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       dvipdfmx,  xdvipdfmx,  dvipdfm  -  produce  PDF files directly from DVI


       dvipdfmx or dvipdfm [options] file[.dvi]


       The program dvipdfmx generates a PDF file from a DVI file.   DVI  files
       are  the  output  produced  by  TeX.  groff can also generate DVI files
       using grodvi(-Tdvi).

       In TeX Live, dvipdfm is another incarnation of dvipdfmx rather  than  a
       separate  program.   Compatibility  is  attempted  as best as possible.
       Please report problems to the dvipdfmx  maintainers  at  tex-live  (at)

       In  addition,  xdvipdfmx is yet another incarnation.  It is used as the
       back end for xetex(1) and is not intended to be invoked directly.

       dvipdfmx recognizes several commonly used \special commands, which  are
       extensions  to  the  DVI  format.   Specifically,  it understands color
       specials, papersize specials, tpic specials (which allow it to be  used
       with  pic),  hypertex  specials,  and  some PostScript specials.  These
       extensions allow documents to contain color, figures,  and  hyperlinks.
       The  program  tries  to  mimic the behavior of dvips where possible, so
       that many macro packages produced for use with  dvips  will  also  work
       with  dvipdfmx.   In  addition,  understands  its own specific \special
       commands to allow access  to  PDF  features  such  as  annotations  and

       Unrecognized specials will generate warning messages. Packages that may
       need a dvipdfm or dvipdfmx driver option  include  geometry,  hyperref,
       bookmark, graphicx, and xcolor.

       For  issues  related  to  bounding  boxes  (and hence image sizes), see


       -c   Ignore (or accept) color \specials.  By default,  color  \specials
            are  interpreted  normally (changeable in the configuration file).
            The -c option may be used to produce a black  and  white  document
            from a document containing color TeX \special commands.

            Enable  dvipdfm  emulation  mode.   This  is  the  default  if the
            executable name is `dvipdfm'.

       -d number
            Specify the number of decimal digits in the PDF  output;  must  be
            between 0 and 5, default is 2.

       -e   Ignored, for (semi-)compatibility with dvipdfm.

       -f map_file
            Read the font map file given by map_file.  The default map file in
            TeX Live is, as  defined  in  the  configuration  file.
            --help Show a help message and exit successfully.

       -l   Select  landscape  mode.   In  other  words,  exchange the x and y
            dimensions of the paper.

       -m  mag
            Magnify the input document by mag.

       -o  filename
            Set the PDF output file name; use `-' for stdout.  By default, the
            name  of  the  output  file  is  derived  from the input, that is,

       -p  paper
            Select  the  papersize  by  name  (e.g.,  letter,  legal,  ledger,
            tabloid, a3, a4, or a5 )

       -q   Quiet mode.

       -r  size
            Set   resolution  of  bitmapped  fonts  to  size  dots  per  inch.
            Bitmapped fonts are generated by the Kpathsea library, which  uses
            Metafont.  Bitmapped fonts are included as Type 3 fonts in the PDF
            output file.  Default is 600.

       -s  page_specifications
            Select the pages of the DVI file to be processed; default is  `-',
            meaning  all  pages.   The page_specifications consists of a comma
            separated list of page_ranges:
            page_specifications := page_specification[,page_specifications]
            page_specification := single_page|page_range
            page_range := [first_page]-[last_page]
            An empty first_page is treated as the first page of the DVI  file,
            and  an  empty  last_page  is  treated as the last page of the DVI


            -s 1,3,5
                 includes pages 1, 3, and 5;

            -s - includes all pages;

            -s -,-
                 includes two copies of all pages in the DVI file; and

            -s 1-10
                 includes the first ten pages of the DVI file.

       -t   Search for thumbnail images of each page in the directory named by
            the  TMPDIR  environment  variable.   The thumbnail images must be
            named in a specific format: the same base name as the DVI file and
            the  page number as the extension to the file name.  dvipdfmx does
            not generate such thumbnails itself, but it is distributed with  a
            wrapper program named dvipdft that does so.

            Show a help message and exit successfully.

       -v   Increase  verbosity.   Results  of  the  -v  option are cumulative
            (e.g., -vv increases the verbosity by  two  increments).   Maximum
            verbosity is four.

       --kpathsea-debug number
            Have  Kpathsea  output  debugging information; `-1' for everything

       -x x_offset
            Set the left margin to  x_offset.   The  default  left  margin  is
            1.0in.   The dimension may be specified in any units understood by
            TeX (e.g., bp, pt, in, cm).

       -y y_offset
            Set the top margin to y_offset.  The default top margin is  1.0in.
            The  dimension  may  be  specified  in any units understood by TeX
            (e.g., bpt, pt, in, cm).

       -z number
            Set the  compression  level  to  compression_level.   Compressions
            levels  range  from  0 (no compression) to 9 (maximum compression)
            and correspond to the values understood by zlib; default is 9.

       -C number
            Miscellaneous option flags; see the --help output for details.

       -D template
            PostScript to PDF conversion command line template; the default is
            taken  from  the  configuration  file,  which  also  gives all the
            details and mentions several possibilities.

       -E   Always try to embed fonts, ignoring licensing flags, etc.

       -I number
            Image cache life in hours; default is -2,  meaning  to  not  cache
            images  at  all.   A value of -1 means to erase all old images and
            also new images; 0 means to erase all old  images  but  leave  new

       -K number
            Encryption key length; default 40.

       -M   Process MetaPost PostScript output.

       -O number
            Set maximum depth of open bookmark items; default 0.

       -P number
            Set permission flags for PDF encryption; default 0x003C.

       -S   Enable PDF encryption.

       -V number
            Set PDF minor version; default 5 (from the configuration file).


       When  including  images  with  dvipdfmx, their bounding boxes should be
       generated by running extractbb.  The result will be in  an  .xbb  file;
       the xbb information is the same as for the PDF format.


       dvipdfmx  uses  the  kpathsea  library  for  locating the files that it
       opens.  Hence, the environment variables  documented  in  the  Kpathsea
       library  documentation  influence  dvipdfmx.  It also uses the value of
       the  environment  variable  TMPDIR  as  the  directory  to  search  for
       thumbnail images of each page.


       The  precise  location  of  the  following  files  is determined by the
       Kpathsea library configuration.  The  location  may  be  determined  by
       using kpsewhich, e.g.,
       kpsewhich -progname=dvipdfmx -format='other text files' dvipdfmx.cfg

            Default configuration file
            The  default  font  map  file  (this  may be changed in the config

            TeX font metrics

       *.vf TeX virtual font files

            PostScript Type 1 font files

            The Kpathsea library configuration file.   The  location  of  this
            file may be found by typing
            kpsewhich texmf.cnf


       dvipdft(1),   extractbb(1),   tex(1),  dvips(1),  groff(1),  grodvi(1),
       pic(1),    and    the    Kpathsea    library     Info     documentation


       Primarily Mark A. Wicks; dvipdfmx extensions primarily by Jin-Hwan Cho,
       Shunsaku Hirata, and Matthias Franz.  For the version in TeX Live,  all
       bugs  and  other  reports should go to the dvipdfmx maintainers at tex-
       live (at)  This man page edited for TeX Live  by  Bob  Tennent
       and others.

                                  9 Apr 2014                       DVIPDFMX(1)

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