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Libdc1394 Library Support for IEEE 1394 Cameras HOWTO

Rohit Agarwal


<rohdimp_24@rediffmail.com>
������������

Vikram B


<vickys_box@rediffmail.com>
������������

2006-01-23
Revision History                                                             
Revision 1.2         2007-04-14          Revised by: RA                      
Addition of DMA related section contributed by Ian Peikon <[mailto:          
idp2@duke.edu] idp2@duke.edu>and Tim Hanson <[mailto:tim@hardcarve.com]      
tim@hardcarve.com>                                                           
Revision 1.0         2006-01-23          Revised by: TMM                     
Initial release, reviewed by TLDP                                            
Revision 0.4         2005-12-18          Revised by: TMM                     
Correction of markup                                                         
Revision 0.3         2005-11-27          Revised by: TMM                     
Conversion to DocBook XML                                                    
Revision 0.2         2005-10-15          Revised by: VB                      
Minor fixes.                                                                 
Revision 0.1         2005-10-10          Revised by: RA & VB                 
Initial draft.                                                               


This document discusses how to set up the libdc1394 library on Linux for
support of IEEE 1394 (FireWire) cameras.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Requirements
3. Installation
4. Concepts and Basic Programs
    4.1. Important Data Structures
    4.2. Types of functions
    4.3. Coriander: A GUI for the libdc1394 library
    4.4. Example: How to grab image from the IEEE1394 camera
    4.5. Example: How to grab image from the IEEE1394 camera using DMA
    4.6. How to get color images: Bayer Pattern Concepts
    4.7. Common Problems Faced While Working With IEEE1394 Cameras
   
   
5. References
A. Appendix A
    A.1. License
    A.2. Disclaimer
    A.3. About Authors
    A.4. Dedications
   
   

1. Introduction

We felt a HOWTO on this topic was required since very little documentation is
available for the libdc1394 library. Moreover, the IEEE1394 cameras are
gaining popularity, which will lead to many people using this library to
develop applications for cameras on Linux. This HOWTO is an outcome of our
experience working with the Point Grey Dragonfly IEEE1394 camera on Linux.

We have given the overview of the library in layman's terms, so anybody who
has some programming experience will easily understand the contents.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Requirements

Various libraries and modules required are:

��*�Library: libdc1394-1.1.0
   
��*�Supporting Library: libraw1394-1.2.0
   
��*�Supporting Modules: ieee1394, raw1394, ohci1394, video1394
   
��*�Linux Kernel: 2.6.10 or above
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Installation

Prerequisite: Make sure that the kernel is compiled with IEEE1394 built-in
support. This is critical!

You can add support for the IEEE1394 devices by compiling the kernel again.
Don't panic! Here are the steps to compile the kernel:

Go to the directory where your kernel source code is present. Normally it is
in /usr/src. We suggest that you download a fresh copy of the kernel source
code (2.6.10) from [http://www.kernel.org/] www.kernel.org.

Thus, cd /usr/src/kernel-2.6.10 (kernel-2.6.10 is the name of the source code
directory. It can vary from system to system.)

 1. make menuconfig
   
 2. The menu will come up. Select Device Drivers
   
 3. The Device Drivers menu will come up. Select IEEE1394 (Firewire) Support
   
 4. Mark the following as <M> in the menu that is shown:
   
     a. OHCI-1394 support
       
     b. OHCI-1394 Video Support
       
     c. OHCI-1394 DVI/O Support
       
     d. RAW IEEE1394 I/O Support
       
   
 5. Press ESC to come out of the menu
   
 6. Save the configuration
   

Install libraw1394-1.2.0

 1. su root
   
 2. tar -xvzf libraw1394-1.2.0.tar.gz
   
 3. cd libraw1394-1.2.0
   
 4. ./configure
   
 5. make
   
 6. make install
   

Install libdc1394-1.1.0

 1. su root (if you haven't already)
   
 2. tar -xvzf libdc1394-1.1.0.tar.gz
   
 3. cd libdc1394-1.1.0
   
 4. ./configure
   
 5. cd libdc1394
   
 6. make
   
 7. make install
   

Install the modules

 1. modprobe ohci1394
   
 2. modprobe video 1394
   
 3. modprobe ieee1394
   
 4. modprobe raw1394
   
 5. lsmod to view that all the modules (ieee1394, raw1394, ohci1394 and
    video1394) are now installed.
   

Note Note on dependencies:                                                   
�    The modules have some dependencies:                                     
                                                                             
     ��*�ohci1394 to video1394                                               
                                                                             
     ��*�ieee1394 to video1394, ohci1394, and raw1394                        
                                                                             
                                                                             
     So if you are installing modules with insmod, video1394 and raw1394 have
     to be installed first, followed by ohci1394 and ieee1394.               

Create proper 1394 devices

 1. cd /dev
   
 2. mknod raw1394 c 171 0
   
 3. chmod 666 /dev/raw1394
   
 4. mkdir video1394
   
 5. cd video1394
   
 6. mknod 0 c 171 16
   
 7. mknod 1 c 171 17
   
 8. chmod 666 /dev/video1394/*
   

Note Note on automating module start-up:                                     
�    Every time the system is restarted, the nodes are destroyed and the     
     modules are removed automatically. So we wrote a script to automate this
     installation task at start-up, to undo all the damage done during       
     rebooting!                                                              

Set user paths

 1. su user
   
 2. Check for the LD_LIBRARY_PATH. It should contain /usr/local/lib. This is
    necessary to run the applications with the help of the shared
    libdc1394_cotrol.so.13 object file.
   

Note Note on setting path:                                                   
�    You can also set the path by adding /usr/local/lib in /etc/ld.so.conf.  

This completes the installation phase.

In order to make sure the installation is correct, connect the camera to the
IEEE1394 card (assuming that the IEEE1394 card is already installed on the
system) and just run testlibraw:

$ testlibraw

This tests for the presence of the host card, camera and other related
parameters. Below is a typical output from testlibraw:
Successfully got handle                                                      
current generation number: 17                                                
1 card(s) found                                                              
nodes on bus: 2, card name: ohci1394                                         
using first card found: 2 nodes on bus, local ID is 0, IRM is 1              
                                                                             
doing transactions with custom tag handler                                   
trying to send read request to node 0... completed with value 0x23127bac     
trying to send read request to node 1... completed with value 0x60217dac     
                                                                             
using standard tag handler and synchronous calls                             
trying to read from node 0... completed with value 0x04477dac                
trying to read from node 1... completed with value 0xd37380ac                
                                                                             
testing FCP monitoring on local node                                         
got fcp command from node 0 of 8 bytes: 01 23 45 67 89 ab cd ef              
got fcp response from node 0 of 8 bytes: 01 23 45 67 89 ab cd ef             
                                                                             
polling for leftover messages                                                

The libdc1394-1.1.0 library comes with some example programs which are very
helpful in understanding how the programs are to be written. There is a
Makefile available in the examples folder of the tar file. To compile and
execute the programs:

cd libdc1394-1.1.0/examples

make

You can get programs exclusively written for the Point Grey cameras at [http:
//www.ptgrey.com/support/kb/data/grabdma.tgz] http://www.ptgrey.com/support/
kb/data/grabdma.tgz.

Fortunately, we have an open source graphical application developed for the
IEEE1394 cameras, known as Coriander that provides a nice Graphical User
Interface for libdc1394 to help the user work with the camera more
efficiently. Later we will discuss how Coriander helped us in debugging.
Next, we briefly explain how to install Coriander.

Installation of Coriander

 1. Make sure that you have libdc1394 and the Gnome libraries (Coriander uses
    gnome.h) installed on your Linux machine. For more details regarding the
    requirements, look into the user manual provided by Coriander: [http://
    damien.douxchamps.net/ieee1394/coriander/manual.php] http://
    damien.douxchamps.net/ieee1394/coriander/manual.php.
   
 2. Download the following tar file from sourceforge.net:
    coriander-1.0.1.tar.gz, then proceed as shown below:
   
     a. su root
       
     b. tar -xvzf coriander-1.0.1.tar.gz
       
     c. cd coriander-1.0.1
       
     d. ./configure
       
     e. cd src
       
     f. make
       
     g. make install
       
   
 3. Run Coriander as follows:
    cd coriander-1.0.1/coriander-1.0.1/src                                   
    ./coriander                                                              
   
    Fortunately, the installation of the libdc1394 and related modules is
    simple and does not pose any major problems. Some minor problems you may
    face are due to mistakes such as not installing it as root or not
    changing the permissions of the newly created IEEE1394 devices.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Concepts and Basic Programs

At present, the documents that are available for understanding libdc1394 are
very few. Among the available documents are a FAQ, which only talks about the
general concept of the camera and a few forums where people have posted their
queries.

We had to read the libdc1394 source code to understand how to grab a frame
from the camera. The extreme need for a complete explanation on this topic
encouraged us to write this HOWTO.

On the basis of what we understood by exploring the source code of the
camera, we are presenting our insights on the library.

We encourage you to keep referring following files while reading through the
next section:

 1. dc1394_control.h
   
 2. dc1394_control.c
   
 3. dc1394_capture.c
   
 4. dc1394_format7.c
   

The dc1394_control.h file is the most important, as it contains the
declaration of various functions and data structures. It should be read to
understand the features supported by IEEE1394 cameras and the functions which
access and control various features of camera.

The dc1394 library works closely with raw1394 since all the functions make
use of functions of raw1394 (raw1394_read() and raw1394_write()) in order to
retrieve or modify the values of various parameters of the camera. This is
one of the reasons why raw1394 must be installed before installing libdc1394.

To understand how the functions provided by the library work, we need to
understand few technical aspects of the IEEE1394 camera:

 1. There can be more than one camera connected to the host card at any time,
    hence one need to uniquely identify the camera node.
   
 2. The camera has some control registers to set camera features.
   
 3. According to IEEE specifications, the camera can grab images in different
    formats. The image formats are defined by two parameters: format and
    mode. Five modes are defined:
   
     a. Format_0 contains low resolution mode up to 640x480
       
     b. Format_1 contains medium resolution modes: 800x600 and 1024x768
       
     c. Format_2 contains mega pixel modes: 1280x960 and 1600x1200
       
     d. Format_7 is the scalable image format. With this, you can change the
        image size, color coding and other parameters
       
    It may be possible that a camera does not support some modes, so we need
    to be careful during the setup. You use setup to set various parameters
    like data speed, image mode, framerate that are necessary to make the
    camera ready to grab the image. We will shortly discuss setup functions.
 4. In order to set or get the values of the parameters/features of the
    camera, the library functions will modify or read the register values.
   
 5. The camera can work with or without DMA. We are greatful to Ian Peikon
    and Tim Hanson for contributing a section on IEEE1394 camera using DMA
    support
   

With the above background, we begin our discussion about the various
functions, data structures and other miscellaneous features available in the
dc1394_control.h file.

We would like to mention one important aspect of the dc1394_control.h file,
which is that it lists out the values that can be set for the data speeds,
frame rates, camera modes and image formats. All the values are in the form
of enumerations to help you write readable code. For example, enumeration for
speed indicates that the data speed can be set only as 100, 200, 400, 800,
1600 or 3200.

The dc1394_control.h also lists the features (brightness, hue, sharpness,
saturation, etc.) supported for your camera.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.1. Important Data Structures

The library provides some structures which are useful in storing camera and
image related information. They have been declared in the dc1394_control.h
file.


+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
|Structure           |Use                                                   |
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
|dc1394_camerainfo   |Helps in accessing the information about the camera   |
|                    |model, vendor, ccr_offset (used to access the         |
|                    |registers).                                           |
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
|dc1394_cameracapture|Contains various parameters that are to be manipulated|
|                    |while the camera setup. It also declares a buffer of  |
|                    |int type that will be used to store the grabbed frame.|
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
|dc1394_misc_info    |Contains the information about the ISO channel id,    |
|                    |iso-channel speed, memory channel number.             |
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
|dc1394_feature_info |Contains the information about a particular feature   |
|                    |(brightness, hue, gamma, white balance, etc.,) for    |
|                    |example the availability and values for it.           |
+--------------------+------------------------------------------------------+

We will be largely concerned with the dc1394_cameracapture structure.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2. Types of functions

We have categorized the functions provided by the library into 6 types. (The
categorization is purely done on our own for the ease of discussion). Each of
these functions has been declared in dc1394_control.h. We suggest you to keep
a copy of the file on hand while going through the subsequent section.

 1. Get/Query Functions
   
 2. Set Functions
   
 3. Print Functions
   
 4. Setup Functions
   
 5. Format7 Functions
   
 6. Release Functions
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.1. Get/Query Functions

These functions are used to get the value of various features of the camera,
the information about the ISO channel, trigger mode, frame rate, format and
mode. The functions contain get or query in their names.

For example,
int dc1394_get_gamma (raw1394handle_t handle, node_t node, unsigned          
int *gamma)                                                                  
gets the value of the gamma attribute for the camera.

Most of the get functions take a minimum of three parameters:

 1. Both the raw1394handle_t and node_t nodes: these two together identify
    the camera
   
 2. A pointer to obtain the value, for example, int * gamma
   

If we try to trace the flow of the function call, we can understand what
actually happens:


Figure 1. Flow of get function call

[Fig1]

In case the get function you called is meant to retrieve the value of a
camera feature (the value for the parameters listed in feature enumeration),
that get function will call another get function (GetFeatureValue), which
takes the enumeration value of the feature as input. For example, in the case
of gamma value, the function passes 422 as the value (this value can be
calculated from the enumeration given in the dc1394_control.h file).

Ultimately, the GetCameraControlRegister function, whose task is to get the
value from the appropriate control registers, is called. This functions takes
the offset value (octlet_t offset), which is the offset from the base
register as the input to its call. The function prototype is declared in
dc1394_internal.h.

 
GetCameraControlRegister (raw1394handle_t handle, nodeid_t node,             
                         octlet_t offset, quadlet_t *value)                  

The above will store the final result in the value.

Note Note on data types:                                                     
�    The library makes use of typedefed data types octlet_t and quadlet_t    
     very frequently . These are defined in dc1394_internal.h and stand for  
     8-byte and 4-byte data types.                                           

The GetCameraControlRegister function will in turn call
dc1394_get_camera_info() to get the address of the base register:

 
camera->ccr_base = CONFIG_ROM_BASE + info->ccr_offset;                       

Once the base register and the offset is known, raw1394_read() is called by
GetCameraControlRegister to read the actual values.

Now the get function (dc1394_get_gamma) uses the value returned by the
GetCameraControlRegister to modify the parameter gamma.

 
int dc1394_get_gamma (raw1394handle_t handle, node_t node , unsigned int *gamma )  

In this way, the user obtains the value of the camera parameter he queried
for.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.2. Set Functions

These functions are used to set the values of various camera features. There
is a corresponding set function for almost each get function. You can
recognize these functions by searching for set string.

For example,

 
dc1394_set_gamma (raw1394handle_t handle, nodeid_t node, int                 
gamma)                                                                       

Like the get function, this function needs raw1394handle_t and nodeid_t for
camera identification.

The other parameter, gamma, is the user-specified value for the gamma
parameter.

The flow of the function call is quite helpful in understanding what is
actually happening. The flow is exactly same as that of the get function. The
only difference is this time all the intermediate functions are also set
functions, and instead of raw1394_read(), it uses raw1394_write() to write
the value of the camera parameter on to the registers.


Figure 2. Flow of set function call

[Fig2]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.3. Print Functions

There are three print functions available:

 1. dc1394_print_camera_info: This function is used to print the values
    stored in the dc1394camera_info structure. The print function is usually
    called after dc1394_get_camera_info() to ensure that the
    dc1394camera_info structure is not NULL.
   
 2. dc1394_print_feature: This function is used to print the value of any
    feature. It takes as an input the pointer to dc1394_feature_info
    structure.
   
 3. dc1394_print_feature_set: This function is used to print the values of
    all features present in the camera. It takes as an input the pointer to
    dc1394_feature_set structure. The function call basically calls
    dc1394_print_feature repeatedly in a for loop.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.2.4. Setup Functions

As the name suggests, these functions are used to prepare the camera to start
grabbing the images. In order to setup the camera, some parameters must be
passed to the function. The number and the type of parameters are specific to
the setup function, but essentially three parameters must be passed in all
the setup functions: raw1394handle_t, nodeid_t and the pointer to the
dc1394_cameracapture structure (this is to provide the buffer for grabbed
images and keep attributes, like height and width of frame).

As mentioned previously, raw1394handle_t and nodeid_t uniquely define the
camera, while the pointer to dc1394_cameracapture provides the buffer for the
image frame to be grabbed. It also stores information about the width and
height of the frame which is useful at the time of image processing.

Other parameters that are passed are data speed, frame rate, image format,
image mode and ISO channel number.

In case the camera uses DMA, the number of DMA buffers and drop frames is to
be provided. In most applications you will want to set the number of DMA
buffers relatively low(i.e. 1) this ensures that you are viewing frames in
near real time. Drop frames is also important for real time as it causes the
capture function to throw away the frames buffered in the DMA ring buffer
except fot the last. We will discuss about DMA functions in the later part of
this HowTo

The various setup functions are:

 1. dc1394_dma_setup_capture
   
 2. dc1394_setup_capture
   
 3. dc1394_setup_format7_capture
   
 4. dc1394_dma_setup_format7_capture
   

These setup functions have been defined in dc1394_capture.c.

You have a choice while passing the values for the parameters, like
data-speed, format, mode, and channel. Instead of providing the value
yourself, you may instruct the function to take the value from the camera.
This can be done by passing QUERY_FROM_CAMERA in place of the actual value
for that function parameter.

The basic flow of control is easy to understand:


Figure 3. Flow of the setup function call

[Fig3]

As shown in Figure 3, the Setup function in turn calls various set functions
to set the parameter values to the camera registers. In the case of DMA
setup, after the set functions have been called the ioctl system call is
called to allocate memory for the DMA buffers and returns a pointer
capture_buffer in user space.

The ioctl system calls will fail if the DMA is not setup correctly

The setup functions also allocate memory for the camera _capture buffer:

 
camera->capture_buffer=(int*)malloc(camera->quadlets_per_frame*4);           
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.5. Format7 Functions

These functions are used only if the camera is set for Format7. This format
is preferred since this allows the user to define the size of the image to be
captured according to his need. By default the size is 1024x768; you can set
it to different dimensions, say 960x720.

All Format7 functions have format7 in their function names, and the functions
have been defined in a separate file, dc1394_format7.c.

The setup function for Format7 has a minor difference from the normal setup
since it also asks for the size of the frame, while you don't have to pass
the format parameter as the setup function, as it is meant only for a
particular format, for example Format7. The function call flow remains the
same as discussed in the previous section.

The Format7 get functions are called query functions. The mechanism is
different from the normal get/query functions: they don't call
GetCameraControlRegister; instead, they call GetCameraFormat7Register().

The following flowchart will make the differences evident:


Figure 4. Flow of the Format7 query function call

[Fig4]

The Format7 query function will call GetCameraFormat7Register, which is
supposed to read the values from the control and status registers of the
camera. This function in turn will call the QueryFormat and CSROffset to know
the offset for the particular information that has been queried. After
getting the offset, raw1394_read is used to actually read the values.

The Format7 set functions also follow the same logic with the obvious
difference that the reading functions are replaced by writing functions, for
example, SetCameraFormat7Register and raw1394_write().
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.2.6. Release Functions

These are the final set of functions identified by us. The basic job of these
functions is to release the memory allocated to the capture buffer by the
setup routine. This is essential to save the system from memory leaks.

These functions are defined in dc1394_capture.c:

 
dc1394_release_camera()                                                      

This function in turn calls free (camera -> capture_buffer), which frees the
memory.

Similarly, the release function is available for DMA setup.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.3. Coriander: A GUI for the libdc1394 library

Coriander helps in easy handling of the IEEE1394 cameras. It uses the above
discussed functions and libraries and provides a GUI for them. The main
advantage of Coriander is that it saves time that is normally wasted in
camera setup. Also, Coriander shows only those features and attributes that
are present on the camera and hence you can judge how useful the camera will
be for your application development. The most important feature of Coriander
is its ability to display the captured image at run-time.

Coriander also allows the user to convert a BGGR image to RGB. We will
discuss the meaning of these types of images in detail in later sections.
Some files that can be useful in understanding the functionality of Coriander
are:

 1. thread_iso.c
   
 2. Camera.c
   
 3. main.c
   

The Coriander homepage contains an excellent user manual which can be useful
in case of any difficulty: [http://damien.douxchamps.net/ieee1394/coriander/
manual.php] http://damien.douxchamps.net/ieee1394/coriander/manual.php.

Our use of Coriander was limited only to checking that the camera was working
properly and confirming the focus was correct. We will give some more usage
information for Coriander in later sections.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.4. Example: How to grab image from the IEEE1394 camera

In this section we will demonstrate how to write a small program to grab an
image from the camera. We have taken the program (grab_gray_image.c) given in
the examples in the library tar file. We have removed some lines to increase
the readability of the code. We have provided the explanation for this code
below. In order to provide you with a clear picture of which section of the
code does what, we grouped the code lines together by task below.
  #include <stdio.h>                                                         
  #include <libraw1394/raw1394.h>                                            
  #include <libdc1394/dc1394_control.h>                                      
  #include <stdlib.h>                                     (1)                
  #define IMAGE_FILE_NAME "Image.pgm"                                        
                                                                             
  int main(int argc, char *argv[])                                           
  {                                                                          
                                                                             
    FILE* imagefile;                                                         
    dc1394_cameracapture camera;                                             
    int numNodes;                                                            
    int numCameras;                                                          
    raw1394handle_t handle;                                                  
    nodeid_t * camera_nodes;                              (2)                
                                                                             
         /* Open ohci and asign handle to it */                              
                                                                             
         handle = dc1394_create_handle(0);                (3)                
    if (handle==NULL)                                                        
    {                                                                        
         fprintf( stderr, "Unable to aquire a raw1394 handle\n\n"            
                    );                                                       
         exit(1);                                                            
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
         /* get the camera nodes and describe them as we find them */        
                                                          (4)                
    numNodes = raw1394_get_nodecount(handle);                                
    camera_nodes = dc1394_get_camera_nodes(handle,&numCameras,1);            
    fflush(stdout);                                                          
    if (numCameras<1)                                                        
    {                                                                        
      fprintf( stderr, "no cameras found :(\n");                             
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      exit(1);                                                               
    }                                                                        
    printf("working with the first camera on the bus\n");                    
                                                                             
    if( camera_nodes[0] == numNodes-1)                    (5)                
    {                                                                        
      fprintf( stderr, "\n"                                                  
         "Sorry, your camera is the highest numbered node\n");               
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                
      exit( 1);                                                              
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
    /*setup capture */                                                       
                                                                             
    if (dc1394_setup_capture(handle,camera_nodes[0],      (6)                
                             0, /* channel */                                
                                                                             
                             FORMAT_VGA_NONCOMPRESSED,                       
                             MODE_640x480_MONO,                              
                             SPEED_400,                                      
                             FRAMERATE_7_5,                                  
                             &camera)!=DC1394_SUCCESS)                       
    {                                                                        
      fprintf( stderr,"unable to setup camera-\n"                            
         "check line %d of %s to make sure\n"                                
         "that the video mode,framerate and format are\n"                    
         "supported by your camera\n",                                       
         __LINE__,__FILE__);                                                 
      dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                 
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                
      exit(1);                                                               
    }                                                                        
    dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                  
                                                                             
    /* set trigger mode */                                                   
                                                                             
    if( dc1394_set_trigger_mode(handle, camera.node, TRIGGER_MODE_0)         
        != DC1394_SUCCESS)                                                   
    {                                                     (7)                
      fprintf( stderr, "unable to set camera trigger mode\n");               
#if 0                                                                        
      dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                 
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      exit(1);                                                               
#endif                                                                       
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
    /* have the camera start sending us data*/                               
                                                                             
    if (dc1394_start_iso_transmission(handle,camera.node)                    
        !=DC1394_SUCCESS)                                                    
    {                                                     (8)                
      fprintf( stderr, "unable to start camera iso transmission\n");         
      dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                 
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      exit(1);                                                               
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
    /* capture one frame */                                                  
                                                                             
    if (dc1394_single_capture(handle,&camera)!=DC1394_SUCCESS)               
    {                                                                        
      fprintf( stderr, "unable to capture a frame\n");    (9)                
      dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                 
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      exit(1);                                                               
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
    /* Stop data transmission */                                             
                                                                             
    if (dc1394_stop_iso_transmission(handle,camera.node)!=DC1394_SUCCESS)    
    {                                                                        
      printf("couldn't stop the camera?\n");              (10)               
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
    /* save image as 'Image.pgm' */                                          
                                                                             
    imagefile=fopen(IMAGE_FILE_NAME, "w");                                   
                                                                             
    if( imagefile == NULL)                                                   
    {                                                                        
      perror( "Can't create '" IMAGE_FILE_NAME "'");                         
      dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                 
      dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                         
      exit( 1);                                                              
    }                                                                        
                                                                             
    /* Adding the pgm file header */                                         
                                                                             
    fprintf(imagefile,"P5\n%u %u 255\n", camera.frame_width,                 
         camera.frame_height );                                              
                                                          (11)               
    /* Writing to the file */                                                
                                                                             
    fwrite((const char *)camera.capture_buffer, 1,                           
         camera.frame_height*camera.frame_width, imagefile);                 
    fclose(imagefile);                                    (12)               
    printf("wrote: " IMAGE_FILE_NAME "\n");                                  
                                                                             
    /* Close camera */                                                       
                                                                             
    dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                   
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                           
    return 0;                                             (13)               
}                                                                            

(1) Include the header files, which means include:
   
    ��+�libraw1394/raw1394.h
       
    ��+�libdc1394/dc1394_control.h
       
    These are necessary in order to access functions of the library.
   
(2) Declare three variables of the following data types:
   
    ��+�dc1394_cameracapture
       
    ��+�raw1394handle_t
       
    ��+�nodeid_t *
       
    The raw1394handle_t and nodeid_t * are required to uniquely identify the
    camera. Moreover, raw1394handle_t is used to hold the handle that is
    created for the OHCI-compliant host card.
   
(3) Open ohci and assign a handle to it.
    This is done by:
    handle=dc1394_create_handle(0)
    Where handle is of the raw1394handle_ttype> type. The parameter 0 refers
    to the position of the camera on host card (there may be more than one
    slot on the host card; 0 means that the camera is on the first slot ).
    If the wrong number is passed, the handle will not be created.
   
(4) Get camera nodes:
    There can be more than one camera node, since IEEE1394 supports multiple
    devices on a single port. But for our discussion we will assume that only
    a single camera is present. Here is how to get nodes:
     
    int numNodes = raw1394_get_nodecount(raw1394handle_t handle)             
    camera_nodes=dc1394_getcamera_nodes(handle,&numCameras,1)                
    If the number of cameras returned is numCameras <1, this means no camera
    has been detected.
    1 in the function signifies that a printed description of the camera node
    found will be shown on the console.
   
(5) Check the condition of camera_nodes[0]==numNodes -1. It must be false.
    The explanation for this is outside the scope of this document.
(6) Call the setup function and pass the various parameters. For example, let
    us examine the setup function of the above example:
         dc1394_setup_capture(                                               
                                                                             
    /* handle and camera_nodes[0] uniquely identifies the camera */          
         handle,                                                             
        camera_nodes[0],                                                     
        0, /* channel */                                                     
                                                                             
    /*format of the Image */                                                 
        FORMAT_VGA_NONCOMPRESSED, MODE_640x480_MONO, /* mode of the image */ 
        SPEED_400, /* data speed */                                          
        FRAMERATE_7_5, /*Frame rate */                                       
        &camera /*dc1394_cameracapture type pointer *./                      
        )!=DC1394_SUCCESS)                                                   
    Our suggestion is that the various parameters should be first queried
    from the camera and then passed. This is helpful in a successful setup
    since often the user does not know actual values of the various
    parameters that have to be passed in the setup function call, and ends up
    passing the wrong values. In such situations the setup is not done
    correctly and the camera doesn't get initialized.
    We are listing the appropriate get functions that should be called first
    in order to obtain the correct values of the setup parameters:
   
   
     1. dc1394_get_iso_channel_and_speed(handle,camera_nodes[0], &channel,&
        speed); /* to get the channel and the data speed */
       
     2. dc1394_get_video_format(handle,camera_nodes[0],&format); /*to get the
        format */
       
     3. dc1394_get_video_framerate(handle,camera_nodes[0],&framerate); /* to
        get the framerate*/
       
     4. dc1394_get_video_mode(handle,camera_nodes[0],&mode); /* to get the
        mode */
       
    So the above dc1394_setup_capture function call will look like this:
   
         dc1394_setup_capture(                                               
                                                                             
    /* handle and camera_nodes[0] uniquely identifies the camera */          
         handle,                                                             
         camera_nodes[0],                                                    
                                                                             
       /*we pass the variables instead of actual values */                   
         channel ,                                                           
         format,                                                             
         mode,                                                               
         speed,                                                              
         framerate,                                                          
         &camera /*dc1394_cameracapture type pointer *./                     
         )!=DC1394_SUCCESS)                                                  
   
(7) Setting the trigger mode. This is generally not required. This is just
    like brightness:
    dc1394_set_trigger_mode(handle,camera.node,TRIGGER_MODE_0) sets the
    trigger mode to 0.
   
   
    Note Note on nodes:                                                      
    �    We have passed camera.node which indicates that the                 
         dc1394_cameracapture structure is being used and only the particular
         node for which the camera has been setup is being referred to, but  
         we can also use camera_nodes[0].                                    
   
(8) Have the camera start sending the data to the user. This is done by
    starting the ISO transmission. The following function is used:
    dc1394_start_iso_transmission(handle,camera.node)
   
(9) Capture one frame by calling the function:
    dc1394_single_capture(handle,&camera)
    Where camera is a pointer to the structure dc1394_cameracapture. This
    function will grab the image and store it in the buffer (capture_buffer)
    provided by the structure.
    In order to capture more than one frame use a for loop and place the
    function inside it:
   
    for( i=0;i<100 ;i++)/* to capture 100 images*/                           
    dc1394_single_capture(handle,&camera)                                    
   
(10)
    After the image has been grabbed, stop the data transmission by calling
    the following function:
    dc1394_stop_iso_transmission(handle,camera.node)
   
(11)Add a PGM file header to the captured buffer to see the image using gimp.
(12)Use fwrite to save the captured image, by writing the buffer
    (camera.capture_buffer) to a file. The other parameters like height and
    width of the image can be extracted from the same structure:
    camera.frame_width, camera.frame_height.
(13)Close the camera. This step is necessary to prevent a memory leak:
    dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                   
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                           
    In order to compile the program, use: gcc -o grabImage grabImage.c
    -ldc1394_control -lraw1394, where grabImage.c is your program.
   

We hope that after going through this algorithmic way explanation you can
comfortably understand the example code.

If we used the Format7 image format, we would have to change only the
setup_capture function. Let us look at the setup function:
      dc1394_setup_format7_capture(                                          
  /* handle and camera_nodes[0] uniquely identifies the camera */            
            handle,                                                          
            camera_nodes[0],                                                 
            channel, /* channel */                                           
            mode , /*mode */                                                 
            bytes_per_packet ,                                               
            left ,/*area of interest start column */                         
            right, /*area of interest start row */                           
            width,/* area of interest width */                               
            height /* area of interest height */                             
           &camera /* dc1394_cameracapture type pointer *./                  
            )!=DC1394_SUCCESS)                                               
where the values of the parameters for channel, speed, bytes_per_packet,
speed, mode are found using the following functions:

 1. dc1394_get_iso_channel_and_speed(handle,camera_nodes[0], &channel,&speed)
    /* to get the channel and the data speed */
   
 2. dc1394_get_video_mode(handle,camera_nodes[0] &mode); /* to get the mode *
    /
   
 3. dc1394_query_format7_byte_per_packet(handle, camera_nodes[0], mode ,&
    bytes_per_packet); /* to get the bytes per packet which depends on the
    mode*/
   
 4. The value of left, top can be set to QUERY_FROM_CAMERA, or can be
    specified directly by the user.
   
 5. The value of the width and height depends on the size of frame the user
    wants, for example, if one wants 960x720 then pass 960 as width and 720
    as height.
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.5. Example: How to grab image from the IEEE1394 camera using DMA

This section has been contributed by Ian Peikon <[mailto:idp2@duke.edu]
idp2@duke.edu>and Tim Hanson <[mailto:tim@hardcarve.com] tim@hardcarve.com>
We will now present an example of how to grab a frame by the camera using DMA
calls. The example is simple to understand as the logic remains the same as
the previous example. We will later compare the function calls used in the
previous example (without dma) and this example (with dma) for better
understanding.
#include <stdio.h>                                                                                                                                                                                    
#include <libraw1394/raw1394.h>                                                                                                                                                                       
#include <libdc1394/dc1394_control.h>                                                                                                                                                                 
#include <stdlib.h>                                                                                                                                                                                   
#include <iostream>                                                                                                                                                                                   
#define IMAGE_FILE_NAME "Image.pgm"                                                                                                                                                                   
using namespace std;                                                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
int main(int arc, char *argv[]){                                                                                                                                                                      
        FILE * imagefile;                                                                                                                                                                             
        dc1394_cameracapture camera;                                                                                                                                                                  
        int numNodes;                                                                                                                                                                                 
        int numCameras;                                                                                                                                                                               
        raw1394handle_t handle;                                                                                                                                                                       
        nodeid_t * camera_nodes;                                                                                                                                                                      
        unsigned int channel, speed, format, framerate, mode;                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*Step 1: Open ohci and assign a handle to it.*/                                                                                                                                              
        /*=======================================================*/                                                                                                                                   
        handle = dc1394_create_handle(0);                                                                                                                                                             
        if(handle==NULL){                                                                                                                                                                             
                fprintf(stderr, "Unable to acquire a handle. \n\n");                                                                                                                                  
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                 cout <<"dma1394: Handle aquired successfully-" <<handle<<"\n";                                                                                                                       
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
/*Step 2: Get the camera nodes and describe them as we find them.*/                                                                                                                                   
        /*=========================================================================*/                                                                                                                 
        numNodes = raw1394_get_nodecount(handle);                                                                                                                                                     
        camera_nodes = dc1394_get_camera_nodes(handle, &numCameras, 1);                                                                                                                               
        fflush(stdout);                                                                                                                                                                               
        if (numCameras<1){                                                                                                                                                                            
                fprintf(stderr, "No cameras found :( \n");                                                                                                                                            
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
                return -1;                                                                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                cout<<"dma1394:"<< numCameras<<" cameras found. \n";                                                                                                                                  
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        printf("dma1394: Working with the first camera on the bus.\n");                                                                                                                               
        if(camera_nodes[0] == numNodes-1){                                                                                                                                                            
                fprintf(stderr, "\n" "dma1394: Sorry, your camera is the highest numbered node.\n");                                                                                                  
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
                dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                                                                                                                               
                return -1;                                                                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
/*Step 3: Setup Capture*/                                                                                                                                                                             
        /*=====================================================================*/                                                                                                                     
        /*Using camera functions to get the params by querying them*/                                                                                                                                 
        cout<<"INFO FOR DEBUG: \n"                                                                                                                                                                    
                        "num_dma_buffers: "<< camera.num_dma_buffers<<"\n";                                                                                                                           
        dc1394_get_iso_channel_and_speed(handle, camera_nodes[0], &channel, &speed); /*get channel and speed*/                                                                                        
        dc1394_get_video_format(handle, camera_nodes[0], &format); /*get format*/                                                                                                                     
        dc1394_get_video_framerate(handle, camera_nodes[0], &framerate); /*get framerate*/                                                                                                            
        dc1394_get_video_mode(handle, camera_nodes[0], &mode); /*get mode*/                                                                                                                           
        cout<<"dc1394: Got parameters from the camera.\n"                                                                                                                                             
                "=======================================\n"                                                                                                                                           
                "Channel: "<< channel<< " \n"                                                                                                                                                         
                "Speed: " <<speed <<" \n"                                                                                                                                                             
                "Format: "<< format <<" \n"                                                                                                                                                           
                "Framerate: " <<framerate<< "\n"                                                                                                                                                      
                "Mode: "<< mode <<"\n";                                                                                                                                                               
        camera.num_dma_buffers = 8; /* set the dma buffers */                                                                                                                                         
        camera.drop_frames = 1; /* set the number of drop frames */                                                                                                                                   
        camera.dma_device_file = NULL;                                                                                                                                                                
        if(dc1394_dma_setup_capture(handle, camera_nodes[0], channel, format, mode, speed, framerate, camera.num_dma_buffers, camera.drop_frames, camera.dma_device_file, &camera) !=DC1394_SUCCESS){ 
                fprintf(stderr, "dma1394: Unable to setup camera.\n"                                                                                                                                  
                                        "Check line %d of %s to ensure that the options set are supported by your camera.\n", __LINE__, __FILE__);                                                    
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
                dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                                                                                                                               
                return -1;                                                                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                printf("dma1394: Capture has been setup.\n");                                                                                                                                         
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        //Set Trigger Mode -- Generally not required thus I will comment it out.                                                                                                                      
        /*if(dc1394_set_trigger_mode(handle, camera.node, TRIGGER_MODE_0) != DC1394_SUCCESS){                                                                                                         
                fprintf(stderr, "dma1394: Unable to set the camera trigger mode. Refer to line %d in %s.\n", __LINE__, __FILE__);                                                                     
                dc1394_release_camera(handle, &camera);                                                                                                                                               
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                printf("dma1394: Successfully set trigger mode.\n");                                                                                                                                  
        }*/                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*Step 4: Start sending data */                                                                                                                                                               
        /*=======================================================*/                                                                                                                                   
        if(dc1394_start_iso_transmission(handle, camera.node) != DC1394_SUCCESS){                                                                                                                     
                fprintf(stderr, "dma1394: Unable to start the data transmission.\n");                                                                                                                 
                dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer(&camera);                                                                                                                                                 
                                dc1394_dma_release_camera(handle, &camera);                                                                                                                           
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
                return -1;                                                                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                printf("dma1394: Success.  Data Transmission started.\n");                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*Step 5: Capture Something...Anything...PLEASE*/                                                                                                                                             
        /*===============================================================*/                                                                                                                           
        if(dc1394_dma_single_capture(&camera) != DC1394_SUCCESS){                                                                                                                                     
                fprintf(stderr, "dma1394; DAIM, can't capture a single frame.\n");                                                                                                                    
                                dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer(&camera); /*important step */                                                                                                             
                dc1394_dma_release_camera(handle, &camera);                                                                                                                                           
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
                return -1;                                                                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                printf("dma1394: GREAT SUCCESS! Captured a single frame.\n");                                                                                                                         
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*Step 6: Stop sending data*/                                                                                                                                                                 
        /*==================================================*/                                                                                                                                        
        if(dc1394_dma_unlisten(handle, &camera) != DC1394_SUCCESS){                                                                                                                                   
                        fprintf(stderr, "Can't unlisten iso channel! \n");                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                printf("dma1394: DMA unlistened. \n");                                                                                                                                                
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        if(dc1394_stop_iso_transmission(handle, camera.node) != DC1394_SUCCESS){                                                                                                                      
                fprintf(stderr, " Can't stop the camera!! \n");                                                                                                                                       
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                printf("dma1394: Data transmission terminated. \n");                                                                                                                                  
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*Step 7: Save our image*/                                                                                                                                                                    
        /*===============================================================*/                                                                                                                           
        imagefile=fopen(IMAGE_FILE_NAME, "w");                                                                                                                                                        
        if(imagefile==NULL){                                                                                                                                                                          
                perror("dma1394: Can't create' "IMAGE_FILE_NAME" ' ");                                                                                                                                
                dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer(&camera);                                                                                                                                                 
                                dc1394_dma_release_camera(handle, &camera);                                                                                                                           
                dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                        
                return -1;                                                                                                                                                                            
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
        else{                                                                                                                                                                                         
                cout<<"dma1394: Saved image in "<<IMAGE_FILE_NAME<<".\n";                                                                                                                             
        }                                                                                                                                                                                             
         /*Add pgm file header*/                                                                                                                                                                      
        fprintf(imagefile, "P5\n%u %u 255\n", camera.frame_width, camera.frame_height);                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                /*write to file*/                                                                                                                                                                     
        fwrite((const char *)camera.capture_buffer, 1, camera.frame_height*camera.frame_width, imagefile);                                                                                            
        fclose(imagefile);                                                                                                                                                                            
        printf("dma1394: wrote: " IMAGE_FILE_NAME "\n");                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*Step 8: Close camera*/                                                                                                                                                                      
        /*=============================================================*/                                                                                                                             
        dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer(&camera);                                                                                                                                                         
        dc1394_dma_release_camera(handle, &camera);                                                                                                                                                   
        dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                                                                                                                                
        printf("dma1394: Camera released.  Exiting. \n");                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
        //Step END                                                                                                                                                                                    
        return 0;                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
}                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                                                                      

 Just like the previous example (Section 4.4) the program includes the
necessary header files(libraw1394/raw1394.h and libdc1394/dc1394_control.h)
and then declare the three variables of the following data type

��*�dc1394_cameracapture
   
��*�raw1394handle_t
   
��*�nodeid_t *
   

After this the following steps are followed which are very similar to the
previous example (Section 4.4)

 1. Open ohci and assign handle to it using the function dc1394_create_handle
    (0)
 2. Get the camera nodes using the function dc1394_get_camera_nodes
 3. Find out various parameters need to be passed during the camera setup.
    This is done by querying the camera using the following functions
   
    ��+�dc1394_get_iso_channel_and_speed(): To get the channel and speed
        information
    ��+�dc1394_get_video_format(): To get the camera format
    ��+�dc1394_get_video_framerate(): To get the framerate information
    ��+�dc1394_get_video_mode(): To get the camera mode
    Also we are required to set the dma buffersto 8 and number of drop
    framesto 1.
   
     Once the values of the parameter have been obtained
    (framerate,format,mode,channel,speed etc), they are passed in
    dc1394_dma_setup_capture which then sets up the camera and enables it for
    capturing video. For DMA you must pass the number of dma buffers and drop
    frames parameter.
   
 4. After the camera is set, dc1394_start_iso_transmission()is called. This
    function starts data transactions from the camera to the bus.
 5. Now capture one frame using dc1394_dma_single_capture(). This function
    will capture a frame into the dma buffer
   
     After the frame has been grabbed release the dma buffer using
    dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer(). This is required so that the memory can be
    reused. It is imperative that dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer() always
    follows a dma_capture function call
    So in order to capture more than one frame the code will be
    for( i=0;i<100 ;i++)/* to capture 100 images*/                           
            {                                                                
            dc1394_dma_single_capture(&camera);                              
            dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer(&camera);                            
            }                                                                
   
 6. Stop listening to the iso channel by calling dc1394_dma_unlisten()
   
     Terminate the data transmission by calling dc1394_stop_iso_transmission
    ()
   
 7. Save the image in a file and add a PGM header for viewing using gimp.
 8. Finally call dc1394_release_camerato release the camera

 If DMA is not setup correctly you will get the following error message:

VIDEO1394_IOC_LISTEN_CHANNEL ioctl failed

 There are various reasons for this error which will be further explained in
the Problems section (Section 4.7)

  Thus we can see that the image capture using DMA is not much different from
non DMA method. We have compared the functions used in two approaches in the
following table.


+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|Non DMA steps                |DMA steps                    |Comments       |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_create_handle         |dc1394_create_handle         |Create handle  |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_get_camera_nodes      |dc1394_get_camera_nodes      |Get camera     |
|                             |                             |nodes          |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_setup_capture         |dc1394_dma_setup_capture     |Call setup     |
|                             |                             |functions to   |
|                             |                             |set various    |
|                             |                             |parameters of  |
|                             |                             |camera         |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_start_iso_transmission|dc1394_start_iso_transmission|Start sending  |
|                             |                             |the data from  |
|                             |                             |camera to the  |
|                             |                             |bus            |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_single_capture        |dc1394_dma_single_capture,   |Capture one    |
|                             |dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer  |frame          |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_stop_iso_transmission |dc1394_dma_unlisten,         |Stop sending   |
|                             |dc1394_stop_iso_transmission |the data from  |
|                             |                             |camera to the  |
|                             |                             |bus            |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
|dc1394_release_camera,       |dc1394_dma_done_with_buffer, |Close the      |
|dc1394_destroy_handle        |dc1394_dma_release_camera,   |camera         |
|                             |dc1394_destroy_handle        |               |
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+---------------+

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.6. How to get color images: Bayer Pattern Concepts

The image grabbed by the sample code in the previous section is not colored
(we have intentionally used the words "not colored," since the image is not
gray-scale either). It is actually a Bayer Pattern. We will give an overview
of Bayer Patterns and how they are used to get a colored image in this
section.

Digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor. These
fingernail-sized silicon chips contain millions of photosensitive diodes
called photosites. When you take a picture with a digital camera, the
intensity of light hitting each photo site on the sensor is recorded as a
signal. Depending on the camera, either 12 or 14 bits of data are recorded.
At 12 bits, the camera can record 4,096 levels of brightness. At 14 bits, the
camera can record 16,384 levels of brightness. This is referred to as bit
depth. The higher the bit depth, the finer is the detail, the smoother the
transition between tones, and the higher the dynamic range (the ability of
the camera to hold detail in both highlighted and shadowed areas). But at
capture, digital images are grayscale, not color. To record color
information, each pixel on the sensor is covered with a red, green, or blue
filter, with the colors alternating. A common arrangement of color filters is
the Bayer Pattern array that alternates colors, but that also uses twice as
many green filters as red and blue. Twice as many green filters are used
because our eyes are more sensitive to green. This pattern, or sequence, of
filters can vary, but the widely adopted Bayer Pattern, which was invented at
Kodak, is a repeating 2x2 arrangement. Each pixel has been made sensitive
only to one color (one spectral band).

A Typical Bayer Pattern will look like this:


Figure 5. Bayer Pattern

[Fig5]

The tile or square (pixel) labeled B means this particular tile is sensitive
only to Blue light, and so on.

The Bayer Patterns may be classified into 4 types, depending on how we have
arranged the colors. The naming of the Bayer Pattern is done by taking a 2x2
matrix from the top most corner of the pattern and the colors being read in
(0,0),(0,1),(1,0),(1,1) order. So for the above Bayer Pattern, if we take the
2x2 matrix as:


Figure 6. BGGR Pattern

[Fig6]

The pattern is therefore known as BGGR

The other possible patterns are:


Figure 7. Other Patterns

[Fig7]

The image we obtained in the previous example was a Bayer Pattern image also
known as a RAW image. This was stored in camera.capture_buffer. In order to
view what we have captured we convert this RAW image to .PGM by adding a
header (look at the explanation in Section 4.4).

In order to get a colored image, the Bayer Pattern image is converted to a 
RGB image. A RGB image is an enhanced version of the Bayer Pattern image; we
try to find the value of the two missing colors at each pixel (remember that
each pixel of the sensor is covered by Bayer Pattern filter so we get a
single color at any pixel by default). This is done by using different
algorithms like Nearest Neighbor, Edge Sense, and so on:


Figure 8. RAW to RGB

[Fig8]
where the shaded values are to be calculated by the algorithm. Subscript
denotes the tile on the Bayer Pattern to which the value of R, G, and B
belongs. Note that the image size will become 3 times the Bayer Pattern. In
order to view the RGB image we convert it to a Bit Map, or .BMP image, by
adding a bitmap header.

To get a clear picture of what's happening, we have provided the following
diagram:


Figure 9. Bayer to Bitmap conversion

[Fig9]

Let's understand how the RAW to RGB conversion algorithms work. We will look
into the Nearest Neighbor algorithm in detail. Other Algorithms are
thoroughly explained at the following web link: [http://www-ise.stanford.edu/
~tingchen/main.htm] http://www-ise.stanford.edu/~tingchen/main.htm.

Most of these algorithms make use of some kind of interpolations.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6.1. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

In this interpolation method, each interpolated output pixel is assigned the
value of the nearest pixel in the input image. The nearest neighbor can be
any one of the upper, lower, left or right pixels.

An example will make the logic clear. We try to find the G values for the R,
B tiles for a 3x3 block (shown as shaded region. The blank squares either
bear R value or B value. We have not shown them just to make the figure easy
to understand). Here we assume the left neighboring pixel value is used to
fill the missing ones.


Figure 10. Nearest Neighbour

[Fig10]

The table on the left shows the G values for the Bayer Pattern image. In
order to find out the missing G values for the other squares that originally
contains only R or B we use the following approach:

Find the nearest G value square and copy the G value of that square onto the
R (B) square. This has been illustrated in the above figure. The square next
to G7 had a value of either R or B. So to get G8 (a G value for square 8) we
copied the G value of square 7, since it was the nearest so G8 = G7.
Similarly we filled the other non G value squares.

The same logic is applied when finding R and B values for the green squares.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6.2. Example program to understand how the colored image is grabbed using
IEEE1394 Camera

Now that we have presented the basic concept of the RAW, RGB and the
conversion algorithm, we feel that you can understand an example program that
gives us a colored image.

We have chosen the format as Format7 because the camera we used responds to
this format only. We will make use of another example code which provides the
implementation of the algorithms. The program is conversions.cpp, in the
grabdma folder, available for download at [http://www.ptgrey.com/support/kb/
data/grabdma.tgz] http://www.ptgrey.com/support/kb/data/grabdma.tgz.

To run the code, make sure that you have the following files:

��*�conversions.h
   
��*�conversions.cpp
   
��*�grabcolor.cpp - also from the grabdma folder. We have modified the code
    according to our requirements and removed some of the lines. Since most
    of the code is same as the previously discussed code, we have explained
    only the portions that are different. These portions have been emphasized
    .
   

#include <stdio.h>                                                                    
#include <libraw1394/raw1394.h>                                                       
#include <libdc1394/dc1394_control.h>                                                 
#include <stdlib.h>                                                                   
#include <onversions.h>                                                               
                                                                                      
#define IMAGE "Image.rgb"                                                             
                                                                                      
int main(int argc, char *argv[])                                                      
{                                                                                     
  FILE* imagefile;                                                                    
  dc1394_cameracapture camera;                                                        
  int numNodes;                                                                       
  int numCameras;                                                                     
  raw1394handle_t handle;                                                             
  nodeid_t * camera_nodes;                                                            
  int channel,speed,mode,bytes_per_packet;                                            
                                                                                      
   /* Open ohci and asign handle to it */                                             
                                                                                      
    handle = dc1394_create_handle(0);                                                 
  if (handle==NULL)                                                                   
  {                                                                                   
    fprintf( stderr, "Unable to aquire a raw1394 handle\n\n"                          
       "Please check \n"                                                              
         " - if the kernel modules `ieee1394',`raw1394' and `ohci1394' are loaded \n" 
         " - if you have read/write access to /dev/raw1394\n\n");                     
exit(1);                                                                              
  }                                                                                   
                                                                                      
  /* get the camera nodes and describe them as we find them */                        
                                                                                      
  numNodes = raw1394_get_nodecount(handle);                                           
  camera_nodes = dc1394_get_camera_nodes(handle,&numCameras,1);                       
  fflush(stdout);                                                                     
  if (numCameras<1)                                                                   
  {                                                                                   
    fprintf( stderr, "no cameras found :(\n");                                        
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                    
    exit(1);                                                                          
  }                                                                                   
  printf("working with the first camera on the bus\n");                               
                                                                                      
  if( camera_nodes[0] == numNodes-1)                                                  
  {                                                                                   
    fprintf( stderr, "\n"                                                             
           "Sorry, your camera is the highest numbered node\n");                      
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                    
    dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                           
    exit( 1);                                                                         
  }                                                                                   
                                                                                      
  /*obtain the values of the parameter from the camera */                             
                                                                                      
dc1394_get_video_mode(handle,camera_nodes[0],(unsigned int *)&mode);                  
                                                                                      
dc1394_get_iso_channel_and_speed(handle,camera_nodes[0],                              
(unsigned int *)&channel, (unsigned int *)&speed);                                    
                                                                                      
dc1394_query_format7_byte_per_packet(handle,camera_nodes[0],(unsigned)                
mode,&bytes_per_packet);                                                              
                                                                                      
  /*setup capture */                                                                  
                                                                                      
if (dc1394_setup_format7_capture(handle,                                              
           camera_nodes[0],                                                           
         channel , /* channel */                                                      
         mode,                                                                        
         speed,                                                                       
         bytes_per_packet,                                                            
         0,                                                                           
         0,                                                                           
         960,                                                                         
         720,                                                                         
         &camera)!=DC1394_SUCCESS)                                                    
  {                                                                                   
    fprintf( stderr,"unable to setup camera-\n"                                       
         "check line %d of %s to make sure\n"                                         
         "that the video mode,framerate and format are\n"                             
         "supported by your camera\n",                                                
         __LINE__,__FILE__);                                                          
    dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                            
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                    
    dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                           
    exit(1);                                                                          
  }                                                                                   
  dc1394_free_camera_nodes(camera_nodes);                                             
                                                                                      
  /* have the camera start sending us data*/                                          
                                                                                      
  if (dc1394_start_iso_transmission(handle,camera.node)                               
      !=DC1394_SUCCESS)                                                               
  {                                                                                   
    fprintf( stderr, "unable to start camera iso transmission\n");                    
    dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                            
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                    
    exit(1);                                                                          
  }                                                                                   
                                                                                      
  /* capture one frame */                                                             
                                                                                      
  if (dc1394_single_capture(handle,&camera)!=DC1394_SUCCESS)                          
  {                                                                                   
    fprintf( stderr, "unable to capture a frame\n");                                  
    dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                            
    dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                    
    exit(1);                                                                          
  }                                                                                   
                                                                                      
  /*query the camera to determine the Bayer pattern*/                                 
                                                                                      
quadlet_t qValue;                                                                     
   GetCameraControlRegister( handle,                                                  
              Camera_nodes[0],                                                        
              0x1040,/* Bayer Tile Mapping register */                                
              &qValue );                                                              
                                                                                      
   bayer_pattern_t pattern = BAYER_PATTERN_BGGR;                                      
   switch( qValue )                                                                   
   {                                                                                  
      case 0x42474752:/* BGGR */                                                      
       pattern = BAYER_PATTERN_BGGR;                                                  
       break;                                                                         
      case 0x47524247:/* GRBG */                                                      
       pattern = BAYER_PATTERN_GRBG;                                                  
       break;                                                                         
      case 0x52474742: /* RGGB */                                                     
       pattern = BAYER_PATTERN_RGGB;                                                  
       break;                                                                         
      case 0x47425247:/* GBRG */                                                      
       pattern = BAYER_PATTERN_GBRG;                                                  
       break;                                                                         
      case 0x59595959:/* YYYY = BW */                                                 
       fprintf( stderr, "Camera is black and white\n" );                              
       cleanup();                                                                     
       return 1;                                                                      
      default:                                                                        
      fprintf(stderr,                                                                 
          "Camera BAYER_TILE_MAPPING register has an unexpected value:\n"             
          "\t0x%x\n", qValue );                                                       
                                                                                      
      return 1;                                                                       
   }                                                                                  
                                                                                      
   int bufferSize = camera.frame_width*camera.frame_height;                           
                                                                                      
   /* assign a buffer of size three time the original image */                        
                                                                                      
   unsigned char* rgbBuffer = new unsigned char[3 * bufferSize];                      
                                                                                      
   unsigned char* src = (unsigned char*)camera.capture_buffer;                        
                                                                                      
   unsigned char* captureBuffer=                                                      
            (unsigned char*)camera.capture_buffer;                                    
   for ( int i = 0; i < bufferSize; i++ )                                             
   {                                                                                  
       src[i] = captureBuffer[ i * bytesPerPixel ];                                   
   }                                                                                  
                                                                                      
   /* convert to color image */                                                       
                                                                                      
   BayerNearestNeighbor (src,                                                         
             rgbBuffer,                                                               
             camera.frame_width,                                                      
             camera.frame_height,                                                     
             pattern );                                                               
                                                                                      
                                                                                      
   /* Stop data transmission */                                                       
                                                                                      
  if (dc1394_stop_iso_transmission(handle,camera.node)!=DC1394_SUCCESS)               
  {                                                                                   
  printf("couldn't stop the camera?\n");                                              
  }                                                                                   
                                                                                      
  /* save image as 'Image.rgb' without adding any pgm header */                       
                                                                                      
  printf( "Saving the image...\n" );                                                  
  imagefile = fopen( IMAGE, "w" );                                                    
                                                                                      
  fwrite( rgbBuffer, 3,                                                               
         bufferSize, imagefile );                                                     
                                                                                      
  fclose( imagefile );                                                                
                                                                                      
  /* Close camera */                                                                  
                                                                                      
  dc1394_release_camera(handle,&camera);                                              
  dc1394_destroy_handle(handle);                                                      
  return 0;                                                                           
}                                                                                     
                                                                                      

As we have already discussed the use of GetCameraControlRegister, you can
understand that it has been used to find out the value contained at 0x1040.
Libdc1394 does not provide any function to query this address, so we
explicitly used this call to get the value.

It is important to understand the utility of the above function call. Refer
to our discussion about the Bayer Pattern filters in the previous section. We
know that the pattern can be BGGR, RGGB, GRBG, and GRBG. The algorithm that
we use for converting the Bayer Pattern to RGB requires to know about the
type of pattern the camera filter has got so that it can carry out some
initialization (refer to conversions.cpp for details). The fourth parameter
in the function call:
   BayerNearestNeighbor (src,                                                
             rgbBuffer,                                                      
             camera.frame_width,                                             
             camera.frame_height,                                            
             pattern )                                                       

refers to this value.

BayerNearestNeighbor is the function call for the interpolation algorithm we
discussed in the last section. This is implemented in conversions.cpp.

Having understood this, we move on to the switch-cases. The value that is
obtained for the Bayer Pattern (qvalue) is in the hex form which needs to be
decoded for setting the value of the variable pattern.

The case statements indicate the various hex values relating to the Bayer
Pattern that can be returned by the various cameras. The intimidating values
are actually quite easy to decode. Here's the trick:

The hex code for various colors is as follows:

��*�42h -> B
   
��*�47h -> G
   
��*�52h -> R
   

Now if the qvalue contains 0x42474752, it means: B (42h) G (47h) G (47h) R
(52h) or BGGR. We can therefore decode all the case statements similarly.

Finally, we need to declare another image buffer that will contain the RGB
image. Remember that the size of the RGB is 3 times the size of the Bayer
Pattern image. rgbbuffer is therefore assigned 3 times the buffer size
(camera.capture_buffer). This buffer (rgbbuffer) will be passed as the
destination buffer (the second parameter in BayerNearestNeighbor).

After the buffer has been filled with the RGB values we write it in the file
image.rgb.

In order to view this image using gimp, we need to append a bitmap header.
The method we employed was as follows:

 1. Save the RGB image buffer in a file, say, image.rgb.
   
 2. Make a bitmap header and save it in a separate file, bmpheader. Refer to
    [http://www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/windows/364/bmpffrmt.html] http://
    www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/windows/364/bmpffrmt.html for header
    details.
   
 3. cat bmpheader image.rgb > bmpfile
   
 4. Open bmpfile using gimp.
   

In order to run the program, use the following steps:

 
g++ -c conversions.cpp                                                       
g++ -o grabcolor conversions.o grabcolor.cpp -lraw1394                       
-ldc1394_control                                                             

Note Note on available algorithms:                                           
�    There are many algorithms that are available in conversions.cpp, so     
     depending upon the requirements, you can call the necessary functions.  

The Coriander application is useful in finding out how the RGB image will
look after undergoing different conversion algorithms. For example, it
provides the choice between Nearest Neighbor, Edge Sense and Down Sample
conversion algorithms. The difference can be observed on a mouse click.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.7. Common Problems Faced While Working With IEEE1394 Cameras

We now look at some of the common problems faced while working with the
camera, however we have only listed those problems which we faced. These
problems are likely to be faced by anyone who uses the library and the
camera. Some of the problems were solved with a proper reasoning but some
were just hit-and-miss attempts. The problems and their solutions are listed
below.

��*�Problem #1. After the installation of the library and the modules the
    camera did not respond
   
    Solution: We disconnected the camera and connected it again. May be this
    has to be repeated multiple times. We could not figure out an appropriate
    reason for this but it works.
   
��*�Problem #2. Program is not compiling
   
    Solution: If one forgets to link the executable with raw1394 and
    dc1394_control the program won't compile. The correct way is:
    gcc -o xx xx.c -lraw1394 -ldc1394_control /*for C files*/                
    g++ -o xx xx.cpp -lraw1394 -ldc1394_control /* for Cpp files */          
   
��*�Problem #3. Compilation failed, giving the error:
    libdc1394_control.so.13: cannot open the shared object file.
   
    Solution: Check for the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH. This should
    contain the path of the shares library. On our system the path was /usr/
    local/lib. The path must be set accordingly.
   
��*�Problem #4. Program hangs when executed.
   
    Solution: This primarily happens if the values of parameters that are
    passed to the setup function are not supported by the camera. For e.g.
    setting the mode mode_640x480_MONO16 when it is not supported. Our
    suggestion is that one should always query for the values and then pass
    them to the function (as explained in the example code, located in 
    Section 4.4).
   
��*�Problem #5. IDEO1394_IOC_LISTEN_CHANNEL ioctl failed error message being
    displayed.
   
    Solution: (contributed by Ian and Tim). There are various reasons for
    this error message. Type dmesg in the command prompt to gain a better
    understanding of the problem. Here is a list of problem we ran into [1]
   
��*�Problem #6. Used CTRL+C to terminate the image grabbing program, but the
    next time the program is run, it just hangs.
   
    Solution: The error usually occurs because the camera functions like a
    pipe and experiences a broken pipe situation if terminated without
    flushing the memory channels. The trick is to disconnect the camera and
    connect it again. One can also try debugging the problem by reinstalling
    the ohci1394, video1394, raw1394, video1394 modules, which works
    occasionally.
   
��*�Problem #7. Every parameter is okay and the installation is also fine,
    but even then, when the program is executed the camera is still not
    detected.
   
    Solution: This is a strange problem which we also face frequently. The
    solution is based on trial and error, but it always works:
   
     1. Disconnect the camera first and then reconnect it.
       
     2. Now run Coriander (that's why we suggest that you install Coriander
        before you start working with the camera).
       
     3. Make all the necessary adjustments; for example, select the mode of
        the camera, the frame size, and so forth.
       
     4. Close Coriander.
       
     5. Execute your program.
       
    Bingo!!! It works.
   
    Note Note on first step above:                                           
    �    The first step is critical since we experienced an error message    
         from Coriander about not finding the camera if we did not disconnect
         and reconnect the camera before running Coriander.                  
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. References

 1. [http://kauri.auck.irl.cri.nz/~johanns/libdc1394/libdc1394_FAQ.html]
    http://kauri.auck.irl.cri.nz/~johanns/libdc1394/libdc1394_FAQ.html,
    libdc1394 FAQ by Johann Schoonees.
   
 2. [http://www.ptgrey.com/] http://www.ptgrey.com/
   
 3. [http://www-ise.stanford.edu/~tingchen] http://www-ise.stanford.edu/
    ~tingchen
   
 4. [http://damien.douxchamps.net/ieee1394/coriander/manual.php] http://
    damien.douxchamps.net/ieee1394/coriander/manual.php
   
 5. Point Grey Dragonfly Camera Technical Reference Manual, Version 2.1.2.1.3
   
 6. Raw Capture: A Second Chance to Get it Right, by Charlotte K. Lowrie,
    2005-09-01
   
 7. [http://www.linuxfocus.org/] http://www.linuxfocus.org
   
 8. [http://www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/windows/364/bmpffrmt.html] http://
    www.fortunecity.com/skyscraper/windows/364/bmpffrmt.html
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A. Appendix A

A.1. License

This document, Libdc1394 Library support for IEEE 1394 Cameras HOWTO, is
copyrighted � 2005 by Rohit Agarwal & Vikram B. Permission is granted to
copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available at [http://
www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html] http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.2. Disclaimer

Although we have tried to do our best to bring out this HOWTO in a good form,
we are not responsible for any damage due to the actions taken based upon the
information contained in this document. It is impossible to test things under
all the configurations, so probably some of the hints given in this document
may be incorrect and may not work on your system. In case you find anything
wrong, let us know it first. We will rewrite the document as soon as
possible. This document is provided "as is". We put great effort into writing
it as accurately as we could, but you are using the information contained
herein at your own risk. In no event shall we be liable for any damages
resulting from the use of this work.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

A.3. About Authors

Rohit Agarwal and Vikram B are pursuing their Masters Degrees in IT from the
International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore, India.

They can be contacted at:

��*�rohdimp_24@rediffmail.com <Rohit>
   
��*�vickys_box@rediffmail.com <Vikram>
   

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
A.4. Dedications

We are grateful to all our friends for their support. We would specially like
to thank Chinmay Narayan our batch mate for his valuable advices. We would
like to dedicate this document to our Professor, Mr. S. Nagrajan, for he is
the one who motivated us to contribute to the open source community.

Notes

[1]  ��*�Channel 0 is not being used- This means you are listening on the iso
         channel and then calling a capture function again. Make sure not to 
         call dma_unlistenuntil you are ready to stop iso transmission.      
     ��*�Channel 0 is already being used- This means you have set two camera 
         nodes to the same Channel. Fix your dma_setup_capture(). This could 
         also mean that you have tried to call the setup function more than  
         once without releasing the camera between the calls. This error is  
         more likely to occur when you are working with more than one camera.
     ��*�Buffer 0 is already being used- This means that you have not freed  
         the DMA buffer before trying to write to it again. Make sure to     
         alternate dma_done_with_buffer calls with dma_capture_calls         
                                                                             





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