of the
    license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation
    License".
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.2. Disclaimer

The methods described in this document might damage your data or your PC or
both. The authors will not be responsible for any damage that might arise out
of the use of this document. Use this document ENTIRELY at your own risk.

All copyrights are held by their respective owners, unless specifically noted
otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting
the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major
installation and backups at regular intervals.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. New Versions

The latest version of this mini-HOWTO will always be made available in my
[http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu] homepage (many thanks to [http://
www.peacefulaction.org] Peaceful Action for hosting my homepage) in a variety
of formats:

��*�[http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu/pctel.html] HTML.
   
��*�[http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu/pctel.txt] plain text.
   
��*�[http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu/pctel.pdf] PDF.
   
��*�[http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu/pctel.rtf] RTF.
   
��*�compressed html (multiple pages format).
   
��*�[http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu/pctel.sgml] SGML source.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4. Credits

I am extremely grateful to the howtos[NO_SPAM]@frodo.hserus.net list members
for their support, especially to [http://geocities.com/usmbish/] USM Bish.

The members of the discuss@linmodems.org list have been very helpful too,
specially in the initial phase of the howto-writing. I am also extremely
grateful to Phil Richard Burchill, Rajesh Fowkar, KV Pham, Bram Vonk, Derek
Cordeiro, Steven Sangster and Andrew Kar (akar) for their valuable
suggestions and corrections.

The sgml-stuff has been done with the help of the template written by Stein
Gjoen, Gregory Leblanc and Greg Ferguson. I am also indebted to Greg Ferguson
for cleaning up the mess I had made with Docbook :-). 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. Feedback

If you have any comments, criticisms, ideas, additions, corrections, then
please do mail them to <unmadindu_NO_SPAM_@Softhome.net>. But for technical
queries, we suggest that you ask at the discuss@linmodems.org mailing list.

Caution Please do not mail me with your problems. You will NOT get any       
        answer. For answers ask at discuss@linmodems.org.                    
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.6. Translations

��*�[www.domsilverio.com.br/phptest/pctel/] Portuguese Translation by Rafael
    Cardoso <rafamvc_NO_SPAM_@yahoo.com.br>
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.7. Conventions used in this document

We have used a number of special formatting to indicate warning messages,
commands, filenames, computer outputs etc.

Bash commands
    bash$ ls
   
Notes
    Note NOTE                                                        
   
Cautions
    Caution CAUTION                                                  
   
Info
    Tip INFO                                                         
   
Warnings
    Warning WARNING                                                  
   
Filename/Directory
    /usr/src/linux/
   
Applications
    application
   
Computer Output
    no such file or directory
   
Codes/scripts
    #! /bin/bash                                                     
   
Large Computer Outputs
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
    |logfile begins                                                 |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------+
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Purpose of the mini-HOWTO

The purpose of this document is to guide you to make your PCTel HSP
MicroModem work in GNU/Linux.

First let me explain what is so "special" about these PCTel modems that made
me write this guide. These modems fall in a special class of hardware,
specifically made for M$-Windows systems, and have device drivers which are
specific for �M$-Windows ...These modems are also called �"Winmodems" and are
one of the most troublesome pieces of hardwares for GNU/Linux. Most of the
winmodems do not work with GNU/Linux (the manufacturers use patented
technologies and so drivers for these modems cannot be developed as Open
Source). For a few of these winmodems, drivers have been developed

The PCTel modems belong to this category and fall under linmodems.

Note Please do note that PCTel provides proprietary drivers, and in the free 
     world of GNU/Linux, proprietary drivers are not the solution. These     
     drivers can turn out to be a great threat as the Free Software Movement 
     evolves and matures. So, at the very beginning, please consider whether 
     you want to surrender your "freedom" to PCTel, or whether you want to go
     out and buy a new modem which has a GPL'ed driver. I understand, that   
     for many, buying a new modem is not possible, and hence, this doc       
     exists. But whatever you do, please do send a mail to Mr. Jack Seller of
     PCTel's Public Relation department at [mailto: jack_seller@pctel.com]   
     this address asking PCTel to release the source code of their drivers.  
                                                                             
     Remember that when you are using proprietary drivers, you are giving up 
     your freedom.                                                           

Note Though I am referring PCTel modems here, actually PCTel only            
     manufactures the chips for these modems, so if you have say, XXX modem  
     and you get a                                                           
                                                                             
     00:09.0 Communication controller: PCTel Inc HSP MicroModem 56 (rev 01)  
                                                                             
     when you issue the bash$ lspci command, then do not worry, you have what
     we call a PCTel linmodem.                                               
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Where to get the drivers

Now let me come to the next obvious question, that is; Where are the
drivers??

Well, if you are impatient, and if you have a 2.4x series kernel then go to

[http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/pctel-linux/] http://
linmodems.technion.ac.il/pctel-linux/, and if you are stuck with the older
2.2.x kernels, go to [http://modems.dewback.cl] http://modems.dewback.cl (the
exact link for the file it self is [http://modems.dewback.cl/
pctel-2.2.tar.gz] http://modems.dewback.cl/pctel-2.2.tar.gz )

But there are a number of drivers in both the sites, and you will definitely
feel confused..so read on.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Choosing a suitable driver

The driver version that you will have to use depends on the kernel version
you have. To know your kernel version, you will have to issue the command

uname -r

If you see something like 2.2.x, go to [http://modems.dewback.cl] http://
modems.dewback.cl and download the [http://modems.dewback.cl/
pctel-2.2.tar.gz] pctel 2.2x drivers from the PCTel section of that site.

If you see something like 2.4x, go to [http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/
pctel-linux/] http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/pctel-linux/ and download the
pctel 0.9.6 (pctel-0.9.6.tar.gz) drivers from that site.

Important Also note that only the pctel 0.9.6 drivers have support for the   
          new AMR modems.                                                    
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Compiling and installing the drivers

The first requisite for installation is that you have a kernel source in /usr
/src/linux/ (see section 7.7) and it must be configured, that is, you should
have done a bash$ make configure and bash$ make dep on it.

While doing these make sure that you have the source for your running
kernel...for example, if you are running kernel 2.4.8 and if you have the
source for kernel 2.4.9 in /usr/src/linux/, then the drivers would not work.

Moreover, you must configure the kernel with isapnp and pnp support and see
to the fact that you don't have a smp/uniprocessor mismatch ( that is,
running uniprocessor kernel but having a kernel source with smp support in /
usr/src/linux). Also, you will need a kernel which supports loadable modules.

And of course, you need to have gcc installed, check it by issuing the
command bash$ gcc -v . If you do not get any errors, then everything is all
right

Note If you have gcc version 3 or above , and have problems during compiling,
     please refer to this section in the FAQ.                                
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. Installing the 2.2x drivers.

Login as root.

Make sure that you have a 2.2.x kernel with the command bash$ uname -r

Check whether the downloaded files are in your current directory with the

bash$ ls

command. Then unpack the downloaded files with the command

bash$ tar -xzvf pctel-2.2.tar.gz

Once you have unpacked, you will be left with a ~/pctel directory.

Move into that directory with the command

bash$ cd pctel/

There is an (install.sh) installation script that makes the job easier from
now on.

Make this script executable with the command

bash$ chmod +x install.sh

Then, just run the script

bash$ ./install.sh

You will see a number of messages fly by as the appropriate device files/
nodes are made in the /dev/ directory, the driver files are unpacked and then
compiled and loaded into the memory.

Once the process is complete without any error messages (if you get any
errors, proceed to the Troubleshooting section), you will find that a new
directory called lib/ has been created under directory ~/pctel/. This ~/pctel
/lib/ directory contains the drivers/modules that can be loaded into the
kernel.

If you move into the ~/pctel/lib/ directory with

bash$ cd ~/pctel/lib/

and do a bash$ ls, you will find two files there, one called pctel.o and the
other ptserial.o

These are the two modules that are to be loaded to make the modem work.

To load the modules, you will have to issue the commands

bash$ insmod pctel.o

bash$ insmod ptserial.o

from the ~/pctel/lib/ directory.

(The install.sh script automatically does this, so you don't need to do the
insmod part after running the script, but once you reboot, you will have to
load the modules by

bash$ cd `your pctel directory`/lib/

bash$ insmod pctel.o

bash$ insmod ptserial.o )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. Installing the pctel-0.9.6 driver

Make sure that you have kernel 2.4.0 or greater by the command

bash$ uname -r

Unpack the downloaded files with the commands

bash$ tar -xzvf pctel-0.9.6.tar.gz

Now you will have a pctel-0.9.6 directory

cd into that with the command

bash$ cd pctel-0.9.6/

Now comes the complicated part.

To proceed further you will have to know what chip set your modem has.See
section 9.4 for more information on this.

Once you have got the name of the chip set, just type one of the following
commands (depending on the chip set)

If you have a PCT 789 chip set,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=pct789

If you have a CM8738 chip set,

bash$ ./configure -with-hal=cm8738

If you have a chip set integrated with an i8** chip set based box,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=i8xx

If you have a chip set integrated with an VIA 686a chip set based motherboard
,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=via686a

The configure script will run and a number of messages will fly past. Check
for any error messages that may fly past. When you have the prompt again,
(and if you have not got any errors), compile the drivers with the command

bash$ make

Then if you do not get any error messages , install the drivers with the
command

bash$ make install

(You will have to be logged in as root for performing the last step)

Then just load the drivers with the commands

bash$ insmod pctel

bash$ insmod ptserial

NOTE: These commands can be issued from any directory as the insmod program
will automatically find the drivers pctel.o and ptserial.o in /lib/modules/
`your kernel version`/misc/ )

Note NOTE: If you get a message that says configure: error: You must have    
     linux kernel >= 2.4.0 installed, then please refer to section 8.1.1 for 
     ways to solve this.                                                     

However, if you have an AMR modem, then you will have to use the 0.9.6
drivers.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. Installing the pctel-0.8.6 driver

Caution Use this driver only if you experience problems with the pctel-0.9.6 
        drivers                                                              

Make sure that you have kernel 2.4.0 or greater by the command

bash$ uname -r

Unpack the downloaded files with the commands

bash$ tar -xzvf 0.8.6.tar

Now you will have a pctel-0.8.6 directory

cd into that with the command

bash$ cd pctel-0.8.6/

Now comes the complicated part.

To proceed further you will have to know what chip set your modem has.See
section 9.4 for more information on this.

Once you have got the name of the chip set, just type one of the following
commands (depending on the chip set)

If you have a PCT 789 chip set,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=pct789

If you have a CM8738 chip set,

bash$ ./configure -with-hal=cm8738

If you have a chip set integrated with an Intel 810 chip set based
motherboard from Intel,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=i810intel

If you have a chip set integrated with an Intel 810 chip set based
motherboard from SIS,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=i810sis

If you have a chip set integrated with an VIA 686a chip set based motherboard
,

bash$ ./configure --with-hal=via686a

The configure script will run and a number of messages will fly past. Check
for any error messages that may fly past. When you have the prompt again,
(and if you have not got any errors), compile the drivers with the command

bash$ make

Then if you do not get any error messages, install the drivers with the
command

bash$ make install

(You will have to be logged in as root for performing the last step)

Then just load the drivers with the commands

bash$ insmod pctel

bash$ insmod ptserial

(these too, like in the case of the pctel-0.9.6 drivers, can be issued from
any directory as the insmod program will automatically find the drivers 
pctel.o and ptserial.o in /lib/modules/`your kernel version`/misc/ )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Testing the drivers

There is only one way to check whether the drivers are working or not. You
will have to see if your modem is recognized or not. The driver makes a node
for your modem at /dev/ttyS15 , no matter what com port it may be in in M$DOS
/M$ Windows. /dev/ttyS15 is symlinked to /dev/modem and as most programs
search for a modem at /dev/modem first, you will not have to fiddle with the
settings/configs of those programs. The program that I use to test my modem
in GNU/Linux is minicom. If you have minicom installed, what you have to do
is type

bash$ minicom

in a shell prompt or in a terminal emulator window. If everything is all
right, you will see a Initializing modem message for a few seconds and then a
screen with a blinking cursor. Just type in ATZ in that screen and hit the
enter key. If you see a OK message, then, congratulations, your modem is
working in GNU/Linux. Type in ATI 3 and hit enter and you will see a PCtel
HSP56 MicroModem output. If you get a error message, or if you fail to get
any response from minicom proceed to the troubleshooting section. If
everything is all right up to now, you can go ahead to configure your dialer
software and connect to the internet, and please do take some time to submit
your modem information to the compatibility database at [http://
pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net] http://pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net. Also, you
may consider helping out the author. See this section for more information.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. A few other points that must be noted.

Here are a few more points you might find to be of interest/useful.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1. The unofficial PCTel winmodem-Linux compatibility database.

There has been a lot of confusion over the --with-hal option which has to be
used with the configure script, and for that, I coded a MySQL-PHP driven
database that takes in information from the modem owners, so that newbies can
browse and search the database, and find their modems' chipsets. If you have
a PCTel modem, then please do submit your modem information at [http://
pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net] http://pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Loading the modules at automatically

Well, if you have the pctel.o and ptserial.o files in /lib/modules/`your
kernel version`/misc/ , you can just add these lines to your /etc/
modules.conf file
# for pctel modem                                                            
                                                                             
                                                                             
alias char-major-62 ptserial                                                 
                                                                             
                                                                             
below ptserial pctel                                                         
                                                                             
                                                                             
# country code for pctel modem                                               
                                                                             
options ptserial country_code=1                                              

Run

bash$ depmod -a

after modifying your /etc/modules.conf .

In this case, running ppp would automatically load these modules. You can
also write up some shell-script and put them in your /usr/bin/ directory (I
have a sample of such a script in the appendix section)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Country codes

The ptserial.o driver also lets you specify the country code, though for most
situations, the default of USA is all right. If you still want to specify the
country code, load the ptserial.o module with the command

bash$ insmod ptserial country_code=x

(where x is the country code you want) The list of country codes with the
corresponding country names is listed below.

Table 1. Country Codes
+----------------+------------+
|Country Name    |country_code|
+----------------+------------+
|USA             |1           |
+----------------+------------+
|France          |2           |
+----------------+------------+
|Germany         |3           |
+----------------+------------+
|Italy           |4           |
+----------------+------------+
|Sweden          |5           |
+----------------+------------+
|UK              |6           |
+----------------+------------+
|Japan           |7           |
+----------------+------------+
|Australia       |8           |
+----------------+------------+
|Spain           |9           |
+----------------+------------+
|Taiwan          |10          |
+----------------+------------+
|Singapore       |11          |
+----------------+------------+
|Korea           |12          |
+----------------+------------+
|Switzerland     |13          |
+----------------+------------+
|Norway          |14          |
+----------------+------------+
|Netherlands     |15          |
+----------------+------------+
|Belgium         |16          |
+----------------+------------+
|Canada          |17          |
+----------------+------------+
|Ireland         |18          |
+----------------+------------+
|Portugal        |19          |
+----------------+------------+
|Polan           |20          |
+----------------+------------+
|Hungary         |21          |
+----------------+------------+
|Finland         |22          |
+----------------+------------+
|Denmark         |23          |
+----------------+------------+
|Austria         |24          |
+----------------+------------+
|South Africa    |25          |
+----------------+------------+
|CTR21 Countries |26          |
+----------------+------------+
|China           |27          |
+----------------+------------+
|Malaysia        |28          |
+----------------+------------+
|Luxumburg       |29          |
+----------------+------------+
|Greece          |30          |
+----------------+------------+
|Iceland         |31          |
+----------------+------------+
|New Zealand     |32          |
+----------------+------------+
|Brazil          |33          |
+----------------+------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4. Other options while loading the modules.

The other options that you may want to use while loading ptserial.o are:

For all HALs :

- irq: Force to using irq #.

- iobase: Force to use iobase for modem detection.

Only for I810/VAI686A HALs:

- iobase1: Force the iobase 1

Note NOTE: if you want to set iobase or iobase1, you should use irq/iobase/  
     iobase1 at same time.                                                   

Only for CM8738/PCT789 HALs:

- vendor_id: vendor ID of the modem

- device_id: device ID of the modem.

Note NOTE: vendor_id and device_id should be used at the same time, but you  
     cannot combinate this two options with iobase, iobase prevail to (vendor
     /device)_id detection.                                                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5. The sequence of loading/unloading the modules.

When you load the modules, you must load the pctel.o module at first

bash$ insmod pctel

and then the ptserial.o

bash$ insmod ptserial

While unloading, the sequence is reversed,

bash$ rmmod ptserial

bash$ rmmod pctel
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.6. Bugs in the pctel-0.9.6 and the 0.8.6 versions.

There is a serious bug in the drivers for the kernel 2.4x The modem often
seems to stop working/hang while dialing out, and you get nothing but a
beeeeeeeeee... sound from the modem speaker and later, the dialer gives a
message No Carrier and disconnects.

This problem has no real workaround , but sometimes unloading and reloading
of the modules work. For that the commands will be (assuming that you have
the modules in /lib/modules/'your kernel version`/misc/ )

bash$ rmmod ptserial

bash$ rmmod pctel

bash$ insmod pctel

bash$ insmod ptserial

Note You must exit from your dialer before trying to unload the drivers,     
     otherwise you will get a device or resource busy error.                 

When the problems become too acute, the only solution seems to be rebooting.

It has been also noticed that sometimes, this problem is ISP dependent, with
the problem surfacing when using a particular ISP.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.7. Directory of the kernel source files

If you get an error saying /usr/src/linux/include/linux/modversions.h : no
such file or directory, look in your /usr/src directory for the kernel
source. The default location is /usr/src/linux/ but some distributions may
install the files somewhere else.

If you find that the files are somewhere else, say in the directory, /usr/src
/myspecialsource/ , do not try to move the files, just create a symbolic link
with the command

bash$ ln -s /usr/src/myspecialdirectory/ /usr/src/linux/

Note In case of the PCTel-0.8.6 or newer drivers you can also specify the    
     location of your kernel source by using the option                      
                                                                             
     bash$ --with-kernel-includes=your kernel source directory               
                                                                             
     during running the configure script.                                    
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.8. PnP BIOS issues

As most computers are designed for M$-Windows operating systems, the BIOS of
the computer assumes that you have a what it calls a "PnP OS installed". This
may cause trouble with these types of modems in GNU/Linux (specially if you
have resource conflicts) and so the best bet is to change the option "PnP OS
installed" to "No". To do these, you have to perform the following steps:

During startup, when you see "Memory Test" messages, CPU information, BIOS
information, just press the DEL key (if that does not work, usually one of
the Function (Fx) keys work..check your manual).

You will be presented with the BIOS configuration menu. Enter the "PNP/PCI
Configuration" section and set the option for "PNP OS Installed" to "NO".
Save the changes you have made, and then reboot.

Warning This is not applicable to all BIOSs, and you are advised to consult  
        your PC documentation if you have a different kind of BIOS           
        configuration menu.                                                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.9. AMR modems

There are certain PCTel chip set based internal modems that go into AMR slots
instead of the normal PCI slots. They are usually identified as HSP MR by the
bash$ lspci command. These modems are supported by the pctel-0.9.6 drivers
only.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.10. Possible conflict with sound modules

Recently, there were some posts in the discuss@linmodems.org list that the
PCTel modules worked only after the sound modules were unloaded with the 
bash$ rmmod command. If you do not get a response from your modem even after
the pctel.o and ptserial.o modules have been loaded, then you can try
unloading the sound modules, and then reloading the PCTel modules. However,
this problem does not occur if you are using the commercial ($$$) drivers
from [http://www.opensound.com] www.opensound.com .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. FAQ/Troubleshooting

Here is a set of common problems that you may face, along with their possible
solutions.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1. Compiling Problems

8.1.1. I get a configure: error: You must have linux kernel >= 2.4.0
    installed during ./configure
8.1.2. I get a /usr/src/linux/include/linux/modversions.h : no such file or
    directory
8.1.3. I get a permission denied error while running bash$ make install
8.1.4. I have gcc 3 and while compiling, I get an error which goes like this
    <command line>:1:13: multi-line string literals are deprecated make[3]: *
    ** [ptserial.o] Error 1.
8.1.5. I have RedHat 8.0/Mandrake 9.0, and I am having troubles compiling the
    drivers.

8.1.1. I get a configure: error: You must have linux kernel >= 2.4.0
installed during ./configure

If this occurs, you will have to patch your configure script. Download the
file configure.patch from [http://www.peacefulaction.org/sayamindu/
configure.patch] here and give the command

cat configure.patch | patch -p0

Note I am supposing that you are in the pctel-0.9.6 directory, and the       
     configure.patch is also in that directory                               

8.1.2. I get a /usr/src/linux/include/linux/modversions.h : no such file or
directory

You need to have your kernel source installed under /usr/src/linux/

If you have the kernel source installed somewhere else, just make the
appropriate symlink. (see section 7.7 for more information) If you have that
installed under /usr/src/linux/ , run

bash$ make config

bash$ make dep

in /usr/src/linux/

8.1.3. I get a permission denied error while running bash$ make install

You need to be logged in as root while doing bash$ make install

8.1.4. I have gcc 3 and while compiling, I get an error which goes like this
<command line>:1:13: multi-line string literals are deprecated make[3]: ***
[ptserial.o] Error 1.

This should not happen anymore since the pctel-0.9.6 driver was released to
address this issue. However, if you still face such a problem, (with an older
driver or something like that), you will have to edit the file <your pctel
directory>src/ptserial/Makefile. In that file, find out the line which says

CFLAGS = -D__KERNEL__ -Werror -Wno-trigraphs -fno-common -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -pipe -fno-strength-reduce -DMODULE -DMODVERSIONS -DEXPORT_SYMTAB -D$(HAL_TARGET) $(AUDIO_ROUTING) -DBUILD_SYSTEM=\""$(BUILD_SYSTEM)\"" -DGCC_VERSION=\""$(GCC_VERSION)\"" -I$(top_srcdir)/include -I$(KERNEL_INCLUDES) -include $(KERNEL_INCLUDES)/linux/modversions.h

and change that to

CFLAGS = -D__KERNEL__  -Wno-trigraphs -fno-common -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -pipe -fno-strength-reduce -DMODULE -DMODVERSIONS -DEXPORT_SYMTAB -D$(HAL_TARGET) $(AUDIO_ROUTING) -DBUILD_SYSTEM=\""$(BUILD_SYSTEM)\"" -DGCC_VERSION=\""$(GCC_VERSION)\"" -I$(top_srcdir)/include -I$(KERNEL_INCLUDES) -include $(KERNEL_INCLUDES)/linux/modversions.h

....and then recompile.

Tip If you cannot find the file src/ptserial/Makefile, then run the configure
    script, and try again.                                                   

Alternatively, you may also try out the pre-compiled (distro specific)
drivers at [http://www.geocities.com/jcmp3/] http://www.geocities.com/jcmp3/.
Just note that I have not personally tested out these drivers, and I don't
know much about them.

8.1.5. I have RedHat 8.0/Mandrake 9.0, and I am having troubles compiling the
drivers.

See the answer to the previous question (8.1.4).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2. Problems while loading the modules.

8.2.1. I get unresolved symbols.... messages while loading the modules
8.2.2. I get an Operation not permitted error while trying to load the
    drivers
8.2.3. I get a Warning: loading /lib/modules/2.4.19/misc/ptserial.o will
    taint the kernel: non-GPL license - GPL linked with proprietary libraries
    message while loading the modules.
8.2.4. I get a The module you are trying to load (/lib/modules/2.4.18-14/misc
    /pctel.o) is compiled with a gcc version 2 compiler, while the kernel you
    are running is compiled with a gcc version 3 compiler. This is known to
    not work. message while loading the modules.

8.2.1. I get unresolved symbols.... messages while loading the modules

Firstly, check that you are loading ptserial.o only after loading pctel.o.

If that does not solve the problem, then probably you have compiled your
modules for the wrong kernel version. Check your kernel version with the
command

bash$ uname -r

and then verify if you have the right files in /usr/src/linux .

Moreover, if you have a running kernel for a uniprocessor machine and have
kernel source in /usr/src/linux/ that is configured for smp support, then you
will get unresolved symbols. A method to check whether you have a smp
supporting source is by running bash$ make menuconfig in /usr/src/linux/ and
seeing whether smp support is selected.

Another way to get rid of the unresolved symbols problem is to use the
fixscript package from [http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/pctel-linux/
fixscript.gz] http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/pctel-linux/fixscript.gz

The procedure is to:

Unpack the downloaded file with

bash$ gzip -d fixscript.gz

Make it executable with

bash$ chmod +x fixscript

Run it with

bash$ ./fixscript old_module.o new_module.o

This will create the new module, which you can try to load with

bash$ insmod new_module.o

If fixscript reports an error like

objcopy: --redefine-sym: Symbol x is target of more than one redefinition

then, fixscript can not help you.

The best method is of course, to fix your kernel source and recompile the
drivers.

Make sure that you do a

bash$ make clean

before recompiling.

8.2.2. I get an Operation not permitted error while trying to load the
drivers

You will have to be logged in as root to load the drivers, otherwise, you can
also type in the

bash$ su

command and then load the drivers.

8.2.3. I get a Warning: loading /lib/modules/2.4.19/misc/ptserial.o will
taint the kernel: non-GPL license - GPL linked with proprietary libraries
message while loading the modules.

This message is just to inform you that you are loading a proprietary module
which is not supported by the Linux kernel developers. It also serves as a
warning that the drivers have not been officially tested with the kernel, and
may cause problems, and tells you that you should not send bug reports to the
kernel developers if you face system instability or any other problems after
loading these proprietary drivers.

Note Just remember that this is not a error message - it just informs you    
     that you are using an unsupported module.                               

8.2.4. I get a The module you are trying to load (/lib/modules/2.4.18-14/misc
/pctel.o) is compiled with a gcc version 2 compiler, while the kernel you are
running is compiled with a gcc version 3 compiler. This is known to not work.
message while loading the modules.

Try to load the modules with the commands with insmod -f pctel and insmod -f
ptserial instead of the plain insmod pctel and insmod ptserial.

Warning Just remember that this is not a very nice hack.                     
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.3. General modem based problems.

8.3.1. I get a /dev/modem no such device error.
8.3.2. My dialer gives a No Carrier error
8.3.3. I get a No Dialtone message.
8.3.4. I get a Modem Busy error.

8.3.1. I get a /dev/modem no such device error.

First of all, check if you really have the drivers loaded. You can do this by
the command

bash$ lsmod

This command lists all the modules that you have loaded, and if you see
something like

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Module                  Size  Used by                                      |
|ptserial               47472   0 (unused)                                  |
|pctel                1211808   0 [ptserial]                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

then, the modules are correctly loaded.

If not, just load them and retry.

Also check whether the file /dev/modem is symlinked to /dev/ttyS15

Remember, even if msdos or Microsoft Windows tells you that the modem is in
com 3 or com 4, in GNU/Linux the driver makes it appear in /dev/ttyS15 (the
Microsoft equivalent of which will be com 16!!)

If you are in doubt, I suggest that you re-create the device files by the
commands

bash$ rmmod ptserial

bash$ rmmod pctel

bash$ rm /dev/ttyS15 �/dev/modem

bash$ mknod /dev/ttyS15 c 62 79

NOTE: the numbers after /devttyS15 are distribution specific, and the c 62 79
works for Red Hat Linux and derivatives. If you have any other distribution,
please check your documentations.

bash$ chgrp uucp /dev/ttyS15

bash$ chmod 666 �/dev/ttyS15

bash$ ln -s /dev/ttyS15 /dev/modem

8.3.2. My dialer gives a No Carrier error

This is a bug with the drivers for the kernel 2.4x series

Refer to section 7.6 for more information.

8.3.3. I get a No Dialtone message.

This is usually solved by adding ATX3 to your modem init strings. The process
of adding the ATX3 init string varies depending on the dialer you are using.
For example, if you are using wvdial, you need to add X3 at the end of the
Init2 line in the file /etc/wvdial.conf. On the other hand, if you are using 
KPPP, you will have to add ATX3 in the Initialization String 1 field, which
can be found in the Modem Commands section of the Modem of the Setup dialogue
box of KPPP.

8.3.4. I get a Modem Busy error.

First of all, check if the drivers are loaded or not and then see, if any
program is using the modem. If everything seems to be all right, try to find
out the irq of your modem with the command

bash$ lspci -v

If the irq listed is obviously incorrect (like 0) (or does not tally with
your M$-Windows configuration) then either use the setserial command

bash$ setserial /dev/ttyS15 irq * (where * is the irq of your modem)

or fiddle with the BIOS settings (see section 7.8)

Another possibilty may be that your sound modules are conflicting with the
PCTel modules. Refer to section 7.10 for this.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.4. I have a problem that is not listed in this section. What do I do?

The output of the command

bash$ tail /var/log/messages 

will give you a lot of information if anything goes wrong The normal output
should be something like this

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Nov 11 10:50:24 localhost kernel: PCTel device[00:09.0](0x48) found "PCTel Inc HSP MicroModem 56 (rev 01)", iobase=0xe400, irq=12.                             |
|Nov 11 10:50:24 localhost kernel: PCTel driver version 0.9.5 [5.05c-4.27.215 (09-14-2001)] (PCT789) (2002-01-31) with MANY_PORTS SHARE_IRQ SERIAL_PCI enabled. |
|Nov 11 10:50:24 localhost kernel: PCTel driver built on [Linux 2.4.18-14 i686 i686 "2.4.18-14 <132114>"] with gcc-gcc (GCC) 3.2                                |
|20020903 (Red Hat Linux 8.0 3.2-7).                                                                                                                            |
|Nov 11 10:50:24 localhost kernel: ttyS15 at 0xe400 (irq = 12) is a PCTel                                                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Mail the output you get to the <discuss@linmodems.org> list( more on this in
section 9.2.2), and wait for a reply.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Appendix

9.1. A sample script file to load the modules.

#! /bin/bash                                                                 
                                                                             
/sbin/insmod /lib/modules/`uname -r`/misc/pctel.o                            
                                                                             
/sbin/insmod /lib/modules/`uname -r`/misc/ptserial.o                         
                                                                             
# end file                                                                   

You can save this file as modemon and then isuue the commands

bash$ chmod 700 modemon

bash$ cp modemon /usr/bin/modemon

Now, whenever you type in the command bash$ modemon , the modules will get
loaded automatically
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2. Web Resources

There are a number of websites, mailing lists that may help you while you try
to configure your modem.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2.1. Web sites

The unofficial pctel linux driver site at [http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/
pctel-linux/] http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/pctel-linux/

The unofficial PCTel modem-Linux compatibility database at [http://
pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net] http://pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net.

The linmodem site (the mother page of all linmodem projets) at [http://
www.linmodems.org] http://www.linmodems.org

A huge lists of lin/winmodems at [ http://www.idir.net/~gromitkc/
winmodem.html ] http://www.idir.net/~gromitkc/winmodem.html

A list of AT commands from PCTel at [http://www.pctel.com/atcommands_dev.htm]
http://www.pctel.com/atcommands_dev.htm

For latest information related to linmodems, visit [http://
linmodems.technion.ac.il/] http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/.

The linmodem-howto is available at [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/
Linmodem-HOWTO.html] http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Linmodem-HOWTO.html.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.2.2. Mailing lists

The most important mailing list for linmodems is

<discuss@linmodems.org>

You can subscribe to that list by going to �

[http://www.linmodems.org] http://www.linmodems.org or by sending a blank
e-mail to <discuss-subscribe@linmodems.org> .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.3. Other drivers that are available

I have seen a number of modem manufacturers (Dax, Zoltrix, Lectron, Tiacom
etc) providing linux drivers for their modems that have PCTel chip sets.

Actually most (if not all) of these drivers are slightly modified form of the
drivers at Jan's and the modems.dewback.cl site, and so, in most cases, there
is no point in downloading them.

However, you may try out the pre-compiled (distro specific) drivers at [http:
//www.geocities.com/jcmp3/] http://www.geocities.com/jcmp3/. Just note that I
have not personally tested out these drivers, and I don't know much about
them.

Moreover, in the early days of 2.4x kernels, Thomas Wright had made a PCTel
driver and you can find it in his website at [http://www.geocities.com/
tom_in_rc/] http://www.geocities.com/tom_in_rc/.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.4. Identifying the chip set of the modem

Well, the best way to identify the chip set of your modem is to open up the
cabinet of the machine., gently pull out the modem from it's slot (only if it
is not integrated into your motherboard), and see the name printed on the
black chip on the modem. (be very very careful while doing these, and make
sure that all power supplies to the system is disconnected, and touch the
ground/a metallic surface before handling any of the circuitry/wires in the
machine). But sometimes, this is not possible and so you will have to adopt
other methods.

The next best method is to run the command

bash$ lspci -n

This command will give you the numeric PCI id of your modem (you may have to
run bash$ lspci to crosscheck the device id) and you will have to submit the
number at [http://www.yourvote.com/pci/ ] http://www.yourvote.com/pci/ Here
you may or may not get the exact name of the chip set you have.

The unofficial PCTel modem-Linux compatibility database at [http://
pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net] http://pctelcompdb.sourceforge.net. might also
be of some help in this case

If you do not get the name, you can go through the database at [ http://
www.idir.net/~gromitkc/winmodem.html#drivers] http://www.idir.net/~gromitkc/
winmodem.html#drivers and search for an entry on your modem.

You can also ask at the local LUGs or ask your friends or even (a bad way, no
doubt), ask the support personnel of your modem manufacturer.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.5. Helping the author

If you have liked the miniHOWTO, or if you have benefitted from the contents,
then please do consider linking my project site Peaceful Action ([http://
www.peacefulaction.org] http://www.peacefulaction.org) from your homepage, or
whatever site you may be the webmaster of. See this page for more
information.

You may also consider telling your friends about [http://
www.peacefulaction.org] Peaceful Action . To recommend [http://
www.peacefulaction.org] Peaceful Action to a friend, please do visit this
[http://www.peacefulaction.org/modules.php?name=Recommend_Us] page.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.6. GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.1, March 2000

   
    Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite
    330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and
    distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is
    not allowed.
   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other written
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the
author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program
should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does.
But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any
textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose
is instruction or reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms
of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.
Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
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A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
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The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
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The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as
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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
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The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you
may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
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You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, and
the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
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Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
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If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
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If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
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It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the
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 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
   
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 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
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 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
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 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
   
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 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
    access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
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 K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the
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 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
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 M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be
    included in the Modified Version.
   
 N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in
    title with any Invariant Section.
   

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any
other section titles.

You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an
organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of
Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and
one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old
one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old
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The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions,
provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of
all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
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In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the
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"Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
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copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
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7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the
Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation.
Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply
to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account
of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround
only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers
around the whole aggregate.
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8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their
copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant
Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include
the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this License, the
original English version will prevail.
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9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically
terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
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10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be
similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/] http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any
later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has
been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.





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