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NAME

       wcd - Wherever Change Directory

       chdir for DOS and Unix

SYNOPSIS

           wcd [options] [directory]

DESCRIPTION

   Overview
       Wcd is a command-line program to change directory fast. It saves time
       typing at the keyboard. One needs to type only a part of a directory
       name and wcd will jump to it. Wcd has a fast selection method in case
       of multiple matches and allows aliasing and banning of directories. Wcd
       also includes a full screen interactive directory tree browser with
       speed search.

       Wcd was modeled after Norton Change Directory (NCD). NCD appeared first
       in The Norton Utilities, Release 4, for DOS in 1987, published by Peter
       Norton.

       Wcd has been ported to different command-line shells: DOS command.com,
       Windows cmd.exe and PowerShell, OS/2 cmd.exe, and Unix shells such as
       Bourne (sh), Bourne Again (bash), Korn (ksh), Z (zsh), and C (csh)
       shell and others running on any operating system.

       Wcd supports 8 bit character sets on all systems, and has optional
       support for Unicode. See section LOCALIZATION.

       See section INSTALLATION how to setup wcd for personal use.

   Basic use
       By default (if no wildcards are used) wcd searches for a directory with
       a name that begins with the typed name.

       For instance this command will change to directory to the current
       user's "/home/user/Desktop":

           wcd Desk

       When there are multiple matches, wcd will present the user a list of
       all matches. The user can then make a selection with a few keystrokes
       (most of the times only one).

   Wildcards
       Wcd supports following wildcards:

           *       matches any sequence of characters (zero or more)
           ?       matches any character
           [SET]   matches any character in the specified set,
           [!SET]  or [^SET] matches any character not in the specified set.

       A set is composed of characters or ranges; a range looks like character
       hyphen character as in "0-9" or "A-Z". The "[0-9a-zA-Z_]" is the
       minimal set of characters allowed in the "[..]" pattern construct.
       International characters (i.e. 8 bit characters) are allowed if the
       system supports them. To suppress the special syntactic significance of
       any of "[]*?!^-\" inside or outside a "[..]" construct and match the
       character exactly, precede the character with a backslash ("\") marker.

       Using wildcards makes powerful searching possible. For instance this
       matches any directory name that ends with "top":

           wcd *top

       Match directories that have "top" anywhere in the name:

           wcd *top*

       Match any directory name that begins with "a", "b" or "c":

           wcd [a-c]*

       It is also possible to give a part of a directory path. Here Wcd
       searches for directory that begins with "Desk" and which path matches
       *me/Desk*.

           wcd me/Desk

       It is allowed to type any kind of expression with slashes and
       wildcards.  E.g.:

           wcd src*/*1?/a*2

   Other uses
       If no wildcards are used and wcd finds a perfect match, wcd will ignore
       all wild matches by default. This behaviour can be changed with the -w
       option.

       The interactive directory tree browser can be started by using option
       -g.

           wcd -g

       Wcd generates a treedata file where it searches the directory. On Unix
       and Windows systems wcd does add symbolic links to the treedata file
       while scanning the disk, but does not follow them. While following
       links wcd could end up scanning infinite loops, or scan very large
       portions of a network.

       Wcd can also change to directories that are not in the treedata file.
       E.g.:

           wcd ..

       If wcd found a match but can't change to the directory it tries to
       remove it from the default treedata file. Not from the extra treedata
       file. See also option -k.

       Wcd keeps a directory stack which is stored on disk. The stack has a
       default size of 10 and is cyclic. See options -z, -, + and =.

       In multi-user environments option -u can be used to change to
       directories of other users.

       On DOS and Windows systems it does not matter if you use a slash "/" or
       a backslash "\" as a directory separator.

       It is possible on DOS and Windows systems to change drive and directory
       in one go by preceding the directory name with the drive name.

           wcd d:games

   Windows UNC paths
       The Windows versions (Command Prompt, PowerShell, MSYS, zsh, cygwin)
       support Windows SMB LAN UNC paths without drive letter such as
       "\servername\sharename". Wcd for Windows Command Prompt makes use of
       the "pushd" command to automatically map a UNC path to a drive letter.
       In Windows PowerShell, MSYS, zsh and Cygwin UNC paths are fully
       supported. The current working directory can be a UNC path.

   Interfaces
       Wcd has three different interfaces to choose from a list of matches.
       The interface can be chosen at compile time.

       The first interface uses plain stdin/stdout. A numbered list is printed
       in the terminal. The user has to choose from the list by typing a
       number followed by <Enter>. This interface does not provide scroll back
       functionality in case of a long list. The scroll back capability of the
       terminal/console has to be used. It is very small and portable.

       The second interface is built with the conio library. It provides a
       builtin scroll back capability. The user is presented a list numbered
       with letters.  Choosing from a list can be done by pressing just one
       letter. This interface is fast because it saves keystrokes. If possible
       the screen will be restored after exiting. One who prefers to type
       numbers can use the -N option.

       The third interface is built with the curses library. It is similar to
       the conio interface. The curses version of wcd has also an additional
       'graphical' interface. It lets the user select a directory via a full
       screen interactive directory tree browser. It has a vim(1) like
       navigation and search method. It can be activated with option -g.

       By using the -o option one can always fall back to the stdin/stdout
       interface.

OPTIONS

       -a  Add current path to the default treedata file.

           Use this option to quickly add the current path to the default
           treedata file. Re-scanning the complete disk can take a long time
           in some cases.

       -aa Add current and all parent paths to the default treedata file.

       -A PATH
           Scan directory tree from PATH and append to the default treedata
           file. Examples:

               wcd -A .
               wcd -A /home -A /etc
               wcd -A d: -A e: -A \server\share

           On Windows one can scan all shared directories of a Windows LAN
           server by typing something like: "wcd -A \servername".

           See also option -S and -s and -E.

       -b  Ban current path.

           Wcd places the current path in the ban file. This means that wcd
           ignores all matches of this directory and its sub directories.

           The ban file can be edited with a text editor. Use of wildcards is
           supported and names are matched against the absolute path.

           Banned paths are not excluded from scanning the disk. To do that
           use option -xf.

       -c, --direct-cd
           Direct CD mode. By default wcd works as follows:

               1. Try to find a match in the treedata file(s)
               2. If no match, try to open the directory you typed.

           In direct CD mode wcd works in reversed order.

               1. Try to open the directory you typed.
               2. If not, try to find a match in the treedata file(s).

       -d DRIVE
           Set drive for stack and go file (DOS only).

           The stack file and the go-script are by default stored on drive C:
           if environment variable HOME is not set. Use this option if drive
           C: is a read-only drive. This option must be used in front of the
           stack options -, + and =.

       -e  Add current path to the extra treedata file.

           Use this option to quickly add the current path to the extra
           treedata file.

       -ee Add current and all parent paths to extra treedata file.

       -E PATH
           Scan directory tree from PATH and append to Extra treedata file.
           See also options -A and -S.

       -f FILE
           Read treedata file FILE. Do not read the default treedata file.

       +f FILE
           Read treedata file FILE in addition to the default treedata file.

       -g  Graphical interface (only in version with curses interface).

           Wcd starts a textual curses based 'graphical' interface. The user
           can select a directory via a full-screen interactive directory tree
           browser. It has a vim(1) like navigation and search method.

           If no search string is given wcd presents the whole tree which is
           in the default treedata file and the extra treedata files.

           If a search string is given the match list is presented as a
           directory tree.

           The default tree layout is similar to the tree layout of the
           original NCD on DOS. The difference in layout is that in NCD all
           directories of a same depth level were vertically aligned over the
           whole tree. This was possible in NCD, because the maximum width of
           a directory name in DOS was 12 (8.3) characters. On modern
           operating systems directory names can be very long, so also the
           differences in length can be large. Therefore folders with a same
           depth are not vertically aligned over the whole tree in wcd, but
           only in sub-branches.  So there is some sideways movement when
           moving straight up and down from one sub-branch to another sub-
           branch.

           The navigation behaviour in Wcd is exactly the same as in the
           original NCD. For instance if you push the Down key you go down to
           the next directory with the same depth level, jumping over
           branches. This enables fast navigation through the tree.

           See options -Ta, -TC, and -Tc to change the navigation behaviour.

       -gd Dump the treedata files as a tree to stdout.

       -G PATH
           Write go-script in directory PATH. For instance on Unix, "wcd -G
           PATH" will write a go-script PATH/wcd.go.

       -GN, --no-go-script
           Do not create go-script. This option can be used in combination
           with the option -j if one does not want wcd to create a go-script.

       -h, --help
           Show help and exit.

       -i, --ignore-case
           Ignore case.  Dos and Windows versions of wcd ignore case default.
           Unix/Cygwin versions regard case by default.

       +i, --no-ignore-case
           Regard case. See also option -i.

       -I, --ignore-diacritics
           Ignore diacritics for Latin-based scripts.  Letters with
           diacritical marks match their base letter without diacritical mark.
           The following Latin encodings are supported: CP437, CP850, CP852,
           CP1250, CP1252, ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2, and Unicode Latin-1, Latin
           Extended-A, and Latin Extended-B.  See also
           <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diacritic>

       +I, --no-ignore-diacritics
           Regard diacritics (default). See also option -I.

       -j, --just-go
           Just go mode.

           In this mode wcd will not present a list when there is more than
           one directory that matches the given directory. Wcd will just
           change to the first option. When wcd is invoked again with the same
           arguments it will change to the next option, and so on.

           Wcd will print the directory to go to to stdout. So a different
           installation method can be used. One could make the following
           function for a POSIX compatible shell:

               wcd ()
               {
                   cd "$($HOME/bin/wcd.exe -j $@)"
               }

           When you are using an old shell that doesn't support "$()" command
           substitution you have to use old style command substitution with
           back-quotes.

               wcd ()
               {
                   cd "`$HOME/bin/wcd.exe -j $@`"
               }

           On Windows systems, if one is running 4NT shell, one could make the
           following alias:

               alias wcd `cd %@execstr[wcdwin32.exe -z 0 -j %1]`

           This method eliminates the need of the go-script, so one can use
           option -GN in combination with -j.

       -k, --keep-paths
           Keep paths.

           Keep paths in the treedata file when wcd can't change to them. The
           default behaviour of wcd is that it tries to remove paths from the
           treedata when wcd can't change to them. With this option this
           behavior is turned off.

       -K, --color
           Use colors in graphical mode.

       -l ALIAS
           Name the current path with ALIAS. Wcd places the current path with
           alias ALIAS in the alias file. Aliases are case sensitive.

       -m DIR
           Make directory and add to treedata file.

       -L, --license
           Print the distribution license.

       -M DIR
           Make directory and add to extra treedata file.

       -n PATH
           Read relative treedata file from PATH.

           Do not read the default treedata file. The relative treedata file
           should already have been created using the wcd +S option.  PATH may
           also point to a file directly.

           An example. Suppose another system has been mounted to mount point
           "/mnt/network":

               wcd -n /mnt/network src

           Wcd opens the relative treedata file in "/mnt/network/". The file
           contains the paths relative from that point.

       +n PATH
           Read relative treedata file in addition to the default treedata
           file. See option -n.

       -N, --numbers
           Use numbers instead of letters.

           Wcd with a conio or curses based interface (see section INTERFACE)
           presents a match list by default numbered with letters. When the -N
           option is used the match list is numbered with numbers. Regardless
           of the -N option one can type a letter or numbers to make a
           selection from the list of matches.

       -o  Use stdin/stdout interface.

           When for some kind of reason the conio or curses interface of wcd
           does not work one can fall back to the stdin/stdout interface of
           wcd by using the -o option.

       -od, --to-stdout
           Dump all matches to stdout.

       -q, --quiet
           Quieter operation. Printing of the final match is suppressed.

       -r DIR
           Remove directory and remove from the treedata file.

           If the directory is empty, wcd will remove it, and try to remove it
           from the treedata file.

       -rmtree DIR
           Recursively remove directory and remove from the treedata file.

           Wcd will remove the directory and all its sub directories and
           files, and remove the directories from the treedata file.

       -s  (re)Scan disk from $HOME directory. If HOME is not defined the disk
           is scanned from root directory /.

           The existing default treedata file is overwritten.

           The default scan directory can be overruled with environment
           variable "WCDSCAN". See section ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       -S PATH
           Scan directory tree from PATH and overwrite the default treedata
           file.  See also options -A, -s and -E. E.g. with option -A you can
           create a default treedata file of your choice. Examples:

           Unix:

               wcd -S /
               wcd -S /home -A /etc -A /usr

           DOS/Windows:

               wcd -S c:/
               wcd -S c: -A d: -A \server\share

           With the Windows versions one can scan all shared directories of a
           Windows LAN server by typing something like: "wcd -S \servername".

       +S PATH
           Scan disk from PATH and place relative paths in a relative treedata
           file.  This file is used by the -n and +n options of wcd. E.g. "wcd
           -n PATH src".

       -t  Do not strip tmp mount dir "/tmp_mnt" (Unix only)

           Wcd strips by default "/tmp_mnt/" from the match. Directory
           "/tmp_mnt" is used by the auto-mounter. This behaviour can be
           turned off with the -t option.

       -T, --ascii-tree
           Draw tree with ASCII characters. Use this option if line drawing
           characters are not displayed properly in your terminal.

       -Ta, --alt-tree-nav
           Alternative way of navigation in the graphical tree.

           In the default NCD style tree layout the -Ta option disables
           jumping to unrelated directories.

           In compact tree mode the alternative mode makes navigation similar
           to navigation in GUI file managers such as Windows Explorer or
           Linux KDE Konqueror. Pressing Up and Down moves the selected folder
           one line up or down. Pressing Left first folds the sub-folders and
           the next move left moves really left.

           You can switch on-the-fly between default and alternative
           navigation by pressing <Shift-A>.

           When alternative navigation mode is on, you will see an "A" in the
           lower right corner.

       -TC, --center-tree
           Centered view in the graphical tree. The selected directory stays
           in the middle of the screen. The centered mode can also be switched
           on and off with key <t> in the graphical tree.

           The standard non-centered behaviour, which minimises tree movement,
           is the same as in the original NCD.

       -Tc, --compact-tree
           By default the 'graphical' tree is drawn the same way as the
           original NCD on DOS did it. On DOS a directory path could only be
           66 characters in total. With the deep directory structures of today
           the tree can become very wide. To overcome this wcd can draw the
           tree in a compact way, similar to most GUI file managers, with only
           one folder per line. Use option -Tc or switch on-the-fly with the
           <m> key.

       -Td, --cjk-width
           Legacy East-Asian CJK (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) fonts have
           certain characters and line drawing symbols with a column width of
           2, while the normal Unicode width for these characters is 1 column.
           For instance the Chinese CP936 raster font on Windows and the
           Simsun font. Use this option for a correct outlining of the
           graphical tree when a legacy CJK font is used.

           When CJK mode is on, you will see a "C" in the lower right corner.

       -u USER
           Scan treedata file of another user based on USER, do not scan your
           own default treedata file. See also section ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
           for WCDUSERSHOME.

           On Unix/Cygwin the base directory for user home directories is
           assumed to be "/home". Wcd will look for "/home/USER/.treedata.wcd"
           and "/home/USER/.wcd/.treedata.wcd", in that order, and read the
           first one that exists and is readable.  On DOS/Windows the base
           directory for user home directories is assumed to be "\users", so
           wcd tries to read "\users\USER	reedata.wcd" and
           "\users\USER\.wcd	reedata.wcd".

       +u USER
           Read default treedata file of USER in addition to your own treedata
           file.

       -v, --verbose
           Display verbose messages. With this option wcd prints all filters,
           bans and excludes.

       -V, --version
           Print version information and exit.

       -w, --wild-match-only
           Wild matching only. Treat all matches as wild matches.

       -x PATH
           Exclude PATH from scanning.

           When this option is used wcd will exclude PATH and all its
           subdirectories when wcd is scanning a disk. Wildcards are supported
           and matched against absolute paths. Option -x can be used multiple
           times.

               wcd -x <path1> -x <path2> -s

           Option -x must be used in front of any scan option (-s, -S, +S, -A,
           -E).

           On DOS/Windows systems one must specify the drive letter depending
           on if environment variable HOME or WCDHOME is set. If HOME or
           WCDHOME is set one needs to specify the drive letter. An example:

               wcd -x c:/temp -S c:

           Otherwise do not specify drive letter.

               wcd -x /temp -s

       -xf FILE
           Exclude all paths listed in FILE from scanning.

           When this option is used wcd will exclude all paths listed in FILE
           and all their subdirectories when wcd is scanning a disk. Wildcards
           are supported and they are matched against absolute paths; one path
           per line. Be aware that wcd will not ignore leading or trailing
           blanks on a line, because they are legal characters in a directory
           name. Option -xf can be used multiple times. When one wants to
           exclude all banned paths from scanning one can do the following
           (example for wcd on unix):

               wcd -xf ~/.ban.wcd -s

           Wildcards are supported. For instance to exclude all your
           Subversion directories with administrative files add a line with
           "*/.svn".

           Option -xf must be used in front of any scan option (-s, -S, +S,
           -A, -E).

       -y, --assume-yes
           Assume Yes on all queries.

           Wcd will not prompt the user with yes/no questions, but assumes the
           user answers yes on all questions. This can be used in combination
           with option -rmtree. This option must be used in front of options
           that can lead to yes/no questions.

       -z NUMBER
           Set maximum stack size to NUMBER.

           The default size of the stack is 10. Stack operation can be turned
           off by setting the size to 0. This option must be used in front of
           any other stack operations (-,+,=). Otherwise the size of the stack
           will be set back to the default 10.

           A correct command is:

               wcd -z 50 -

           The new stack size will be 50, wcd will go one directory back. A
           wrong command is:

               wcd - -z 50

           Wcd goes one directory back, the stack gets the default size 10.
           The -z 50 is ignored.

           Add this option as the first option to your wcd alias or function.
           E.g.  for the a POSIX compatible shell this would be:

               wcd ()
               {
                   wcd.exe -z 50 "$@"
                   . ${WCDHOME:-${HOME}}/bin/wcd.go
               }

       -[NUMBER]
           Push dir NUMBER of times. Default is one.

           Go back a directory. Command "wcd -" goes one directory back. To go
           more directories back add a number to it. E.g. command "wcd -3".
           The stack is cyclic.

       +[NUMBER]
           Pop dir NUMBER of times. Default is one.

           Go forward a directory. Command "wcd +" goes one directory forward.
           To go more directories forward add a number to it. E.g. command
           "wcd +2". The stack is cyclic.

       =   Show stack.

           Use this option if you do not know anymore how many times to push
           or pop.  The stack is printed and you can choose a number. The
           current place in the stack is marked with an asterisk "*".

INSTALLATION

       The current working directory of a Unix shell can only be changed by
       the builtin cd(1) command. Therefore the program is always called by a
       function or an alias. The function or alias sources a shell script (go-
       script) which is generated by the wcd program. Wcd can only work after
       the function or alias is defined.

       Another important influence on your installation is the definition of
       environment variables HOME and WCDHOME. See section ENVIRONMENT
       VARIABLES.

   Install for POSIX type shells
       For a POSIX shell (ksh, bash, zsh, etc.) on Unix, Linux, Cygwin, or
       native MSYS add the following function to the shell startup file (e.g.
       Bash uses "$HOME/.bashrc"):

           wcd ()
           {
               <PATH>/wcd.exe "$@"
               . ${WCDHOME:-${HOME}}/bin/wcd.go
           }

       Replace PATH with the location where the wcd executable has been
       installed. Reload the shell initialization files or start new shell.

       The location of the go-script "wcd.go" differs per shell.

       Wcd for DJGPP DOS bash requires a different function. The go script is
       not written in a directory "bin", and if WCDHOME and HOME are both not
       defined the go-script is written on c:/.

           wcd ()
           {
               <PATH>/wcd.exe "$@"
               . ${WCDHOME:-${HOME:-"c:"}}/wcd.go
           }

       The WinZsh version of wcd is also a bit different. No "bin" directory.

           wcd ()
           {
               <PATH>/wcd.exe "$@"
               . ${WCDHOME:-${HOME}}/wcd.go
           }

       See section FILES for more information.

   Install for C-alike shells (csh, tcsh)
       Add the following alias to the shell startup file "$HOME/.cshrc" or
       "$HOME/.tcshrc" :

           if ( ${?WCDHOME} ) then
               alias wcd "<PATH>/wcd.exe \!* ; source $WCDHOME/bin/wcd.go"
           else
               alias wcd "<PATH>/wcd.exe \!* ; source $HOME/bin/wcd.go"
           endif

       Replace PATH with the location where the wcd executable has been
       installed.  Reload the shell initialization files or start a new shell.

   Windows Command Prompt version
       Unpack the zip file and add directory "bin" to your environment
       variable PATH.

       In Windows Command Prompt a Windows program cannot change the current
       work directory, but a .bat file can. The batch scrip "wcd.bat" runs the
       wcd program which generates a new batch script "wcdgo.bat". Then
       "wcd.bat" runs "wcdgo.bat" which actually changes the directory.

   Windows VISTA and higher
       In a Windows VISTA and higher Command Prompt you may have limited
       access to directories. To get access to more directories you need
       administrator rights. You can get a Command Prompt with administrator
       rights if you right click on the Command Prompt icon and select Run as
       administrator.

   Windows PowerShell version
       Add the following function to your PowerShell user profile. The
       location of this profile is stored in the $profile variable. It is
       required that one of the environment variables HOME or WCDHOME is
       defined.

           function wcd
           {
               <PATH>\wcdwin32psh.exe $args
               & $env:HOME\wcdgo.ps1
           }

       Replace PATH with the location where the wcd executable has been
       installed.  Start a new PowerShell. Wcd for PowerShell supports only
       the file system provider. No other providers.

   OS/2 Command Prompt version
       In an OS/2 Command Prompt (cmd.exe) an OS/2-program can't change the
       current work directory. That is why wcd generates a command script
       "wcdgo.cmd" which must be executed in the current shell. The script
       "wcd.cmd" first executes "wcdos2.exe", which creates the "wcdgo.cmd"
       script. Then "wcd.cmd" executes the "wcdgo.cmd" script.

LOCALIZATION

       LANG
           The primary language is selected with the environment variable
           LANG. The LANG variable consists out of several parts. The first
           part is in small letters the language code. The second one is
           optional and is the country code in capital letters, preceded with
           an underscore. There is also an optional third part: character
           encoding, preceded with a dot. A few examples for POSIX standard
           type shells:

               export LANG=nl               Dutch
               export LANG=nl_NL            Dutch, The Netherlands
               export LANG=nl_BE            Dutch, Belgium
               export LANG=es_ES            Spanish, Spain
               export LANG=es_MX            Spanish, Mexico
               export LANG=en_US.iso88591   English, USA, Latin-1 encoding

           For a complete list of language and country codes see the
           gettext(1) manual:
           <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.php#Language-Codes>
           On Unix systems you can use to command locale(1) to get locale
           specific information.

       LANGUAGE
           With the LANGUAGE environment variable you can specify a priority
           list of languages, separated by colons. Wcd gives preference to
           LANGUAGE over LANG. For instance, first Dutch and then German:
           "LANGUAGE=nl:de". You have to first enable localization, by setting
           LANG or LC_ALL to a value other than C, before you can use a
           language priority list through the LANGUAGE variable. See also the
           gettext(1) manual:
           <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/gettext.php#The-LANGUAGE-variable>

           If you select a language which is not available you will get the
           standard English messages.

       WCDLOCALEDIR
           With the environment variable WCDLOCALEDIR the LOCALEDIR used
           during compilation and installation of wcd can be overruled.
           LOCALEDIR is used by wcd with native language support to find the
           language files. The GNU default value is "/usr/local/share/locale".
           By typing "wcd -V" wcd will print the LOCALEDIR that is used.

           If you have installed wcd in a different directory than the default
           directory you may need to set the environment variable WCDLOCALEDIR
           to point to the locale directory.

           An example for Windows cmd:

               set WCDLOCALEDIR=c:/my_prefix/share/locale

           An example for a POSIX shell:

               export WCDLOCALEDIR=$HOME/share/locale

       LC_COLLATE
           When there are multiple directory matches wcd presents a sorted
           list. The sorting depends on the locale settings. If the
           environment LANG has been set the matches are sorted like
           dictionaries or phone books are sorted in that language. For
           instance dots and dashes are ignored, or letters e with and without
           accent are equal, or upper and lower case is ignored.

           The sorting gives preference to environment variable LC_COLLATE
           over LANG. If you make LC_COLLATE equal to "C" or "POSIX", locale
           sorting is turned off. For instance if you want Dutch language, but
           not Dutch sorting, you can do something like this:

               export LANG=nl_NL
               export LC_COLLATE=C

       LC_CTYPE
           With regard to character encoding Wcd will give preference to
           variable LC_CTYPE over LANG. For instance to set character encoding
           to UTF-8 the following environment setting can be done.

               export LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8

       LC_ALL
           All locale environment variables that start with LC_ are overruled
           by the environment variable LC_ALL if it is defined. Wcd gives
           preference to LC_ALL over LC_COLLATE and LC_CTYPE.

   WINDOWS CODE PAGES
       There are two groups of code pages: DOS code pages (OEM) and Windows
       code pages (ANSI). The default encoding for Windows, when configured
       with Western regional settings, is ANSI CP1252. Windows programs, for
       instance notepad, use this default system ANSI code page. The Windows
       console uses by default an OEM code page (CP437 or CP850) for
       compatibility with DOS programs. If you use a DOS version of wcd in a
       Windows console it will work, because of the DOS code page.  But the
       DOS version of wcd lacks support for long directory names and network
       drives on Windows.

       The Windows version of wcd is a native Windows program and will use the
       Windows system ANSI code page. So on a Western regional Windows it will
       use code page CP1252 for directory names and messages. In order to get
       consistent output, independent of the active code page, all Windows
       versions of Wcd translate ANSI output to Unicode output in the Command
       Prompt and PowerShell.

       The console raster font only supports the original OEM code page
       installed with Windows, so you have to change the console's font to
       true type Lucida Console to make Unicode (and ANSI) letters appear
       correctly.

       Non-Unicode versions of Wcd prior to version 5.2.0 use plain ANSI
       output.  For these older versions the code page of the console has to
       be made equal to the system code page (changed to 1252) to make wcd for
       Windows work properly with special characters such as accented
       characters or the Euro symbol.

       The Windows system code page can be changed via the Control Panel
       regional options. The Windows console code page is changed with the
       "chcp" command.

       When you type "wcd -V", the actual character encoding used by wcd is
       shown. Type the command "chcp" to display the active code page of the
       Windows console.

   UNICODE
       Wcd has optional support for Unicode. To see if wcd was built with
       Unicode support type "wcd -V". If your terminal/console and font
       supports it, you should see the Euro symbol and Chinese characters
       (meaning: "Chinese").

       Wcd has been soft converted to Unicode. In its core wcd handles all
       data as a stream of bytes. Only the lines printed to screen are on the
       fly converted to Unicode wide characters. Wcd fully relies on libc
       functions and has no UTF-8 specific code. See also
       <http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/unicode.php>

       Wcd has optional support for Unicode matching with normalisation. To
       find out whether Wcd has normalisation support type "wcd -V".  Wcd with
       Unicode normalization support will match Unicode names based on
       compatible equivalence. Without Unicode normalization support, names
       are matched when they are binary equivalent.  See also
       <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode_normalization>

       UTF-8 on Unix/Linux

       In order to view UTF-8 characters your console/terminal also needs to
       support UTF-8. The xterm version that comes with XFree86 4.0 or higher
       includes UTF-8 support. To activate it, start xterm(1) in a UTF-8
       locale and use a font with iso10646-1 encoding, for instance with

           LC_CTYPE=en_GB.UTF-8 xterm -u8 -fn '-Misc-Fixed-Medium-R-SemiCondensed--13-120-75-75-C-60-ISO10646-1'

       Modern distributions of GNU/Linux support UTF-8 by default. Other
       multi-byte character encodings should also work, but that has not been
       tested.

       Wcd assumes that the treedata files are encoded in the locale character
       encoding. There are no Byte Order Marks written to treedata files.

       UTF-16 on Windows

       On Windows Unicode is supported in all versions of PowerShell, and in
       Windows Command Prompt on Windows 7 (or higher). Unicode also works in
       Take Command or TCC/LE made by JP Software, which can be used on older
       Windows versions (XP/Vista).

       On Windows all the directory names on disk are encoded in UTF-16
       Unicode.  For non-Unicode Windows programs the Unicode characters are
       translated to the default ANSI code page. For characters that are not
       part of the regional setting this translation is not possible and non-
       Unicode programs print a question mark or a wrong character instead.

       Wcd with Unicode support will read the UTF-16 encoded directory names
       and converts them internally to UTF-8. All treedata files are encoded
       in UTF-8 and not compatible with the non-Unicode version of Wcd. Wcd
       will create a go-script encoded in UTF-8.

       All versions of Windows PowerShell are able to run scripts encoded in
       UTF-8, provided there is an UTF-8 BOM in the script.

       Since Windows 7 it is possible in Windows Command Prompt to change
       directory with a batch script to a directory with Unicode letters in
       the name. The directory name needs to be encoded in UTF-8, and the
       batch script must not have a BOM. The active code page of the Command
       Prompt needs to be set to 65001 (UTF-8) prior to the cd command. Wcd
       for Command Prompt will create such a go script "wcdgo.bat". It first
       changes the code page to 65001, then changes directory, and finally
       sets the code page back to the original code page.

       You need to set the font to True Type Lucida Console (not raster font)
       when letters don't appear correctly.

       The non-Unicode Windows version of Wcd can read Unicode treedata files
       since version 5.2.0, provided there is a Byte Order Mark (BOM) in the
       file (see <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_order_mark>), but it can't
       change to directories with Unicode letters in the name that are not
       part of the default system ANSI code page. The Unicode Windows version
       of wcd writes a BOM in the UTF-8 encoded treedata files since version
       5.2.0, which makes them also readable by notepad.

       UTF-8 on Cygwin

       Cygwin supports Unicode since version 1.7. The Cygwin layer takes care
       that the Windows UTF-16 Unicode names are converted to UTF-8. So
       programs, like wcd, do not need to be aware of this and can operate
       using UTF-8 encoding as on Unix/Linux. Set character encoding to UTF-8
       with the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variable. You may need to rescan
       your drives. You need to set the font to True Type Lucida Console (not
       raster font) if you use the default Cygwin console.

       The Cygwin version behaves exactly as the Unix version of wcd.  There
       is no BOM written in the treedata files, and it is assumed they are
       encoded in the Cygwin locale character encoding.

FILES

       If the environment variable WCDHOME is set wcd will use WCDHOME instead
       of HOME. All "*.wcd" files are text files. They can be edited with a
       text editor.  The Windows Command Prompt version of wcd behaves as the
       DOS version. The Cygwin version of wcd behaves as the Unix version.

       wcd.exe
           The program. In Unix shells the program is always called by a
           function or alias, because the current working directory of a Unix
           shell can only be changed by the builtin cd command. See also
           section INSTALLATION.

       default treedata file
           This is the default treedata file where wcd searches for matches.
           If it is not readable wcd will create a new one.

               DOS: 	reedata.wcd or %HOME%	reedata.wcd
               Unix: $HOME/.treedata.wcd

       extra treedata file
           An optional extra treedata file. If it exists and is readable wcd
           will try to find matches in this file also.

               DOS: xtra.wcd or %HOME%xtra.wcd
               Unix: $HOME/.extra.wcd

       ban file
           In this optional file wcd places banned paths. See option -b.
           Wildcards are supported.

               DOS: \ban.wcd or %HOME%\ban.wcd
               Unix: $HOME/.ban.wcd

       alias file
           Optional file with wcd aliases. See option -l.

               DOS: \alias.wcd or %HOME%\alias.wcd
               Unix: $HOME/.alias.wcd

       stack file
           In this file wcd stores its stack. The drive letter can be changed
           with the -d option.

               DOS: c:\stack.wcd or %HOME%\stack.wcd
               Unix: $HOME/.stack.wcd

           The name of the stack file can be changed with environment variable
           WCDSTACKFILE.  See section ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       go-script
           This is the shell script which wcd.exe creates each time. It is
           sourced via a function or an alias. The drive letter can be changed
           with the -d option.  For history reasons it is placed by default in
           "$HOME/bin" on Unix systems. The directory of this file can be
           changed with the option -G.

               DOS bash: c:/wcd.go or $HOME/wcd.go
               Windows Command Prompt: c:\wcdgo.bat or %HOME%\wcdgo.bat
               Windows PowerShell: $env:HOME\wcdgo.ps1
               WinZsh: $HOME/wcd.go
               Cygwin/MSYS: $HOME/bin/wcd.go
               OS/2 Command Prompt: c:\wcdgo.cmd or %HOME%\wcdgo.cmd
               Unix: $HOME/bin/wcd.go

       relative treedata file
           Text file with relative paths from DIR. See options +S, -n and +n.

               DOS: <path>
tdata.wcd
               Unix: <path>/.rtdata.wcd

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       HOME
           Wcd uses by default environment variable HOME to determine where to
           store its files. See also section FILES. This can be overruled with
           environment variable WCDHOME.

           HOME also defines where to start scanning the disk when option -s
           is used. This can be overruled with the environment variable
           WCDSCAN.

           For the Unix, Cygwin, Windows PowerShell, WinZsh and MSYS version
           it is required that HOME or WCDHOME is set. For the other versions
           of wcd the use of these variables is optional.

           If HOME is set on DOS/Windows, wcd will place all its files
           (treedata.wcd, extra.wcd, alias.wcd, ban.wcd, wcd.go) in directory
           HOME. The behaviour of wcd is then equal to the Unix version of
           wcd. Wcd will scan the disk default from HOME. Drives will not be
           automatically scanned by changing to them. You need to tell wcd
           explicitly. E.g.:

               wcd -S c: -A d: -A e:

           Matching of directories is now global over all scanned drives.

       WCDHOME
           Environment variable WCDHOME can be used to change the location of
           wcd's files. If both HOME and WCDHOME are set, WCDHOME will be used
           instead of HOME.

           In wcd versions prior to 5.1.5 WCDHOME also changed the default
           scan directory.  This has changed. Since version 5.1.5 WCDHOME does
           not change the default scan directory. See option -s. From version
           5.1.5, use environment WCDSCAN to overrule the default scan
           directory.

           Example for DOS, Windows, OS/2 Command Prompt:

               set WCDHOME=C:\Usersrwin\wcd

           An example for POSIX type shells:

               export WCDHOME="$HOME/.wcd"

           An example for Csh type shells:

               setenv WCDHOME "$HOME/.wcd"

       WCDSCAN
           Use environment variable WCDSCAN to overrule the default scan
           directory HOME. Define a colon separated list (Unix) to define more
           than one directory.  On DOS/Windows make the list semi-colon
           separated.

           Examples for DOS, Windows, OS/2 Command Prompt:

               set WCDSCAN=C:\Usersrwin;D:\data

               set WCDSCAN=%HOMEDRIVE%%HOMEPATH%;\projectdrive\projectX

           An example for POSIX type shells:

               export WCDSCAN="$HOME:/projectdisk/projectX"

           An example for Csh type shells:

               setenv WCDSCAN "$HOME:/projectdisk/projectX"

       WCDFILTER
           Specify filters with environment variable WCDFILTER. All
           directories that do not match the filter(s) are ignored. A list can
           be specified by separating filters by the shell path separator.
           Similar as specifying the PATH variable.  The case sensitivity is
           mandated by the Operating system.

           An example for DOS, Windows, OS/2 Command Prompt:

               set WCDFILTER=projects;doc

           An example for POSIX type shells:

               export WCDFILTER="projects:doc"

           An example for Csh type shells:

               setenv WCDFILTER "projects:doc"

       WCDBAN
           The paths specified with environment WCDBAN will be banned by wcd.
           See also option -b. Specify a list of paths separated by shell PATH
           separator.

       WCDEXCLUDE
           The paths specified with environment WCDEXCLUDE will be excluded by
           wcd. See also options -x and -xf. Specify a list of paths separated
           by shell PATH separator.

           An example for DOS, Windows, OS/2 Command Prompt:

               set WCDEXCLUDE=*/windows;*/temp;*CVS

           An example for POSIX type shells:

               export WCDEXCLUDE="/dev:/tmp:*CVS"

           An example for Csh type shells:

               setenv WCDEXCLUDE "/dev:/tmp:*CVS"

       WCDUSERSHOME
           Set the base of user's home directories.  On DOS/Windows the
           default value is "\users".  On Unix/Cygwin the default value is
           "/home".  This variable is used to scan treedata files of other
           users. See also options -u and +u. In verbose mode wcd will print
           all filters, bans and excludes. See option -v.

       WCDSTACKFILE
           Wcd gives preference to WCDSTACKFILE over the default stack file
           name (see section FILES). With this variable each shell (or used
           terminal emulator) can have its private stack of used directories.

           To use a unique time based YYYYMMDD-HHMMSS file for each opened
           interactive shell.

               export WCDSTACKFILE=$HOME/.wcd/stack.$(date +%Y%m%d-%H%M%S)

           For a stack per xterm(1), use the xterm WINDOWID environment
           variable:

               export WCDSTACKFILE=$HOME/.wcd/stack.$WINDOWID

           For GNU screen(1), to use stack per screen:

               export WCDSTACKFILE=$HOME/.wcd/stack.$WINDOW

       TERMINFO
           If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, wcd with ncurses
           interface checks for a local terminal definition before checking in
           the standard place. This is useful if terminal definitions are not
           on a standard place. Often used standard places are
           "/usr/lib/terminfo" and "/usr/share/terminfo".

       PDC_RESTORE_SCREEN
           Wcd with PDCurses interface recognizes the environment variable
           PDC_RESTORE_SCREEN. If this environment variable is set, PDCurses
           will take a copy of the contents of the screen at the time that wcd
           is started; when wcd exits, the screen will be restored.  An
           example for Windows Command Prompt:

               set PDC_RESTORE_SCREEN=1

           Windows allows only a small buffer to be saved. So it is not always
           possible to restore everything. Some garbage data may be printed in
           the console after wcd exists if you have set a large buffer width.

       SHELL
           Printing of "#!$SHELL" on the first line of the go-script for POSIX
           type shell or C shell is needed for 8 bit characters. Some shells
           otherwise think that the go-script is a binary file and will not
           source it. In Cygwin Bash the variable SHELL must be set in
           environment using the "export" command, otherwise wcd can't read
           the variable.

       BASH
           Wcd for DOS bash uses $BASH instead of $SHELL, because $SHELL
           points to the DOS command shell. One may need to define $BASH with
           an "export" command, otherwise wcd can't read the variable.

SEE ALSO

       sh(1), bash(1), csh(1), ksh(1), zsh(1), locale(1), ncurses(1),

AUTHORS

       Wcd was written by Erwin Waterlander <waterlan@xs4all.nl>

       Project homepage: <http://waterlan.home.xs4all.nl/>

       SourceForge: <http://sourceforge.net/projects/wcd/>

       Freecode: <http://freecode.com/projects/wcd/>

       The manual page formatting was provided by Jari Aalto
       <jari.aalto@cante.net>.

       NCD was originally written by Brad Kingsbury for Peter Norton's "Norton
       Utilities" around 1987. See also
       <http://www.softpanorama.org/OFM/norton_change_directory_clones.shtml>



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