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       original-awk - pattern-directed scanning and processing language


       original-awk [ -F fs ] [ -v var=value ] [ 'prog' | -f progfile ] [ file
       ...  ]


       Awk (original-awk) scans each input file for lines that match any of  a
       set  of  patterns  specified  literally in prog or in one or more files
       specified as -f progfile.  With each pattern there can be an associated
       action  that  will  be  performed  when  a  line  of a file matches the
       pattern.  Each line is matched against the  pattern  portion  of  every
       pattern-action  statement;  the associated action is performed for each
       matched pattern.  The file name - means the standard input.   Any  file
       of  the form var=value is treated as an assignment, not a filename, and
       is executed at the time  it  would  have  been  opened  if  it  were  a
       filename.   The  option -v followed by var=value is an assignment to be
       done before prog is executed; any number of -v options may be  present.
       The  -F  fs  option defines the input field separator to be the regular
       expression fs.

       An input line is normally made up of fields separated by  white  space,
       or by regular expression FS.  The fields are denoted $1, $2, ..., while
       $0 refers to the entire line.  If FS is null, the input line  is  split
       into one field per character.

       A pattern-action statement has the form

              pattern { action }

       A  missing  {  action  } means print the line; a missing pattern always
       matches.   Pattern-action  statements  are  separated  by  newlines  or

       An  action  is a sequence of statements.  A statement can be one of the

              if( expression ) statement [ else statement ]
              while( expression ) statement
              for( expression ; expression ; expression ) statement
              for( var in array ) statement
              do statement while( expression )
              { [ statement ... ] }
              expression              # commonly var = expression
              print [ expression-list ] [ > expression ]
              printf format [ , expression-list ] [ > expression ]
              return [ expression ]
              next                    # skip remaining patterns on this input line
              nextfile                # skip rest of this file, open next, start at top
              delete array[ expression ]# delete an array element
              delete array            # delete all elements of array
              exit [ expression ]     # exit immediately; status is expression

       Statements are terminated by semicolons, newlines or right braces.   An
       empty  expression-list stands for $0.  String constants are quoted " ",
       with the usual C escapes recognized within.  Expressions take on string
       or numeric values as appropriate, and are built using the operators + -
       * / % ^ (exponentiation), and concatenation (indicated by white space).
       The  operators  !  ++  -- += -= *= /= %= ^= > >= < <= == != ?: are also
       available in expressions.  Variables may  be  scalars,  array  elements
       (denoted  x[i])  or  fields.   Variables  are  initialized  to the null
       string.  Array subscripts may be any string, not  necessarily  numeric;
       this allows for a form of associative memory.  Multiple subscripts such
       as [i,j,k] are permitted; the constituents are concatenated,  separated
       by the value of SUBSEP.

       The  print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on
       a file if >file or >>file is present or on a pipe if |cmd is  present),
       separated  by the current output field separator, and terminated by the
       output record  separator.   file  and  cmd  may  be  literal  names  or
       parenthesized   expressions;   identical  string  values  in  different
       statements denote the same open file.  The printf statement formats its
       expression  list according to the format (see printf(3)).  The built-in
       function close(expr) closes  the  file  or  pipe  expr.   The  built-in
       function  fflush(expr) flushes any buffered output for the file or pipe

       The mathematical functions exp, log, sqrt,  sin,  cos,  and  atan2  are
       built in.  Other built-in functions:

       length the  length  of  its  argument taken as a string, or of $0 if no

       rand   random number on (0,1)

       srand  sets seed for rand and returns the previous seed.

       int    truncates to an integer value

       substr(s, m, n)
              the n-character substring of s that begins at position m counted
              from 1.

       index(s, t)
              the  position  in  s  where the string t occurs, or 0 if it does

       match(s, r)
              the position in s where the regular expression r occurs, or 0 if
              it  does  not.   The variables RSTART and RLENGTH are set to the
              position and length of the matched string.

       split(s, a, fs)
              splits the string s into array elements a[1], a[2],  ...,  a[n],
              and  returns  n.   The  separation  is  done  with  the  regular
              expression fs or with the field separator FS if fs is not given.
              An  empty  string  as field separator splits the string into one
              array element per character.

       sub(r, t, s)
              substitutes t for the first occurrence of the regular expression
              r in the string s.  If s is not given, $0 is used.

       gsub   same   as  sub  except  that  all  occurrences  of  the  regular
              expression are replaced; sub  and  gsub  return  the  number  of

       sprintf(fmt, expr, ... )
              the  string resulting from formatting expr ...  according to the
              printf(3) format fmt

              executes cmd and returns its exit status

              returns a copy of str with all upper-case characters  translated
              to their corresponding lower-case equivalents.

              returns  a copy of str with all lower-case characters translated
              to their corresponding upper-case equivalents.

       The ``function'' getline sets $0 to the  next  input  record  from  the
       current input file; getline <file sets $0 to the next record from file.
       getline x sets variable x instead.  Finally, cmd |  getline  pipes  the
       output  of cmd into getline; each call of getline returns the next line
       of output from cmd.  In all cases, getline returns 1 for  a  successful
       input, 0 for end of file, and -1 for an error.

       Patterns  are  arbitrary Boolean combinations (with ! || &&) of regular
       expressions and relational expressions.  Regular expressions are as  in
       egrep; see grep(1).  Isolated regular expressions in a pattern apply to
       the entire line.  Regular expressions  may  also  occur  in  relational
       expressions,  using the operators ~ and !~.  /re/ is a constant regular
       expression; any string (constant or variable) may be used as a  regular
       expression, except in the position of an isolated regular expression in
       a pattern.

       A pattern may consist of two patterns separated by  a  comma;  in  this
       case,  the  action is performed for all lines from an occurrence of the
       first pattern though an occurrence of the second.

       A relational expression is one of the following:

              expression matchop regular-expression
              expression relop expression
              expression in array-name
              (expr,expr,...) in array-name

       where a relop is any of the  six  relational  operators  in  C,  and  a
       matchop is either ~ (matches) or !~ (does not match).  A conditional is
       an  arithmetic  expression,  a  relational  expression,  or  a  Boolean
       combination of these.

       The  special  patterns  BEGIN  and  END  may be used to capture control
       before the first input line is read and after the last.  BEGIN and  END
       do not combine with other patterns.

       Variable names with special meanings:

              conversion format used when converting numbers (default %.6g)

       FS     regular  expression  used  to  separate fields; also settable by
              option -Ffs.

       NF     number of fields in the current record

       NR     ordinal number of the current record

       FNR    ordinal number of the current record in the current file

              the name of the current input file

       RS     input record separator (default newline)

       OFS    output field separator (default blank)

       ORS    output record separator (default newline)

       OFMT   output format for numbers (default %.6g)

       SUBSEP separates multiple subscripts (default 034)

       ARGC   argument count, assignable

       ARGV   argument  array,  assignable;  non-null  members  are  taken  as

              array of environment variables; subscripts are names.

       Functions   may  be  defined  (at  the  position  of  a  pattern-action
       statement) thus:

              function foo(a, b, c) { ...; return x }

       Parameters are passed by value if scalar  and  by  reference  if  array
       name; functions may be called recursively.  Parameters are local to the
       function; all other variables are global.  Thus local variables may  be
       created by providing excess parameters in the function definition.


       length($0) > 72
              Print lines longer than 72 characters.

       { print $2, $1 }
              Print first two fields in opposite order.

       BEGIN { FS = ",[ 	]*|[ 	]+" }
             { print $2, $1 }
              Same,  with  input  fields  separated by comma and/or blanks and

            { s += $1 }
       END  { print "sum is", s, " average is", s/NR }
              Add up first column, print sum and average.

       /start/, /stop/
              Print all lines between start/stop pairs.

       BEGIN     {    # Simulate echo(1)
            for (i = 1; i < ARGC; i++) printf "%s ", ARGV[i]
            printf "
            exit }


       lex(1), sed(1)
       A. V. Aho, B. W. Kernighan,  P.  J.  Weinberger,  The  AWK  Programming
       Language, Addison-Wesley, 1988.  ISBN 0-201-07981-X


       There  are  no  explicit  conversions  between numbers and strings.  To
       force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it; to force  it
       to be treated as a string concatenate "" to it.
       The  scope  rules for variables in functions are a botch; the syntax is


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