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NAME

       lcov - a graphical GCOV front-end

SYNOPSIS

       lcov -c|--capture
            [-d|--directory directory] [-k|--kernel-directory directory]
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [-t|--test-name testname]
            [-b|--base-directory directory] [-i|--initial] [--gcov-tool tool]
            [--checksum] [--no-checksum] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [--compat-libtool] [--no-compat-libtool] [--ignore-errors errors]
            [--to-package package] [--from-package package] [-q|--quiet]
            [--no-markers] [--external] [--no-external]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]
            [--compat mode=on|off|auto]

       lcov -z|--zerocounters
            [-d|--directory directory] [--no-recursion] [-f|--follow]
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov -l|--list tracefile
            [-q|--quiet] [--list-full-path] [--no-list-full-path]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -a|--add-tracefile tracefile
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -e|--extract tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov -r|--remove tracefile pattern
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [-q|--quiet] [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --diff tracefile diff
            [-o|--output-file tracefile] [--checksum] [--no-checksum]
            [--convert-filenames] [--strip depth] [--path path] [-q|--quiet]
            [--config-file config-file] [--rc keyword=value]

       lcov --summary tracefile
            [-q|--quiet]

       lcov [-h|--help] [-v|--version]

DESCRIPTION

       lcov  is a graphical front-end for GCC's coverage testing tool gcov. It
       collects line, function and branch coverage data  for  multiple  source
       files  and creates HTML pages containing the source code annotated with
       coverage information.  It also adds overview pages for easy  navigation
       within the file structure.

       Use  lcov  to  collect  coverage data and genhtml to create HTML pages.
       Coverage data can either be collected from the currently running  Linux
       kernel  or  from  a  user  space  application.  To do this, you have to
       complete the following preparation steps:

       For Linux kernel coverage:
              Follow   the   setup   instructions    for    the    gcov-kernel
              infrastructure: http://ltp.sourceforge.net/coverage/gcov.php

       For user space application coverage:
              Compile   the   application   with   GCC   using   the   options
              "-fprofile-arcs" and "-ftest-coverage".

       Please note that this man page refers to the output format of  lcov  as
       ".info  file" or "tracefile" and that the output of GCOV is called ".da
       file".

       Also note that when printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only  printed
       when  the  values  are  exactly  0% and 100% respectively. Other values
       which would conventionally be rounded to 0% or 100% are instead printed
       as nearest non-boundary value. This behavior is in accordance with that
       of the gcov(1) tool.

OPTIONS

       -a tracefile
       --add-tracefile tracefile
              Add contents of tracefile.

              Specify several tracefiles using the -a switch  to  combine  the
              coverage  data  contained  in these files by adding up execution
              counts for matching test and filename combinations.

              The result of the add operation will be written to stdout or the
              tracefile specified with -o.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -b directory
       --base-directory directory
              Use directory as base directory for relative paths.

              Use  this  option  to  specify   the   base   directory   of   a
              build-environment when lcov produces error messages like:

                     ERROR:      could      not      read      source     file
                     /home/user/project/subdir1/subdir2/subdir1/subdir2/file.c

              In this example, use /home/user/project as base directory.

              This option is required when using lcov on projects  built  with
              libtool  or  similar  build  environments  that work with a base
              directory,  i.e.  environments,  where   the   current   working
              directory  when  invoking the compiler is not the same directory
              in which the source code file is located.

              Note that this  option  will  not  work  in  environments  where
              multiple   base   directories   are   used.  In  that  case  use
              configuration file setting geninfo_auto_base=1 (see lcovrc(5)).

       -c
       --capture
              Capture coverage data.

              By default captures the  current  kernel  execution  counts  and
              writes  the  resulting coverage data to the standard output. Use
              the --directory option  to  capture  counts  for  a  user  space
              program.

              The result of the capture operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.

       --checksum
       --no-checksum
              Specify   whether   to   generate  checksum  data  when  writing
              tracefiles.

              Use --checksum to enable checksum generation or --no-checksum to
              disable it. Checksum generation is disabled by default.

              When   checksum  generation  is  enabled,  a  checksum  will  be
              generated for each source code line and stored  along  with  the
              coverage data. This checksum will be used to prevent attempts to
              combine coverage data from different source code versions.

              If you don't work with different source code  versions,  disable
              this  option  to speed up coverage data processing and to reduce
              the size of tracefiles.

       --compat mode=value[,mode=value,...]
              Set compatibility mode.

              Use --compat to specify that lcov  should  enable  one  or  more
              compatibility  modes  when  capturing  coverage  data.  You  can
              provide a comma-separated list of mode=value  pairs  to  specify
              the values for multiple modes.

              Valid values are:

              on
                     Enable compatibility mode.
              off
                     Disable compatibility mode.
              auto
                     Apply  auto-detection  to determine if compatibility mode
                     is required. Note that auto-detection  is  not  available
                     for all compatibility modes.

              If no value is specified, 'on' is assumed as default value.

              Valid modes are:

              libtool
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using the libtool  mechanism.  See
                     also --compat-libtool.

                     The default value for this setting is 'on'.

              hammer
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of  GCC  3.3  that
                     contains  a  modification  (hammer  patch)  of  later GCC
                     versions. You can identify a modified GCC 3.3 by checking
                     the  build  directory of your project for files ending in
                     the extension '.bbg'. Unmodified versions of GCC 3.3 name
                     these files '.bb'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'.

              split_crc
                     Enable this mode if you are capturing coverage data for a
                     project that was built using a version of  GCC  4.6  that
                     contains  a  modification  (split  function checksums) of
                     later GCC versions. Typical error messages  when  running
                     lcov  on  coverage data produced by such GCC versions are
                     ´out of memory' and 'reached unexpected end of file'.

                     The default value for this setting is 'auto'

       --compat-libtool
       --no-compat-libtool
              Specify whether to enable libtool compatibility mode.

              Use --compat-libtool to enable  libtool  compatibility  mode  or
              --no-compat-libtool  to  disable  it.  The libtool compatibility
              mode is enabled by default.

              When libtool compatibility mode is  enabled,  lcov  will  assume
              that  the  source  code  relating  to  a  .da  file located in a
              directory named ".libs" can be found in its parent directory.

              If you have directories named ".libs" in your build  environment
              but  don't  use libtool, disable this option to prevent problems
              when capturing coverage data.

       --config-file config-file
              Specify a configuration file to use.

              When  this  option  is  specified,   neither   the   system-wide
              configuration  file  /etc/lcovrc, nor the per-user configuration
              file ~/.lcovrc is read.

              This option may be useful when there is a need  to  run  several
              instances  of  lcov with different configuration file options in
              parallel.

       --convert-filenames
              Convert filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to rename the file names of
              processed data sets according to the data provided by the diff.

       --diff tracefile difffile
              Convert  coverage  data in tracefile using source code diff file
              difffile.

              Use this  option  if  you  want  to  merge  coverage  data  from
              different  source  code  levels of a program, e.g. when you have
              data taken from an older version and want  to  combine  it  with
              data  from  a more current version.  lcov will try to map source
              code lines between those versions and adjust the  coverage  data
              respectively.   difffile  needs to be in unified format, i.e. it
              has to be created using the "-u" option of the diff tool.

              Note that lines which are not present in the  old  version  will
              not  be  counted as instrumented, therefore tracefiles resulting
              from this operation should not be interpreted  individually  but
              together  with  other  tracefiles  taken from the newer version.
              Also keep in mind that converted coverage data  should  only  be
              used  for  overview  purposes as the process itself introduces a
              loss of accuracy.

              The result of the diff operation will be written  to  stdout  or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       -d directory
       --directory directory
              Use .da files in directory instead of kernel.

              If you want to work on coverage data for a user  space  program,
              use  this  option  to specify the location where the program was
              compiled (that's where the counter files ending with .da will be
              stored).

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

       --external
       --no-external
              Specify  whether  to  capture  coverage data for external source
              files.

              External source files are files which are not located in one  of
              the  directories  specified  by --directory or --base-directory.
              Use --external to include external source files while  capturing
              coverage data or --no-external to ignore this data.

              Data for external source files is included by default.

       -e tracefile pattern
       --extract tracefile pattern
              Extract data from tracefile.

              Use  this switch if you want to extract coverage data for only a
              particular set of files from  a  tracefile.  Additional  command
              line  parameters  will be interpreted as shell wildcard patterns
              (note that they may need to be escaped  accordingly  to  prevent
              the  shell  from  expanding  them  first).   Every file entry in
              tracefile which matches at least one of those patterns  will  be
              extracted.

              The result of the extract operation will be written to stdout or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.

       -f
       --follow
              Follow links when searching for .da files.

       --from-package package
              Use .da files in package instead of kernel or directory.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and want to  perform  the  .info  file  creation  on  the  build
              machine. See --to-package for more information.

       --gcov-tool tool
              Specify the location of the gcov tool.

       -h
       --help
              Print a short help text, then exit.

       --ignore-errors errors
              Specify a list of errors after which to continue processing.

              Use  this  option  to  specify  a list of one or more classes of
              errors after which lcov should continue  processing  instead  of
              aborting.

              errors can be a comma-separated list of the following keywords:

              gcov: the gcov tool returned with a non-zero return code.

              source: the source code file for a data set could not be found.

              graph: the graph file could not be found or is corrupted.

       -i
       --initial
              Capture initial zero coverage data.

              Run  lcov  with -c and this option on the directories containing
              .bb, .bbg or .gcno files  before  running  any  test  case.  The
              result  is  a  "baseline"  coverage data file that contains zero
              coverage for every instrumented line.  Combine  this  data  file
              (using  lcov  -a) with coverage data files captured after a test
              run to ensure that the percentage  of  total  lines  covered  is
              correct  even  when not all source code files were loaded during
              the test.

              Recommended procedure when capturing data for a test case:

              1. create baseline coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -i -d appdir -o app_base.info

              2. perform test
                     # appdir/test

              3. create test coverage data file
                     # lcov -c -d appdir -o app_test.info

              4. combine baseline and test coverage data
                     #   lcov   -a   app_base.info   -a    app_test.info    -o
                     app_total.info

       -k subdirectory
       --kernel-directory subdirectory
              Capture kernel coverage data only from subdirectory.

              Use  this  option if you don't want to get coverage data for all
              of the kernel, but only for specific subdirectories. This option
              may be specified more than once.

              Note  that  you  may need to specify the full path to the kernel
              subdirectory  depending  on  the  version  of  the  kernel  gcov
              support.

       -l tracefile
       --list tracefile
              List the contents of the tracefile.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --list-full-path
       --no-list-full-path
              Specify whether to show full paths during list operation.

              Use --list-full-path to show full paths during list operation or
              --no-list-full-path to show shortened paths. Paths are shortened
              by default.

       --no-markers
              Use this option if you want to get coverage data without  regard
              to  exclusion  markers  in the source code file. See geninfo (1)
              for details on exclusion markers.

       --no-recursion
              Use this option if  you  want  to  get  coverage  data  for  the
              specified directory only without processing subdirectories.

       -o tracefile
       --output-file tracefile
              Write data to tracefile instead of stdout.

              Specify "-" as a filename to use the standard output.

              By  convention,  lcov-generated  coverage  data files are called
              "tracefiles" and should have the filename extension ".info".

       --path path
              Strip path from filenames when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov  to  disregard
              the  specified  initial  path  component  when  matching between
              tracefile and diff filenames.

       -q
       --quiet
              Do not print progress messages.

              This option is implied when no output filename is  specified  to
              prevent  progress  messages  to mess with coverage data which is
              also printed to the standard output.

       --rc keyword=value
              Override a configuration directive.

              Use this option  to  specify  a  keyword=value  statement  which
              overrides  the  corresponding  configuration  statement  in  the
              lcovrc configuration file. You can specify this option more than
              once   to   override  multiple  configuration  statements.   See
              lcovrc(5) for a list of available keywords and their meaning.

       -r tracefile pattern
       --remove tracefile pattern
              Remove data from tracefile.

              Use this switch if you  want  to  remove  coverage  data  for  a
              particular  set  of  files  from a tracefile. Additional command
              line parameters will be interpreted as shell  wildcard  patterns
              (note  that  they  may need to be escaped accordingly to prevent
              the shell from expanding  them  first).   Every  file  entry  in
              tracefile  which  matches at least one of those patterns will be
              removed.

              The result of the remove operation will be written to stdout  or
              the tracefile specified with -o.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

       --strip depth
              Strip path components when applying diff.

              Use this option together with --diff to tell lcov  to  disregard
              the  specified  number  of  initial  directories  when  matching
              tracefile and diff filenames.

       --summary tracefile
              Show summary coverage information for the specified tracefile.

              Note that you may specify this option more than once.

              Only one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may  be
              specified at a time.

       -t testname
       --test-name testname
              Specify test name to be stored in the tracefile.

              This name identifies a coverage data set when more than one data
              set is merged into a combined tracefile (see option -a).

              Valid test names can consist of letters, decimal digits and  the
              underscore character ("_").

       --to-package package
              Store .da files for later processing.

              Use this option if you have separate machines for build and test
              and want to  perform  the  .info  file  creation  on  the  build
              machine. To do this, follow these steps:

              On the test machine:
                     - run the test
                     - run lcov -c [-d directory] --to-package file
                     - copy file to the build machine

              On the build machine:
                     - run lcov -c --from-package file [-o and other options]

              This  works  for  both kernel and user space coverage data. Note
              that you might have to specify the path to the  build  directory
              using  -b  with either --to-package or --from-package. Note also
              that the package data must be converted to a .info  file  before
              recompiling the program or it will become invalid.

       -v
       --version
              Print version number, then exit.

       -z
       --zerocounters
              Reset all execution counts to zero.

              By  default  tries  to  reset  kernel  execution counts. Use the
              --directory option  to  reset  all  counters  of  a  user  space
              program.

              Only  one of  -z, -c, -a, -e, -r, -l, --diff or --summary may be
              specified at a time.

FILES

       /etc/lcovrc
              The system-wide configuration file.

       ~/.lcovrc
              The per-user configuration file.

AUTHOR

       Peter Oberparleiter <Peter.Oberparleiter@de.ibm.com>

SEE ALSO

       lcovrc(5), genhtml(1), geninfo(1), genpng(1), gendesc(1), gcov(1)



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