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Sybase Adaptive Server Anywhere for Linux HOWTO

Aylwin Lo

Tom Slee

Sybase Inc.

����������Tom.Slee@sybase.com
��������
Revision History                                                             
Revision 1.0            2001-04-26             Revised by: al                
First public release.                                                        


This HOWTO guides you through the installation of SQL Anywhere Studio 7.0.2
for Linux and the basic operation and administration of Adaptive Server
Anywhere databases.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
    1.1. New versions of this document
    1.2. Content and Audience
    1.3. Adaptive Server Anywhere features
    1.4. Quirks
        1.4.1. Alt and Function keys
       
       
    1.5. What's a Relational Database?
        1.5.1. Definition
        1.5.2. Example
        1.5.3. Primary and Foreign Keys
       
       
   
   
2. Requirements
    2.1. System requirements
    2.2. Supported distributions
   
   
3. Installation
    3.1. Process
    3.2. Distribution-specific considerations (for TurboLinux and Caldera)
    3.3. Setting the Environment Variables
    3.4. Where did it get installed?
   
   
4. Creating, Running and Connecting to Databases
    4.1. Creating a database
        4.1.1. Creating a database from the command prompt
        4.1.2. Creating a database from Sybase Central
       
       
    4.2. Running a database server and starting databases
        4.2.1. Running the server as a daemon
       
       
    4.3. Stopping the database server
    4.4. Stopping databases
    4.5. Connecting to a database
        4.5.1. Connection strings
        4.5.2. Connecting from Interactive SQL
        4.5.3. Connecting via ODBC
            4.5.3.1. Setting up ODBC with Adaptive Server Anywhere
            4.5.3.2. About ODBC data sources
            4.5.3.3. Connecting to an ODBC data source
           
           
       
       
   
   
5. Backing up and Restoring a Database
    5.1. Creating a Backup of the Database
        5.1.1. Full vs. Incremental Backups
        5.1.2. Online vs. Offline Backups
        5.1.3. Server-side vs. Client-side Backups
        5.1.4. How to make a backup
            5.1.4.1. From the command line
            5.1.4.2. From SQL
            5.1.4.3. From Sybase Central
           
           
       
       
    5.2. Validating the database and its backup
    5.3. Recovering the database
   
   
6. Managing a Database
    6.1. Tables
        6.1.1. Creating a Table
        6.1.2. Making Alterations to Tables
       
       
    6.2. Users, permissions, and authorities
        6.2.1. User IDs
            6.2.1.1. Special user IDs
            6.2.1.2. Creating new user IDs
           
           
        6.2.2. Permissions
        6.2.3. Authorities
            6.2.3.1. RESOURCE authority
            6.2.3.2. DBA authority
           
           
        6.2.4. Removing Users and Revoking Permissions
        6.2.5. Changing Passwords
       
       
    6.3. Making the database more secure
        6.3.1. Increasing password security
        6.3.2. Views, procedures, and triggers
        6.3.3. Encrypting client/server communications
       
       
   
   
7. Where to get more information
8. Legalities and Acknowledgements
    8.1. Copyright and Licenses
    8.2. Names and Contacts
    8.3. Acknowledgement
   
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Introduction

This HOWTO guides you through the installation of SQL Anywhere Studio 7.0.2
for Linux and the basic operation and administration of Adaptive Server
Anywhere databases.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. New versions of this document

The latest version of this document should always be available at the Linux
Documentation project website ([http://www.linuxdoc.org/] http://
www.linuxdoc.org/).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Content and Audience

Within this document, you will find a list of the supported Linux
distributions ("Section 2"). It is intended for moderately experienced users
of Linux or UNIX. Familiarity with relational database concepts is certainly
useful, but not a requirement. "Section 1.5" contains a summary of relational
database concepts.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. Adaptive Server Anywhere features

Adaptive Server Anywhere (Adaptive Server Anywhere) is the full SQL
relational database management system at the heart of SQL Anywhere Studio.
Ideally suited for use as an embedded database, in mobile computing, or as a
workgroup server, it includes the following among its features:

��*�Economical hardware requirements
   
��*�Designed to operate without administration
   
��*�Designed for mobile computing and synchronization
   
��*�Ease of use
   
��*�High performance
   
��*�Cross-platform solution
   
��*�Standalone and network use
   
��*�Industry standard interfaces
   

Some of the more specific features include:

��*�Stored procedures and triggers
   
��*�Java support for logic and datatypes
   

For further details about Adaptive Server Anywhere, please visit the
following links:

��*�[http://www.sybase.com/detail/1,3693,1002624,00.html] http://
    www.sybase.com/detail/1,3693,1002624,00.html is a datasheet on SQL
    Anywhere Studio. It includes some data on Adaptive Server Anywhere, which
    ships as a component of SQL Anywhere Studio.
   
��*�[http://www.sybase.com/detail/1,3693,1009210,00.html] http://
    www.sybase.com/detail/1,3693,1009210,00.html has some information on the
    features and system requirements of SQL Anywhere Studio and points you to
    the download location for SQL Anywhere Studio for Linux 7.0.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.4. Quirks

1.4.1. Alt and Function keys

Sometimes the Alt keys or the F1-F10 keys may not function in the terminal
where you are running Interactive SQL.

To emulate the Alt key, press Ctrl-A. Then press whatever key was to be
pressed with the Alt key. For example, instead of pressing Alt-F, you would
press Ctrl-A, then F.

To emulate the function keys, press Ctrl-F, followed by the number of the
function key you wanted to press. For example, instead of pressing F9, you
would press Ctrl-F, then 9. For F10, use the zero key.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5. What's a Relational Database?

If you are already familiar with relational databases, you can skip this
section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.1. Definition

A relational database-management system (RDBMS) is a system for storing and
retrieving data, in which the data is organized in tables. A relational
database consists of a collection of tables that store interrelated data.

If that doesn't quite make sense yet, read on.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.2. Example

Suppose you have some software to keep track of sales orders, and each order
is stored in the form of a table, called sales_order. It has information
about the customer (for example, her name, address and phone number), the
date of the order, and information about the sales representative (for
example his name, department, and office phone number). Let's put all this
into a table, with the data for a few orders:


Table 1. The sales_order table
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|cust_name  |cust_address   |cust_city_state_zip |cust_phone  |order_date |emp_name    |emp_dept  |emp_phone   |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|M. Devlin  |3114 Pioneer   |Rutherford, NJ 07070|2015558966  |19930316   |R. Overbey  |Sales     |5105557255  |
|           |Ave.           |                    |            |           |            |          |            |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|M. Devlin  |3114 Pioneer   |Rutherford, NJ 07070|2015558966  |19940405   |M. Kelly    |Sales     |5085553769  |
|           |Ave.           |                    |            |           |            |          |            |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|J.         |2800 Park Ave. |Hull, PQ K1A 0H3    |8195559539  |19940326   |M.Garcia    |Sales     |7135553431  |
|Gagliardo  |               |                    |            |           |            |          |            |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|E. Peros   |50 Market St.  |Rochester, NY 14624 |7165554275  |19930603   |P. Chin     |Sales     |4045552341  |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|E. Peros   |50 Market St.  |Rochester, NY 14624 |7165554275  |19940127   |M.Garcia    |Sales     |7135553431  |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+
|E. Peros   |50 Market St.  |Rochester, NY 14624 |7165554275  |19940520   |J. Klobucher|Sales     |7135558627  |
+-----------+---------------+--------------------+------------+-----------+------------+----------+------------+

Everything appears nice and ordered, but there's a fair bit of redundancy. M.
Devlin's name appears twice, along with his address and phone number. E.
Peros' details appear three times. If you look carefully at the employee side
of things, you'll notice that M. Garcia is repeated, as well.

Wouldn't it be nice if you could separate that information and only store it
once, rather than several times? In the long term, it would certainly save
disk space and allow for greater flexibility. Since redundant data entry is
minimized, it would also reduce the chances of erroneous data entering the
database, increasing consistency. Well, we can see three different entities
involved here: the customer, the order, and the employee. So let's take each
of the individuals, put them into categories, and give them identification
numbers so they can be referenced.


Table 2. The customer table
+-----+------------+----------------+------------------+------------+
|id   |name        |address         |city_state_zip    |phone       |
+-----+------------+----------------+------------------+------------+
|101  |M. Devlin   |3114 Pioneer    |Rutherford, NJ    |2015558966  |
|     |            |Ave.            |07070             |            |
+-----+------------+----------------+------------------+------------+
|109  |J. Gagliardo|2800 Park Ave.  |Hull, PQ K1A 0H3  |8195559539  |
+-----+------------+----------------+------------------+------------+
|180  |E. Peros    |50 Market St.   |Rochester, NY     |7165554275  |
|     |            |                |14624             |            |
+-----+------------+----------------+------------------+------------+


Table 3. The employee table
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+
|id   |name         |dept   |phone       |
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+
|299  |R. Overbey   |Sales  |5105557255  |
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+
|902  |M. Kelly     |Sales  |5085553769  |
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+
|667  |M.Garcia     |Sales  |7135553431  |
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+
|129  |P. Chin      |Sales  |4045552341  |
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+
|467  |J. Klobucher |Sales  |7135558627  |
+-----+-------------+-------+------------+


Table 4. The new sales_order table
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|id    |cust_id |order_date |sales_rep_id |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|2001  |101     |19930316   |299          |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|2583  |101     |19940405   |902          |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|2576  |109     |19940326   |667          |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|2081  |180     |19930603   |129          |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|2503  |180     |19940127   |667          |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+
|2640  |180     |19940520   |467          |
+------+--------+-----------+-------------+

As you can see, each customer's information is stored only once, and the same
goes for each employee. The sales_order table is a lot smaller, too. Each
row, representing a sales order, refers to a cust_id and an emp_id.

By looking up the customer corresponding to a cust_id (which is unique), one
can find all the needed data on that customer, without having to repeat it in
sales_order. In addition, an id column has been added. Its purpose will be
explained in the next section.

Why do this, you ask? By eliminating redundancy, this kind of structure
reduces the opportunities for inconsistencies to seep in, in addition to
lowering storage requirements. If you had to change E. Peros' address in the
old sales_order table, you'd have to do it three times, which would take
three times as long and give you three times as many chances to make an
error. In the newer table, all you'd have to do is change her address once,
in the customer table. Also, by carefully separating data, you make access
control simpler.

Finally, can you spot another redundancy? The employee table has "Sales" all
the way down the dept column. For an organization with multiple departments,
you'd want to add a department table and reference it from a dept_id column
instead.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.5.3. Primary and Foreign Keys

As described in the previous section, you can separate a table into
interrelated tables. But how do you go about relating tables to each other?
In relational databases, primary keys and foreign keys help you link tables
together. Primary keys are columns that uniquely identify each row of a
table, and foreign keys define the relationship between the rows of two
separate tables. Proper use of primary and foreign keys will help you
efficiently hold information without excessive redundancy.

Every table should have a primary key to ensure that each row is uniquely
identified. This often takes the form of an ID number being assigned to each
row, as in the previous section's example. The id column forms the primary
key.

As long as you can guarantee the uniqueness of the data in a particular
column, though, that column can be a primary key. For example, if you only
want one entry per day to be put into a particular table, you could use the
date as that table's primary key.

Tables are related to one another by foreign keys. In the sales_order
example, the cust_id and sales_rep columns would be called foreign keys to
the customer and employee tables, respectively. For terminology's sake, you
might want to know that in this case, the sales_order table is called the 
foreign or referencing table, while the customer and employee tables are
called the primary or referenced tables.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Requirements

2.1. System requirements

Adaptive Server Anywhere requires that you have the following installed on
your system:

��*�kernel 2.2.5-15 and up (2.2.x series)
   
��*�glibc-2.1 or up
   
��*�pthreads-0.8 or higher (included usually as part of glibc)
   
��*�libstdc++-2-libc6.1
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2. Supported distributions

At present, the following Linux distributions are supported:

��*�Caldera 2.4
   
��*�Red Hat 7.0, 6.2, 6.1 or 6.0
   
��*�TurboLinux 6.1
   
��*�SuSE 7.0, 6.4, 6.3 or 6.2
   

NOTE: The glibc and gcc released with Red Hat Linux 7.0 require patches
before you can use Adaptive Server Anywhere. You can find them at [http://
www.redhat.com/support/errata/rh7-errata-bugfixes.html] http://www.redhat.com
/support/errata/rh7-errata-bugfixes.html.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Installation

3.1. Process

 1. Log on as root.
   
 2. Place the CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive.
   
 3. Mount the CD-ROM. Usually, it gets mounted to /mnt/cdrom. If so, enter
    the following command:
   
    mount /mnt/cdrom
   
 4. At a command prompt, change to the CD-ROM directory. If the CD-ROM was
    mounted to /mnt/cdrom/, use the following command:
   
    cd /mnt/cdrom
   
 5. Start the setup script by entering the following command:
   
    ./setup
   
 6. The setup script prompts you with information about installing SQL
    Anywhere Studio for UNIX. Enter any information you are prompted for, and
    press the Enter key to continue.
   

By default, SQL Anywhere Studio is installed into a directory named SYBSsa7
under /opt/sybase on Solaris, Linux, and HP-UX, and under /usr/lpp/sybase on
AIX. You can specify another installation directory if you wish.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2. Distribution-specific considerations (for TurboLinux and Caldera)

After installation, you should follow these instructions if you are running
either TurboLinux 6.0 or Caldera 2.2.

For TurboLinux 6.0 only, change to directory /usr/lib and create a symbolic
link using the following command.

ln -s libstdc++-libc6.1-2.so.3 libstdc++-libc6.1-1.so.2

For Caldera 2.2 only, change to directory /usr/lib and create a symbolic link
using the following command.

ln -s /usr/lib/libstdc++-2.9.0 /usr/lib/libstdc++-libc6.1-1.so.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.3. Setting the Environment Variables

Each user who uses the software must set the necessary environment variables
for Adaptive Server Anywhere. To help you do that, the installation program
puts two script files, asa_config.sh and asa_config.csh, in the directory /
InstallDir/SYBSsa7/bin. InstallDir is the directory where you chose to
install Adaptive Server Anywhere.

Depending on which shell you're using, enter the appropriate command from 
InstallDir.


Table 5.
+---------------------------+-------------------------------------+
|If you're using this       |...use this command.                 |
|shell...                   |                                     |
+---------------------------+-------------------------------------+
|sh, ksh, bash              |. ./SYBSsa7/bin/asa_config.sh        |
+---------------------------+-------------------------------------+
|csh, tcsh                  |source ./SYBSsa7/bin/asa_config.csh  |
+---------------------------+-------------------------------------+

You may also want to insert the above commands into your copy of .profile or
.bash_profile to have the environment variables ready every time you log in.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4. Where did it get installed?

Table 6.
+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Most Adaptive Server Anywhere command line utilities (names    |/InstallDir/SYBSsa7/bin                  |
|beginning with db)                                             |                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Sybase Central                                                 |/InstallDir/shared/sybcentral40/java     |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Sample database                                                |/InstallDir/SYBSsa7                      |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Online documentation                                           |/CDROM/help/contents.htm or/InstallDir/  |
|                                                               |SYBSsa7/doc/contents.htm                 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+

CDROM is the directory where your CD-ROM is mounted, which is usually /mnt/
cdrom/.

InstallDir is the directory where you chose to install Adaptive Server
Anywhere.

The first two directories are put into the path by asa_config.sh or
asa_config.csh, so if you've already executed one of them as mentioned in the
previous section, you won't have to change directories to get to most of the
executables associated with Adaptive Server Anywhere.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Creating, Running and Connecting to Databases

4.1. Creating a database

When you ask Adaptive Server Anywhere to create a database, it creates the
main database file, which contains the following objects, among others:

��*�user tables
   
��*�indexes
   
��*�views
   
��*�system tables
   

The maximum size of a database file depends on your file system and the page
size you choose. Database files are limited to 256 million database pages or
the filesize limit, whichever is reached first. UNIX files can be as large as
1 Tb, in some cases-see the Physical Limitations chapter of the Adaptive
Server Anywhere Reference Manual or your Linux documentation for more
information. You can set pages to be 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 kb in size, but it
is not recommended that you use a page size of 1 kb. The default page size is
2 kb.

By default, Adaptive Server Anywhere also creates a file called the 
transaction log. Besides improving performance, the transaction log is vital
to Adaptive Server Anywhere replication systems and database recovery in
event of system failures. When possible, it is recommended that the
transaction log be placed on a physical device (in most cases, a disk drive)
separate from the main database file, to reduce the chances of both the main
database file and transaction log being affected in the event of a media
failure. You can specify the name and location of the transaction log when
you create the database.

This section shows you how to create databases at either the command prompt
or in Interactive SQL. You can also create databases through Sybase Central,
if you prefer, by opening the Utilities folder under Adaptive Server Anywhere
7.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.1. Creating a database from the command prompt

The command line utility for creating a database is dbinit.

Syntax:

dbinit [switches] db-file-name

db-file-name is the name you would like to give to your database file, for
example, mydb.db. If you issue the command "dbinit -?" you'll be shown the
above syntax, along with a list of options you can use.

To create your first Adaptive Server Anywhere database on Linux, enter the
following command:

dbinit -t './logs/mydb.log' p 4096 mydb.db

This command creates a database in the current working directory called
mydb.db with a page size of 4096 bytes, specified by the -p switch. Assuming
the directory exists, it also creates the transaction log mydb.log in the
subdirectory "logs," specified by the -t switch. Adaptive Server Anywhere
databases carry the extension ".db" .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1.2. Creating a database from Sybase Central

To create a database in Sybase Central, open the Adaptive Server Anywhere
section of the left pane, and select Utilities. Double-click Create Database
in the right pane, and follow the on-screen instructions.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Running a database server and starting databases

There are two versions of the database server installed on your machine. If
you are just using Adaptive Server Anywhere locally, use the personal
database server (dbeng7). If you are going to connect to the Adaptive Server
Anywhere database over a network, however, you should use the network
database server (dbsrv7). Examples in this document use dbeng7, but the two
commands are, for the most part, interchangeable. See the table below for
specific differences.


Table 7. Differences between the Personal and Network database servers
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|�                                            |Personal database server     |Network database server      |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Name of executable                           |dbeng7                       |dbsrv7                       |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Local connections                            |Yes                          |Yes                          |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Network connections                          |No                           |Yes                          |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Maximum number of connections                |10                           |Depends on license           |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Available communications protocols           |Shared memory, TCP/IP        |Shared memory, TCP/IP        |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Maximum number of CPUs for request processing|2                            |Unlimited                    |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Default/Maximum number of internal threads   |10/10                        |20/Unlimited                 |
+---------------------------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

Syntax:

(dbeng7 | dbsrv7) [server-switches] [database-file [database-switches], ]

database-file specifies the path and filename to the database. You aren't
actually required to specify a database file when you start up the database
server, but if you don't, you must specify a name for the server using the -n
switch. By default, if you do not specify a name for the database, it takes
on the name of the database file, minus the path and extension. Similarly, if
you do not specify a name for the database server (which you can do in
server-switches), it takes on the name of the first database that was started
on it.

For full details on the usage of dbeng7 and dbsrv7, see "The database server"
in the Adaptive Server Anywhere Reference.

To start up the Adaptive Server Anywhere personal database server, but not a
database, and name it MyServer, issue the following command at a prompt:

dbeng7 -n MyServer

To start up the Adaptive Server Anywhere personal database server and name it
MyServer, then start a database on MyServer from mydb.db, naming it
MyDatabase, issue the following command:

dbeng7 -n MyServer mydb.db -n MyDatabase

In the latter case, if you don't name the database server MyServer, it would
be named MyDatabase instead.

There's a plethora of other switches available for the server. You can get a
full listing of them by typing "dbeng7 -?" at a command prompt. A few
important switches include the following:

��*�-c, for specifying Adaptive Server Anywhere's cache size
   
��*�-x allows you to specify the communications protocols
   
��*�-gt allows you to specify the number of processors to be used
   
��*�-ud tells the server to run as a daemon in UNIX (explained below)
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.1. Running the server as a daemon

Sometimes it's necessary for the server to run outside of the current session
(that is, regardless of who, if anyone, is logged in). To do so, use the -ud
switch at the command line when starting the server to run it as a daemon.

The following command would start up a database server as a daemon, using the
database we created before:

dbsrv7 -ud -n MyDatabase mydb.db

NOTE: Using "&" to run the database server in the background does not work.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Stopping the database server

Assuming you have the appropriate authority, you can stop the database server
using any of the following methods:

��*�the dbstop command line utility
   
��*�using the STOP ENGINE SQL statement
   
��*�pressing the Q key when the server display window has the focus
   

NOTE: While the term engine is part of the SQL statement's name, server is
the common term now used. This document will use the term server unless
referring explicitly to the STOP ENGINE SQL statement.

By default, any user can stop a personal database server, but only a user
with the DBA authority can stop a network database server. (This default can
be changed by using the -gk switch when starting the server-see the Adaptive
Server Anywhere Reference for details.)

The command line utility syntax is as follows:

dbstop [switches] {name}

If you are issuing dbstop to stop a locally-running server, you can simply
specify the name of the database server in {name}. If the server is not
running locally, you need to create a connection to the server before you can
tell it to stop. The -c switch allows you to specify a connection string for
the database running on the server that you would like to stop. To stop
MyServer, execute the following command:

dbstop -c "uid=DBA;pwd=SQL;eng=MyServer;dbn=MyDatabase"

In this instance, you could also just give the server name, since the server
is running locally:

dbstop MyServer

The first command connects to the database named MyDatabase on the server
MyServer, then stops the server named MyServer. In the case that no databases
are active on the server, you have to add "dbn=utility_db" to the connection
string.

Let's say "Club" is the name of one of the databases running on a server
named "Goliath," and you want to stop all the databases running on Goliath,
including Club. The following command accomplishes that, as well as shutting
down the database server:

dbstop -c "uid=DBA;pwd=SQL;eng=Goliath;dbn=Club"

If you have a database server named "David" running without any databases
started on it, you can stop the server using the following command:

dbstop -c "uid=DBA;pwd=SQL;eng=David;dbn=utility_db"

The syntax for the STOP ENGINE statement is as follows:

STOP ENGINE [ server-name ] [ UNCONDITIONALLY ]

The server named server-name is stopped. If server-name is omitted, the
currently running database server is stopped. If UNCONDITIONALLY is
specified, the database server is stopped whether or not there are still
connections to the server.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.4. Stopping databases

It's also possible to stop individual databases without stopping the server,
or any of the other databases that might be running on it. To do so, use the
STOP DATABASE SQL statement.

Syntax:

STOP DATABASE database-name [ON engine-name] [UNCONDITIONALLY]

You specify the name of the database that you would like to stop in
database-name, with the restriction that the database specified cannot be the
currently connected one. The "ON engine-name" clause can be used only in
Interactive SQL. You use it to specify the server that the database is
running on. Outside of Interactive SQL, the database can only be stopped if
it is on the current server. The UNCONDITIONALLY keyword forces databases to
be stopped, even if there are connections to it. By default, you can't stop a
database if there are connections active.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5. Connecting to a database

You can connect to an Adaptive Server Anywhere database via any of the
following interfaces:

��*�ODBC
   
��*�OLE DB or ADO
   
��*�Embedded SQL
   
��*�Sybase Open Client
   
��*�JDBC
   

Regardless of how you connect, you must specify some parameters, such as a
username and password, to establish a connection to the database. These can
be specified in a connection string, the SQLCONNECT environment variable, an
ODBC data source configuration, or the fields of a dialog box.

In this section, you'll find explanations on how to connect via SQL and ODBC.

As the Adaptive Server Anywhere network server is a client/server database,
you may connect to a Linux-hosted database from Windows-based PCs and other
non-Linux devices, as well as Linux applications. Programming interfaces such
as OLE DB or ADO are available ony on Windows, but can still be used against
a Linux-hosted database.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5.1. Connection strings

Connection strings are frequently used when performing actions on a database.
They consist of a list of parameter settings, delimited by semicolons and
enclosed in double quotes. There should be no extra spaces in a connection
string.

Example:

"uid=DBA;pwd=SQL"

The short strings of letters just before each equal sign (in this example,
uid, pwd, and dbf) are called keywords, which each correspond to a connection
parameter. There are many connection parameters available, and they are
listed in the Connecting to a Database chapter of the Adaptive Server
Anywhere User's Guide. They are also described in detail in the Connection
and Communication Parameters chapter of the Adaptive Server Anywhere
Reference.

When Adaptive Server Anywhere utilities are looking for connection
parameters, they check the SQLCONNECT environment variable for any parameters
that were left out of the connection string. If you're putting connection
parameters into the SQLCONNECT environment variable, replace the equal signs
with number (#) signs. In bash you would use the following command:

SQLCONNECT='uid#DBA;pwd#SQL'

The single quotes are necessary in the above command because semicolons can
be used to separate bash commands. You can also use double quotes.

To make SQLCONNECT available in subsequent shells, you'd need to use "export
SQLCONNECT" to export the SQLCONNECT variable to the environment. You may
also want to put these commands into your .bash_profile (or .profile, if
you're using another shell) if you want the same connection parameters to be
available each time you log in.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5.2. Connecting from Interactive SQL

To connect to a database from Interactive SQL, go to the Command menu, and
choose "Connect...", then fill in the dialog box as appropriate.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5.3. Connecting via ODBC

ODBC (which stands for Open Database Connectivity) is an industry-standard
interface for connecting client applications to relational and non-relational
DBMSes. When you create an ODBC data source, it encapsulates the data and any
other information required to get the data, including connection parameters.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5.3.1. Setting up ODBC with Adaptive Server Anywhere

To connect to Adaptive Server Anywhere from ODBC applications on Linux, you
can either use Sybase's ODBC driver as a driver manager, or use a third-party
ODBC driver manager such as iODBC or unixODBC. If you choose the latter
route, follow the installation instructions for the driver manager you've
chosen and choose dbodbc7.so (which resides in the sybase/SYBSsa7/lib
directory) as the ODBC driver for Adaptive Server Anywhere.

If you choose the former route, you can use Adaptive Server Anywhere's ODBC
driver as a driver manager if you will only be connecting to Adaptive Server
Anywhere databases. To do so, you need to create a few symbolic links so that
ODBC driver manager requests get routed to the Sybase ODBC driver. From the
sybase/SYBSsa7/lib subdirectory, enter the following commands:

$ ln -s dbodbc7.so libodbc.so

$ ln -s dbodbc7.so libodbc.so.1

$ ln -s dbodbc7.so libodbcinst.so

$ ln -s dbodbc7.so libodbcinst.so.1

That's it!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5.3.2. About ODBC data sources

Data sources exist on the client computer, with at least one for each
database accessible via ODBC. They reside in the .odbc.ini file or in a
separate .dsn file.

If the client computer is running Linux or another UNIX operating system,
ODBC data sources can be used both for ODBC applications as well as for the
Interactive SQL and Sybase Central utilities.

NOTE: The database server looks for .odbc.ini in the following locations,
among several others:

 1. ODBCINI environment variable
   
 2. ODBCHOME and HOME environment variables
   
 3. The user's home directory
   
 4. The current directory
   
 5. The path
   
 6. The root directory
   

If no .odbc.ini file exists in your home directory, you'll have to create one
in your home directory. You can check if one exists by using the command "ls
-a ~/.odbc.ini".

You manage ODBC data sources using the dbdsn command line utility.

Syntax:
dbdsn [ modifier-switches ]                                                  
 { -l                                                                        
 | -d dsn                                                                    
 | -g dsn                                                                    
 | -w dsn [details-switches]                                                 
 | -cl                        }                                              

dbdsn has four main modes of operation, and its behaviour depends on whether
you choose the -l, -d, -g, or -w switch. Where applicable, the name of the
data source to be operated on is specified by dsn.

��*�the -l switch lists the data sources that have been defined
   
��*�the -d switch deletes the specified data source
   
��*�the -g switch gives you the details of the specified data source
   
��*�the -w switch creates a new DSN using parameters specified in
    details-switches
   

The most important details-switch is the -c switch, which allows you to
specify the usual database connection parameters. You can also specify the
name of a database server as a details-switch. Type "dbdsn -cl" to display a
list of available connection parameters.

To create a new data source named MyNewDSN for the server MyServer, execute
the following command at a shell prompt:

dbdsn -w MyNewDSN -c "uid=dba;pwd=sql;eng=MyServer"

If there is a data source named MyNewDSN already existing, dbdsn asks if you
would like to overwrite it.

Conversely, to delete MyNewDSN, execute the following command:

dbdsn -d MyNewDSN

The modifier-switches control how dbdsn outputs its messages to screen, and
whether or not data sources can be overwritten without confirmation. For more
information on other dbdsn options, see "The Data Source utility" under the
Database Administration Utilities chapter of the Adaptive Server Anywhere
Reference.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.5.3.3. Connecting to an ODBC data source

Once you've created an ODBC data source, you can access it through the DSN
(DataSourceName) connection string keyword.

For an ODBC data source called mydatasrc, for example, use the following
connection string to connect to the database associated with it:

"dsn=mydatasrc"

NOTE: Explicitly-provided connection parameters and SQLCONNECT override any
parameters provided in the ODBC data source, in that order.

NOTE: The FileDSN connection parameter is not yet available in version 7.0.2
of Adaptive Server Anywhere. Future versions of Adaptive Server Anywhere
should support File DSNs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Backing up and Restoring a Database

Creating a backup of your data is a simple, essential component of any
serious installation. Adaptive Server Anywhere includes utilities to help
minimize data loss in case your data becomes corrupt as a result of media
failure, power outage, or other failure.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1. Creating a Backup of the Database

Backups of Adaptive Server Anywhere databases can be performed through the
dbbackup command line utility, SQL, or Sybase Central. Both full backups and
incremental backups can be performed, and they can be performed either online
or offline (that is, whether the server is running or not, respectively). In
addition, backups can be performed both from the server side and from the
client side.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.1. Full vs. Incremental Backups

A full backup makes copies of the main database file and the transaction log
file. While it's the most basic and essential type of backup, it usually
isn't practical to regularly perform full backups of large databases. As a
result, incremental backups are commonly used.

An incremental backup makes a copy of the transaction log alone. It takes
place as part of a cycle that begins with a full backup, which is then
followed by a given number of incremental backups. Since only the transaction
log is copied, an incremental backup uses less time and resources, making it
particularly suited for large databases. Keep in mind, though, that the more
time you leave between full backups, the greater the risk of losing data in
the event that one of the transaction logs becomes unusable.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.2. Online vs. Offline Backups

An online backup is performed without stopping the database server. It
provides a consistent snapshot of the database, even as the database is
modified. Online backups are useful for databases with high availability
requirements, but they won't complete until all active transactions are
complete.

In contrast, offline backups are performed once the database server has been
shut down. They're useful for when the database can be taken down on a
regular basis. You make offline backups simply by copying the pertinent files
to another location using the cp command in a terminal window.

In either case, both full and incremental backups can be performed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.3. Server-side vs. Client-side Backups

An online backup can be performed from a client using the dbbackup command
line utility. This is known as a client-side backup, and it puts a backup of
the database on the client machine.

An online backup can also be performed on the server by issuing the BACKUP
statement in SQL. Server-side backups are generally faster, owing to the fact
that client-side backups usually depend upon transport across networks.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.4. How to make a backup

5.1.4.1. From the command line

The command line utility for making a backup of your database is dbbackup.
Its syntax is as follows:

dbbackup [ switches ] directory

directory specifies a destination directory for the backup files. Some useful
switches include the following:

��*�-c is used to specify a connection string to the database to be backed up
   
��*�-d creates a backup of the main database file only
   
��*�-t creates a backup of the transaction log only
   
��*�-r renames any previous transaction log backups and creates a new one. It
    is necessary for replication systems.
   
��*�-x deletes any previous transaction log backups and creates a new one. It
    should not be used in replication systems.
   

For example, if you were creating your first backup, you would want to create
a full backup of MyDatabase. To put it in ./backups, use the following
command:

dbbackup -c "uid=DBA;pwd=SQL;dbn=MyDatabase" ./backups

The next few backups could be incremental backups, so use the following:

dbbackup -t -r -c "uid=DBA;pwd=SQL;dbn=MyDatabase" ./backups
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.4.2. From SQL

If you prefer to back up your database from Interactive SQL, the SQL
statement is BACKUP DATABASE. You must have DBA authority to use BACKUP
DATABASE, whose syntax is as follows:
BACKUP DATABASE DIRECTORY backup-directory                                   
  [ WAIT BEFORE START ]                                                      
  [ DBFILE ONLY ]                                                            
  [ TRANSACTION LOG ONLY ]                                                   
  [ TRANSACTION LOG RENAME [ MATCH ] ]                                       
  [ TRANSACTION LOG TRUNCATE ]                                               
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.1.4.3. From Sybase Central

To make a backup from Sybase Central, open the Utilities folder under
"Adaptive Server Anywhere 7" and double-click "Backup Database" to open a
dialog box which will guide you through the backup process.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2. Validating the database and its backup

You should regularly use either Sybase Central, SQL, or the dbvalid command
line utility to validate a backup of your database in read-only mode, and, if
errors are found, make repairs against the original database. Never make
changes to a backup database! To read more about validation, see "Validating
a database" and "Validating a transaction log" under the Backup and Data
Recovery chapter of the Adaptive Server Anywhere User's Guide.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.3. Recovering the database

Depending on the way your database and its backups are set up, and the status
of your files after a media failure, there are several possible processes
involved in how you go about recovering data. For information on how to
recover data in various situations, see the Backup and Data Recovery chapter
of the Adaptive Server Anywhere User's Guide.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Managing a Database

6.1. Tables

All data in relational databases is held in tables. Each column is assigned a
data type, and each row of a table holds a value for each column. The
following are true for any table in a relational database:

��*�There is no significance to the order of rows and columns.
   
��*�Each row contains exactly one value per column.
   
��*�All values in a column are of the same type.
   

Here are some things to keep in mind when designing your database:

��*�give every table a primary key
   
��*�make sure that each table holds information about one specific entity
   
��*�foreign keys form the relationships between tables (and therefore
    entities)
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.1.1. Creating a Table

When you first create a database in Adaptive Server Anywhere, the only tables
it contains are the system tables. To create tables to hold your data, use
either the CREATE TABLE statement in SQL or the Sybase Central Table Editor.
You must have the DBA or RESOURCE authority to create a table, and you must
have the DBA authority make another user its owner.

The CREATE TABLE statement has an extremely broad range of options that are
documented in the Adaptive Server Anywhere Reference, so only a small subset
of options are described here. The basic syntax is as follows:
CREATE TABLE owner.table-name                                                
  (column-name datatype [, column-name datatype]...)                         

The "owner." portion before tablename is optional, and is used by a user with
the DBA authority to make another user the owner of the new table. table-name
and column-name, respectively, are the names of the table and its columns.
Insert the words PRIMARY KEY after datatype to make it the primary key.

See the SQL Data Types chapter of the Adaptive Server Anywhere Reference for
a list of the types available and their characteristics.

To create a table named customer with columns id, name, address,
city_state_zip, and phone, with id as the primary key, for example, use the
following CREATE TABLE statement:
create table customer                                                        
 (id integer not null primary key,                                           
  name char ( 35 ),                                                          
  address char ( 35 ),                                                       
  city_state_zip char ( 35 ),                                                
  phone char ( 12 )                                                          
 )                                                                           

It's also important to add "not null" in the case of id, since it's the
primary key.

To create a table in Sybase Central, connect to your database and open its
Tables folder. If you double-click "Add Table," Sybase Central Table Editor
will be opened and using the button bar, you can set up the table as you
wish. Hover the mouse pointer over each button to find out what it does.
Don't forget to make a primary key before you close the Table Editor!

Some table creation options documented in the Adaptive Server Anywhere
Reference but not here that you might be interested in include automatic
incrementation (often used on the primary key), constraints, and foreign
keys.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.1.2. Making Alterations to Tables

You can make many kinds of changes to a table once it's been created. Some of
the things you can do include the following:

��*�rename a table
   
��*�add, remove, or rename columns
   
��*�change the datatype, default value, or length of a column
   

As with creating tables, you can alter them through SQL or Sybase Central. To
alter a table in SQL, you use the ALTER TABLE statement. ALTER TABLE has a
great variety of options, which are described in detail in the Adaptive
Server Anywhere Reference. You'll see a few basic examples here just to get
you started.

To rename the customer table to cust:
alter table customer                                                         
  rename cust                                                                

To add a company_name column to cust, with a maximum length of 35 characters:
alter table cust                                                             
  add (company_name char (35) )                                              

To give company_name a default value of "n/a" :
alter table cust                                                             
  alter company_name set default 'n/a'                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2. Users, permissions, and authorities

NOTE: Before putting an Adaptive Server Anywhere database into serious usage,
your first order of business as the database administrator (DBA) should be to
change the DBA password from the default password, "SQL." For details on how
to do this, see section 6.2.5.

This section describes the user IDs that are created for each database,
briefly describes how to create new user IDs, and goes over some of the ways
you can use user IDs to control outsiders access of data. For more
information on user IDs, groups, and permissions, see the Managing User IDs
and Permissions chapter of the Adaptive Server Anywhere User's Guide.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.1. User IDs

6.2.1.1. Special user IDs

When Adaptive Server Anywhere databases are initialized, two groups and two
user IDs are created. The two groups created are SYS and PUBLIC. The two user
IDs created are DBA and dbo.

SYS is a user as well as a group, but no one can connect to the database
using the user ID SYS. SYS owns the system tables and the system views, and
only SYS can update the system tables.

PUBLIC is a member of the SYS group, and has only SELECT permissions on most
system tables and system views. Since new user IDs are, by default, members
of PUBLIC, you should revoke PUBLIC's membership in SYS if you want new users
to have no permissions by default.

The DBA user can directly modify any part of an Adaptive Server Anywhere
database except the system tables. This is why it's important to change the
default DBA password from "SQL." You should be cautious when giving DBA
authority to a user (see the DBA Authority section below). If a user needs
DBA authority, s/he should be given DBA authority, rather than the DBA's
password.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.1.2. Creating new user IDs

The SQL statement to add a new user ID is GRANT CONNECT.

Syntax:
GRANT CONNECT TO userid1                                                     
  IDENTIFIED BY password1                                                    

To add a user ID with the name Mortimer, execute the following SQL statement:
grant connect to mortimer identified by                                      
monkey                                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.2. Permissions

This section explains permissions on tables that can be granted to users.
Permissions are granted on a user-by-user basis.

There are a few different table permissions that can be granted to a user,
and they are each granted separately.

��*�SELECT allows the user to read data, and can be restricted to particular
    columns.
   
��*�INSERT allows the user to add data.
   
��*�UPDATE allows the user to change data, and can be restricted to
    particular columns.
   
��*�DELETE allows the user to remove data.
   
��*�ALTER allows the user to modify the structure of a table.
   
��*�REFERENCES allows the user to add indexes, primary keys, and foreign
    keys.
   
��*�ALL includes all the above permissions.
   

With the exceptions of ALTER and REFERENCES, which apply to tables
exclusively, the table permissions apply to both tables and views. The SQL
syntax for granting permissions is as follows:
GRANT [ SELECT (column-name, ...)                                            
      | INSERT                                                               
      | UPDATE (column-name, ...)                                            
      | DELETE                                                               
      | ALTER                                                                
      | REFERENCES                                                           
      | ALL                                          ]                       
ON table-name                                                                
TO userid                                                                    

The user userid is given the specified permission(s) on the table identified
by table-name. If the permissions granted include SELECT and/or UPDATE, they
are granted only on the columns specified in column-name.

Let's say a list of available banana types is stored in the type and quantity
columns of a table named banana_supply. To allow Mortimer to see a list of
available banana types along with their quantities, use the following SQL
statement:

grant select on banana_supply (type, quantity) to mortimer

When you grant a permission to a user, you have the option of granting him
the ability to grant that same permission to others. To grant a user the
permission to do so, add WITH GRANT OPTION to the end of your users GRANT
statement when you're granting them their permissions.

To allow Mortimer to see a list of banana types available along with the
quantities of each, as well as allowing him to grant others the same SELECT
permission, use this SQL statement:
grant select on banana_supply (type, quantity)                               
to mortimer                                                                  
      with grant option                                                      
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.3. Authorities

An authority is a different level of permission. There are two types of
authority.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.3.1. RESOURCE authority

A user with the RESOURCE authority can create and drop database objects such
as tables, views, stored procedures, and functions. The RESOURCE authority
also allows the user to create and remove user IDs and passwords. To give
userid the RESOURCE authority, execute the following SQL statement:

GRANT RESOURCE TO userid
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.3.2. DBA authority

A user with the DBA authority can perform any database operation, and
automatically has all permissions on all tables, except the system tables.
The DBA can create and remove user IDs and passwords, grant RESOURCE and DBA
authority, and unload and reload the database.

GRANT DBA TO userid
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.4. Removing Users and Revoking Permissions

The SQL statement to delete a user ID is REVOKE CONNECT.

Syntax:

REVOKE CONNECT FROM userid [, userid ]

As suggested by the portions in square parentheses, it's possible to remove
multiple user IDs in a single statement. For example, to remove the user IDs
for Mortimer and Chestington, execute this statement:

revoke connect from mortimer, chestington

To revoke permissions or authorities given to a particular user, you take the
original granting statement, replace the GRANT with REVOKE, and replace the
TO with FROM. To take away Mortimer's permission to view the banana_supply
table, for example, use this REVOKE statement:

revoke select on banana_supply (type, quantity) from mortimer
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.2.5. Changing Passwords

To change the password associated with a particular user ID, use a GRANT
CONNECT statement again:

GRANT CONNECT TO userid IDENTIFIED BY newpassword

For example, to change the DBA's password from "SQL" to "d0n13xw9," use this
statement:

grant connect to DBA identified by d0n13xw9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3. Making the database more secure

Some of the Adaptive Server Anywhere features you may wish to use in building
a secure environment for your data include the following:

��*�User identification and authentication control access to databases.
   
��*�Permissions and authorities, which have already been explained in
    previous sections, control the actions a user can carry out while
    connected to a database.
   
��*�Views and stored procedures allow you to carefully tune the data a user
    can access and the operations a user can execute.
   
��*�Connection encryption can prevent unauthorized persons from snooping.
   

Some of these features have already been mentioned in this HOWTO, and some of
them will be elaborated upon in the following sections. While the concepts of
triggers, procedures, and views will be introduced so you can decide if and
how you'll use them, their implementation won't be discussed. You can find
indepth information on them, as well as details on their implementation, in
the sections of the Adaptive Server Anywhere User's Guide listed below:


Table 8.
+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|Chapter                                 |Section                                                        |
+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|Using Procedures, Triggers, and Batches |Benefits of procedures and triggers                            |
+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+
|Managing User IDs and Permissions       |Using views and procedures for extra security                  |
+----------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------------------------+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.1. Increasing password security

By default, passwords can be any length. For greater security, you can
enforce a minimum length on all new passwords, to make them more difficult to
guess. You do this by setting the MIN_PASSWORD_LENGTH database option to a
greater value. The following statement enforces a minimum password length of
8 characters:

set option public.min_password_length = 8

Check the "Changing Passwords" section of this document to learn how to
change a user's password, and don't forget to change the DBA's password!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.2. Views, procedures, and triggers

Views are useful when it is appropriate to give a user access to just one
portion of a table. The portion can be defined in terms of rows or in terms
of columns. For example, you may wish to prevent a group of users from seeing
the quantity column of the banana_supply table, or you may wish to limit a
user to see information on a particular type of banana.

While views restrict access based on the data, procedures and triggers
restrict access based on the actions a user can take. Procedures and triggers
store SQL statements in a database for use by all applications. They execute
under the table permissions of the associated table's owner, regardless of
the permissions of the user who either executes the procedure or fires the
trigger.

Procedures are invoked by a CALL statement, and can take values as well as
return them. Unlike procedures, however, triggers are can neither take values
nor return them, and are invoked by insertions, updates, or deletions in the
table it is associated with. Permissions are not associated with triggers.
They execute when the action defined to fire them is performed, regardless of
the user.

For strict security, you can prevent all access to the tables, and grant
permission to users to execute certain stored procedures that carry out
specific tasks. This approach strictly defines the manner in which the
database can be modified.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3.3. Encrypting client/server communications

Encrypting client/server communications prevents third parties from reading
messages being sent between the client and the server. It can be enabled from
either the server side or the client side. To enable encryption from the
server, use the -e option at server startup. For example, use the following
command to start up the database server to accept encrypted connections to
mydb.db over TCP/IP:

dbsrv7 -e -x tcpip mydb.db

To enable encryption from a particular client, use the ENC keyword in the
connection string. For example, to encrypt a connection over TCP/IP to
mydb.db, your connection string would appear as follows:

"uid=mortimer;pwd=monkey;links=tcpip;eng=MyServer;dbf=mydb.db;enc=true"

For more information about client/server communications encryption, look for
the -e command-line option under "The database server" in the Adaptive Server
Anywhere Reference Manual, and for "Encryption connection parameter" under
"Connection parameters" .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Where to get more information

On-line help is available on your cdrom. If your computer is set up to mount
the CD-ROM to /mnt/cdrom/ the help is located in /mnt/cdrom/help/
contents.htm. Open it with Netscape Navigator, or any other web browser that
supports tables. Style sheets support is recommended, but not necessary.

A FAQ is available for the UNIX version of Adaptive Server Anywhere at [http:
//www.sybase.com/detail/1,3693,1011965,00.html] http://www.sybase.com/detail/
1,3693,1011965,00.html

Check if there have been any bug fixes or updates posted at [http://
downloads.sybase.com/swx/sdmain.stm] http://downloads.sybase.com/swx/
sdmain.stm.

Newsgroups can be read from the web or with a news reader. The newsgroups
sybase.public.sqlanywhere.general and sybase.public.sqlanywhere.linux are
most likely to be relevant. To view newsgroups on the web, visit [http://
www.sybase.com/support/newsgroups] http://www.sybase.com/support/newsgroups.
Be sure to search old threads for similar problems. It may already have been
resolved.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. Legalities and Acknowledgements

8.1. Copyright and Licenses

Copyright (c) 2001 Sybase Inc.

This manual may be reproduced in whole or in part, without fee, subject to
the following restrictions:

��*�The copyright notice above and this permission notice must be preserved
    complete on all complete or partial copies.
   
��*�Any translation or derived work must be approved by the author in writing
    before distribution.
   
��*�If you distribute this work in part, instructions for obtaining the
    complete version of this manual must be included, and a means for
    obtaining a complete version provided.
   
��*�Small portions may be reproduced as illustrations for reviews or quotes
    in other works without this permission notice if proper citation is
    given. Exceptions to these rules may be granted for academic purposes:
    Use the contact information in the next section to ask. These
    restrictions are here to protect us as authors, not to restrict you as
    learners and educators. Any source code (aside from the DocBook this
    document was written in) in this document is placed under the GNU General
    Public License, available via anonymous FTP from the GNU archive.
   

The preceding notice was borrowed and tweaked from the LDP Author Guide's
copyright notice.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.2. Names and Contacts

This document was initiated by Michael Moller and (mostly) written by Aylwin
Lo with assistance from Michael Heal and Tom Slee. We work at Sybase.

Since the author is a co-op student, the best way to contact someone
regarding this document is by posting to the sybase.public.sqlanywhere.linux
newsgroup, available on the forums.sybase.com news server.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.3. Acknowledgement

Thanks to the folks at [http://www.commandprompt.com/] http://
www.commandprompt.com/ for getting the text of this HOWTO into workable SGML
for us.





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