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       wmii - Window Manager Improved²


       wmii [-a <address>] [-r <wmiirc>]

       wmii -v


       wmii  is a dynamic window manager for X11. In contrast to static window
       management the user rarely has to think about how to organize  windows,
       no  matter  what  he  is doing or how many applications are used at the
       same time.  The window manager adapts to the  current  environment  and
       fits to the needs of the user, rather than forcing him to use a preset,
       fixed layout and trying to shoehorn all windows and  applications  into

       wmii  supports  classic  and  tiled  window  management  with  extended
       keyboard and mouse control. Classic window management arranges  windows
       in  a  floating  layer  in  which tyen can be moved and resized freely.
       Tiled window management arranges windows  in  vertical  columns.   Each
       column  holds  an  arbitrary number arbitrary windows and arranges them
       vertically in a non-overlapping manner. They  can  then  be  moved  and
       resized, among and within columns, at will.

       wmii  provides a virtual filesystem which represents the internal state
       similar to the  procfs  of  Unix  operating  systems.   Modifying  this
       virtual filesystem results in changing the state of the window manager.
       The virtual filesystem  service  can  be  accessed  through  9P-capable
       client programs, like wmiir(1).  This allows simple and powerful remote
       control of the core window manager.

   Command Line Arguments
       -a <address>
              Specifies  the  address  on  which  wmii   should   listen   for
              connections.  The  address  takes the form <protocol>!<address>.
              The default is of the form:


              which opens a unix socket per Plan 9 Port conventions. To open a
              TCP  socket,  listening  at port 4332 on the loopback interface,


              $WMII_NAMESPACE is automatically set to this value.

       -r <wmiirc>
              Specifies which rc script to run.  If  <wmiirc>  consists  of  a
              single   argument,  $WMII_CONFPATH  is  searched  before  $PATH.
              Otherwise, it  is  passed  to  the  shell  for  evaluation.  The
              environment   variables  $WMII_ADDRESS  and  $WMII_CONFPATH  are
              preset for the script.

              A running X server instance  consisting  of  input  devices  and

       Screen A  physical  or  virtual  (Xinerama  or Xnest(1)) screen of an X

       Window A (rectangular) drawable  X  object  which  is  displayed  on  a
              screen, usually an application window.

       Client An  application window surrounded by a frame window containing a
              border and a titlebar.

       Floating layer
              A screen layer of wmii on top of all other layers, where clients
              are  arranged  in  a  classic  (floating)  manner.   They can be
              resized or moved freely.

       Managed layer
              A screen layer of wmii  underneath  the  floating  layer,  where
              clients  are  arranged  in  a  non-overlapping (managed) manner.
              Here, the window manager dynamically assigns each client a  size
              and position.  The managed layer consists of columns.

       Tag    Alphanumeric  strings  which  can  be assigned to a client. This
              provides a mechanism to group clients with  similar  properties.
              Clients  can  have  one  tag,  e.g.  work, or several tags, e.g.
              work+mail.  Tags are separated with the + character.

       View   A set of clients containing a specific tag, quite similar  to  a
              workspace  in other window managers. It consists of the floating
              and managed layers.

       Column A column is a screen area which arranges clients vertically in a
              non-overlapping  way.  Clients  can be moved and resized between
              and within columns freely.

       Bar    The bar at the bottom of the screen displays a  label  for  each
              view and allows the creation of arbitrary user-defined labels.

       Event  An  event  is a message which can be read from a special file in
              the filesystem of wmii, such as a  mouse  button  press,  a  key
              press, or a message written by a different 9P-client.

   Basic window management
       Running  a  raw  wmii process without a wmiirc(1) script provides basic
       window management capabilities.  However, to use it effectively, remote
       control  through its filesystem interface is necessary.  Without such a
       script, it is only possible to move and resize clients with the  mouse,
       but  not  to change their tags or to switch views.  Other interactions,
       such as customizing  the  style,  killing  or  retagging  clients,  and
       grabbing keys, cannot be achieved without accessing the filesystem.

       The  filesystem  can  be  accessed by connecting to the address of wmii
       with any 9P-capable client, such as wmiir(1)

       The default configuration provides for a special menu of actions. These
       consist of either shell scripts in $WMII_CONFPATH or action definitions
       included in wmiirc.

       Here is a list of the default actions:

        exec       Replace the window manager with another program
        quit       Leave the window manager nicely
        rehash     Refresh the program list
        showkeys   Display a list of key bindings recognized by wmii
        status     Periodically print date and load average to the bar
        welcome    Display a welcome message that contains the wmii tutorial

   Default Key Bindings
       All of the provided wmiirc scripts accept at least  the  following  key
       bindings.  They  should  also  provide  a showkeys action to open a key
       binding quick-reference.

   Moving Around
        Key           Action
        Mod-h         Move to a window to the left of the one currently focused
        Mod-l         Move to a window to the right of the one currently focused
        Mod-j         Move to the window below the one currently focused
        Mod-k         Move to a window above the one currently focused
        Mod-space     Toggle between the managed and floating layers
        Mod-t <tag>   Move to the view of the given <tag>
        Mod-n         Move to the next view
        Mod-b         Move to the previous view
        Mod-[0-9]     Move to the view with the given number

   Moving Things Around
        Key                 Action
        Mod-Shift-h         Move the current window window to a column on the left
        Mod-Shift-l         Move the current window to a column on the right
        Mod-Shift-j         Move the current window below the window beneath it.
        Mod-Shift-k         Move the current window above the window above it.
        Mod-Shift-space     Toggle the current window between the managed and floating layer
        Mod-Shift-t <tag>   Move the current window to the view of the given <tag>
        Mod-Shift-[0-9]     Move the current window to the view with the given number

        Key               Action
        Mod-m             Switch the current column to max mode
        Mod-s             Switch the current column to stack mode
        Mod-d             Switch the current column to default mode
        Mod-Shift-c       Kill the selected client
        Mod-p <program>   Execute <program>
        Mod-a <action>    Execute the named <action
        Mod-Enter         Execute an x-terminal-emulator


       If you  feel  the  need  to  change  the  default  configuration,  then
       customize  (as  described  above)  the  wmiirc  action.  This action is
       executed at the end of the wmii script and does all the work of setting
       up the window manager, the key bindings, the bar labels, etc.

       Most  aspects of wmii are controlled via the filesystem.  It is usually
       accessed via the wmiir(1) command, but it can be accessed  by  any  9P,
       including  plan9port's  9P[1], and can be mounted natively on Linux via
       v9fs[1], and on Inferno (which man run on top of Linux).  All  data  in
       the  filesystem,  including  filenames, is UTF-8 encoded. However, when
       accessed via wmiir(1), text is automatically  translated  to  and  from
       your locale encoding.

       The   filesystem  is,  as  are  many  other  9P  filesystems,  entirely
       synthetic. The files exist only in memory, and are not written to disk.
       They  are  generally  initiated  on  wmii  startup via a script such as
       wmiirc. Several files are used to issue commands, others simply act  as
       if  they  were  ordinary files (their contents are updated and returned
       exactly as written), though writing  them  has  side-effects  (such  as
       changing  key  bindings).  A  description  of the filesystem layout and
       control commands follows.

       /      Global control files

              Client control files

              View control files

       /lbar/, /rbar/
              Files representing the contents of the bottom bar

   The / Hierarchy
              The colrules file contains a list  of  rules  which  affect  the
              width of newly created columns.  Rules have the form:

                  /<regex>/ -> <width>[+<width>]*


                  <width> := <percent of screen> | <pixels>px

              When  a new column, <n>, is created on a view whose name matches
              <regex>, it is given the <n>th supplied <width>.  If there is no
              <n>th width, it is given 1/<ncol>th of the screen.

       rules  PROVISIONAL

              The  rules  file  contains  a  list of rules that may be used to
              automatically set properties of new clients. Rules are specified

                  /<regex>/ <key>=<value> ...

              where  each  <key> represents a command in the clients ctl file,
              and each <value> represents the value  to  assign  to  it.   The
              rules  are  applied  when  the  client  is first started and the
              contents of the props file match the regular expression <regex>.

              Additionally, the following keys are accepted and  have  special

                      Normally,  when  a  matching  rule  is encountered, rule
                      matching stops. When the continue key is provided  (with
                      any value), matching continues at the next rule.

                      Like  tags, but overrides any settings obtained obtained
                      from the client's group or from  the  _WMII_TAGS  window

       keys   The  keys  file  contains  a  list of keys which wmii will grab.
              Whenever these key combinations are pressed,  the  string  which
              represents them are written to '/event' as: Key <string>

       event  The event file never returns EOF while wmii is running. It stays
              open and reports events as they occur. Included among them are:

               [Not]Urgent <client> [Manager|Client]
                      <client>'s urgent hint has been set or unset. The second
                      arg  is  [Client]  if  it's  been set by the client, and
                      [Manager] if  it's  been  set  by  wmii  via  a  control

               [Not]UrgentTag <tag> [Manager|Client]
                      A  client  on  <tag> has had its urgent hint set, or the
                      last urgent client has had its urgent hint unset.

               Client<Click|MouseDown> <client> <button>
                      A client's titlebar has either been  clicked  or  has  a
                      button pressed over it.

               [Left|Right]Bar[Click|MouseDown] <button> <bar>
                      A  left  or  right  bar has been clicked or has a button
                      pressed over it.

       For a more comprehensive list of available events, see wmii.pdf[2]

       ctl    The ctl file  takes  a  number  of  messages  to  change  global
              settings  such as color and font, which can be viewed by reading
              it. It also takes the following commands:

               quit   Quit wmii

               exec <prog>
                      Replace wmii with <prog>

               spawn <prog>
                      Spawn a new program, as if by the -r flag.

   The /client/ Hierarchy
       Each  directory  under  '/client/'  represents  an  X11  client.   Each
       directory  is  named  for  the  X  window  id  of the window the client
       represents, in the form that  most  X  utilities  recognize.   The  one
       exception   is  the  special  'sel'  directory,  which  represents  the
       currently selected client.

       ctl    When read, the 'ctl' file returns the X window id of the client.
              The following commands may be written to it:

               allow <flags>
                      The  set  of  unusual  actions  the client is allowed to
                      perform, in the same format as the tag set.

                              The client is allowed to activate itself –  that
                              is,  focus  its  window  and,  as  the  case may
                              require, uncollapse  it  and  select  a  tag  it
                              resides on. This flag must be set on a client if
                              you wish it able to  activate  itself  from  the
                              system tray.

               floating <on | off | always | never>
                      Defines  whether  this  client  is  likely to float when
                      attached to a new view. Ordinarilly, the  value  changes
                      automatically  whenever  the window is moved between the
                      floating and managed layers.  However, setting  a  value
                      of    always   or   never   overrides   this   behavior.
                      Additionally, dialogs, menus, docks, and splash  screens
                      will always float unless this value is set to never.

               fullscreen <on | off | toggle>
                      Sets the client's fullscreen state.

               group <group id>
                      The  client's  group  ID,  or  0 if not part of a group.
                      Clients tend to open with the same tags and in the  same
                      columns  as  the  last  active  member  of  their group.
                      Setting this property is only useful when done  via  the
                      rules file.

               kill   Close the client's window.

               pid    Read-only  value of the PID of the program that owns the
                      window, if the value is available and the process is  on
                      the same machine as wmii.

               slay   Forcibly  kill  the client's connection to the X server,
                      closing all of its windows. Kill the parent  process  if
                      the client's PID is available.

               tags <tags>
                      The client's tags. The same as the tags file.

               urgent <on | off | toggle>
                      Set or unset the client's urgent hint.

       label  Set or read a client's label (title).

       props  Returns      a      clients      class     and     label     as:

       tags   Set or read a client's tags. Tags are separated by +, -,  or  ^.
              Tags  beginning  with  + are added, while those beginning with -
              are removed and those beginning with ^ are toggled.  If the  tag
              string  written  begins  with  +,  ^, or -, the written tags are
              added to or removed from the client's set, otherwise the set  is

   The /tag/ Hierarchy
       Each  directory  under '/tag/' represents a view, containing all of the
       clients with  the  given  tag  applied.  The  special  'sel'  directory
       represents the currently selected tag.

       ctl    The  'ctl'  file can be read to retrieve the name of the tag the
              directory represents, or written with the following commands:

               select Select a client: select [left|right|up|down]

               select [<row number>|sel] [<frame number>]

               select client <client>

               send   Send a client somewhere:

                       send [<client>|sel] [up|down|left|right]

                       send [<client>|sel] <area>
                              Send <client> to the nth <area>

                       send [<client>|sel] toggle
                              Toggle <client> between the floating and managed

               swap   Swap a client with another. Same syntax as send.

               grow   Grow or shrink a client.

                         grow <frame> <direction> [<amount>]

               nudge  Nudge a client in a given direction.

                         grow <frame> <direction> [<amount>]

       Where the arguments are defined as follows:

               area   Selects a column or the floating area.

                         area        ::= <area_spec> | <screen_spec>:<area_spec>

                      When  <screen_spec>  is  omitted  and <area_spec> is not
                      "sel", 0 is assumed.  "sel"  by  itself  represents  the
                      selected client no matter which screen it is on.

                         area_spec   ::= "~" | <number> | "sel"

                      Where  "~"  represents  the  floating  area and <number>
                      represents a column index, starting at one.

                         screen_spec ::= <number>

                      Where <number> representes the 0-based  Xinerama  screen

               frame  Selects a client window.

                         frame ::= <area> <index> | <area> sel | client <window-id>

                      Where  <index>  represents  the  nth  frame of <area> or
                      <window-id> is the X11 window id of the given client.

               amount The amount to grow or nudge something.

                         amount ::= <number> | <number>px

                      If "px" is given, <number> is interperated as  an  exact
                      pixel   count.    Otherwise,   it's  interperated  as  a
                      "reasonable" amount, which is usually either the  height
                      of  a  window's  title  bar, or its sizing increment (as
                      defined by X11) in a given direction.

       index  Read for a description of the contents of a tag.

   The /rbar/, /lbar/ Hierarchy
       The files under '/rbar/' and '/lbar/' represent the items of the bar at
       the  bottom of the screen. Files under '/lbar/' appear on the left side
       of the bar, while those under '/rbar/' appear on the  right,  with  the
       leftmost item occupying all extra available space. The items are sorted

       The files may be read or written to obtain or alter the colors and text
       of  the bars. The format is similar to the various ctl files and should
       be self explanitory.


              The wmii socket file which provides a 9P service.

              Global action directory.

              User-specific action directory. Actions are first searched here.


       $HOME, $DISPLAY
              See the section FILES above.

       The following variables are set and exported within wmii and  thus  can
       be used in actions:

              The address on which wmii is listening.

              The  path  that  wmii searches for its configuration scripts and

              The namespace directory to use if no address is provided.


       wimenu(1), wmii9menu(1), witray(1), wmiir(1), wihack(1)

       /usr/share/doc/wmii/wmii.pdf /usr/share/doc/wmii/FAQ


       [2] /usr/share/doc/wmii/wmii.pdf

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