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SRM Firmware Howto

Rich Payne, and David Huggins-Daines

   v0.8, 09 November 2000
   
   This document describes how to boot Linux/Alpha using the SRM console,
   which is the console firmware also used to boot Compaq Tru64 Unix
   (also known as Digital Unix and OSF/1) and OpenVMS.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   Table of Contents
   1. [1]About this manual
          
        1.1. [2]Who should read this manual
        1.2. [3]Conventions
                
   2. [4]What is SRM?
          
        2.1. [5]Getting to SRM
        2.2. [6]Using the SRM console
        2.3. [7]How Does SRM Boot an OS?
        2.4. [8]Loading The Secondary Bootstrap Loader
                
   3. [9]SRM Device Naming
          
        3.1. [10]The First Two Letter
        3.2. [11]The Rest Of The Device Name
                
   4. [12]The Raw Loader
   5. [13]The aboot Loader
          
        5.1. [14]Getting and Building aboot
        5.2. [15]Floppy Installation
        5.3. [16]Harddisk Installation
        5.4. [17]CD-ROM Installation
        5.5. [18]Building the Linux Kernel
        5.6. [19]Booting Linux
        5.7. [20]Setting up a BOOTP capable server using DHCP
        5.8. [21]Booting Over the Network
        5.9. [22]Partitioning Disks
                
   6. [23]Sharing a Disk With DEC Unix
          
        6.1. [24]Partitioning the disk
        6.2. [25]Installing aboot
                
   7. [26]Installation of Distributions
          
        7.1. [27]RedHat 6.0, 6.1 and 6.2
        7.2. [28]SuSE 6.1
        7.3. [29]SuSE 6.3
                
   8. [30]Document History
          
1. About this manual

1.1. Who should read this manual

   You should read this manual if you are installing Linux on a new Alpha
   system that can only boot from the SRM console, or if you are
   installing Linux on an older Alpha system that can use the SRM console
   and wish to use SRM to boot your Linux installation.
   
   Because SRM is the only way to boot Linux on modern Alpha systems, and
   because it provides the proper operating environment for Unix and
   Unix-like operating systems (such as Linux), it is the recommended way
   of booting Linux on Alpha when available.
   
   Sometimes, it is preferable to use the ARC, ARCSBIOS, or AlphaBIOS
   console, such as if you have a machine for which SRM is not available,
   if you wish to dual-boot with Windows NT without switching consoles,
   or if you have hardware that is not supported by SRM. On these
   machines, you will typically use MILO to boot Linux. For more
   information, refer to the MILO Howto, available from
   [31]http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/milo.html.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
1.2. Conventions

   Throughout this manual, we will use the following conventions for
   commands to be entered by the user:
   
   SRM console commands will be shown with the characteristic SRM '>>>'
   prompt, like this: [32][1]
>>> boot dva0 -fi linux.gz -fl "root=/dev/fd0 load_ramdisk=1"

   Unix commands will be shown with the '#' command prompt if they are to
   be run as root, or '$' if they are to be run by a normal user, like
   this:
# swriteboot -f3 /dev/sda /boot/bootlx

   Aboot commands will be shown with the 'aboot>' command prompt, like
   this:
aboot> b 6/boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/hda6
     _________________________________________________________________
   
2. What is SRM?

   SRM console is used by Alpha systems as Unix-style boot firmware.
   Tru64 Unix and OpenVMS depend on it and Linux can boot from it. You
   can recognize SRM console as a blue screen with a prompt that is
   presented to you on power-up.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
2.1. Getting to SRM

   Most Alpha systems have both the SRM and ARC/AlphaBIOS console in
   their firmware. On one of these machines, if your machine starts up
   with ARC/AlphaBIOS by default, you can switch to SRM through the
   "Console Selection" option in the Advanced CMOS Setup menu. To make
   the change permanent, you should set the os_type environment variable
   in SRM to "OpenVMS" or "Unix", like this:
>>> set os_type Unix

   Either one will work to boot Linux. However, if you intend to
   dual-boot OpenVMS on this machine, you must set os_type to "OpenVMS".
   Conversely, to return to ARC/AlphaBIOS, you can set os_type to "NT".
   
   Some older systems may not have both SRM and ARC in firmware as
   shipped. On these systems, you will have to upgrade your firmware. See
   [33]http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware for the latest
   firmware updates and instructions.
   
   A few older systems (primarily evaluation boards such as the 164SX and
   164LX) are "half-flash" systems, whose firmware can hold SRM or
   AlphaBIOS, but not both. If you have one of these machines, you will
   have to reflash your firmware with the SRM console using the AlphaBIOS
   firmware update utility. Again, see
   [34]http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware for firmware images
   and instructions. If you wish to return to AlphaBIOS on these
   machines, you may rerun the firmware update utility from a floppy in
   SRM using the fwupdate command. You can also start AlphaBIOS from a
   floppy using the arc command.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
2.2. Using the SRM console

   The SRM console works very much like a Unix or OpenVMS shell. It views
   your NVRAM and devices as a pseudo-filesystem. You can see this if you
   use the ls command. Also, it contains a fairly large set of
   diagnostic, setup, and debugging utilities, the details of which are
   beyond the scope of this document. As in the Unix shell, you can pipe
   the output of one command to the input of another, and there is a more
   command that works not unlike the Unix one. To get a full listing of
   available commands, run:
>>> help | more

   As well, SRM has environment variables, a number of which are
   pre-defined and correspond to locations in NVRAM. You can view the
   entire list of environment variables and their values with the show
   command (there are quite a few of them, so you will probably want to
   pipe its output to more). You can also show variables matching a
   "glob" pattern - for example, show boot* will show all the variables
   starting in "boot".
   
   Environment variables are categorized as either read-only, warm
   non-volatile, or cold non-volatile. The full listing of pre-defined
   variables is detailed in the Alpha Architecture Reference Manual. The
   most useful pre-defined environment variables for the purposes of
   booting Linux are bootdef_dev, boot_file, boot_flags, and auto_action,
   all of which are cold non-volatile.
   
   To set environment variables, use the set command, like this:
>>> set bootdef_def dka0

   If you set an undefined variable, it will be created for you, however
   it will not persist across reboots.
   
   The bootdef_dev variable specifies the device (using VMS naming
   conventions - see [35]Section 5.6.1 for an explanation of these) which
   will be booted from if no device is specified on the boot command
   line, or in an automatic boot. The boot_file variable contains the
   filename to be loaded by the secondary bootloader, while boot_flags
   contains any extra flags. auto_action specifies the action which the
   console should take on power-up. By default, it is set to HALT,
   meaning that the machine will start up in the SRM console. Once you
   have configured your bootloader and the boot-related variables, you
   can set it to BOOT in order to boot automatically on power-up.
   
   Finally, two helpful console keystrokes you should know are Control-C,
   which, as in the shell, halts a command in progress (such as an
   automatic boot), and Control-P, which if issued from the aboot prompt
   (or other secondary bootloader) will halt the bootloader and return
   you to the SRM console.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
2.3. How Does SRM Boot an OS?

   All versions of SRM can boot from SCSI disks and the versions for
   recent platforms, such as the Noname or AlphaStations can boot from
   floppy disks as well. Network booting via bootp is supported. Note
   that older SRM versions (notably the one for the Jensen) cannot boot
   from floppy disks. Booting from IDE devices is supported on newer
   platforms ( 164SX, 164LX, 164UX, DS20, DS10, DP264, UP2000(+), UP1000,
   UP1100 etc..).
   
   Booting Linux with SRM is a two step process: first, SRM loads and
   transfers control to the secondary bootstrap loader. Then the
   secondary bootstrap loader sets up the environment for Linux, reads
   the kernel image from a disk filesystem and finally transfers control
   to Linux.
   
   Currently, there are two secondary bootstrap loaders for Linux: the
   raw loader that comes with the Linux kernel and aboot which is
   distributed separately. These two loaders are described in more detail
   below.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
2.4. Loading The Secondary Bootstrap Loader

   SRM knows nothing about filesystems or disk-partitions. It simply
   expects that the secondary bootstrap loader occupies a consecutive
   range of physical disk sector, starting from a given offset. The
   information on the size of the secondary bootstrap loader and the
   offset of its first disk sector is stored in the first 512 byte
   sector. Specifically, the long integer at offset 480 stores the size
   of the secondary bootstrap loader (in 512-byte blocks) and the long at
   offset 488 gives the sector number at which the secondary bootstrap
   loader starts. The first sector also stores a flag-word at offset 496
   which is always 0 and a checksum at offset 504. The checksum is simply
   the sum of the first 63 long integers in the first sector.
   
   If the checksum in the first sector is correct, SRM goes ahead and
   reads the size sectors starting from the sector given in the sector
   number field and places them in virtual memory at address 0x20000000.
   If the reading completes successfully, SRM performs a jump to address
   0x20000000.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
3. SRM Device Naming

3.1. The First Two Letter

   The following is based on the example device dkb1.2.3.4.5 taken from a
   Digital Server 3300 (Whitebox version of an AS800).
   
   Two letter port or class driver designator:
   
     * DR: RAID set device
     * DV: Floppy Drive
     * EW: Ethernet port (TULIP, DEC 21040)
     * EI: Ethernet port (Intel 82557 or 82559)
     * PK: SCSI port (controller)
     * DK: SCSI disk
     * MK: SCSI tape
     * PU: DSSI port
     * DU: DSSI disk
     * MU: DSSI tape
     * JK: SCSI monitor (or robot)
     * DQ: (E)IDE Device (disk or CD-ROM)
     _________________________________________________________________
   
3.2. The Rest Of The Device Name

     * b-> adapter ID (one letter adapter designator)
     * 1->Device number (SCSI unit numbers are forced to 100x Node ID)
     * 2->Bus Node ID
     * 3->Channel Number
     * 4->Channel Number (used for multi-channel devices)
     * 5->Logical Slot number
          + EISA: they correspond to the physical slot numbers (1-3)
          + PCI:
               o slot 5= SCSI controller on system backplane (DS3300)
               o slot 6= On board VGA (DS3300)
               o slot 7= PCI to EISA bridge chip (DS3300)
               o slots 11 - 14 = Correspond to Physical PCI option slots:
                 PCI11, PCI12, PCI13 and PCI14 (64bit) (DS3300)
     * 6->Hose number: 0 PCI_0 (32bit PCI); 1 EISA (DS3300)
     _________________________________________________________________
   
4. The Raw Loader

   The sources for this loader can be found in directory arch/alpha/boot
   of the Linux kernel source distribution. It loads the Linux kernel by
   reading START_SIZE bytes starting at disk offset BOOT_SIZE+512 (also
   in bytes). The constants START_SIZE and BOOT_SIZE are defined in
   linux/include/asm-alpha/system.h. START_SIZE must be at least as big
   as the kernel image (i.e., the size of the .text, .data, and .bss
   segments). Similarly, BOOT_SIZE must be at least as big as the image
   of the raw bootstrap loader. Both constants should be an integer
   multiple of the sector size, which is 512 bytes. The default values
   are currently 2MB for START_SIZE and 16KB for BOOT_SIZE. Note that if
   you want to boot from a 1.44MB floppy disk, you have to reduce
   START_SIZE to 1400KB and make sure that the kernel you want to boot is
   no bigger than that.
   
   To build a raw loader, simply type make rawboot in the top directory
   of your linux source tree (typically /usr/src/linux). This should
   produce the following files in arch/alpha/boot:
   
   tools/lxboot:
          The first sector on the disk. It contains the offset and size
          of the next file in the format described above.
          
   tools/bootlx:
          The raw boot loader that will load the file below.
          
   vmlinux.nh:
          The raw kernel image consisting of the .text, .data, and .bss
          segments of the object file in /usr/src/linux/vmlinux. The
          extension .nh indicates that this file has no object-file
          header.
          
   The concatenation of these three files should be written to the disk
   from which you want to boot. For example, to boot from a floppy,
   insert an empty floppy disk in, say, /dev/fd0 and then type:
# cat tools/lxboot tools/bootlx vmlinux >/dev/fd0

   You can then shutdown the system and boot from the floppy by issuing
   the command boot dva0.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5. The aboot Loader

   When using the SRM firmware, aboot is the preferred way of booting
   Linux. It supports:
   
     * direct booting from various filesystems (ext2, ISO9660, and UFS,
       the DEC Unix filesystem)
     * listing directories and following symbolic links on ext2 (version
       0.6 and later)
     * booting of executable object files (both ELF and ECOFF)
     * booting compressed kernels
     * network booting (using bootp)
     * partition tables in DEC Unix format (which is compatible with BSD
       Unix partition tables)
     * interactive booting and default configurations for SRM consoles
       that cannot pass long option strings
     * load initrd images to load modules at boot time (0.7 and later)
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.1. Getting and Building aboot

   The latest sources for aboot are available from [36]alphalinux.org and
   [37]alphalinux.org mirrors. They can also be obtained via CVS from
   www.alphalinux.org, to get the latest version from CVS use these
   commands:
bash$ export CVSROOT=':pserver:anonymous@www.alphalinux.org:/home/axplinux/cvs/
development'
bash$ cvs login
bash# cvs -z3 co aboot

   (Note there is no password for the CVS login, just press enter)
   
   The description in this manual applies to aboot version 0.6 or newer.
   Please note that many distributions ship aboot with them so
   downloading aboot from this directory is probably not neccesary.
   
   Once you downloaded and extracted the latest tar file, take a look at
   the README and INSTALL files for installation hints. In particular, be
   sure to adjust the variables in Makefile and in include/config.h to
   match your environment. Normally, you won't need to change anything
   when building under Linux, but it is always a good idea to double
   check. If you're satisfied with the configuration, simply type make to
   build it (if you're not building under Linux, be advised that aboot
   requires GNU make).
   
   After running make, the aboot directory should contain the following
   files:
   
   aboot
          This is the actual aboot executable (either an ECOFF or ELF
          object file).
          
   bootlx
          Same as above, but it contains only the text, data and bss
          segments---that is, this file is not an object file.
          
   sdisklabel/writeboot
          Utility to install aboot on a hard disk.
          
   tools/e2writeboot
          Utility to install aboot on an ext2 filesystem (usually used
          for floppies only).
          
   tools/isomarkboot
          Utility to install aboot on a iso9660 filesystem (used by
          CD-ROM distributors).
          
   tools/abootconf
          Utility to configure an installed aboot.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.2. Floppy Installation

   The bootloader can be installed on a floppy using the e2writeboot
   command (note: this can't be done on a Jensen since its firmware does
   not support booting from floppy). This command requires that the disk
   is not overly fragmented as it needs to find enough contiguous file
   blocks to store the entire aboot image (currently about 90KB). If
   e2writeboot fails because of this, reformat the floppy and try again
   (e.g., with fdformat(1)). For example, the following steps install
   aboot on floppy disk assuming the floppy is in drive /dev/fd0:
# fdformat /dev/fd0
# mke2fs /dev/fd0
# e2writeboot /dev/fd0 bootlx
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.3. Harddisk Installation

   Since the e2writeboot command may fail on highly fragmented disks and
   since reformatting a harddisk is not without pain, it is generally
   safer to install aboot on a harddisk using the swriteboot command.
   swriteboot requires that the first few sectors are reserved for
   booting purposes. We suggest that the disk be partitioned such that
   the first partition starts at an offset of 2048 sectors. This leaves
   1MB of space for storing aboot. On a properly partitioned disk, it is
   then possible to install aboot as follows (assuming the disk is
   /dev/sda):
# swriteboot /dev/sda bootlx

   On systems where partition c in the entire disk it will be necessary
   to 'force' the write of aboot. In this case use the -f flag followed
   by the partition number (in the case of partition c this is 3):
# swriteboot /dev/sda bootlx -f3

   On a Jensen, you will want to leave some more space, since you need to
   write a kernel to this place, too---2MB should be sufficient when
   using compressed kernels. Use swriteboot as described in Section
   [38]Section 5.6 to write bootlx together with the Linux kernel.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.4. CD-ROM Installation

   To make a CD-ROM bootable by SRM, simply build aboot as described
   above. Then, make sure that the bootlx file is present on the iso9660
   filesystem (e.g., copy bootlx to the directory that is the filesystem
   master, then run mkisofs on that directory). After that, all that
   remains to be done is to mark the filesystem as SRM bootable. This is
   achieved with a command of the form:
# isomarkboot filesystem bootlx

   The command above assumes that filesystem is a file containing the
   iso9660 filesystem and that bootlx has been copied into the root
   directory of that filesystem. That's it!
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.5. Building the Linux Kernel

   A bootable Linux kernel can be built with the following steps. During
   the make config, be sure to answer "yes" to the question whether you
   want to boot the kernel via SRM (for certain platforms this is
   automatically selected). Note that if you build a generic kernel (by
   selecting "Generic" as the alpha system type), the kernel is able to
   guess whether it is running under SRM or not.
# cd /usr/src/linux
# make config
# make dep
# make boot
# make modules (if applicable)
# make modules_install (if applicable)

   The last command will build the file arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz which
   can then be copied to the disk from which you want to boot from. In
   our floppy disk example above, this would entail:
# mount /dev/fd0 /mnt
# cp arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz /mnt
# umount /mnt
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6. Booting Linux

   With the SRM firmware and aboot installed, Linux is generally booted
   with a command of the form:
boot devicename -fi filename
-fl flags

   The filename and flags arguments are optional. If they are not
   specified, SRM uses the default values stored in environment variables
   BOOTDEF_DEV , BOOT_OSFILE and BOOT_OSFLAGS. The syntax and meaning of
   these two arguments is described in more detail below. To list the
   current values of these variables type show boot* at the SRM command
   prompt. This will also show a boot_dev variable (among others), this
   variable is read only and needs to be changed via the bootdef_dev
   variable.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6.1. Device Naming

   This corresponds to the device from which SRM will attempt to boot.
   Examples include:
   
   dva0
          - First floppy drive, /dev/fd0 under Linux
          
   dqa0
          - Primary IDE cdrom or hard disk as Master, /dev/hda under
          Linux
          
   dqa1
          - Primary IDE cdrom or hard disk as Slave, /dev/hdb under Linux
          
   dka0
          - SCSI disk on first bus, Device 0, /dev/sda under Linux
          
   ewa0
          - First Ethernet Device, /dev/eth0 under Linux
          
   For example to boot from the disk at SCSI id 6, you would enter:
>>> boot dka600

   To list the devices currently installed in the system type show dev at
   the SRM command line. In contrast to Linux device naming, the
   partition number on a disk device is not given as part of the device
   name (you may see extra numbers after the device names when running
   show dev - these correspond to things like PCI bus and device numbers
   and are not useful to the user). Remember, as mentioned in [39]Section
   2.3, that SRM knows nothing about partitions or disklabels - it merely
   reads a boot block and secondary bootstrap from sectors on a disk.
   Therefore, the partition number is given as part of the boot filename.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6.2. Boot Filename

   The filename argument takes the form: "[n/]filename"
   
   n is a single digit in the range 1..8 that gives the partition number
   from which to boot from. filename is the path of the file you want
   boot. For example to boot a kernel named vmlinux.gz from the second
   partition of SCSI device 6, you would enter:
>>> boot dka600 -file 2/vmlinux.gz

   Or to boot from floppy drive 0, you'd enter:
>>> boot dva0 -file vmlinux.gz

   If a disk has no partition table, aboot pretends the disk contains one
   ext2 partition starting at the first diskblock. This allows booting
   from floppy disks.
   
   As a special case, partition number 0 is used to request booting from
   a disk that does not (yet) contain a file system. When specifying
   "partition" number 0, aboot assumes that the Linux kernel is stored
   right behind the aboot image. Such a layout can be achieved with the
   swriteboot command. For example, to setup a filesystem-less boot from
   /dev/sda, one could use the command:
# swriteboot /dev/sda bootlx vmlinux.gz

   Booting a system in this way is not normally necessary. The reason
   this feature exists is to make it possible to get Linux installed on a
   systems that can't boot from a floppy disk (e.g., the Jensen).
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6.3. Boot Flags

   A number of bootflags can be specified. The syntax is:
-flags "options..."

   Where "options..." is any combination the following options (separated
   by blanks). There are many more bootoptions, depending on what drivers
   your kernel has installed. The options listed below are therefore just
   examples to illustrate the general idea:
   
   load_ramdisk=1
          Copy root file system from a (floppy) disk to the RAM disk
          before starting the system. The RAM disk will be used in lieu
          of the root device. This is useful to bootstrap Linux on a
          system with only one floppy drive.
          
   floppy=str
          Sets floppy configuration to str.
          
   root=dev
          Select device dev as the root-file system. The device can be
          specified as a major/minor hex number (e.g., 0x802 for
          /dev/sda2) or one of a few canonical names (e.g., /dev/fd0,
          /dev/sda2).
          
   single
          Boot system in single user mode.
          
   kgdb
          Enable kernel-gdb (works only if CONFIG_KGDB is enabled; a
          second Alpha system needs to be connected over the serial port
          in order to make this work)
          
   Some SRM implementations (e.g., the one for the Jensen) are
   handicapped and allow only short option strings (e.g., at most 8
   characters). In such a case, aboot can be booted with the
   single-character boot flag "i". With this flag, aboot will enter
   interactive mode
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6.4. Using aboot interactively

   As of version 0.6, aboot supports a simple command-oriented
   interactive mode. Note that this is different from the prompt which
   previous versions issued when booted with the "i" flag, or after
   failing to load a kernel. You can get a summary of the available
   commands by typing "h" or "?" at the prompt:
>>> boot dka0 -fl i
aboot> ?
 h, ?                   Display this message
 q                      Halt the system and return to SRM
 p 1-8                  Look in partition <num> for configuration/kernel
 l                      List pre-configured kernels
 d <dir>                List directory <dir> in current filesystem
 b <file> <args>        Boot kernel in <file> (- for raw boot)
                        with arguments <args>
 0-9                    Boot pre-configuration 0-9 (list with 'l')
aboot> b 3/vmlinux.gz root=/dev/sda3 single
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6.5. The aboot.conf configuration file

   Since booting in that manner quickly becomes tedious, aboot allows to
   define short-hands for frequently used command lines. In particular, a
   single digit option (0-9) requests that aboot uses the corresponding
   option string stored in file /etc/aboot.conf. A sample aboot.conf is
   shown below:
#
# aboot default configurations
#
0:3/vmlinux.gz root=/dev/sda3
1:3/vmlinux.gz root=/dev/sda3 single
2:3/vmlinux.new.gz root=/dev/sda3
3:3/vmlinux root=/dev/sda3
8:- root=/dev/sda3            # fs-less boot of raw kernel
9:0/vmlinux.gz root=/dev/sda3 # fs-less boot of (compressed) ECOFF kernel
-

   With this configuration file, the command
>>> boot dka0 -fl 1

   corresponds exactly to the boot command shown above.
   
   Finally, at the aboot prompt, it is possible to enter one of the
   single character flags ("0"-"9") to get the same effect as if that
   flag had been specified in the boot command line. As noted in the help
   text cited above, you can also list the available default
   configurations with the "l" command.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.6.5.1. Selecting the Partition of /etc/aboot.conf

   When installed on a harddisk, aboot needs to know what partition to
   search for the /etc/aboot.conf file. A newly compiled aboot will
   search the second partition (e.g., /dev/sda2). Since it would be
   inconvenient to have to recompile aboot just to change the partition
   number, abootconf allows to directly modify an installed aboot.
   Specifically, if you want to change aboot to use the third partition
   on disk /dev/sda, you'd use the command:
# abootconf /dev/sda 3

   You can verify the current setting by simply omitting the partition
   number. That is: abootconf /dev/sda will print the currently selected
   partition number. Note that aboot does have to be installed already
   for this command to succeed. As of version 0.6, swriteboot it will
   preserve the existing configuration when installing a new aboot on a
   hard disk.
   
   Since aboot version 0.5, it is also possible to select the aboot.conf
   partition via the boot command line. This can be done with a command
   line of the form a:b where a is the partition that holds
   /etc/aboot.conf and b is a single-letter option as described above
   (0-9, i, or h). For example, if you type boot -fl "3:h" dka100 the
   system boots from SCSI ID 1, loads /etc/aboot.conf from the third
   partition, prints its contents on the screen and waits for you to
   enter the boot options.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.7. Setting up a BOOTP capable server using DHCP

   The following configuration assumes that the server is running RH-6.2.
   Prerequisites packages are,
   
     * dhcp-2.0.5
     * tftp-server-0.16.5
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.7.1. DHCP & BOOTP configuation

   Once those packages are installed there are a few setup issues to take
   care of.
   
   Create the default directory to which files will be pulled from using
   tftp.
# mkdir /tftpboot

   Create the dhcp.leases file which is not create per default (though it
   should be) when you install the dhcp package so the dhcp server may
   start.
# mkdir -p /var/state/dhcp
# touch /var/state/dhcp/dhcpd.leases

   Configure the inetd to accept the tftp service. Edit your
   /etc/inetd.conf file and locate the following line. Then uncomment it
   and save the file.
#tftp   dgram   udp     wait    root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  in.tftpd

   Create the /etc/dhcp.conf configuation file. An example config is
   provided below with the directives which allow BOOTP.
subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
       option routers                        192.168.1.1;
       option subnet-mask                  255.255.255.0;
       option nis-domain                "alphalinux.org";
       option domain-name               "alphalinux.org";
       option domain-name-servers            192.168.1.2;
       range                 192.168.1.3   192.168.1.254;
       range dynamic-bootp   192.168.1.3   192.168.1.254;
       default-lease-time                          21600;
       max-lease-time                              43200;
       allow bootp;
       allow booting;
       filename "/tftpboot/vmlinux.bootp";
}
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.7.1.1. Examination of /etc/dhcp.conf

   There are four directives that you should be concerned with.
   
     * range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.3 192.168.1.254; which defines the
       range of ip's available for bootp.
     * allow bootp; which tells the dhcp server to allow the bootp
       protocol..
     * allow booting; which tells the dhcp server to allow the transfer
       of the file specified either in the the "filename" directive or
       passed in the "-file" flag in SRM.
     * filename "/tftpboot/vmlinux.bootp"; which is the default file
       which is transferred and executed when no filename specified in
       SRM as an argument.
       
   Lastly, Restart the inetd daemon so that the changes we made can take
   effect
# service inet restart

   You should now have a DHCP server that is capable of BOOTP.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.7.2. bootpd configuration

   The bootpd is the older way of making a bootp server and for the most
   part is not used anymore in lieu of more modern DHCP servers that are
   capable of handling the protocol with minimal configuration and more
   flexibility. This style of setup does not allow just any client to be
   granted a BOOTP request. Instead you must specify the ip address and
   MAC address of the allowed clients. Naturally this could get quite
   tedious if you where say administrating more than a few machines.
   
   bootpd rpms can be found on older versions of RedHat's distributions
   like version 5.2 and below. Note: the rpm itself is named bootp though
   the package does contain the bootpd filename. It is available for
   download at your favorite RedHat [40]mirror. The bootp package
   requires the tftp-server just as before and the location to where the
   files are grabbed from is the same.
   
   Once installed you must configure your inetd service to talk to the
   bootpd daemon. Uncomment the following line in your /etc/inetd.conf .
#bootps dgram   udp     wait    root    /usr/sbin/tcpd  bootpd

   Then restart the inetd.
# service inet restart

   Configuring the /etc/bootptab file. The bootptab file has one entry
   describing each client that is allowed to boot from the server. For
   example, if you want to boot the machine voodoo.alphalinux.org, then
   an entry of the following form would be needed:
voodoo.alphalinux.org:\
        :hd=/tftpboot/:bf=vmlinux.bootp:\
        :ht=ethernet:ha=08012B1C51F8:hn:vm=rfc1048:\
        :ip=192.12.69.254:bs=auto:

   This entry assumes that the machine's Ethernet address is 08012B1C51F8
   and that its IP address is 192.12.69.254. The Ethernet address can be
   found with the show device command of the SRM console or, if Linux is
   running, with the ifconfig command. The entry also defines that if the
   client does not specify otherwise, the file that will be booted is
   vmlinux.bootp in directory /tftpboot. For more information on
   configuring bootpd, please refer to its man page.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.8. Booting Over the Network

   Three steps are necessary before Linux can be booted via a network.
   First you need an Ethernet adapter that is supported by SRM. Most
   version of SRM support the DE500 series of cards, with newer versions
   (5.6 and later) also supporting the Intel EtherExpress/Pro series of
   cards. Second, you need to set the SRM environment variables to enable
   booting via the bootp protocol and third you need to setup another
   machine as the your boot server. Enabling bootp in SRM is usually done
   by setting the ewa0_protocol (DE500 cards) or eia0_protocol (Intel
   cards) variable to bootp.
>>> set ewa0_protocol bootp

   Also check to see that your ethernet device has a link light to
   whatever hub or switch it is connected to. If you do not see a link
   light try forcing the negotiation of the ethernet device. For example:
>>> set ewa0_mode FastFD

   Would set the DE500 ethernet card to fast full duplex operation. To
   see a list of the available modes
>>> set ewa0_mode

   Netboot using the aboot sources is currently broken though for the
   curious the steps needed are further below. Instead use the directions
   for netbooting using the kernel sources.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.8.1. Netboot using the kernel sources

    1. Make sure the kernel you want to boot has already been built
    2. Execute the following while in the linux source dir:
          + make bootimage
          + make bootpfile
       This creates a uncompressed kernel named 'bootpfile' located in
       arch/alpha/boot/ . Note that this kernel is significantly larger
       than that produced by the aboot sources.
    3. Copy bootpfile to the bootp server's directory. With a default
       setup the tftp server would look in /tftpboot so copy bootpfile
       into /tftpboot .
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.8.2. Netboot using the aboot sources

    1. Build aboot with with the command make netboot.
    2. Make sure the kernel that you want to boot has been built already.
       By default, the aboot Makefile uses the kernel in
       /usr/src/linux/arch/alpha/boot/vmlinux.gz (edit the Makefile if
       you want to use a different path). The result of make netboot is a
       file called vmlinux.bootp which contains aboot and the Linux
       kernel, ready for network booting.
    3. Copy vmlinux.bootp to the bootp server's directory. In the example
       above, you'd copy it into /tftpboot/vmlinux.bootp.
       
   Next, power up the client machine and boot it, specifying the Ethernet
   adapter as the boot device. Typically, SRM calls the DEC based
   Ethernet adapter ewa0 and the Intel based adapter eia0, so to boot
   from that device, you'd use the command:
      >>> boot ewa0

   The -fi and -fl options can be used as usual. For example,
   
      >>> boot ewa0 -fi  bootpfile -fl "root=/dev/hda2"

   In particular, you can ask aboot to prompt for Linux kernel arguments
   by specifying the option -fl i .
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.8.3. Updating the SRM console through BOOTP

   Updating your SRM console over the network through BOOTP is just as
   easy as booting the Linux kernel in the same manner. The hardware
   prerequisites are the same as netbooting Linux.
   
   First you have to obtain an SRM image that is able to BOOTP over the
   network. These images normally have a .exe extension. For DEC/Compaq
   Alpha products these images can be found at
   [41]ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/v5.8/. You can
   also find these files on the Alpha Systems Firmware Update CD-ROM.
   [42]API NetWorks does not offer net bootable SRM images at this time
   though that may change in the near future.
   
   For example say you had a DS20 and wanted to update it's firmware over
   the network using BOOTP. You would have to,
   
    1. Get the correct firmware image for the DS20 that supported BOOTP
       execution which in this case the filename is ds20_v5_8.exe from
       [43]ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/v5.8/.
    2. Copy the file to the /tftpboot folder located on the BOOTP server.
       
   To execute the update from SRM you would do the following:
>>> b ewa0 -fi ds20_v5_8.exe

   SRM would then proceed to upgrade the firmware in the same fashion as
   if you had done the firmware update from a CD.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.9. Partitioning Disks

5.9.1. What is a disklabel?

   A disk label is a partition table. Unfortunately, there are several
   formats the partition table can take, depending on the operating
   system.
   
   DOS partition tables are the standard used by Linux and Windows.
   AlphaBIOS systems and every Linux kernel can read DOS partition
   tables. Unfortunately, the SRM console's boot sector format overlaps
   with parts of the DOS partition table on disk, and therefore DOS
   partition tables cannot be used with SRM.
   
   BSD disklabels are used by several variants of Unix, including Tru64.
   SRM's boot block does not conflict with the BSD disklabel (in fact,
   the BSD disklabel resides entirely within "reserved" areas of the
   first sector), and Linux can use a BSD disklabel, provided that
   support for BSD disklabels has been compiled into the kernel.
   
   To boot from a disk using SRM, a BSD disklabel is required. If the
   disk is not a boot disk, the BSD disklabel is not required. A BSD
   disklabel can be created using fdisk, the standard Linux disk
   partitioning tool.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.9.2. Partitioning the Easy Way: a DOS Disklabel

   The simplest way to partition your disk is to let your Linux installer
   do it for you, for example by using Red Hat's disk druid or fdisk. On
   Red Hat 6.1, this will produce a valid BSD disklabel, but only if the
   disk in question previously contained one. In most cases, this will
   produce a DOS disklabel. It will be readable by Linux, but you will
   not be able to boot from it via SRM. For this reason, you will
   probably want to create a BSD disklabel manually in order to boot
   Linux
     _________________________________________________________________
   
5.9.3. Partitioning with a BSD Disklabel

    1. Start fdisk on the disk you're configuring
    2. Choose to make a BSD disklabel - option 'b' (newer versions of
       fdisk will detect existing BSD disklabels and automatically enter
       disklabel mode)
    3. You'll notice some things: Partitions are letters instead of
       numbers, from a-h Partition 'c' covers the whole of the disk. This
       is the convention, don't touch it. While you can see it, note down
       the disk parameters as you'll use them more often than with the
       DOS-disklabel approach
    4. Creating a new partition uses the same procedure as the
       DOS-disklabel approach, except that the partitions are referred to
       by letter instead of number. That is, 'n' to make a new partition
       followed by the partition letter followed by the starting block
       followed by the end block
    5. Setting partition type is slightly different, because the
       numbering scheme is different (1 is swap, 8 is ext2).
    6. When you are finished, write ('w') and quit ('q') as normal.
       
   There are some important catches that you must be aware of when
   partitioning using a BSD disklabel:
   
     * Partition 'a' should start about 1M into the disk: don't start it
       at sector 1, try starting at sector 10 (for example). This leaves
       plenty of space for writing the boot block (see below)
     * There is a bug in some versions of fdisk which makes the disk look
       one sector bigger than it actually is. The listing when you create
       the BSD disklabel is correct. The last sector of partition 'c' is
       correct. The default last sector when creating a new partition is
       1 sector too big
     * Always adjust for this extra sector. This bug exists in the
       version of fdisk shipped with Red Hat 6.0. Not making an
       adjustment for this problem almost always leads to "Access beyond
       end of device" errors from the Linux kernel.
       
   Once you have made a BSD disklabel, continue the installation. After
   installation, you can write a boot block to your disk to make it
   bootable from SRM.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
6. Sharing a Disk With DEC Unix

   Unfortunately, DEC Unix doesn't know anything about Linux, so sharing
   a single disk between the two OSes is not entirely trivial. However,
   it is not a difficult task if you heed the tips in this section. The
   section assumes you are using aboot version 0.5 or newer.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
6.1. Partitioning the disk

   First and foremost: never use any of the Linux partitioning programs
   (minlabel or fdisk) on a disk that is also used by DEC Unix. The Linux
   minlabel program uses the same partition table format as DEC Unix
   disklabel, but there are some incompatibilities in the data that
   minlabel fills in, so DEC Unix will simply refuse to accept a
   partition table generated by minlabel. To setup a Linux ext2 partition
   under DEC Unix, you'll have to change the disktab entry for your disk.
   For the purpose of this discussion, let's assume that you have an rz26
   disk (a common 1GB drive) on which you want to install Linux. The
   disktab entry under DEC Unix v3.2 looks like this (see file
   /etc/disktab):
rz26|RZ26|DEC RZ26 Winchester:\
        :ty=winchester:dt=SCSI:ns#57:nt#14:nc#2570:\
        :oa#0:pa#131072:ba#8192:fa#1024:\
        :ob#131072:pb#262144:bb#8192:fb#1024:\
        :oc#0:pc#2050860:bc#8192:fc#1024:\
        :od#393216:pd#552548:bd#8192:fd#1024:\
        :oe#945764:pe#552548:be#8192:fe#1024:\
        :of#1498312:pf#552548:bf#8192:ff#1024:\
        :og#393216:pg#819200:bg#8192:fg#1024:\
        :oh#1212416:ph#838444:bh#8192:fh#1024:

   The interesting fields here are o?, and p?, where ? is a letter in the
   range a-h (first through 8-th partition). The o value gives the
   starting offset of the partition (in sectors) and the p value gives
   the size of the partition (also in sectors). See disktab(4) for more
   info. Note that DEC Unix likes to define overlapping partitions. For
   the entry above, the partition layout looks like this (you can verify
   this by adding up the various o and p values):
  a     b         d           e           f
|---|-------|-----------|-----------|-----------|

                        c
|-----------------------------------------------|

                     g                 h
            |-----------------|-----------------|

   DEC Unix insists that partition a starts at offset 0 and that
   partition c spans the entire disk. Other than that, you can setup the
   partition table any way you like.
   
   Let's suppose you have DEC Unix using partition g and want to install
   Linux on partition h with partition b being a (largish) swap
   partition. To get this layout without destroying the existing DEC Unix
   partition, you need to set the partition types explicitly. You can do
   this by adding a t field for each partition. In our case, we add the
   following line to the above disktab entry.
        :ta=unused:tb=swap:tg=4.2BSD:th=resrvd8:

   Now why do we mark partition h as "reservd8" instead of "ext2"? Well,
   DEC Unix doesn't know about Linux. It so happens that partition type
   "ext2" corresponds to a numeric value of 8, and DEC Unix uses the
   string "reservd8" for that value. Thus, in DEC Unix speak, "reservd8"
   means "ext2". OK, this was the hard part. Now we just need to install
   the updated disktab entry on the disk. Let's assume the disk has SCSI
   id 5. In this case, we'd do:
# disklabel -rw /dev/rrz5c rz26

   You can verify that everything is all right by reading back the
   disklabel with disklabel -r /dev/rrz5c. At this point, you may want to
   reboot DEC Unix and make sure the existing DEC Unix partition is still
   alive and well. If that is the case, you can shut down the machine and
   start with the Linux installation. Be sure to skip the disk
   partitioning step during the install. Since we already installed a
   good partition table, you should be able to proceed and select the 8th
   partition as the Linux root partition and the 2nd partition as the
   swap partition. If the disk is, say, the second SCSI disk in the
   machine, then the device name for these partitions would be /dev/sdb8
   and /dev/sdb2, respectively (note that Linux uses letters to name the
   drives and numbers to name the partitions, which is exactly reversed
   from what DEC Unix does; the Linux scheme makes more sense, of course
   ;-).
     _________________________________________________________________
   
6.2. Installing aboot

   First big caveat: with the SRM firmware, you can boot one and only one
   operating system per disk. For this reason, it is generally best to
   have at least two SCSI disks in a machine that you want to dual-boot
   between Linux and DEC Unix. Of course, you could also boot Linux from
   a floppy if speed doesn't matter or over the network, if you have a
   bootp-capable server. But in this section we assume you want to boot
   Linux from a disk that contains one or more DEC Unix partitions.
   
   Second big caveat: installing aboot on a disk shared with DEC Unix
   renders the first and third partition unusable (since those must have
   a starting offset of 0). For this reason, we recommend that you change
   the size of partition a to something that is just big enough to hold
   aboot (1MB should be plenty).
   
   Once these two caveats are taken care of, installing aboot is almost
   as easy as usual: since partition a and c will overlap with aboot, we
   need to tell swriteboot that this is indeed OK. We can do this under
   Linux with a command line of the following form (again, assuming we're
   trying to install aboot on the second SCSI disk):
# swriteboot -f1 -f3 /dev/sdb bootlx

   The -f1 means that we want to force writing bootlx even though it
   overlaps with partition 1. The corresponding applies for partition 3.
   
   This is it. You should now be able to shutdown the system and boot
   Linux from the harddisk. In our example, the SRM command line to do
   this would be:
>>> boot dka5 -fi 8/vmlinux.gz -fl root=/dev/sdb8
     _________________________________________________________________
   
7. Installation of Distributions

7.1. RedHat 6.0, 6.1 and 6.2

7.1.1. Installation from the Red Hat 6.0, 6.1 or 6.2 CD

   Red Hat have made their distribution CD bootable from SRM console
   [44][2] To start an installation, put the CD in and type the
   following:
>>> boot srm-device -file kernels/generic.gz -flags root=linux-device

   In the above, the SRM device name and Linux device name for your
   CD-ROM drive are needed. For Example if the machine had an IDE cdrom
   installed as primary master the command would look like this:
>>> boot dqa0 -file kernels/generic.gz -flags "root=/dev/hda"

   See the section on [45]Section 5.6.1 conventions if you don't know
   what these are.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
7.2. SuSE 6.1

7.2.1. Installation from the SuSE 6.1 CD

   The SuSE 6.1 CD is not bootable from SRM console. SuSE have an
   alternative approach which involves creating two boot floppies, the
   images of which are included on the CD. The boot disks can be created
   in various ways, depending on the systems you have available
   
   Writing the boot disks from a linux system The command to use is dd.
   From the mount-point of SuSE CD 1, the commands are:
# dd if=disks/aboot of=/dev/fd0
# dd if=disks/install of=/dev/fd0

   For writing the boot disks from a windows system, the command to use
   is rawrite. It is available on the CD.
 D:\tools\> rawrite

   The program then prompts for input disk image and output disk drive.
   Run this command once for each of the disk images as shown above.
   
   Starting the SuSE installer from the boot disks With the floppy disk
   made from the aboot image in place, type:
>>> boot dva0 -file vmlinux.gz -flags "root=/dev/fd0 load_ramdisk=1"

   This will start the kernel, prompt you for the second boot disk, and
   start the installer
     _________________________________________________________________
   
7.3. SuSE 6.3

7.3.1. Installation from the SuSE 6.3 CD

   The SuSE 6.3 CD-ROM is SRM bootable much like the RedHat 6.0 and 6.1
   CD-ROMs. The best way to start the install from SRM is to use the
   following command:
>>> boot srm-device -flags 0

   In the above, the SRM device names for your CD-ROM drive is needed.
   For Example if the machine had an IDE cdrom installed as primary
   master the command would look like this:
>>> boot dqa0 -flags 0

   SuSE has added support to aboot to allow it to load initrd files. The
   above command will from the CD-ROM drive and use config number 0 from
   the /etc/aboot.conf file. For other variations on this refer to the
   SuSE installation guide.
     _________________________________________________________________
   
8. Document History

   v0.8 9th November 2000 Changed from Rich Payne <rdp@alphalinux.org>
   
     * Added section on SRM Device names
     * Many spelling/grammer fixes.
       
   v0.7.1 6th November 2000 Changes from Peter Petrakis
   <ppetrakis@alphalinux.org>
   
     * Cleaned up netbooting section. Avoid duplicate information.
     * Added DHCP/BOOTP server configuration section.
     * Added SRM netbooting section.
     * Put the older bootpd configuration in it's own section and
       elaborated on it.
       
   v0.7 10th July 2000 Changes from Rich Payne <rdp@alphalinux.org>
   
     * Updated for RedHat 6.2
     * Fixed aboot link for alphalinux.org and added CVS information.
     * Added additional netboot information from Peter Petrakis
       <ppetrakis@alphalinux.org>
       
   v0.6.1 21 March 2000 Changes from Rich Payne <rdp@alphalinux.org>
   
     * Made the installation hints a new chapter
     * Added information on Netbooting
     * Added to the new section on RedHat 6.1 and BSD disklabels
     * Removed David Mosberger-Tang's name from the authors list
     * Marked a few of the feature as being in 0.6 only
     * Added info for SuSE 6.3 and RedHat 6.1
       
   v0.6 3 March 2000 Changes and information from David Huggins-Daines
   <dhd@linuxcare.com>
   
     * Moved the notes on MILO vs. SRM to an "About this document"
       section
     * Added sections on switching to SRM, and basic SRM usage
     * Added section on the new interactive use of aboot
     * Updated the note on DOS partition tables to mention the Red Hat
       6.1 installer's behavior.
     * Normalized the markup, and codified the conventions used for
       user-entered commands.
     * Corrected the notes on BSD disklabels (SRM does not read BSD
       disklabels, it's just that they don't conflict with the boot
       block).
       
   v0.5.2 5 December 1999 Added comments and information from Stig Telfer
   (stig @ alpha-processor.com).
   
     * Added chart on SRM to Linux name mappings
     * Added RedHat 6.0 and SuSE 6.1 installation information
     * Added Disk Partitioning Information
       
   v0.5.1 (Not Released) 13 November 1999 Took the original 0.5 document
   and updated several parts:
   
     * Update information on SRM booting from IDE devices
     * Fixed URL to aboot source
     * Update toc page to reflect MILO's future
     * Included information on bootdef_dev and boot_dev to chapter 3
     * Added this section
       
   v0.5 17 August 1996 - Original Document by David Mosberger-Tang
   
  Notes
  
   [46][1]
   
   On multiprocessor machines, you will see 'P00>>' instead, or possibly
   some other number depending on which processor SRM is running.
   [47][2]
   
   Please note that through the official RedHat CD-ROM is SRM bootable,
   copies made by various other companies may not be bootable.

References

   1. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN11
   2. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN13
   3. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN19
   4. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN31
   5. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN34
   6. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN48
   7. SRM-HOWTO.html#HOW-SRM-BOOTS
   8. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN88
   9. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN99
  10. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN101
  11. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN130
  12. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN162
  13. SRM-HOWTO.html#ABOOT
  14. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN235
  15. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN286
  16. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN297
  17. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN317
  18. SRM-HOWTO.html#BUILDING-LINUX
  19. SRM-HOWTO.html#BOOTING
  20. SRM-HOWTO.html#DHCP-AND-BOOTPD-SERVER-SETUP
  21. SRM-HOWTO.html#NETWORK-BOOTING
  22. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN624
  23. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN661
  24. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN665
  25. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN708
  26. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN733
  27. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN735
  28. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN747
  29. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN760
  30. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN768
  31. http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/milo.html
  32. SRM-HOWTO.html#FTN.AEN23
  33. http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/
  34. http://ftp.digital.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/
  35. SRM-HOWTO.html#DEVICE-NAMING
  36. ftp://ftp.alphalinux.org/pub/Linux-Alpha/aboot
  37. http://www.alphalinux.org/mirrors
  38. SRM-HOWTO.html#BOOTING
  39. SRM-HOWTO.html#HOW-SRM-BOOTS
  40. ftp://ftp.freesoftware.com/.1/linux/redhat/old-releases/redhat-5.2/alpha/RedHat/RPMS/
  41. ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/v5.8/
  42. http://www.api-networks.com/
  43. ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/Alpha/firmware/v5.8/
  44. SRM-HOWTO.html#FTN.AEN740
  45. SRM-HOWTO.html#DEVICE-NAMING
  46. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN23
  47. SRM-HOWTO.html#AEN740





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