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Burning a RedHat CD HOWTO

Luigi Bitonti

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Morten Kjeldgaard

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Peter von der Ah�

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Guillaume Lelarge - Review and French translation.

Copyright � 2002, 2003 Luigi Bitonti

Copyright � 2000 Morten Kjeldgaard, and Peter von der Ah�
Revision History                                                             
Revision v2.1             2003-10-17            Revised by: lb               
Added RedHat 9. Fixed some minor bugs. Thanks to all the people who have sent
in comments and patches.                                                     
Revision v2.03            2003-03-10            Revised by: lb               
Added some comments and fixes to the howto. The anaconda updates are now     
included correctly even for versions >= 7.x.                                 
Revision v2.02            2003-03-06            Revised by: lb               
The signature checking now works for packages targeted to versions of RedHat 
different from the one used to run the scripts. Corrected a bug in the       
version comparison section of the scripts.                                   
Revision v2.01            2002-12-04            Revised by: lb               
Second release of the new version of the howto. All the scripts were reviewed
and cleaned. The updateDist.sh script now checks that all the updates were   
downloaded before checking the signatures.                                   
Revision v2.00            2002-10-28            Revised by: lb               
First release of the new version (2.00) of the HOWTO                         


This document describes how to make your own CDs from different releases of
the Red Hat Linux distribution (up to and including release 9), equivalent to
the ones commercially available from Red Hat. The structure of the
distribution is described, as well as the procedure needed to include updated
RPMS into the distribution. Some hints and examples on how to customize the
default installation are also presented. Scripts to automate as much as
possible the (re)generation of the CD images are included. Prerequisites are
a good network connection, and a CD-writer (a working knowledge of shell
scripting could be really useful, though).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. Disclaimer and License
   
   
2. Anatomy of the Red Hat FTP site
    2.1. Redhat 9 directories organization
    2.2. The "RedHat" directory -- the core of the distribution
    2.3. The "updates" directory
    2.4. Differences for the 8.0 tree
    2.5. Differences for the 7.x tree
    2.6. Differences for the 6.x tree
   
   
3. RPM packages
    3.1. Comparing two versions of a RPM package
   
   
4. Obtaining your local copy of the distribution
    4.1. Using wget and bash
    4.2. Using mirror
   
   
5. Including the updates
    5.1. Correcting the file protection modes
    5.2. Replacing the updated RPMS
    5.3. Rebuilding the installer
   
   
6. Burning the CD(s)
    6.1. Test the image(s)
    6.2. Burn the disk(s)
   
   
7. The comps file
    7.1. Format of comps file in RedHat versions < 6.1
    7.2. Format of comps file in RedHat version 6.1
    7.3. Format of comps file in RedHat version 6.2
    7.4. Format of comps file in RedHat version 7.3
    7.5. Format of comps file in RedHat version 8.0 and 9
   
   
8. Installing from the CD
    8.1. Booting from a bootable CD
   
   
9. Other Linux distributions
10. This document...
    10.1. Related documentation
    10.2. Acknowledgements
   
   

1. Introduction

There may be several reasons for making your own CDs. Perhaps you're a
cheapskate and want to save the cost of the [http://www.redhat.com/] Red Hat
distribution. Or, perhaps you want to include in your CDs the latest
distribution with all the current updates. This is highly relevant, because
after each major release of the Red Hat distribution, there have been loads
of updates, several of which are security related. Just take a look at the
[http://www.redhat.com/corp/support/errata] errata page. Or maybe you want to
customize the default installation adding a few packages not present in the
default tree and unselecting the installation of some packages which are
otherwise included in the default setup.

This is what you will be taught in the next sections (hopefully). I will use
the i386 architecture and releases 7.3, 8.0 and 9 of the distribution in the
examples. The notes related to the previous releases (<=6.1) were contained
in a previous version of this document and were compiled by the original
authors. The notes related to release 6.2 are based on tests I've not
completed (and I don't know if I ever will) and some documents you can find
linked in the Related documentation section. The procedure given in the
following sections for RedHat 7.3 and 8.0 is likely to work on all platforms
supported by Red Hat (Alpha, ppc, etc.), for all the 7.x (and maybe 8.x/9 in
a not too far future) releases, but I have only tested it on the i386
platform with Redhat Linux 7.3, 8.0 and 9 (I would be interested in
additional information).

Note The operations described have legal implications, meaning you cannot    
     redistribute the CDs as RedHat Linux if you modify them in ways not     
     compliant to Redhat trademark policy. To make them legally              
     redistributable, you should always comply with the guidelines stated on 
     the RedHat website .                                                    

Note Always remember to set the variables in the rhcd.conf file and export   
     the RHCDPATH environment variable before running the scripts you will   
     find throughout the rest of this document and related to releases >=6.2 
     of RedHat Linux. An example [rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf] rhcd.conf file,    
     which should be well commented, is provided with the scripts.           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. Disclaimer and License

This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Neither the author nor the distributors, or any other contributor of this
document are in any way responsible for physical, financial, moral or any
other type of damage incurred by following the suggestions in this text.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Anatomy of the Red Hat FTP site

In the spirit of the Linux community, Red Hat Software has made available
their Linux distributions for several platforms on their FTP site. These are
all available from the top distribution directory ([ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/
redhat/linux/] pub/redhat/linux/). Let's have a look at the distribution
tree.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.1. Redhat 9 directories organization

The latest distribution is, as of this writing, available only for the i386
platform. The toplevel directory appears a bit shallow, given the presence of
a single architecture. (pub/redhat/linux/9/en/os/ ).
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        i386/                                                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Otherwise, the toplevel directory, for releases slightly older than 9,
contains distributions for the different platforms. For example, the
corresponding directory for release 7.1 of Redhat Linux, is structured this
way:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        alpha/   i386/   ia64/   ppc/   s390x/                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The root of the i386 directory in a Redhat 9 distribution looks like this:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                         |
|        -rwxr-xr-x    2 root     root          248 Mar 14  2003 autorun                  |
|        drwxr-xr-x    7 root     root         4096 Mar 14  2003 dosutils                 |
|        -rw-r--r--    3 root     root         6192 Mar 14  2003 EULA                     |
|        -rw-r--r--    3 root     root        18385 Mar 14  2003 GPL                      |
|        drwxr-xr-x    3 root     root         2048 Mar 14  2003 images                   |
|        drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         2048 Mar 14  2003 isolinux                 |
|        -rw-r--r--    3 root     root         6127 Mar 14  2003 README                   |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        13052 Mar 14  2003 README-Accessibility     |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         6686 Mar 14  2003 README.de                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         6990 Mar 14  2003 README.es                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         6492 Mar 14  2003 README.fr                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         6805 Mar 14  2003 README.it                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         7995 Mar 14  2003 README.ja                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         7312 Mar 14  2003 README.ko                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         5070 Mar 14  2003 README.pt                |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         6613 Mar 14  2003 README.pt_BR             |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         5879 Mar 14  2003 README.zh_CN             |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root         5892 Mar 14  2003 README.zh_TW             |
|        drwxr-xr-x    4 root     root         2048 Mar 14  2003 RedHat                   |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        25824 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES            |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        29902 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-de.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        30409 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-es.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        32354 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-fr.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        30064 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES.html       |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        29925 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-it.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        34666 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-ja.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        33520 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-ko.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        29496 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-pt_BR.html |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        22747 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-pt.html    |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        25217 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-zh_CN.html |
|        -rw-r--r--    2 root     root        26645 Mar 14  2003 RELEASE-NOTES-zh_TW.html |
|        -rw-r--r--    3 root     root         1910 Mar 14  2003 RPM-GPG-KEY              |
|        -r--r--r--    1 root     root         1823 Mar 14  2003 TRANS.TBL                |
|                                                                                         |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The SRPMS directory contains the RPMS packages in source form.

The images directory contains boot and drivers floppy images that can be
copied to a diskette if needed. In the 9 release, there is only one boot disk
image available. This boot image is named bootdisk.img. A secondary driver
disk is required beside this one if the installation is not performed
directly from a CD-ROM or HD. A boot.iso file has now been added to boot a
machine from the cdrom drive and start (network) installations more easily
(i.e. without messing up with too many floppies). See section Installation
and references therein for details and consult the README file in the
directory for a more detailed explanation of the various files.

The isolinux directory contains the files needed to boot from the CD (and to
rebuild bootable CDs which work the same way). This process was moved from
floppy emulation to no emulation. This helps avoiding space constraints and
compatibility problems.

The dosutils directory contains various programs for some other operating
systems which are sometimes useful to support the installation process. An
explanatory README file is included also in this case.

The listing is completed by a lot of files and the RedHat directory. The
latter is the subject of the next sections while the formers have contents
which will appear straightforward by simply reading their names (perhaps
apart from the EULA, or End User License Agreement).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. The "RedHat" directory -- the core of the distribution

The most important part of the directory tree is rooted in the RedHat
directory:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root        53248 Jun 14 03:15 RPMS       |
|        drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root          4096 Jun 14 04:15 base      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The RPMS directory contains the major part of the Red Hat distribution
consisting of a set of RPM (Redhat Package Manager) files. An RPM package
typically contains binary executables, along with relevant configuration
files and documentation. See the section RPM packages for more information.

  The base directory holds different files needed during the installation
process, like the comps.xml file, which defines the components (groups of
packages) used during the "Choose packages to install" phase. See section The
comps file for more information on this file, and how to use it.

Two other important files in the base directory are hdlist and hdlist2
containing most of the header fields from all the RPMs in the RPMS directory.
This means that all the interdependencies among RPM packages can be
determined just by reading these files without having to read all the RPM
packages which is quite convenient especially during FTP installs. Another
use of these files is mapping package names to file names (eg. perl to 
perl-5.004-6.i386.rpm). This means that if you want to incorporate updates
from RedHat (see section Including the updates) or add your own packages to
the RPMS directory, you need to update hdlist and hdlist2. This is described
later in Rebuilding the installer. Besides these files, the images from which
the installation environment (i.e. kernel, python interpreter, anaconda,
etc.) is loaded are found.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.3. The "updates" directory

The /pub/redhat/linux/updates directory has updates for all releases of
RedHat's distribution since version 3.0.3. This is the place to find software
packages that have been updated for some reason or other. You should
especially be aware of security updates. These are publicised on RedHat's
errata page whenever a fix is available. The most important files found in
the updates directory are:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        drwxrwsr-x    3 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:13 5.2      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    3 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:13 6.0      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    3 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:13 6.1      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    4 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 6.2      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    4 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 7.0      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    4 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 7.1      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    4 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:13 7.2      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    3 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 7.3      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    3 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 8.0      |
|        drwxrwsr-x    3 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 9        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The structure of each of these directories is similar to that described in
the section The Redhat 9 tree. So you will find for each version, in the
subdirectory en/os/ a series of subdirectories representing the various
architectures and a noarch and SRPMS subdirectories, for packages which work
on every architecture or are in source form respectively.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          4096 Sep 23 05:28 SRPMS    |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          4096 Aug 28 18:25 athlon   |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          8192 Sep 23 05:28 i386     |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 i486     |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          4096 Aug 28 18:26 i586     |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          4096 Aug 28 18:26 i686     |
|        drwxrwsr-x    2 root      root          4096 Jul 13 10:14 noarch   |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4. Differences for the 8.0 tree

The 8.0 distribution layout is almost identical to the one just described.
The only major differences, in this respect, can be found in the images
directory.

The images directory contains boot and drivers floppy images that can be
copied to a diskette if needed. In the 8.0 release, there are three boot disk
images available. The first boot image is called boot.img, and is required
when installation is performed directly from a CD-ROM. If installing from a
NFS mounted disk or FTP is required, the bootnet.img disk image is needed.
Installs through PCMCIA adapters need the pcmcia.img floppy. See section 
Installation and references therein for details and consult the README file
in the directory for a more detailed explanation of the various files.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5. Differences for the 7.x tree

The two distributions are fairly similar in this respect. The only changes
which are of some interest to us (and easy to notice with a simple inspection
of the main distribution tree) are represented by a missing isolinux
directory and some changes in the RedHat/base directory. The first one is due
to the way the installation CDs are made bootable in releases prior to 8.0 (
"floppy emulation" has been superseded by "no emulation" in release 8.0),
while the second is an effect of the migration of the comps file format to 
XML in Redhat releases after 8.0 (that's why it was renamed comps.xml). The
Redhat/base/comps file is, in fact, a simple textual file with a quite
inflexible syntax in releases prior to and including Redhat 7.3.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.6. Differences for the 6.x tree

For release 6.2 ([ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/6.2/en/os/] pub/
redhat/linux/6.2/en/os/), the last of the 6 series, the organization is the
following (the previous releases are mostly similar if not really equal, in
this respect):

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        alpha/   i386/   sparc/                                            |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

While the root of the i386 directory looks like this:
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        18385 Sep  7  1999 COPYING       |
|        -rw-r--r--    1 root     root         3400 Mar  8  2000 README        |
|        -rw-r--r--    1 root     root        16300 Mar  8  2000 RELEASE-NOTES |
|        -rw-r--r--    1 root     root         1908 Sep 25  1999 RPM-GPG-KEY   |
|        drwxr-xr-x    1 root     root          512 Sep 27 15:22 RedHat        |
|        drwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        17408 Sep 27 15:22 SRPMS         |
|        -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root          538 Sep 26  1999 autorun       |
|        -rwxr--r--    1 root     root         2048 Mar  9  2000 boot.cat      |
|        drwxr-xr-x    1 root     root          512 Sep 27 15:22 doc           |
|        drwxr-xr-x    1 root     root          512 Sep 27 15:22 dosutils      |
|        drwxr-xr-x    1 root     root          512 Sep 27 15:22 images        |
|        drwxr-xr-x    1 root     root          512 Sep 27 15:22 misc          |
|                                                                              |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

In the following paragraphs I will only list differences from the newest
releases, what is not explicitly mentioned is (or is believed to be)
unchanged.

The doc directory contains an abundance of information. Most importantly, the
RedHat installation manual can be found in HTML format in the directory or on
the Redhat website ([http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-6.2-Manual/
install-guide/] Redhat 6.2 Installation guide). Next, there are the reference
guide and the getting started guide. The documentation for the 7.x/8.0/9
releases is on a separate CD (in a different tree, on the ftp site).

The images directory contains boot floppy images that can be copied to a
diskette if needed, like for 8.0, 7.3 and 9. See section Installation and
references therein for details. The misc directory contains source and
executables of a number of programs needed for the installation.

The most important part of the directory tree is (again) rooted in the RedHat
directory:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root    28672   Oct 26 09:01   RPMS        |
|        drwxr-xr-x   2 root     root     4096   Oct 26 09:01   base        |
|        -rw-r--r--   1 root     root        0   Jan 19  1999   i386        |
|        drwxr-xr-x   6 root     root     4096   Oct 26 09:01   instimage   |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The RPMS directory should be already known to you. See the section RPM
packages for more informations. The base directory holds different
book-keeping files needed during the installation process, like for releases
7.3, 8.0 and 9. The only noticeable differences being represented by a single
hdlist file and a missing stage2.img file whose functionalities should be
provided by the files included in the instimage directory. This contains, in
fact, a bare-bones live file system with a number of programs and shared
libraries needed during the installation procedure.

The updates directory is really similar to the one described for release 9
with the only difference of having more architecture related directories.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. RPM packages

The major part of the Red Hat distribution consists of a set of RPM (Redhat
Package Manager) files. An RPM package typically contains binary executables,
along with relevant configuration files and documentation. The [http://
www.rpm.org] rpm program is a powerful package manager, which can be used to
install, query, verify, update, erase and build software packages in the RPM
format. Rpm convieniently maintains a database of all the software packages
it has installed, so information on the installed software is available at
any time.

The binary RPM files in the distribution have been built on a system running
the distribution itself. This is important, because most of the programs in
the packages rely on shared libraries. From RedHat version 5.0, the new
version 2 of the GNU standard C library (which is 64-bit clean) has been
used. This version of the library is commonly referred to as glibc or in
Linux: libc 6. All executables in the distribution have been linked against
this library. If you attempt to install binary files from a different
distribution, chances are that they will not work, unless you install the
libc5 package for backwards compability. There are also incompatibilities
between the various version of the Redhat Package Manager itself which will
make the installation of some packages fail even on machines they are
supposed to (and they would probably) run on.

The names of the RPM packages contain the suffix .arch.rpm, where arch is the
architecture, usually having the value i386 for Intel platform binaries. The
packages you install must match the versions of the shared libraries
available on the machine. The [http://www.rpm.org] rpm program is usually
quite good at ensuring that this is indeed the case, however, there are ways
around this check, and you should be sure that you know what you are doing if
you force installation of packages this way. However, using the RedHat
installation boot disk, it is ensured that the correct set of RPM packages
are installed on the machine.

If you discover a RPM package that was not installed on your system during
the installation process, don't despair. At any time, you may (as root)
install RPM packages, for example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|      # rpm --install  WindowMaker-0.18-1b.i386.rpm                        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You can even install directly from the Internet, if you know the URL of a RPM
package:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|      # rpm --install ftp://rufus.w3.org/redhat-contrib/noarch/mirror-2.9-2.noarch.rpm |
|                                                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you want to update (or install if it's not present on the machine) a RPM
package, use the command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|      # rpm --update  WindowMaker-0.18-1b.i386.rpm                         |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you want to update a RPM package only if a previous version is already
installed on the machine use the command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|      # rpm --freshen  WindowMaker-0.18-1b.i386.rpm                        |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Another version of the RPM packages contains the original sources used to
build the binaries. These packages have the suffix .src.rpm and are situated
in the SRPMS directory. These packages compose the last two CDs and part of
the third one out of the five which compose the 8.0 (or 7.3) release. For
release 9 they are on three separate CDs. For 6.2 (and previous, not too old,
versions), things change a bit because there is only one installation CD not
comprising the SRPMS packages, which you can burn on a different disc, if you
want.

To obtain more informations on the Redhat package manager, I suggest you to
read the man pages and the fairly detailed book [http://www.rpm.org/max-rpm/]
maximum rpm.

In the next section, I will introduce a C program which will be used in
various scripts throughout the rest of the howto. It just returns, given two
versions of the same RPM package, which one is newer. This program is based
on the code used in the Redhat Package Manager (release 4.1) and is used when
the --freshen option is given.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Comparing two versions of a RPM package

The C code included in the three files [rhcd-scripts/rpmvc/Makefile]
Makefile, [rhcd-scripts/rpmvc/rvc.h] rvc.h, [rhcd-scripts/rpmvc/rvc.c] rvc.c
was extracted from the Redhat Package Manager and (slightly) modified to fit
our needs. They form a simple C program which given two versions A and B of a
package returns 1, 0 or -1 if A is respectively newer, equal or older than B
and other values in case of error (you can read the code comments for more
detailed informations). To compile the program (you need the make program and
the gcc C compiler), put the files in the same directory and issue the
command:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ make                                                             |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This program is needed by almost every script used in the following sections
and is found setting the RVC variable in the file [rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf]
rhcd.conf.

You can find a copy of the source and a precompiled version in the archive
[rhcd-scripts.tar.gz] rhcd-sripts.tar.gz in the rpmvc directory.

Note There was an error in the way this program was used by the updateDist.sh
     (ver. < 1.17) and updateCD.sh (ver. < 1.12) scripts. I strongly suggest 
     to avoid versions of the scripts which have lower release numbers than  
     the reported ones, even if the problem doesn't show up really frequently
     (at least apparently).                                                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Obtaining your local copy of the distribution

You need a copy of the distribution on a writable disk which is accessible
from the computer having the CD writer (duh!). If you want to incorporate the
latest updates, this directory should (also) be accessible from a Linux
machine, either from a local disk, an NFS mounted disk on a different
computer, or a JAZ disk. You could copy the distribution from the RedHat CDs
(recommended), or you could get it via FTP. If you choose to use FTP, there
are two ways of doing it. You can use the wget based shell script presented
in the following section or the mirror package as suggested in versions up to
and including 1.34 of the howto (reported in section Using mirror).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Using wget and bash

This is not the simplest, even if, probably, the most accurate way. I like it
because it works comparing the RPM versions of the files and not the dates/
times or names (like the standard mirroring packages) and it checks the
signatures of the updates each time it downloads some of them if configured
to do so by means of the CHECKSIG variable in the [rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf]
rhcd.conf file.

Create a directory to hold the installation files and cd into it, then issue
the command (which will download ~3Gb of data on your hard drive):

+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                                |
|        $ wget -r -c -t0 -l0 --retr-symlinks -nH --cut-dirs=9 \                                 |
|            ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/7.3/en/os/i386 |
|                                                                                                |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You will probably want to change the ftp download mirror and, consequently,
the parameter passed to the --cut-dirs option. That's used, in fact, together
with -nH to avoid the recreation of the ftp site directory hierarchy. For
more information on how to use the option correctly you can have a look at
the [http://www.gnu.org/manual/wget-1.8.1/wget.html] wget documentation and
man page.

If you want to exclude one or more directories from the download, you can use
the -X list option, where list represents a comma-separated list of
directories. For example to exclude the SRPMS directory from the previous
download, you would use:
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                                |
|        $ wget -r -c -t0 -l0 --retr-symlinks -nH --cut-dirs=9 \                                 |
|            -X /sites/ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/7.3/en/os/i386/SRPMS \            |
|            ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/7.3/en/os/i386 |
|                                                                                                |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This could be useful if you consider the size of the SRPMS directory
(~1.2GB), or at least, I find it useful.

If you want to check the GPG signatures to make sure of the authenticity of
the packages (which is something I suggest) you should install the gnupg
package (needed only on Redhat 7.3) and import the security@redhat.com public
key you can find in the root directory of the CDs (RPM-GPG-KEY) or on the 
RedHat website. The key is imported by running the command: gpg --import <
filename> in releases up to and including 7.3, which is to be changed to read
rpm --import <filename> for releases 8.0 and 9 (for more informations on this
have a look at the [http://www.gnupg.org/] GNU Privacy Guard and at the
[http://www.rpm.org/] RPM - Redhat Package Manager websites).

If you want to check the rpm packages you can do it using the following
command (I'm assuming you are issuing it from the directory you have
completed the downloads in):

For releases up to and including 7.3:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        $ find . -name "*.rpm" -exec rpm -K --nopgp {} \; |grep "NOT *OK"  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

For release 8.0 and 9 (and for future releases as well I guess):
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        $ find . -name "*.rpm" -exec rpm -K {} \; |grep "NOT *OK"          |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

If you don't want to "bother" yourself with all these steps, I hope you want
to check (at least) for the integrity of the downloaded files (which doesn't
mean nobody has tampered with them), verifying the md5 signatures. This is
done with:

For releases up to and including 7.3:
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                  |
|        $ find . -name "*.rpm" -exec rpm -K --nopgp --nogpg {} \; |grep "NOT *OK" |
|                                                                                  |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

For release 8.0 and 9 (and for future releases as well, I guess):
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                                |
|        $ find . -name "*.rpm" -exec rpm -K --nosignature {} \; |grep "NOT *OK" |
|                                                                                |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The content of a Red Hat distribution does not change between releases, so
you only need to download these packages ONCE. All changes to the
distribution are in the updates directory. Thus, if you want to keep an
up-to-date mirror of the Red Hat distribution, you only need to keep the
updates directory current. This is done using the script [rhcd-scripts/
updateDist.sh] updateDist.sh. Before using this script you have to configure
the [rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf] rhcd.conf configuration file and export a 
RHCDPATH variable pointing to the directory where this file is.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ export RHCDPATH=/home/luigi/tmp/rhcd-scripts                     |
|        $ sh updateDist.sh                                                 |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The script will download the new updates excluding the subdirectories
contained in the EXCLUDELIST variable, moving the old ones (i.e. just
superseded by new versions) to the directory represented by the OLDDIR
variable after having completed two tests. The first test compares the
.listing files generated by wget to the content of the local directories to
make sure all the files were downloaded. The second test verifies the
packages signatures depending on the values of the two variables CHECKSIG and
USEGPG (set both of them to "yes" if you want the operation to be completed).
In case of a failure in the signature checking process the script will move
the offending packages to OLDDIR assigning them the ".UPDcheckfail" extension
and exit without moving the old updates to OLDDIR.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Using mirror

Mirror is a sophisticated perl script that compares the content of a
directory on a remote site with a local directory. It will use FTP to fetch
the files that are on the remote site but not the local site, and delete
files on the local site that are not on the remote site. The mirror program
is configured with a configuration file. The mirror package is available as
an RPM from [http://rufus.w3.org/linux/RPM/mirror.html] rufus.w3.org. Make
your local copy mirror.redhat of the mirror configuration file, and edit the
relevant fields at the top of the file. After the default section, define
these packages:

                                                                                   
        package=updates                                                            
          site=ftp.mirror.ac.uk                                                    
          exclude_patt=(SRPMS/)                                                    
          remote_dir=/sites/ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/updates/7.3/en/os/i386 
          local_dir=/home/luigi/tmp/redhat-cd/redhat-7.3-updates                   
                                                                                   
        package=dist                                                               
          site=ftp.mirror.ac.uk                                                    
          exclude_patt=(SRPMS/)                                                    
          remote_dir=/sites/ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/7.3/en/os/i386         
          local_dir=/home/luigi/tmp/redhat-cd/redhat-7.3                           
                                                                                   

The following command will download a copy of the entire RedHat tree on your
local disk. **Think** before you do this, you are about to transfer
approximately 1.5Gb of data (if you have excluded the SRPMS directory)!

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        $ mirror -pdist mirror.redhat                                      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

This will mirror the Red Hat FTP site on your local disk. The content of a
Red Hat distribution does not change between releases, so you only need to
download this package ONCE. All changes to the distribution are in the
updates directory. Thus, if you want to keep an up-to-date mirror of the Red
Hat distribution, you only need to keep the updates directory current. This
is done using the command

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                           |
|        $ mirror -pupdates mirror.redhat                                   |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

You can run this regularly, say, once a week, through a cron script. The
RedHat distribution is available on a great number of FTP servers around the
world, which are updated daily from the master site at [ftp://ftp.redhat.com/
pub] ftp.redhat.com. You should choose an FTP site close to you, see the
[http://www.redhat.com/download/mirror.html] RedHat list of mirror sites.

Note I haven't personally tested this procedure. It was the only proposed one
     for the older versions of the howto (up to version 1.34, regarding      
     RedHat <=6.1).                                                          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Including the updates

There are three steps involved, the first two are (almost) equal in all the
releases, while the last one changes quite a bit because of the changes in
the anaconda installer:

 i. Correct the file protection modes
   
ii. Replace updated RPMs
   
iii. Rebuild the installer
   

To incorporate the updates, you need write access to the distribution
directory from a Linux machine, with a working version of [http://
www.rpm.org] rpm installed, while to rebuild the anaconda installer you need
to use a release of Redhat Linux equal to the one you are rebuilding the
installer for (otherwise the procedure will fail). If you maintain a mirror
of the updates directory, you can at any time produce a CD including the
current updates by repeating these steps.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. Correcting the file protection modes

During the installation process of the releases up to and including 6.2, some
programs are run directly off the CD. Unfortunately, the FTP program does not
always preserve the protection modes of the files and directories that are
copied. Therefore, it is necessary to make sure that execute permission is
given to programs, shell scripts and shared libraries, before the directory
is burned on the CD. This is done by running the [rhcd-scripts/updatePerm.sh]
updatePerm.sh script on your local copy of the distribution. It is really
needed only for version 6.2 and older, the only part useful to the 7.3/8.0/9
releases procedure is the directories permissions update, even if the rest
won't hurt and things are kept coherent. It is almost equal to the updatePerm
script included in the previous version of the howto, just some slight
changes were made. Before using this script you have to configure the
[rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf] rhcd.conf configuration file and export a RHCDPATH
variable pointing to the directory where this file is.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ export RHCDPATH=/home/luigi/tmp/rhcd-scripts                     |
|        $ sh updatePerm.sh                                                 |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. Replacing the updated RPMS

The [rhcd-scripts/updateCD.sh] updateCD.sh script copies all the new files
from the update directory to the RPMS (and SRPMS) directory. The script uses
the rvc program which was presented in section Comparing RPM versions to
determine which packages in the updates directory are more recent. Older
packages are moved to the ${OLDDIR} directory. If the CHECKSIG variable is
set to "yes", all the packages in the main tree will have their signature
checked for correctness. If a package fails the signature check (the kind of
check is configured by means of the USEGPG variable whose value is assigned
in the file [rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf] rhcd.conf), it is moved to the OLDDIR
directory with an added extension of "CDcheckfail".

Before using this script, you have to configure the [rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf]
rhcd.conf configuration file and export a RHCDPATH variable pointing to the
directory where this file is.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        $ export RHCDPATH=/home/luigi/tmp/rhcd-scripts                     |
|        $ sh updateCD.sh                                                   |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Note After having incorporated the updates in the main RedHat/RPMS directory,
     your copy of the distribution is no longer a mirror of the Red Hat      
     distribution site. Actually, it is more up-to-date! Therefore, if you   
     attempt to mirror the distribution using mirror, older versions of the  
     RPM's that have been updated will be downloaded once more, and the      
     updates deleted. The bash/wget based procedure doesn't suffer from the  
     problem, but will leave the main tree in an incoherent state. Old and   
     new packages will be in this case mixed together, but you can find and  
     remove them wrapping the rvc binary in a simple shell script (which I   
     will leave as an exercise for the reader...).                           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. Rebuilding the installer

Things have changed pretty much in this section with the introduction of the
anaconda installer (as of release 6.1) and with the considerable increment in
size (and ... number of CDs) the 7.x/8.0 distributions have seen. Until
release 6.2, the only step composing this section was represented by
generating a new hdlist file. With release 6.2, this appears to be true only
to a certain extent, because of the changes in the anaconda installer, in the
rpm software itself (from version 3.x to 4.x) and the migration of the
updated packages to this new version (updates for release 6.2 are in fact
packaged with both major releases of the rpm software). We will consider
three different procedures trying to cover all the releases.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.1. RedHat <= 6.1

5.3.1.1. Regenerating the hdlist file

When installing from the CD, the installation program on the CD relies on the
file RedHat/base/hdlist describing what RPM packages are available on the CD.
The hdlist file can be generated by the program misc/src/install/genhdlist.
This program must be run with the absolute path to the root of the
distribution as the only argument. Here is the updateHdlist script which
calls that program (from version 1.34 of this howto):

            #!/bin/bash                                                                
                                                                                       
            RHVERSION=6.1                                                              
            ARCH=i386                                                                  
                                                                                       
            echo generating hdlist...                                                  
            RHROOT=/home/luigi/tmp/redhat-${RHVERSION}                                 
            GENHDDIR=${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/misc/src/anaconda/utils                         
                                                                                       
            chmod u+x ${GENHDDIR}/genhdlist                                            
            chmod 644 ${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/RedHat/base/hdlist                             
            ${GENHDDIR}/genhdlist ${RHROOT}/${ARCH} || echo "*** GENHDLIST FAILED ***" 
                                                                                       
            exit 0                                                                     
                                                                                       

Note Important note for RedHat < 6.1                                         
�    The installation in RedHat 6.1 is completely changed from earlier       
     versions, and RedHat has introduced anaconda. The genhdlist program is  
     now found in a different place, so in the script above, we used         
                   GENHDDIR=${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/misc/src/anaconda/utils        
                                                                             
     while for releases up to (and including) 6.0 that line should read      
                   GENHDDIR=${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/misc/src/install               
                                                                             

In some cases, genhdlist fails to run, because the executable is not
statically linked. In such a case, you can add a new line ${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/
RedHat/instimage/usr/lib in /etc/ld.so.conf and run ldconfig -v.

Another solution is to recompile genhdlist. The following modification to the
updateHdlist script worked under RedHat 5.2:
            #!/bin/bash                                                         
                                                                                
            RHVERSION=6.1                                                       
            ARCH=i386                                                           
                                                                                
            RHROOT=/misc/redhat/redhat-${RHVERSION}                             
            GENHDDIR=${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/misc/src/anaconda/utils                  
                                                                                
            echo Compiling genhdlist...                                         
            sed -e 's/FD_t/int/' \                                              
                -e 's/fdOpen/open/' \                                           
                -e 's/fdClose/close/' \                                         
                -e 's/fdFileno//' < ${GENHDDIR}/genhdlist.c > /tmp/genhdlist.c  
            cc -o /tmp/genhdlist -I/usr/include/rpm /tmp/genhdlist.c -lrpm -lz  
                                                                                
            echo generating hdlist...                                           
            chmod 644 ${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/RedHat/base/hdlist                      
            /tmp/genhdlist ${RHROOT}/${ARCH} || echo "*** GENHDLIST FAILED ***" 
                                                                                
            exit 0                                                              
                                                                                

In this version of the script, a copy of the C source of genhdlist.c is piped
through sed to create a copy in /tmp that will compile under RedHat 5.2. This
version of genhdlist is then used to create the hdlist file

Note Important note for RedHat 5.2                                           
�    As distributed with RedHat version 5.2 and earlier, genhdlist CRASHES if
     there are files in the RedHat/RPMS directory which are not RPM files!   
     This causes problems, because in the 5.2 distribution, there are a      
     couple of non-RPM files named ls-lR and ls-lR.gz in RedHat/RPMS.        
     Therefore, you must remove all non-RPM files from the directory.        
     Alternatively, you can apply the patch [rhcd-scripts/oldversion/        
     genhdlist.c.diff] genhdlist.c.diff to misc/src/install/genhdlist.c and  
     do a make. The patch will cause genhdlist to ignore any non-RPM files.  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.1.2. Creating the CD iso image

You'll need to create an image file which will be written to the CD. This
file will be 500Mb or more so find a partition with enough free space. You
may need to be root to use mount and cdrecord. Here you will prepare the iso
image of the bootable CD to be burned. It is actually, not strictly
necessary, to create a bootable CD, because you could use a boot floppy
instead of it, but it's definitely a nifty feature (and makes your disc more
similar in behaviour to the original one). These are the commands I use to
complete the task:
            $ mkdir /images-destination-dir                                  
            $ mkisofs  -r  -J  -T  -v  -V "Red Hat 6.1 (Hedwig)" \           
                -c boot.cat  -b images/boot.img \                            
                -o /images-destination-dir/i386-disc.iso .                   
                                                                             
This is needed to burn the (bootable) disc and is executed from the top level
directory of the distribution. The /images-destination-dir directory is the
container for the iso image you are generating, and it must exist (obviously)
before starting the procedure. In the following table you can read a brief
explanation of the various options and their meanings (most of it was
extracted from the mkisofs man page).

Table 1. mkisofs options and parameters
-r                  � Rock Ridge extensions with useful values for the       
                      permission bits                                        
-J                  � Joliet extensions to use the cd with some different    
                      operating systems                                      
-T                  � Generate a TRANS.TBL file in each directory to map     
                      correctly the file names even on systems which do not  
                      support the Rock Ridge extensions.                     
-v                  � be verbose                                             
-V�<volid>          � Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be   
                      written into the master block.                         
-c�<boot�catalog>   � Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to 
                      be used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD. The    
                      pathname must be relative to the source path specified 
                      to mkisofs.                                            
-b�<                � Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be
eltorito�boot�image   used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD. The       
>                     pathname must be relative to the source path specified 
                      to mkisofs and specify a floppy image (which is why we 
                      use one of the floppy images found on the original CD. 
                      You may want to change this with the pcmcia.img image  
                      to install using pcmcia devices like network cards or  
                      CDROM readers.                                         
-o�<filename>       � Name of the file containing the generated iso image    
.                   � This is the root directory for our generated iso image 
                      (we are working from the root directory of every CD, so
                      a dot is enough).                                      

You will find details of how to burn the image on a media in Burning the CD.
The mkisofs and cdrecord steps can be executed by means of a graphical
frontend like [http://www.xcdroast.org/] X-CD-Roast which should currently
support the creation of bootable CDs (I've never used it, so don't expect me
to give you any explanation).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.2. RedHat 6.2

Apparently, this is a problem child when it comes to burning an uptodate CD.
The introduction of version 4 of the Redhat Package Manager (RPM), made the
procedure to update the anaconda installer fail. So the procedures listed
will work only if the updated packages were built using a version of the RPM
software which is older than or equal to 3.0.4 (so, basically, 3.0.4 or
3.0.5).

If you are using the original packages from Redhat, you have to avoid using
updates released after 28 March 2001 (which is a bit useless, in my opinion)
or you have to rebuild the packages using the old rpm format. Details on the
downgrade procedure and tools which implement it can be found in the document
[http://www.tigress.co.uk/rmy/rh62/rpmhack.html] rpmhack. I have not
personally tested this procedure, even if it appears to work if you read
about it on the anaconda-devel and kickstart mailing lists (you can find them
on the mailing lists section of the Redhat website.

If you decide to stick to the old original packages and complete the update
(using the rpm 4.0.2 packages after the installation is finished) there are
two possible ways of doing it, depending on which kind of updates you want to
complete the CD with. If some of the updates regard directly the installation
process (e.g. kernel, python, kudzu), you will have to use the installer
rebuilding procedure explained in the document Building a Red Hat Linux 6.2
CDROM, otherwise you can still use the old procedure (the one for releases
previous to and including 6.1 explained in the previous section). The last
two steps, which are, respectively, creating the iso image and burning the
actual media are described in Creating the CD iso image and Burning the CD,
respectively.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3. RedHat 9, 8.0 and 7.3

Once again a lot of things have changed with the release of the 7.x series of
the distribution. There are now more operations to complete to obtain a fresh
and uptodate series of CDs. Exactly, they have become more than one with
release 7.0 and now the tree has to be split to fit on the media. This is
done by means of the splitdistro script, which is written in python like most
of the anaconda installer. To complete this part, you must use a Linux RedHat
7.3, 8.0 or 9 machine with the anaconda-runtime package installed (it will
probably have version 7.3.7, 8.0.4 or 9.0.4), depending on the release you
want to rebuild. The procedure is composed by seven steps:

 i. Regenerating the hdlist and hdlist2 files
   
ii. Updating the comps.xml (or comps) file
   
iii. Rebuilding the installer
   
iv. Splitting the distribution in CD-sized chunks
   
 v. Regenerating the hdlist and hdlist2 files (again)
   
vi. Generating the iso images
   
vii. adding and checking the md5 signatures in the iso images
   

All the steps are grouped together in a single script presented in the last
section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.1. Preliminary operations on the main tree

Some of the scripts included in the anaconda-runtime package need the main
tree to be moved in a subdirectory named like the architecture we are
building for (so i386/ for me). We will move everything to such directory
before starting the procedure and change the invocation of the scripts which
don't need this modification.

For redhat 9 and 8.0:
            $ chmod  -R  u+w  /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir                 
            $ mkdir  -p  /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386                 
            $ cd /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir                              
            $ /bin/mv  *  i386                                               
                                                                             
You should change "/absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir" with the absolute path of
the directory where the root of your local copy of the distribution is
located (maybe somewhere on some hard drive). You will get an error, from the
execution of the last command, because the i386/ directory cannot be moved
under itself, but you don't need to worry about that.

For redhat 7.3:
            $ chmod  -R  u+w  /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir                               
            $ mkdir  -p  /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386                               
            $ cd /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir                                            
            $ for i in `ls` ; do [ $i != "SRPMS" -a $i != i386 ] && /bin/mv $i i386 ; done 
                                                                                           
You shouldn't receive any error message this time from the last command
(hopefully).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.2. Regenerating the hdlist and hdlist2 files

This is done by means of the following two commands with the help of the
genhdlist program.
            $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/genhdlist  /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386  
            $ chmod  644 /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386/RedHat/base/hdlist{,2}     
                                                                                        
Once again, "/absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir" is the absolute path of the
directory where the root of your local copy of the distribution is located.
The second command is needed to make sure the correct permissions are set for
the file. You should already have an idea of what these files are about if
you have read through The Redhat directory.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.3. Update the comps.xml file

In Redhat Linux 8.0 the format of the comps file has completely changed and
it's now based on XML. It provides much more flexibility and ease of
customization as you can read in The comps file. If you have modified or
intend to modify the list of the installed packages, you need to complete
this step. This, in turn, implies having the modified version of
comps-9.tar.gz [rhcd-scripts/comps-9.tar.gz] comps-9.tar.gz (the original one
doesn't work for me) or [http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/comps-8.0.tar.gz]
comps-8.0.tar.gz package (depending on the release you are building)
including the master comps file found on the Redhat website and the
comps-extras rpm package installed. Follow these steps for Redhat 9 and 8.0:
            $ cd /some-dir-of-your-choice                                                
            $ tar xzvf /path-to-comps-9.tar.gz/comps-9.tar.gz                            
            $ cd comps                                                                   
            $ make                                                                       
            $ cat comps-milan.xml |sed 's!</comps>!!g' >comps-tmp.xml                    
            $ /usr/share/comps-extras/getfullcomps.py  comps.xml \                       
                 /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir i386 >> comps-tmp.xml                    
            $ echo '</comps>' >> comps-tmp.xml                                           
            $ cp comps-tmp.xml /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386/RedHat/base/comps.xml 
                                                                                         
Beside "/absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir", you should take care of assigning
valid names to "/some-dir-of-your-choice" and "/path-to-comps-9.tar.gz". The
rest of the commands can be just copied. And... you must (obviously) change 9
to read 8.0 if you are building a Redhat 8.0 distribution.

Again, before issuing the make command, you should modify the file
comps-milan.xml.in using your favourite text editor and following the
guidelines and the suggestions found in The comps file and on the [http://
rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/comps.html] anaconda comps section of the Redhat
website.

The script presented in the last section will execute all the steps needed
after the make command, using the COMPSFILE variable to find the
comps-milan.xml file (it doesn't need to have that name, I'm just using the
original name, but you can change it if you want).

If you are using Redhat 7.3, the comps file (have you noticed the different
name...) is a textual file with a completely different syntax described in
some more detail in The comps file. In this case, the only necessary
operations are modifying the file to suit your needs and copying it to the
RedHat/base/comps file in the main tree overwriting the original one.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.4. Rebuilding the installer

This will rebuild the anaconda installer in your local copy of the
distribution using your updated packages. For Redhat 9 execute:
            $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/buildinstall  \                             
                --pkgorder /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/pkgorder.txt  \           
                --comp dist-9 --product "Red Hat Linux" --version 9  \              
                --release "Redhat 9 (Shrike)" /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386   
                                                                                    
Where, once again, "/absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir" is the directory where
the root of your local copy of the distribution is located.

For Redhat 8.0, the procedure is pretty much the same (the "--product" option
is missing):
            $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/buildinstall  \                          
                --pkgorder /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/pkgorder.txt  \        
                --comp dist-8.0 --version 8.0  --release "Redhat 8.0 (Psyche)" \ 
                /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386                              
                                                                                 

Or if you are still using Redhat 7.3 (as I am):
            $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/buildinstall  \                             
                --pkgorder /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/pkgorder.txt  \           
                --comp dist-7.3 --version 7.3 /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386   
                                                                                    

The absence of the (mandatory in 8.0) --release option is the only noticeable
difference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.5. Split the distribution

This will create five directories, each one corresponding to a different CD
and will put in them hard links to the real files contained in your local
copy of the distribution.

Note This will not work at all for Redhat 7.3 if you don't use the modified  
     version of the splitdistro script reported in the next paragraph. For   
     Redhat 8.0 and 9, a modified version of splitdistro is provided mainly  
     because even if the problems in the previous script were fixed, the     
     execution now fails if there are not enough packages to fill all the CDs
     (the first four completely and the last one even just partly).          
            $ $/usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/splitdistro  \                            
              --fileorder /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/pkgorder.txt  --release \ 
                "Redhat 9 (Shrike)"  /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir  i386          
                                                                                   
The only thing you need to change for 8.0 and 7.3 is the string passed to the
--release option (which should read "Redhat 8.0 (Psyche)" or "Redhat 7.3
(Valhalla)")

For Redhat 7.3 the version of the [rhcd-scripts/splitdistro7.3]
splitdistro7.3 (python) script used was extracted from the anaconda-runtime
7.3.7 package and modified by me. You should sustitute it to the original one
(maybe after copying the latter) named /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/splitdistro.

The only modification (apart from some small fixes), the script went through,
is a change in its behaviour if the SRPMS directory is not found (doesn't
terminate, but generate the CDs without source packages).

For Redhat 8.0 the version of the [rhcd-scripts/splitdistro8.0]
splitdistro8.0 (python) script used was extracted from the anaconda-runtime
8.0.4 package and modified once again by me to obtain some improvements I
felt the need for. You should sustitute it to the original one (maybe after
copying the latter somewhere) named /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/splitdistro.
Anyway, the original one works well, if you want to build a distribution
which has all the SRPMS packages (so to fill all the 5 CDs otherwise the
script will fail).

The only modification the script went through is a change in its behaviour if
the SRPMS directory is not found (doesn't terminate failing, but generates
the CDs without source packages) or there is one CD which hasn't any package
on it (instead of failing, generates an empty directory).

For Redhat 9 you can find a copy of the script with the same modifications
applied to the version included in release 8.0 here: [rhcd-scripts/
splitdistro9] splitdistro9. Everything said for Redhat 8.0 in the previous
paragraph applies to release 9.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.6. Regenerating the hdlist and hdlist2 files

This is needed to recreate the hdlist and hdlist2 files, using some of the
informations obtained in the previous steps. There are no differences between
7.3, 8.0 and 9 for this execution of the program The command to issue is the
following:
             $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/genhdlist  \                                     
                 --fileorder /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/pkgorder.txt  --withnumbers \ 
                 /absolute-path-to-toplevel-dir/i386-disc[1-3]                            
                                                                                          
As you can see, there are two new options passed to the program, if you
remember the first run of it. The first one, --fileorder, tells genhdlist to
use the file pkgorder.txt we generated in the second step (rebuild the
installer). This file keeps informations on how the packages were split on
the different CDs and is used by the installer to determine in which order
the packages should be installed. Basically, if you avoid using it, you will
(probably) end up swapping the various CDs many times during the
installation. The --withnumbers option is needed to associate a CD number to
every package (as you can see, a wildcard indicating the first 3 iso images
is used).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.7. Generating the iso images

Here you will prepare the iso images to be burned on the actual CDs. There
are two different commands to be used for the first disc and for the rest of
them. This is due to the need of obtaining a first CD which is bootable. This
is actually, not strictly necessary, because you could use a boot floppy
instead of it, but it's definitely a nifty feature (and makes your discs more
similar in behaviour to the original ones). These are the commands I use to
complete the task:

              $ mkdir /images-destination-dir                                                    
              $ mkisofs  -r  -J  -T  -v  -V "Red Hat 9 (Shrike) disc 1" \                        
                  -c isolinux/boot.cat  -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -no-emul-boot \                 
                  -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o /images-destination-dir/i386-disc1.iso . 
                                                                                                 
This is needed to burn the first (bootable) disc for RedHat 8.0 and 9 (with
no floppy emulation) and is executed from the top level directory of the
distribution. The /images-destination-dir directory is the container for the
five iso images you are generating, and it must exist before starting the
procedure. The only thing which needs to be changed for Redhat 8.0 is the
volume name (it should be "Red Hat 8.0 (Psyche) disc 1").

              $ mkdir /images-destination-dir                                 
              $ mkisofs  -r  -J  -T  -v  -V "Red Hat 7.3 (Valhalla) disc 1" \ 
                  -c boot.cat  -b dosutils/autoboot/boot.img \                
                  -o /images-destination-dir/i386-disc1.iso .                 
                                                                              
This is needed to burn the first (bootable) disc on 7.3 and is executed from
the top level directory of the distribution (this time with floppy
emulation).

The rest of the images can be written by means of this "for" loop
              $  for i in `echo 2 3 4 5` ; do mkisofs  -r  -J  -T  -v  \     
                   -V "Red Hat 9 (Shrike) disc ${i}"  \                      
                   -o /images-destination-dir/i386-disc${i}.iso . ; done     
                                                                             
The loop just presented will prepare the last four images giving them the
correct numbers. As you can see, there are just two missing options from the
first run, and, as you can guess, they are needed only to create a bootable
CD. In Creating the CD iso image, you can read a brief explanation of the
various options and their meanings (most of it was extracted from the man
page). Again if you are building a Redhat 8.0 you should change the volume
name to read "Red Hat 8.0 (Psyche) disc ${i}".
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.8. Implant and check the md5 signatures in the iso images

This is actually an optional step but it permits the use of the "checkmedia"
option to verify the CDs signatures before installing them, so to guarantee
their correctness.

The following commands permit to inject and verify an md5 signature on an iso
image:
            $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/implantisomd5 iso-image              
            $ /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime/checkisomd5 iso-image                
                                                                             

After completing all these steps, we will find ourselves with the five CD
images to burn. Considering that typing all this stuff is a bit time
consuming, in the next section is presented a script, which will complete all
of the listed operations in a single run (do not forget to configure the
parameters properly).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3.3.9. Putting all the steps together

The [rhcd-scripts/updateBuild.sh] updateBuild.sh script will execute all the
steps needed to rebuild the distribution CDs for RedHat 7.3, 8.0 or 9 in a
single run (as root). Before using this script you have to configure the
[rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf] rhcd.conf configuration file after exporting a 
RHCDPATH variable pointing to the directory where this file is. If you want
to include a modified comps.xml (or comps) file in your CDs as explained in 
The comps file, you should copy it into the location defined by means of the 
COMPSFILE variable now (before executing the script). Don't forget to add the
modified splitdistro script to the /usr/lib/anaconda-runtime directory if you
need it.

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|            # export RHCDPATH=/home/luigi/tmp/rhcd-scripts                 |
|            # sh updateBuild.sh                                            |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Burning the CD(s)

This is composed by an optional and a required steps. Remember that,
probably, you have to be "root" on your machine to run cdrecord .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1. Test the image(s)

If you're paranoid, you can test your new disk image(s) by mounting it. If
you forgot to fix the file permissions or set the rock ridge extensions then
the error will be obvious here since the file names and directory structure
will be wrong. The (optional) test can be done by issuing the command:

        # mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 iso-image /mnt/cdrom        
                                                                             

Where "iso-image" is the name you gave to the iso image file to be mounted
(which is the only one for releases up to and including 6.2). When you're
done, don't forget to unmount it

        # umount /mnt/cdrom                                                  
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Burn the disk(s)

Be sure to set the correct parameters for your device. This command, for
example, is for a 4X CDR, which is quite slow, by the way. Moreover, it is
assumed that the CD writer is on SCSI bus 0, with ID number 0 and LUN 0 (you
can obtain these values by issuing a cdrecord -scanbus and assign them to the
-dev= parameter).

        # cdrecord -v speed=4 dev=0,0,0 /images-destination-dir/disc1.img    
                                                                             
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. The comps file

The comps file defines how the packages are bundled during the installation.
In the Red Hat distribution, this is done according to the functionality they
provide, for example:

��*�Printer Support
   
��*�X Window System
   
��*�GNOME
   
��*�KDE
   
��*�Mail/WWW/News Tools
   
��*�...
   
��*�Kernel Development
   
��*�Extra Documentation
   

Sometime during the installation process, the user is presented with a dialog
called "Components to install". Some of the components have been preselected,
and others not. The last item on the components list is called "Everything".
On the dialog box, there is also an option that enables the user to customize
exactly what packages will be installed. Customizing the installation by
hand, or selecting "Everything" in the components list is the only way to
have your own packages installed unless you modify the RedHat/base/comps
file.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.1. Format of comps file in RedHat versions < 6.1

The comps file currently starts with a header describing the version of the
comps format, followed by an empty line.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        0.1                                                                |
|        <empty line>                                                       |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

After this, the components are listed, separated by empty lines:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        <component 1>                                                      |
|        <empty line>                                                       |
|        <component 2>                                                      |
|        <empty line>                                                       |
|        ....                                                               |
|        <component n>                                                      |
|        <empty line>                                                       |
|        EOF                                                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Each component has the following definition:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        (0|1) (--hide)? <name>                                             |
|        <RPM 1>                                                            |
|        <RPM 2>                                                            |
|        ...                                                                |
|        <RPM n>                                                            |
|        end                                                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Before the name of each component, 0 or 1 is given. A value of 1 here means
that the component is chosen by default, and 0 means it's not. The option 
--hide means that you will not see the entry, unless you choose "expert"
installation. The first component is called "Base", and that is special, in
the sense that it must be present and it does not show up in the dialog (you
can't deselect the base installation, which makes sense...). Next follows a
list of rpm packages belonging to that component. Note that this is the
package name stored in the rpm file, and not any part of the file name of the
package (although it should be the same by convention).

By adding your packages to the comps file, you can customize your own
distribution, and make sure that your packages will be installed by default.
One thing to be careful about is interdependence among your packages, but
here, you are on your own :-) A word of warning: be careful not to add or
remove extra whitespace in the file. Examine the existing comps file (make a
copy of the original) to see how it's done (or check i386/misc/src/install/
pkgs.c if you want to see how the file is parsed).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.2. Format of comps file in RedHat version 6.1

With RedHat version 6.1, the format of the comps file has changed. The
decoding takes place in ${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/misc/src/anaconda/comps.py. I
didn't analyze yet this python script and the following rules were obtained
only by reading the file and testing some configurations for it.

In release 6.1, the definition of component is extended to include some more
optional elements beside the <RPM> ones. These elements are:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          <arch-dependent-RPM 1>                                           |
|          ...                                                              |
|          <arch-dependent-RPM n>                                           |
|          <required-component 1>                                           |
|          ...                                                              |
|          <required-component n>                                           |
|          <component-dependent-RPM 1>                                      |
|          ...                                                              |
|          <component-dependent-RPM n>                                      |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

An <arch-dependent-RPM> defines a dependency between a package and specific
architecture and has the following definition:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          (!)?arch: <RPM>                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

So it can, for example, present itself, in the real world, as:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          !alpha: kernelcfg                                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
which means: if architecture is not alpha then install package kernelcfg.

Or as:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          i386: mkbootdisk                                                 |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
which means if architecture is i386 then install package mkbootdisk

A <required-component1> enforces the dependency from another component and is
defined as:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          @ <component>                                                    |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

So, for example, if inside a component definition you find the following
line:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          @ Networked Workstation                                          |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
it means that the component itself needs the installation of another
component named Networked Workstation.

A <component-dependent-RPM> is used to select the installation of some
additional packages for a component, given the presence of another component.
Its definition is as follows:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          ? <component> {                                                  |
|            <RPM 1>                                                        |
|            ...                                                            |
|            <RPM n>                                                        |
|          }                                                                |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

So if, for example, in a component definition, you happen to read the
following lines:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        ? KDE {                                                            |
|          kpppload                                                         |
|        }                                                                  |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
then if the KDE component is installed, the package kpppload will be
installed together with the packages included in the component the definition
was found in.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.3. Format of comps file in RedHat version 6.2

With RedHat version 6.2, the format of the comps file has, apparently,
changed just slightly. The decoding takes place in ${RHROOT}/${ARCH}/misc/src
/anaconda/comps.py even in this case. Once again, I didn't analyze yet this
python script and the following rules were obtained only by reading the file
and testing some configurations for it.

In release 6.2, the definition of component is extended to include two more
optional elements which are:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        <lang-dependent-RPM 1>                                             |
|        ...                                                                |
|        <lang-dependent-RPM n>                                             |
|        <arch-dependent-component 1>                                       |
|        ...                                                                |
|        <arch-dependent-component n>                                       |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

A <lang-dependent-RPM> is needed to specify the installation of a package in
case a specific language was selected. It's defined as:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        (lang <language>): <RPM>                                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

For example, the following line:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        (lang ja_JP)): locale-ja                                           |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
means: if the Japanese language is selected, then install the locale-ja
package together with the other packages installed for the current component.

An <arch-dependent-component> extends the concept of <arch-dependent-RPM>
introduced in release 6.1 to an entire component, as you can understand
reading the definition:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        (!)?arch: <component>                                              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4. Format of comps file in RedHat version 7.3

With RedHat version 7.3, the format of the comps file has gained some more
syntactical power. The decoding takes place (again) in the comps.py script,
which you can now find in the /usr/lib/anaconda/ directory if you have
installed the anaconda package. The dependencies on a language or an
architecture by a component or a package can now be joined with the and
operator. For example:
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|        (arch !s390 and arch !s390x and arch !ia64): readline2.2.1         |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

which means if architecture is not any of s390, s390x, ia64 then install the
package readline2.2.1. This can be done with components instead of packages
and languages instead of architectures. All this, is definitely more than
enough for the simple examples of customization of the default installation
which will be presented in the next section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4.1. Customizing the default installation of RedHat version 7.3

The example we will go through in this section implies modifications to the 
comps file to change the default values for packages installation. I usually
prefer, in fact, particularly in certain situations a default installation
including only the base packages, with some slight alterations to some of
them. In the first of the presented examples, we will build a default
installation which has the libsafe added to the "Base" component and most of
the packages which are usually installed by default are deselected, so to
build a minimal installation. In the second of the examples, we will modify
some of the components to build another minimal installation which fits (this
time, almost perfectly) our needs (they are, actually, my needs, your mileage
may definitely vary). If you want to include a modified comps file in your
CDs, you should copy it into the main tree just before starting the
operations described in Rebuilding the 7.3/8.0 installer.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4.1.1. Adding RPMS and deselecting default components

To customize your installation this way, you have to edit the comps file with
your favourite text editor (pay attention not to leave harmful spaces or tabs
in the file) and move it to the Redhat/base directory overwriting the
original one.

In the [rhcd-scripts/comps/comps.1] first comps file included, the libsafe
package was added to the "Base system" component and almost every component
was deselected so to have a default installation comprising only two hundred
packages (I know they can still be too many...).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.4.1.2. Modify some of the standard components

In the [rhcd-scripts/comps/comps.2] second comps file included, we build on
the previous setup and strip down the default installation a bit more (this
time there will be only 154 packages in the default installation). Some of
the groups have been splitted to give the installation some more granularity.
All the modifications you do should take into account the interdependencies
among packages and the applications used during the installation phases (you
cannot remove kudzu, for example, from the Base component, even if you can do
it after installation). It must be said that similar results can be obtained
using kickstart. For more informations about it, you can read The RedHat
Linux Customization Guide.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5. Format of comps file in RedHat version 8.0 and 9

With RedHat version 8.0 and 9, the format of the comps file has changed
completely and now an XML file, whose name is comps.xml, is used. Details on
the file syntax can be found in the [http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
comps.html] anaconda comps section of the RedHat website.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5.1. Customizing the default installation of RedHat version 8.0

We will now reproduce the examples presented for release 7.3 taking into
account the modifications the various groups were submitted to. The most
important group (the "Base" group) is splitted here in two groups which are
named "Base" and "Core". The "Base" group should represent the minimal
possible installation.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5.1.1. Our first example revisited for Redhat 8.0

This time, to customize your installation you have to edit the
comps-milan.xml.in file with your favourite text editor. This file can be
found in the [http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/comps-8.0.tar.gz]
comps-8.0.tar.gz archive found on the Redhat website. To add the packages
information to the file you create, you need to have the comps-extras rpm
package installed. The commands to be issued to complete the operation are
listed in Updating comps.xml and in the [http://rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/
comps.html] documentation. After you create the file, you have to copy it to
the Redhat/base directory overwriting the original one. If you are using the
updateBuild.sh script, you should only copy the comps-milan.xml, (after
having modified the comps-milan.xml.in found in the comps-8.0.tar.gz tar/gzip
package and issued the make command), to the destination you should have
already configured in the COMPSFILE variable ([rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf]
rhcd.conf).

In the [rhcd-scripts/comps/comps-milan.xml.in.1] first comps file included
the libsafe package was added to the "Base" group (component) and almost
every group (component) was deselected, apart from "Base" and "Core", so to
have a default installation comprising only ~220 packages (probably too many,
again...).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5.1.2. Our second example revisited for Redhat 8.0

In the [rhcd-scripts/comps/comps-milan.xml.in.2] second comps file included,
we build on the previous setup and strip down the default installation a bit
more (this time, there will be only 158 packages in the default
installation). Once again, similar results can be obtained using kickstart,
for more informations about it you can read The RedHat Linux Customization
Guide. In the example, I didn't unselect completely the installation of the 
"Base" group, because there are too many packages I usually need, so I just
unselected the default installation for these packages making them optional.
As you can see, even the redhat-logos package in the "Core" group was made
optional. Considering that all of the packages in this group, together,
should represent the smallest possible installation, you probably don't want
to do this (by the way my CDs work even with this, there should be some
failure I cannot see, yet). The tripwire package was also added to the "Base"
group. The last noticeable modification was made to the "dialup" group, which
will be installed even if unselected because the "Base" group depends on it
(as declared in the group definition itself). I have selected only some
packages I usually need from this group for installation and left the rest of
them unselected.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5.2. Customizing the default installation of RedHat version 9

We will reproduce (again) the examples presented for release 7.3/8 taking
into account the modifications the various groups were submitted to.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5.2.1. Our first example revisited for Redhat 9

As in the case of 8.0, to customize your installation you have to edit the
comps-milan.xml.in file with your favourite text editor. This file can be
found in the [rhcd-scripts/comps-9.tar.gz] comps-9.tar.gz file among the
script (as I said it is not the same you can find on the Redhat website). To
add the packages information to the file you create, you need to have the
comps-extras rpm package installed. The commands to be issued to complete the
operation are listed in Updating comps.xml and in the [http://
rhlinux.redhat.com/anaconda/comps.html] documentation. After you create the
file, you have to copy it to the Redhat/base directory overwriting the
original one. If you are using the updateBuild.sh script, you should only
copy the comps-milan.xml, (after having modified the comps-milan.xml.in found
in the comps-9.tar.gz tar/gzip package and issued the make command), to the
destination you should have already configured in the COMPSFILE variable
([rhcd-scripts/rhcd.conf] rhcd.conf).

In the [rhcd-scripts/comps/comps-milan.xml.in.1-9] first comps file included
the libsafe package was added to the "Base" group (component) and almost
every group (component) was deselected, apart from "Base" and "Core", so to
have a default installation comprising only ~240 packages (mmmhhh complexity
is raising high...).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.5.2.2. Our second example revisited for Redhat 9

In the [rhcd-scripts/comps/comps-milan.xml.in.2-9] second comps file
included, we build on the previous setup and strip down the default
installation a bit more (this time, there will be only ~175 packages in the
default installation). This is really similar to the example presented for
Redhat 8.0, so I will avoid boring you with the same explanations. Once
again, similar results can be obtained using kickstart, for more informations
about it you can read The RedHat Linux Customization Guide.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Installing from the CD

When installing from the new CD, you may first need to create a bootable
installation diskette. IMPORTANT: use a NEW, freshly MS-DOS formatted
diskette!. Using an old, worn-out, faulty diskette can result in strange
problems during the installation! On a Linux system, you can create the
diskette using the dd command:

+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|      $ dd if=/mnt/cdrom/images/boot.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k              |
|                                                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+

On a system running DOS or Windows-9x, you need to use the rawrite.exe
program, which is found on the CD in the dosutils directory. On a machine
with Windows-9x/Me/NT/2k, you can use the rawritewin.exe located in the
dosutils/rawritewin directory.

Shut down the machine you want to install on (or do a system upgrade), insert
the boot diskette and your freshly burned CD, and let the machine boot from
the diskette. For more information on the installation process, see the
documents and the [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO/index.html]
Installation-HOWTO or the [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/
index.html] Bootdisk-HOWTO.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.1. Booting from a bootable CD

Most modern machines are able to boot directly from a CD, provided it is made
bootable with the procedure outlined in section Creating the CD iso image.
Often, however, you need to change the setting of the BIOS to make the CD
drive bootable. See the documentation for your mother board to see how it's
done.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Other Linux distributions

The informations present in the previous versions of the howto (<=1.34), and
reported in the current document, which apply to releases up to and including
6.1 of Redhat Linux, is believed to apply to distributions that are Redhat
clones such as [http://www.mandrake.com] Mandrake. The procedure is reported
to be untested (as you can read in the howto itself) though.

Similar considerations apply to the [http://www.linuxppc.org] LinuxPPC
distribution for Apple PowerMacs. When making a distribution for the PowerMac
platform, you need to use [http://rufus.w3.org/linux/RPM/mkhybrid.html]
mkhybrid) instead of mkisofs and this should be the only difference.

The informations supplied for the new releases of Redhat (>6.1) shouldn't
work with Mandrake, which has now a fairly different installer from the
Redhat one. I really don't know if some other clone of Redhat can have its
distribution CDs updated this way, but I would be happy if you let me know.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10. This document...

The SGML source of the most recent version of this document can be retrieved
from [http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/RedHat-CD-HOWTO/RedHat-CD-HOWTO.sgml] here.
The previous version, created by Morten Kjeldgaard, and Peter von der Ah�,
can be found on [http://imsb.au.dk/~mok/linux/doc/RedHat-CD.sgml] imsb.au.dk
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.1. Related documentation

10.1.1. Documentation related to the current version

The following documents were useful in the creation of this howto:

The (unofficial) RedHat 7 Customised Installer mini-HOWTO, by Tony Nugent.
This document is very interesting and useful, so, if you are serious about
building customized CDs, I strongly suggest you to read it. You can find it
on [http://www.linuxworks.com.au/redhat-installer-howto.html]
www.linuxworks.com.au

Miguel Freitas has written RedHat7 CDs mini-Howto, that you can read on this
[http://cambuca.ldhs.cetuc.puc-rio.br/RedHat7-CDs-HowTo.html] website.

Ron Yorston wrote the [http://www.tigress.co.uk/rmy/rh62/rpmhack.html]
rpmhack document, relevant for release 6.2 of Redhat Linux.

Someone (I couldn't find his name) wrote the document Building a Red Hat
Linux 6.2 CDROM, useful for release 6.2.
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10.1.2. Documentation related to the previous edition

Ed Schlunder <zilym@asu.edu> has written a utility called fix-rhcd to let you
check your Red Hat Linux distribution mirror for matching file sizes, names,
permissions, and symlinks against an "ls -lNR" listing from the offical Red
Hat ftp site. Any permissions that are wrong are changed to match the "ls"
listing. See the [http://www.ajusd.org/~edward/fix-rhcd/] fix-rhcd homepage.

Rod Smith <smithrod@bellatlantic.net> has written a Do-It-Yourself Red Hat
Installation guide, which also includes information on creating RedHat
install CD's. Especially aimed at burning a CD from a non-UNIX system. Find
it on his [http://members.bellatlantic.net/~smithrod/rhjol.html] website.

A document in french "Comment graver un CD de la RedHat 5.x a partir de
fichiers telecharges sur Internet...''" by <skooter@hol.fr> is available from
[http://linuxfr.org/docs/article/gravure-CD-RH51.html] linuxfr.org.

With the sense of the good things in life Jussi Torhonen from Finland <
jussi.torhonen@tietosavo.fi> tells us [http://www.iwn.fi/~jt/cd/] Howto make
a homebrew bootable RedHat Linux 5.2 CD-ROM.

From the LDP project, see the [http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/
CD-Writing-HOWTO.html] CD-writing HOWTO.
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10.2. Acknowledgements

Apart from those mentioned above, thanks are given to the following people
for valuable input, feedback, discussions and other:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.2.1. Acknowledgements for the current version

��*�Morten Kjeldgaard, <mok (at) imsb (dot) au (dot) dk>
   
��*�Peter von der Ah�, <pahe+rhcd (at) daimi (dot) au (dot) dk>
   
��*�Giulia Tomaselli
   
��*�Jacinta Conneely
   
��*�Filippo Carcaci
   
��*�Guillaume Lelarge <gleu (at) wanadoo (dot) fr>
   
��*�Alain Portal <aportal (at) univ-montp2 (dot) fr>
   
��*�All the people on the anaconda-devel and kickstart mailing lists
   

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10.2.2. Acknowledgements for the previous versions

��*�Lars Christensen <larsch (at) cs (dot) auc (dot) dk>
   
��*�Thomas Duffy <tbd (at) cs (dot) brown (dot) edu>
   
��*�Dawn Endico <dawn (at) math (dot) wayne (dot) edu>
   
��*�Seva <seva (at) null (dot) cc (dot) uic (dot) edu>
   
��*�Michael Thomas Cope <mcope (at) orion (dot) ac (dot) hmc (dot) edu>
   
��*�Charles J. Fisher <charles_fisher (at) bigfoot (dot) com>
   
��*�Eric Thomas <eric.thomas (at) ericsson (dot) com>
   
��*�Gordon Yuen <gdccyuen (at) yahoo (dot) com>
   
��*�Dave Morse <morse (at) nichimen (dot) com>
   





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