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       forw - forward messages


       forw [+folder] [msgs] [-annotate | -noannotate] [-form formfile]
            [-format | -noformat] [-filter filterfile] [-inplace | -noinplace]
            [-mime | -nomime] [-draftfolder +folder] [-draftmessage msg]
            [-nodraftfolder] [-editor editor] [-noedit] [-width colums] [-from
            address] [-to address] [-cc address] [-fcc +folder] [-subject
            text] [-whatnowproc program] [-nowhatnowproc] [-dashstuffing |
            -nodashstuffing] [-build] [-file msgfile] [-version] [-help]

       forw [+folder] [msgs] [-digest list] [-issue number] [-volume number]
            [other switches for  forw] [-version] [-help]


       Forw may be used to prepare a message containing other messages.

       It constructs the new message from a forms (components)  file,  with  a
       body  composed of the message(s) to be forwarded.  An editor is invoked
       as in comp, and after editing is complete, the user is prompted  before
       the message is sent.

       The default message template will direct forw to construct the draft as

            From: {from switch} or <Local-Mailbox> or <username@hostname>
            To: {to switch} or blank
            Fcc: {fcc switch} or +outbox
            Subject: {subject switch} or "{original subject} (fwd)"

       If a file named “forwcomps” exists in the user's nmh directory, it will
       be  used  instead  of  this  default  form.   You  may  also specify an
       alternate forms  file  with  the  switch  -form  formfile.   Forms  are
       processed  via  the  nmh template system; see mh-format(5) for details.
       Components from the first forwarded message are available  as  standard
       component escapes in the forms file.

       In  addition  to  the  standard  mh-format(5)  escapes,  the  following
       component escapes are also supported:

            Escape         Returns   Description
            fcc            string    Any folders specified with `-fcc folder'
            nmh-from       string    Addresses specified with `-from address'
            nmh-to         string    Addresses specified with `-to address'
            nmh-cc         string    Addresses specified with `-cc address'
            nmh-subject    string    Any text specified with `-subject text'

       By default the “To:” and “cc:” fields are empty.  You may add addresses
       to these fields with the -to address and -cc address switches.  You may
       give these switches multiple times to add multiple addresses.

       By default the “From:” field has either the value of the  Local-Mailbox
       profile  entry  a  system  default  email address.  This default can be
       overridden by using the -from address switch.  The default  mailbox  in
       the  “Fcc:”  field  is  +outbox.   This  can  be overridden by the -fcc

       Any text you give  to  the  -subject  switch  will  be  placed  in  the
       “Subject:” field in the draft.

       If the draft already exists, forw will ask you as to the disposition of
       the draft.  A reply of quit will abort forw, leaving the draft  intact;
       replace will replace the existing draft with a blank skeleton; and list
       will display the draft.

       If the -annotate switch is given, each message being forwarded will  be
       annotated with the lines:

            Forwarded: date
            Forwarded: addrs

       where  each  address  list  contains  as  many lines as required.  This
       annotation will be done only if the message is sent directly from forw.
       If  the  message  is not sent immediately from forw, “comp -use” may be
       used to re-edit and send the constructed message, but  the  annotations
       won't  take  place.   Normally annotations are done inplace in order to
       preserve any links to the message.  You may change this  by  using  the
       -noinplace switch.

       See comp(1) for a description of the -editor and -noedit switches.

       Although  forw  uses  a  forms  (components)  file  to direct it how to
       construct the beginning of the draft, it uses a message filter file  to
       direct  it  as to how each forwarded message should be formatted in the
       body of the draft.  The filter file for forw should be a standard  form
       file  for  mhl,  as  forw  will  invoke  mhl  to filter (re-format) the
       forwarded messages prior to being output to the body of the draft.

       The switches -noformat, -format, and -filter filterfile  specify  which
       message filter file to use.

       If  -noformat  is  specified (this is the default), then each forwarded
       message is output into the draft exactly as  it  appears  with  no  mhl

       If  -format  is  specified, then a default message filter file is used.
       This default message filter should be adequate for  most  users.   This
       default filter “mhl.forward” is:

            ; mhl.forward
            ; default message filter for `forw' (forw -format)

       If  a  file  named “mhl.forward” exists in the user's nmh directory, it
       will be used instead of  this  form.   You  may  specify  an  alternate
       message filter file with the switch -filter filterfile.

       Each  forwarded  message  is separated with an encapsulation delimiter.
       By default, any dashes in the first column of  the  forwarded  messages
       will  be  prepended  with  `- '  so  that when received, the message is
       suitable for bursting by burst.  This  follows  the  Internet  RFC  934
       guidelines.   You may use the flag -nodashstuffing in order to suppress
       this form of quoting to the forwarded messages.

       For users of prompter, by specifying prompter's -prepend switch in  the
       .mh_profile  file,  any commentary text is entered before the forwarded
       messages.  (A major win!)

       To use the MIME rules for encapsulation, specify the -mime switch. This
       directs  forw  to  generate  an mhbuild composition file. Note that nmh
       will not invoke mhbuild automatically; you must specifically  give  the

            What now? mime

       prior to sending the draft.

       The  -draftfolder +folder and -draftmessage msg switches invoke the nmh
       draft folder  facility.   This  is  an  advanced  (and  highly  useful)
       feature.  Consult the mh-draft(5) man page for more information.

       The  -editor  editor switch indicates the editor to use for the initial
       edit.  Upon exiting from the  editor,  comp  will  invoke  the  whatnow
       program.   See  whatnow(1)  for a discussion of available options.  The
       invocation of this program can be inhibited by using the -nowhatnowproc
       switch.   (In truth of fact, it is the whatnow program which starts the
       initial  edit.   Hence,  -nowhatnowproc  will  prevent  any  edit  from

       The -build switch is intended to be used by the Emacs mh-e interface to
       nmh.  It implies -nowhatnowproc.  It causes a file <mh-dir>/draft to be
       created,  containing the draft message that would normally be presented
       to the user for editing.  No mail is actually sent.

       The -file msgfile switch specifies the message to be  forwarded  as  an
       exact  filename  rather than as an nmh folder and message number. It is
       intended to be used by the msh interface to nmh.  This  switch  implies
       -noannotate.   The forwarded message is simply copied verbatim into the
       draft; the processing  implied  by  the  -filter,  -mime,  and  -digest
       switches  is  bypassed,  and  the usual leading and trailing 'Forwarded
       Message' delimiters are not added.  The  same  caveats  apply  to  this
       option as to the -build switch.

       The  -digest list, -issue number, and -volume number switches implement
       a digest facility for nmh.  Specifying these  switches  enables  and/or
       overloads the following escapes:

            Type       Escape  Returns  Description
            component  digest  string   Argument to `-digest'
            function   cur     integer  Argument to `-volume'
            function   msg     integer  Argument to `-issue'

       Consult the Advanced Features section of the nmh User's Manual for more
       information on making digests.


       forw looks for format and filter files in multiple locations:  absolute
       pathnames  are accessed directly, tilde expansion is done on usernames,
       and files are searched for in the user's Mail directory as specified in
       their  profile.   If  not  found  there,  the  directory  “/etc/nmh” is

       /etc/nmh/forwcomps       The standard message skeleton.
       <mh-dir>/forwcomps       Rather than the standard skeleton.
       /etc/nmh/digestcomps     The message skeleton if -digest is given.
       <mh-dir>/digestcomps     Rather than the standard skeleton.
       ^/etc/nmh/mhl.forward    The standard message filter.
       <mh-dir>/mhl.forward     Rather than the standard filter.
       ^$HOME/.mh_profile       The user's profile.


       Path:                    To determine the user's nmh directory.
       Current-Folder:          To find the default current folder.
       Draft-Folder:            To find the default draft-folder.
       Editor:                  To override the default editor.
       Msg-Protect:             To  set  mode  when  creating  a  new  message
       fileproc:                Program to refile the message.
       mhlproc:                 Program to filter messages being forwarded.
       whatnowproc:             Program to ask the “What now?” questions.


       comp(1), mhbuild(1), repl(1), send(1), whatnow(1), mh-format(5)

       Proposed Standard for Message Encapsulation (RFC 934)


       +folder                  The current folder.
       msgs                     The current message.


       If  a  folder  is  given, it will become the current folder.  The first
       message forwarded will become the current message.


       If whatnowproc is whatnow, then forw uses a built-in whatnow,  it  does
       not  actually  run  the whatnow program.  Hence, if you define your own
       whatnowproc, don't call it whatnow since forw won't run it.

       When forw is told to annotate the  messages  it  forwards,  it  doesn't
       actually  annotate  them until the draft is successfully sent.  If from
       the whatnowproc, you push instead of send,  it's  possible  to  confuse
       forw  by re-ordering the file (e.g. by using “folder -pack”) before the
       message is successfully sent.  Dist and repl don't have this problem.

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