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  Linux VME Howto
  John Huggins and Michael Wyrick, vmelinux@va.net
  $Revision: 1.4 $, $Date: 2002/02/12 19:11:51 $

  This document came about to show the embedded system community how to
  run Linux on their VMEbus Pentium and other PCI local bus based VMEbus
  processor designs.  The latest version is always available at Linux
  VME HOWTO <http://howto.vmelinux.org/>.
  ______________________________________________________________________

  Table of Contents



  1. Introduction

     1.1 Knowledge Required
     1.2 Why use Linux on VMEbus systems?
     1.3 Purpose
     1.4 Feedback
     1.5 VMELinux Revision History
     1.6 Copyright/Distribution

  2. Installation of the VMELinux Kernel Driver

     2.1 Download the Source
     2.2 Install the source to the software
     2.3 Compile the VMELinux components
     2.4 Load the VMELinux Kernel Module
     2.5 Difficulties

  3. How to talk to the VMEbus with the VMEUtils and the VMEShell Packages

     3.1 What is the VMEUtils program
     3.2 What are the VMEShell Scripts
     3.3 The "vmemap" command.
     3.4 Read Byte, Word or Long
     3.5 Write Byte, Word or Long
     3.6 Read the VMEbus to a file
     3.7 Write a file to the VMEbus
     3.8 Parameters
     3.9 Options
     3.10 A Note about DMA mode.

  4. How to talk to the Tundra Universe PCI-VME bridge using the devices drivers.

     4.1 The device drivers used with VMELinux
     4.2 VMEMaster Device Drivers
     4.3 VMESlave Device Drivers
     4.4 Direct Control of the Universe Registers
     4.5 read()
     4.6 write()
     4.7 lseek()
     4.8 ioctl()
     4.9 open() and close()

  5. Advantages of the VMEbus, Linux and VMELinux

     5.1 Pin and socket connectors
     5.2 Eurocard assembly
     5.3 Linux is Low Cost
     5.4 Linux is Stable
     5.5 Linux is Dynamic

  6. Current and planned Board Support

     6.1 Xycom XVME655 Pentium VMEbus Board
     6.2 XyCom XVME656 Pentium VMEBus Board
     6.3 Dynatem DPC1-0367
     6.4 SBS/Or Computer VP7
     6.5 DY4 179, A Power PC board
     6.6 Planned Board Support

  7. Other "Linux on VME" Projects

     7.1 Project List
     7.2 Major Device Numbers

  8. Conclusion

  9. FAQ

     9.1 The Shell utilities return a bunch of stars (*) when I access a board I know is there.  What gives?
     9.2 The Shell utilities still return a bunch of stars (*) when I access a board I know is there.  Now what?
     9.3 The Shell utilities still return a bunch of stars (*) when I access a board I know is there.  HELP?
     9.4 How does VMELinux handle interrupts?
     9.5 I have RedHat 5.1 and can't get VMELinux programs to compile.
     9.6 I have RedHat 6.x so I assume the above issue is fixed.  Right?
     9.7 When will your ca91c042 Tundra Universe driver support the 2.4 kernels?
     9.8 Hey! The Universe II has eight master and eight slave images.  You support four each.  Why?
     9.9 How can we contribute to your VME-LINUX working group?


  ______________________________________________________________________

  1.  Introduction

  1.1.  Knowledge Required

  Using Linux on an embedded VMEbus processor board is not difficult.
  However, more than fundamental knowledge is required.  This document
  is not a primer on how to fully configure a Linux machine.


  In order to understand this HOWTO document it is assumed that you are
  thoroughly familiar with the following:


  �  Configuring and compiling a Linux kernel to operate the various
     peripherals on your board.  Kernel-HOWTO
     <http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html>

  �  Setting up and configuring of network devices NET HOWTO
     <http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Net-HOWTO/index.html>

  �  Setting up of inetd NET HOWTO <http://www.linuxdoc.org/HOWTO/Net-
     HOWTO/index.html>

  �  Setting up and use of the Tundra Universe PCI to VME Bridge Chip
     Tundra Universe <http://www.tundra.com/page.cfm?TREE_ID=100361>.
     The new VMEUtils program makes knowledge of the Universe
     unnecessary for those who do not wish to deal with register level
     Universe access.

  �  Compiling and installing various network packages like Apache Site
     <http://www.apache.org/> Wu-Ftpd FAQ
     <http://www.cetis.hvu.nl/~koos/wu-ftpd-faq.html>

  �  The VMEbus Rev. D and VME64.  Excellent information may be found at
     the  VMEbus International Trade Association (VITA)
     <http://www.vita.com/>.

  If you are uncertain of how to proceed with any of the above it is
  STRONGLY recommended that you use the links provided to familiarize
  yourself with all packages. We may not reply to any mail regarding any
  of the above.  Please direct any questions to the appropriate author
  of the HOWTO or consult the respective hardware manufacturer.

  This document describes the installation and use of VMELinux on a
  Xycom XVME-655 6U VME processor board. Other brands of VME boards that
  use a Pentium and the Tundra Universe chip should be capable of
  running VMELinux.  Please consult the Board Support Section of the
  VMELinux web site for tested boards.  VMELinux Project Web Site
  <http://www.vmelinux.org/>


  1.2.  Why use Linux on VMEbus systems?

  Operating systems for VMEbus computers are usually Real-time Operating
  Systems (RTOS) which have high cost and a significant learning curve.
  In return the RTOS offers quick response to real world events for
  control of machinery or response to a process.

  The VMEbus provides a rugged computer enclosure and interconnection
  system. Many system integrators require this ruggedness and also need
  very fast real-time response.  However, there are many times when
  there is little need for real-time response, but the software still
  needs:

  �  networking capability,

  �  remote access via telnet or similar program,

  �  file transfer via FTP or similar programs,

  �  remote booting via BOOTP or similar method,

  �  a way to respond to system interrupts.

     Linux has all these capabilities. Thus, the VMELinux Project
     exists.



  1.3.  Purpose

  The purpose of VMELinux is to give the VME system integrator another
  choice in operating systems. Rich in features, high in reliability and
  low in cost, Linux offers benefits to the embedded computer industry.
  High cost operating systems economically prohibit the use of VME in
  many applications. With Linux and the VMELinux drivers, the rugged
  VMEbus has new possibilities.

  The purpose of the VMELinux Project is to:

  �  Maintain and improve the free VMELinux Kernel Driver software,

  �  Offer added value software components such as the VMEUtils program
     and VMEShell utilities.

  �  Test the software on various makes and brands of manufacturer
     supplied VME processor boards,

  �  Maintain web based documentation on each tested brand and make of
     boards,

  �  Maintain this HOWTO.

  �  Integrate user suggested and user supplied improvements into the
     virgin code so we may all benefit from the programming talents of
     others.

  �  Become the original source for all the above software so VMELinux
     users can be assured of original code from the authors.


  1.4.  Feedback

  As VMELinux is tested in the field, we encourage comments about how
  well or how bad it works. Please feel free to send comments to The
  VMELinux Project <mailto:vmelinux@va.net>

  As we get experience about each brand of VME CPU, we will list the
  different configurations in this HOWTO. For now we will describe only
  the Xycom board.


  1.5.  VMELinux Revision History

  This document's revision is $Revision: 1.4 $, $Date: 2002/02/12
  19:11:51 $.

  The latest version is always available at Linux VME HOWTO
  <http://howto.vmelinux.org/>.

  Linux Kernel Driver

  �  November 1997, v0.2 - Initial version on Xycom Board

  �  December 1997, v0.3 - Useable version used for actual work with
     project.

  �  February 1998, v0.6 - DMA mode added to VME access modes.

  �  June, 1998, v0.8 - Fixed a few things to allow the new VMEUtils to
     work.

  �  June 24, 1998, v0.8a - Last version for the 2.0.x kernels

  �  April 18 2000, v0.95 - First version for the 2.2.x kernels

  �  October 16, 2000, v1.00a - Release for the 2.2.x kernels

  �  April 23, 2001, v1.01a - Same as 1.00a, but with the new device
     major number 221.

  �  October 16, 2001, v1.1 - Our first release with support for 2.4 and
     2.2 kernels.

  �  October 25, 2001 - All version numbers restructured to make more
     sense.  What was version 1.1 is now 1.2.0.  Development tree
     started at 1.3.0 which includes support for eight images.

  �  February 11, 2002, More work done on ca91c042.c driver code
     available from the CVS respository.

  VMEUtils Program

  �  February, 1998, v0.6 - Created a command line interpreter to access
     the VMEbus

  �  June, 1998, v0.8 - Fixed several issues to allow VMEShell Utilities
     to function

  �  June 24, 1998, v0.8a -  Previous working release.

  �  April 2000, v0.95 - Pretty much the same as before.  Better install
     instructions.

  VMEShell Utilities

  �  June, 1998, v0.8 - Created command line utilities that allow access
     to the VMEbus from the Linux shell prompt.  These shell programs
     interface with the VMEUtils program.

  �  June 24, 1998, v0.8a - Changed the name of all the shell programs
     so they all begin with "vme."  Current version made available on
     the website.
  �  April 2000, v 0.95 - Improved installation scripts.


  1.6.  Copyright/Distribution

  This document is Copyright 1997-2002 by John Huggins and the VMELinux
  Project.


  A verbatim copy may be reproduced or distributed in any medium
  physical or electronic without permission of the author.  Translations
  are similarly permitted without express permission if it includes a
  notice on who translated it.  Commercial redistribution is allowed and
  encouraged; however please notify The VMELinux Project
  <mailto:vmelinux@va.net> of any such distributions.


  Excerpts from the document may be used without prior consent provided
  that the derivative work contains the verbatim copy or a pointer to a
  verbatim copy.


  Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
  document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
  preserved on all copies.


  In short, we wish to promote dissemination of this information through
  as many channels as possible. However, we wish to retain copyright on
  this HOWTO document, and would like to be notified of any plans to
  redistribute this HOWTO.


  2.  Installation of the VMELinux Kernel Driver

  2.1.  Download the Source

  Download the distribution from the VMELinux Web Site
  <http://www.vmelinux.org/>.


  2.2.  Install the source to the software

  Place the file in your source directory; We suggest /usr/src. Untar
  the zipped/tarred file by typing...

  tar -xzf VMELinux_1.3.x.tar.gz



  Then:

  cd vmelinux


  You should see three directories:

  ca91c042
  vmeshell
  vmeutils



  In ca91c042 you should find:


  ca91c042/
  ca91c042/Makefile
  ca91c042/ca91c042.c
  ca91c042/ca91c042.h
  ca91c042/README
  ca91c042/e
  ca91c042/ins
  ca91c042/stat
  ca91c042/uns



  In vmeshell you should find:

  vmeshell/vmer
  vmeshell/README
  vmeshell/vmeseek
  vmeshell/cmd.vme
  vmeshell/vmew
  vmeshell/vmeregw
  vmeshell/vmeregr
  vmeshell/vmefa
  vmeshell/vmecall
  vmeshell/e
  vmeshell/ec
  vmeshell/fa.vme
  vmeshell/map.vme
  vmeshell/tmp.vme
  vmeshell/vmedb
  vmeshell/vmedl
  vmeshell/vmedw
  vmeshell/vmemap
  vmeshell/vmerb
  vmeshell/vmerf
  vmeshell/vmerl
  vmeshell/vmerw
  vmeshell/vmewb
  vmeshell/vmewf
  vmeshell/vmewl
  vmeshell/vmeww
  vmeshell/makelinks



  In the vmeutils directory you should find:

  vmeutils/commands.cpp
  vmeutils/commands.h
  vmeutils/universe.h
  vmeutils/Makefile
  vmeutils/vmeutils.h
  vmeutils/unilib.h
  vmeutils/unilib.cpp
  vmeutils/vmeutils.cpp
  vmeutils/README



  2.3.  Compile the VMELinux components

  Enter the "ca91c042" directory and make the VMELinux device driver
  module.

  make


  Now you must create the several /dev driver files.  Type:

  make devices



  DON'T FORGET TO MAKE THE /dev/vme* DEVICES!!!

  Once made, you should see the file "ca91c042.o" in the directory.
  This is a loadable module.  See below for loading information.  Plus,
  you should find several "vme..." files in the /dev directory.  Here is
  how the files should look:

  hostname:/dev# ls -l vme*
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   8 Jul 30 10:51 vme_ctl
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   0 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m0
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   1 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m1
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   2 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m2
  crw-------   1 root     root      221,   3 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m3
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   4 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m4
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   5 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m5
  crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      221,   6 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m6
  crw-------   1 root     root      221,   7 Jul 30 10:51 vme_m7
  hostname:/dev#



  Change to the "vmeutils" directory and type make there.

  make



  This will compile the "vmeutils" program.  This program directly
  speaks to the kernel driver.  It is a reference work for those of you
  who wish to write your own programs to directly speak with the driver.

  Copy the program "vmeutils" to your user binary directory or let the
  makelinks script do this for your in the next step.  On our system
  this is "/usr/local/bin."  Alternatively, you can create a link in the
  user bin directory to the "vmeutils" program.

  Change to the "vmeshell" directory.  There are no files to be compiled
  here.  These are shell programs that use the "vmeutils" program to
  access the VMEbus.  All the files beginning with "vme" should with
  have a link made or be copied to the "/usr/local/bin" directory.

  just type:

  ./makelinks



  Have a look in the libvme directory for a C++ example on how to
  communicate with the driver.  You can use the libvme code as your
  interface to the driver for your programs if you wish.  Docmentation
  for this is planned for the future.

  You are now ready to try the driver.


  2.4.  Load the VMELinux Kernel Module

  Make sure you are root and insert "load" the VMELinux Kernel Module
  for the Universe chip by typing...

  insmod ca91c042



  Or just type "./ins" to let the shell script do this for you.  Once
  complete, type...

  ./stat



  or

  more /proc/ca91c042


  You should see a list of registers displayed on your screen.  Some�
  thing like this...

  Universe driver info:
    Control Pointer = 0000
    Stats  reads = 0  writes = 0  ioctls = 0
    LSI0_CTL = 00800000    LSI1_CTL = 00800000
    LSI0_BS  = C0000000    LSI1_BS  = 00000000
    LSI0_BD  = C0010000    LSI1_BD  = 00000000
    LSI0_TO  = 40009000    LSI1_TO  = 00000000
    LSI2_CTL = 00800000    LSI3_CTL = 00800000
    LSI2_BS  = 00000000    LSI3_BS  = 00000000
    LSI2_BD  = 00000000    LSI3_BD  = 00000000
    LSI2_TO  = 00000000    LSI3_TO  = 00000000
    image_va0   = 00000000     image_va1   = 00000000
    image_va2   = 00000000     image_va3   = 00000000

  Driver Program Status:
    DMACTL 0    = 00000000 DMACTL 1    = 00000000
    DMACTL 2    = 00000000 DMACTL 3    = 00000000
    OkToWrite 0 = 0        OkToWrite 1 = 0
    OkToWrite 2 = 0        OkToWrite 3 = 0
    Mode 0      = 0        Mode 1      = 0
    Mode 2      = 0        Mode 3      = 0


  If not, something went wrong.

  2.5.  Difficulties

  The Universe driver does a good job of finding the Universe chip on a
  PCI bus, but differences in board design may prevent this.  We tested
  all our routines on a Xycom XVME-655, Dynatem DPC and SBS VP7.  There
  is little reason why this should not work on any other Intel board
  with a PCI bus and the Universe PCI-VME bridge chip.  If you encounter
  problems, please let us know at the The VMELinux Project Bug Reporter
  <http://bugs.vmelinux.org/>


  3.  How to talk to the VMEbus with the VMEUtils and the VMEShell Pack�
  ages

  3.1.  What is the VMEUtils program

  This program can be run as is.  Once started, you will see a command
  prompt.  Type ? And you will see a list of commands.  While useful, I
  think you will find the VMEShell scripts a better way to go.  They do
  use this program to speak with the kernel driver so it is necessary to
  have this program available in the current PATH.

  The source code for "vmeutils" is also instruction on how to speak
  directly to the kernel driver.  For those of you who wish to create
  programs that directly speak with the driver, these source files are
  good examples.

  3.2.  What are the VMEShell Scripts

  The VMEShell programs are unix shell scripts.  They offer the operator
  a simple way to access the data on a VMEbus.  Using these commands
  creates temporary files in the user's working directory which store
  information on the last access you did.  This is nice because it will
  be possible to log off the machine, log back in and proceed from where
  you left off without having to re-enter VMEbus information again.
  Plus, these files are stored in the current working directory, so you
  can have different VME access configuration just by setting up
  different directories for each VME board of interest.

  Assuming you placed the shell programs and the "vmeutils" program in
  the /usr/local/bin directory, you should be able to log in as a
  regular user and run them.  What follows assumes exactly this.

  3.3.  The "vmemap" command.

  Login as a regular user and create a directory to experiment with.
  Once in this directory type:

  vmemap


  You should get a help screen like this...

  Usage:  map address count space size type
    where address is VME Address to set Universe image to

      Space = 0 CR/CSR    Space = 1 A16
      Space = 2 A24       Space = 3 A32

      Size  = 1 8 bit     Size  = 2 16 bit
      Size  = 3 32 bit    Size  = 4 64 bit

      Type  = 0 USR/DATA  Type  = 1 USR/PRG
      Type  = 2 SUP/DATA  Type  = 3 SUP/PRG


  This is where you tell VMELinux how you want to access the VMEbus.  We
  assume you already know about the VMEbus' many modes of operation, but
  here is a short list to help you.

  �  address is the actual VMEbus address you wish to see.  This should
     be set to the lower most value of the address range of interest.

  �  count is the number of bytes you consider a valid range to view.
     This is the number of bytes starting at the address specified
     above.

  �  space is the addressing space (mode).  For those of you who do not
     know what we are talking about here, the VMEbus has four
     overlapping address spaces that can be called independent of each
     other.  A16 is a 64 Kilobyte space.  A24 is a 16 Megabyte space.
     A32 is a 4 Gigabyte space.  There is an A64 space defined the VME
     specification, but the Universe does not support it.

  �  Size refers to the maximum data width allowed for the VME board you
     are accessing.  Some VMEbus board only handle 8 bit data paths.
     Others transfer 32 bits (four bytes) at a time.  Some can handle a
     special VME block mode which can move 64 bits per transaction.  The
     Universe can handle all these modes allowing you to mix inexpensive
     serial port boards with hugh memory arrays.

  �  Type is the type of VME transaction performed.  Some VME boards
     make a distinction between "User" access (USR) and "Supervisor"
     access (SUP).  Also, some boards allow access to two "pages" of
     memory: Program (PRG) and Data.  The Universe supports all modes.

     Typing...

     vmemap 0x8000 0x100 1 2 0


  sets up the VMELinux driver to access an A16 board at base address
  8000 Hex with a range of 100H bytes with 16 bit data width and
  USR/DATA mode.

  You will find two new files in your current directory.

  �  fa.vme

  �  map.vme

     fa.vme stores a "fixed adder" value that will be added to all
     subsequent accesses with the programs below.

  map.vme store the parameters above so you do not have to enter them
  every time.

  All the following shell utilities read values from these two files to
  performs VME accesses.


  3.4.  Read Byte, Word or Long

  Syntax:

  �  vmerb -options address size

  �  vmerw  -options address size

  �  vmerl -options address size

  3.5.  Write Byte, Word or Long

  Syntax:

  �  vmewb -options address value

  �  vmeww  -options address value

  �  vmewl -options address value

  3.6.  Read the VMEbus to a file

  Syntax:

  �  vmerf -options address size filename

  3.7.  Write a file to the VMEbus

  Syntax:

  �  vmewf -options address filename


  3.8.  Parameters

  There are several parameters used with these commands: address, size
  and filename.

  �  address - The actual hexadecimal VMEbus address you wish to read.
     If the map command is set to access A16 VME address space, the
     address should be 0xABCD.  If the space is A24 then use 0xABCDEF.
     For A32 space use 0xABCDEFGH.

  �  size - The number of bytes to read.  This value is always the
     number of bytes regardless of the data word size read.  For
     example, if you want to read 16 bytes of information and use vmerl,
     the display will show 16 bytes displayed as 4 long words.

  �  filename - The name of the file to send "read" VMEbus data to or
     "write" VMEbus data from.

  �  value - a hex value written as "0xXXXX."

  3.9.  Options

  Available options are defined with a single dash with the any
  combination of the following:

  �  q - Hides details on the access to the vmeutils program (default)

  �  Q - Shows details on the access to the vmeutils program

  �  p - Single access PCI addressing mode (opposite of d) (default)

  �  d - DMA access PCI addressing mode (opposite of p) (very fast
     access to the VMEbus)

  �  0, 1, 2, or 3 - Which Universe chip "Image" to use (defaults to 0)

  �  b - binary mode off (default)

  �  B - binary mode on

  �  v - turn off verbose parameter printing (default)

  �  V - turn on verbose parameter printing to see how the driver is
     begin used

  3.10.  A Note about DMA mode.

  VMELinux offers access to all the features of the Universe Chip.
  Especially useful is access to the DMA engine on the chip.  With this
  feature the Universe chip transfers data on the PCI bus by becoming a
  PCI master.  This is nice, but the real benefit comes from the VMEbus
  accesses.  Even if the VMEbus interface is not using block mode
  transfers, the Universe chip can complete VMEbus transfers under 400
  nanoseconds sustained.  This is the direct result of the Universe
  taking complete control of both the PCI bus and the VMEbus.  Thus, it
  is possible to access non block mode VMEbus peripherals much faster
  than older technologies.


  4.  How to talk to the Tundra Universe PCI-VME bridge using the
  devices drivers.

  4.1.  The device drivers used with VMELinux



  �  /dev/vme_ctl

  �  /dev/vme_m0

  �  /dev/vme_m1

  �  /dev/vme_m2

  �  /dev/vme_m3

  �  /dev/vme_m4

  �  /dev/vme_m5

  �  /dev/vme_m6

  �  /dev/vme_m7

  4.2.  VMEMaster Device Drivers

  /dev/vme_m* are drivers used to access the VMEbus as a bus master.

  The Universe chip offers the programmer eight VMEMaster windows to the
  VMEbus.  These windows are called Images.  The details of the
  registers within these windows is beyond the scope of this Howto.
  Please refer to the Universe documentation for details. Tundra
  Universe <http://www.tundra.com/>

  Version 1.1 of our tools only supported the first four images.  This
  is because we originally designed this to work with the original
  Universe device.  When the Universe II became available, Tundra did
  not update their documentation.  Thanks to reports from other Universe
  users we are now aware of the new images, have found and downloaded
  the latest Universe manual from Tundra and have added these images to
  the 1.3.0 release.

  4.3.  VMESlave Device Drivers

  The Universe chip offers the programmer four (eight for the
  UniverseII) VMESlave windows to the VMEbus.  These windows are called
  Images.  The details of the registers within these windows is beyond
  the scope of this Howto.  Please refer to the Universe documentation
  for details. Tundra Universe <http://www.tundra.com/>

  We originally intended to support the Universe's slave mode.  We never
  had a need for this thus our efforts concentrated solely on using the
  Universe as a VME master only.  So for 1.3.0 and the near future, we
  will not support the eight slave images.

  I'll repeat this for clarity.  Slave VME modes are not yet supported
  by our VMELinux Universe Kernel driver.

  4.4.  Direct Control of the Universe Registers

  /dev/vme_ctl allows read and write access to the Universe registers.

  For experienced users, this device allows direct access to the
  Universe chip's internal registers.  Explanation of these registers
  and what they do is beyond the scope of this howto. Please consult the
  Universe documentation available from Tundra Universe
  <http://www.tundra.com/Tundra/unidex.html>

  4.5.  read()

  n = read(vme_handle,buf,len);

  Where:

  �  vme_handle = The value returned by "open,"

  �  buf = pointer to data block,

  �  len = number of bytes to read from the VMEbus.

  4.6.  write()

  write(vme_handle,buf,len);

  Where:

  �  vme_handle = The value returned by "open,"

  �  buf = pointer to data block,

  �  len = number of bytes to write to the VMEbus.

  4.7.  lseek()

  lseek(vme_handle,vme_pnt,Seek_Type);

  Where:

  �  vme_handle = The value returned by "open,"

  �  vme_pnt = The actual VME address to access,

  �  Seek_Type = SEEK_SET or SEEK_CUR

  4.8.  ioctl()

  ioctl(vme_handle, command, argument);

  Where:

  �  vme_handle = The value returned by "open,"

  �  command = IOCTL_SET_CTL or IOCTL_SET_MODE or IOCTL_SET_BS or
     IOCTL_SET_BD or IOCTL_SET_TO

  �  argument to be sent

     And:

  �  IOCTL_SET_CTL = Sets the image CTL register to argument. Argument
     must be 32 bits.

  �  IOCTL_SET_MODE = "MODE_DMA" or "MODE_PROGRAMMED" - Sets the mode by
     which the Universe chips communicates to the PCI bus (Not VME Block
     Mode)

  �  IOCTL_SET_BS = Sets the image BS register to arguments.  NOTE: The
     BD register must already be set prior to making this call.

  �  IOCTL_SET_BD = Sets the image BD register to argument.

  �  IOCTL_SET_TO = Set the image TO register to argument.

  4.9.  open() and close()

  Here is where you open and close the four VMELinux Master or Slave
  devices plus the Control device.  Slave images are not yet supported.

  �  vme_handle = open("//dev//vme_m0",O_RDWR,0);

  �  uni_handle = open("//dev//vme_ctl",O_RDWR,0);


  �  close(vme_handle);

  �  close(uni_handle);


  5.  Advantages of the VMEbus, Linux and VMELinux

  5.1.  Pin and socket connectors

  The VMEbus standard uses pin and socket connectors. This is superior
  to edge connections in that the connection is not exposed to humidity
  and other environmental conditions. It is a more expensive way of
  doing things, but offers longer times before failure.

  5.2.  Eurocard assembly

  A VME board is either a 3U (160 x 100 mm) or a 6U size (160 x 233.35
  mm). These sizes correspond to the Eurocard standard for board modules
  and card cages. Eurocard is a popular format used by many different
  busses including CompactPCI. This popularity makes the materials
  needed for cage assembly inexpensive and easy to obtain.

  5.3.  Linux is Low Cost

  The nature of Linux is in its user supported and freely available
  format. The number of people using Linux is growing. The number of
  people contributing to the continued development of the Linux software
  base is growing. It is unfair to state that Linux is a good value
  because it is available for little to no charge. Linux is a good value
  because it works.

  5.4.  Linux is Stable

  There are those who say that Linux us an unstable operating system. It
  is true that the new Linux kernels in development are experimental and
  should not be relied on for critical applications. However, stable
  versions of the Linux OS are always available and provide very robust
  operation. VMELinux is always based on the stable versions of the
  kernel source; Today's stable kernels are the 2.0.X and 2.2.x series.
  We have received reports that the latest 2.4.x kernels appear to be
  solid.  I would say the future is plenty bright for Linux.

  5.5.  Linux is Dynamic

  Because so many people are developing Linux, you do not have to wait
  long for improvements, fixes or new features to become part of the
  Linux distribution.

  6.  Current and planned Board Support

  While the VMELinux driver should work with any PCI based design, the
  following boards have actually run our software.

  6.1.  Xycom XVME655 Pentium VMEbus Board


  �  This XyCom board is compatible with the standard VMELinux kernel
     driver package from VMELinux Project <http://www.vmelinux.org/>

  �  A prepared kernel will be available soon.  It will be based on the
     newest version of the Linux kernel and will include appropriate
     drivers for the on board NE2100 Ethernet interface.  Check the
     website for details.

  6.2.  XyCom XVME656 Pentium VMEBus Board


  �  This XyCom board is compatible with the standard VMELinux kernel
     driver package from VMELinux Project <http://www.vmelinux.org/>

  �  A prepared kernel will be available soon.  It will be based on the
     newest version of the Linux kernel and will include appropriate
     drivers for the on board AHA2940/AIC7000 SCSI and 82558 Intel
     EtherExpress Ethernet peripherals.  Check the website for details.

  6.3.  Dynatem DPC1-0367


  �  This board is compatible with the standard VMELinux kernel driver
     package from VMELinux Project <http://www.vmelinux.org/>

  �  A prepared kernel will be available soon.  It will be based on the
     newest version of the Linux kernel and will include appropriate
     drivers for the on board SCSI and Tulip Ethernet peripherals.
     Check the website for details.

  6.4.  SBS/Or Computer VP7


  �  This board is compatible with the standard VMELinux kernel driver
     package from VMELinux Project <http://www.vmelinux.org/>

  �  A prepared kernel will be available soon.  It will be based on the
     newest version of the Linux kernel and will include appropriate
     drivers for PCNET Ethernet peripheral.  Check the website for
     details.

  �  The VP7 has a nice feature which performs the BOOTP protocol
     without need of a bootrom or similar modification.  However, you
     must ask SBS for an updated BIOS with this modification.

  6.5.  DY4 179, A Power PC board


  �  An independent engineer finds this board is compatible with the
     standard VMELinux kernel driver package from VMELinux Project
     <http://www.vmelinux.org/>

  6.6.  Planned Board Support

  If you do not see VMELinux support for your board let us know. Maybe
  the manufacture will lend us a board for development.

  7.  Other "Linux on VME" Projects

  This HOWTO emphasizes the efforts of just one particular way of
  accessing the VMEbus from a Linux system; Our way requires the Tundra
  Universe PCI/VME bridge device which will not work with many VME
  processor boards.  Fortunately, there are several other efforts out
  there in various stages of development which provide the VME system
  integrator with options.

  Since it is our desire to make this HOWTO reflect the efforts of the
  entire community of VME folks, we will be adding coverage of the other
  projects in future versions of this document.  For the moment, we are
  simply going to list the other efforts in this section.  Please refer
  to the latest documentation at The VMELinux Project
  <http://www.vmelinux.org/> for up to date information.

  7.1.  Project List


  �  Linux for 680x0 based VME boards.  Currently there are ports for
     Motorola boards (MVME147, MVME162, MVME166, MVME167, MVME172,
     MVME177), BVM boards (BVME4000 and BVME6000), and the Tadpole
     TP34V.  Web Site <http://www.sleepie.demon.co.uk/linuxvme/>.
     Latest activity September 1, 2000.

  �  The "other" Tundra Universe driver - Linux driver for the Tundra
     Semiconductor Universe PCI/VME bridge.  Also known as the Hannappe
     driver.  Web Site <http://lisa2.physik.uni-
     bonn.de/~hannappe/software/universe_doc/universe.html>.

  �  Gabriel Paubert has been busy with yet another Tundra Universe
     driver.  FTP Site <ftp://vlab1.iram.es/pub/linux-vme/>.  His
     emphasis is having a driver that will allow writing kernel modules
     for specific devices in the VME cage.  Emphasis includes interrupt
     handling and queuing DMA transfers.

  �  Synergy has a port for their PowerPC boards at Synergy
     <http://www.synergymicro.com/Software/Linux.html>.

  �  VMIC supports the 2.2.x and 2.4.x kernels for their boards. Linux
     on VMIC VME CPUs
     <http://www.vmic.com/products/embeddedpc/products/hw_sbc_linux.html>.

  7.2.  Major Device Numbers

  There has been some confusion about the major device number to assign
  VME bus devices.  Originally, the VMELinux Universe driver used 70.
  This quickly came into conflict with the "SpellCaster Protocol" as the
  number became assigned by the Linux folks.  I requested and received a
  device number of 221 for VME devices.  In a perfect world, all Linux
  VME design efforts would have a common interface to their driver
  through this device.  I doubt we will ever see unity on this
  particular aspect, however, I think we can all at least agree to use
  this number for our devices.

  Up to version 1.2.0 The VMELinux driver supports the following
  devices:

  �  /dev/m0 c 221 0

  �  /dev/m1 c 221 1

  �  /dev/m2 c 221 2

  �  /dev/m3 c 221 3

  �  /dev/s0 c 221 4

  �  /dev/s1 c 221 5

  �  /dev/s2 c 221 6

  �  /dev/s3 c 221 7

  �  /dev/ctl c 221 8

  As of version 1.3.0 The VMELinux driver drops support for the slave
  images (it never did support them) and substitutes the four additional
  master images offered by the Universe II:

  �  /dev/m0 c 221 0

  �  /dev/m1 c 221 1

  �  /dev/m2 c 221 2

  �  /dev/m3 c 221 3

  �  /dev/m4 c 221 4

  �  /dev/m5 c 221 5

  �  /dev/m6 c 221 6

  �  /dev/m7 c 221 7

  �  /dev/ctl c 221 8

  The good folks responsible for organizing Linux devices suggest the
  following device organization:

  �  /dev/bus/vme/m0 c 221 0

  �  /dev/bus/vme/m1 c 221 1

  �  /dev/bus/vme/m2 c 221 2

  �  /dev/bus/vme/m3 c 221 3

  �  /dev/bus/vme/s0 c 221 4

  �  /dev/bus/vme/s1 c 221 5

  �  /dev/bus/vme/s2 c 221 6

  �  /dev/bus/vme/s3 c 221 7

  �  /dev/bus/vme/ctl c 221 8

  This was established from our 1.2.0 and earlier collections and makes
  sense for the Universe I device.  For the Universe II and the many
  other completely different ways to the VMEbus, it makes no sense at
  all.  I may ask the Linux folks to further breakdown the device tree
  like this:

  �  /dev/bus/vme/ca91c142/m0..m3,s0..s4,ctl for the original Tundra
     Universe

  �  /dev/bus/vme/ca91c042/m0..m7,s0..s7,ctl for the Tundra Universe II

  �  /dev/bus/vme/motorola/680x0/whatever for the Motorola boards

  �  etc.

  All this is nice I suppose, but we like our devices to be /dev/vme* so
  our make file creates them in /dev.  So far, the term "VME" has
  remained a unique identifier so conflicts with other devices should
  not occur; However, we should all remain watchful.  So long as we all
  agree to use the major number of 221, all should be just fine.  How we
  define the minor numbers does not need to be (and really cannot be)
  the same as other Linux-VME projects.  However, this should not result
  in any conflicts in a particular installation.  After all, one Linux
  VME system is not going to have more than one way to access the
  VMEbus.


  Refer to the kernel.org web site
  <http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/device-list/devices.txt> for
  more details on this and every other assigned Linux device major
  number.

  8.  Conclusion

  VMELinux and the other Linux on VME efforts offer the user a low cost
  way to implement a VMEbus system quickly, reliably and with all the
  advantages of a unix environment.  We are using VMELinux in our
  projects.  Our task list includes:

  �  Porting to other brands of Intel VMEbus boards,

  �  Porting of VMELinux to other processors that use the Universe chip,

  �  Creation of various slave board drivers for use by all VMELinux
     users,

  �  A study of running the VMELinux kernel driver module as a RT-Linux
     task.

  This document outlines the steps you need to install the VMELinux
  Kernel Driver into the example Xycom XVME-655 Pentium VME board.  It
  is our hope that others will attempt installation of VMELinux into
  other boards and let us know their success.


  This method of code development works best when the users tell us of
  their successes and describe the equipment used.  Please, please drop
  a note to the VMELinux Mail List
  <http://lists.va.net/mailman/listinfo/vmelinux-users> and share your
  experience with others.

  Send bug reports and feature requrests to the VMELinux Project Bug
  Tracker <http://bugs.vmelinux.org/>.  If you have a question or an
  update to this document send email to John <mailto:jhuggins@va.net>.



  9.  FAQ


  9.1.  The Shell utilities return a bunch of stars (*) when I access a
  board I know is there.  What gives?

  Check to be sure the /dev/vme... files have their permissions set to
  666.  If not, the shell utilities will return a * in place of data to
  indicate an error condition similar to a VME bus error.


  9.2.  The Shell utilities still return a bunch of stars (*) when I
  access a board I know is there.  Now what?

  It is possible the ca91c042 Linux kernel module has been compromised.
  Get root access and type "lsmod" to review the loaded modules.  Do you
  see the ca91c042?  If yes, try removing it and reinstalling it with
  "rmmod ca91c042" and then "insmod /path/to/the/ca91c042.o" to get
  things up again.  If it is not there check to see if you are loading
  the module when you boot the machine, etc.


  9.3.  The Shell utilities still return a bunch of stars (*) when I
  access a board I know is there.  HELP?


  Time to get a VMetro board into the VME cage and see if any accesses
  are occurring.  Also look at the /proc/ca91c042 file to see if the
  read and write counters are incrementing.


  9.4.  How does VMELinux handle interrupts?

  The driver does handle interrupts, but if you compile your interrupt
  handler program as a Linux loadable module, that program can handle
  the interrupts directly.  Examples of this will be available soon.  It
  is important to note that user level program can be made to handle
  interrupts, but it is a much better idea to have your interrupt
  handlers as part of the Linux kernel via loadable modules.  Yes, you
  can totally hose the kernel if you do something wrong, but that is the
  trade off between safety and performance.


  9.5.  I have RedHat 5.1 and can't get VMELinux programs to compile.

  RedHat 5.1 includes a new compiler.  If you manually edit the Makefile
  in each directory to call up the new egcs compiler, things should
  compile.  We fully intend to support RedHat 5.1 installations, but for
  now I suggest using 5.0 or Slackware.


  9.6.  I have RedHat 6.x so I assume the above issue is fixed.  Right?

  Maybe.  RedHat threw us, and many other kernel module driver writers,
  a curve ball with the move to the egcs compiler.  Thankfully, the two
  compiler camps, GCC and egcs, have united their efforts.  All this
  incompatibility should just go away.  For the moment, however,
  VMELinux will only be tested with GCC 2.95.x so that is what we
  suggest you use for a compiler.  If you type "gcc --version" at your
  prompt and get an "egcs..." back then we cannot say it will work for
  you.



  9.7.  When will your ca91c042 Tundra Universe driver support the 2.4
  kernels?

  Now.  Download the latest tar ball from the download directory at the
  main site.  2.4 support was added in version vmelinux-1.2.0.

  9.8.  Hey! The Universe II has eight master and eight slave images.
  You support four each.  Why?

  We have been at this a long time and initially created these tools for
  the original Universe I which according to the documentation has four
  images each.  When boards arrived with the Universe II, we searched
  the Tundra web site in vain for new documentation.  We were told by
  the board manufacturers the II works just like the original; Thus, we
  only worried about the original four images.  Just recently some good
  folks pointed out our omission.  We finally found the correct
  documentation on the web site and support the extra images as of the
  1.3.0 development release.

  More news!  The latest CVS snapshots of the ca91c042.c and ca91c042.h
  files will notice which Universe version is in your system and act
  accordingly.

  Please note, we have not yet found any good reason to spend time
  developing support for the eight (or four) slave images.  The current
  tools only support the master images and this has proven adequate for
  every need we have come across.  If you think slave support is a good
  thing, let us know.

  The folks at VMIC have a kernel driver they say does support the slave
  images and is available under a BSD style license.  The announcment
  may be found in our mail list archive mail list archive
  <http://lists.va.net/pipermail/vmelinux-
  devel/2002-January/000000.html> and the correct link to there web site
  is here
  <http://www.vmic.com/products/embeddedpc/products/hw_sbc_linux.html>.

  9.9.  How can we contribute to your VME-LINUX working group?

  All programming efforts thus far have been accomplished by Michael
  Wyrick.  My role has been to coordinate the VMELinux Project and help
  define and test the resulting programs.

  We have successfully placed the working code into a CVS system and are
  using it to track code changes.  Right now only Mike and myself have
  write access to this.  If you are seriously interested in VMELinux
  development and you know your way around Linux kernel programming,
  please join us by joining the developers mailing list and creating an
  account on our bug tracking system located here
  <http://bugs.vmelinux.org/>.

  If you cannot develop code, please consider keeping us informed about
  any bugs you see or features we should add.  You can send mail to the
  user or developer mail lists, but contributing your comments to the
  bug tracking system is much more useful.  Just visit VMELinux Project
  Bug Tracking System <http://bugs.vmelinux.org/>, create an account,
  submit your report and we will address it as soon as we can.







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