dvipdfmx, xdvipdfmx, dvipdfm - produce PDF files directly from DVI
dvipdfmx or dvipdfm [options] file[.dvi]
The program dvipdfmx generates a PDF file from a DVI file. DVI files
are the output produced by TeX. groff can also generate DVI files
In TeX Live, dvipdfm is another incarnation of dvipdfmx rather than a
separate program. Compatibility is attempted as best as possible.
Please report problems to the dvipdfmx maintainers at tex-live (at)
In addition, xdvipdfmx is yet another incarnation. It is used as the
back end for xetex(1) and is not intended to be invoked directly.
dvipdfmx recognizes several commonly used \special commands, which are
extensions to the DVI format. Specifically, it understands color
specials, papersize specials, tpic specials (which allow it to be used
with pic), hypertex specials, and some PostScript specials. These
extensions allow documents to contain color, figures, and hyperlinks.
The program tries to mimic the behavior of dvips where possible, so
that many macro packages produced for use with dvips will also work
with dvipdfmx. In addition, understands its own specific \special
commands to allow access to PDF features such as annotations and
Unrecognized specials will generate warning messages. Packages that may
need a dvipdfm or dvipdfmx driver option include geometry, hyperref,
bookmark, graphicx, and xcolor.
For issues related to bounding boxes (and hence image sizes), see
-c Ignore (or accept) color \specials. By default, color \specials
are interpreted normally (changeable in the configuration file).
The -c option may be used to produce a black and white document
from a document containing color TeX \special commands.
Enable dvipdfm emulation mode. This is the default if the
executable name is `dvipdfm'.
Specify the number of decimal digits in the PDF output; must be
between 0 and 5, default is 2.
-e Ignored, for (semi-)compatibility with dvipdfm.
Read the font map file given by map_file. The default map file in
TeX Live is pdftex.map, as defined in the configuration file.
--help Show a help message and exit successfully.
-l Select landscape mode. In other words, exchange the x and y
dimensions of the paper.
Magnify the input document by mag.
Set the PDF output file name; use `-' for stdout. By default, the
name of the output file is derived from the input, that is,
Select the papersize by name (e.g., letter, legal, ledger,
tabloid, a3, a4, or a5 )
-q Quiet mode.
Set resolution of bitmapped fonts to size dots per inch.
Bitmapped fonts are generated by the Kpathsea library, which uses
Metafont. Bitmapped fonts are included as Type 3 fonts in the PDF
output file. Default is 600.
Select the pages of the DVI file to be processed; default is `-',
meaning all pages. The page_specifications consists of a comma
separated list of page_ranges:
page_specifications := page_specification[,page_specifications]
page_specification := single_page|page_range
page_range := [first_page]-[last_page]
An empty first_page is treated as the first page of the DVI file,
and an empty last_page is treated as the last page of the DVI
includes pages 1, 3, and 5;
-s - includes all pages;
includes two copies of all pages in the DVI file; and
includes the first ten pages of the DVI file.
-t Search for thumbnail images of each page in the directory named by
the TMPDIR environment variable. The thumbnail images must be
named in a specific format: the same base name as the DVI file and
the page number as the extension to the file name. dvipdfmx does
not generate such thumbnails itself, but it is distributed with a
wrapper program named dvipdft that does so.
Show a help message and exit successfully.
-v Increase verbosity. Results of the -v option are cumulative
(e.g., -vv increases the verbosity by two increments). Maximum
verbosity is four.
Have Kpathsea output debugging information; `-1' for everything
Set the left margin to x_offset. The default left margin is
1.0in. The dimension may be specified in any units understood by
TeX (e.g., bp, pt, in, cm).
Set the top margin to y_offset. The default top margin is 1.0in.
The dimension may be specified in any units understood by TeX
(e.g., bpt, pt, in, cm).
Set the compression level to compression_level. Compressions
levels range from 0 (no compression) to 9 (maximum compression)
and correspond to the values understood by zlib; default is 9.
Miscellaneous option flags; see the --help output for details.
PostScript to PDF conversion command line template; the default is
taken from the configuration file, which also gives all the
details and mentions several possibilities.
-E Always try to embed fonts, ignoring licensing flags, etc.
Image cache life in hours; default is -2, meaning to not cache
images at all. A value of -1 means to erase all old images and
also new images; 0 means to erase all old images but leave new
Encryption key length; default 40.
-M Process MetaPost PostScript output.
Set maximum depth of open bookmark items; default 0.
Set permission flags for PDF encryption; default 0x003C.
-S Enable PDF encryption.
Set PDF minor version; default 5 (from the configuration file).
IMAGE BOUNDING BOXES
When including images with dvipdfmx, their bounding boxes should be
generated by running extractbb. The result will be in an .xbb file;
the xbb information is the same as for the PDF format.
dvipdfmx uses the kpathsea library for locating the files that it
opens. Hence, the environment variables documented in the Kpathsea
library documentation influence dvipdfmx. It also uses the value of
the environment variable TMPDIR as the directory to search for
thumbnail images of each page.
The precise location of the following files is determined by the
Kpathsea library configuration. The location may be determined by
using kpsewhich, e.g.,
kpsewhich -progname=dvipdfmx -format='other text files' dvipdfmx.cfg
Default configuration file
The default font map file (this may be changed in the config
TeX font metrics
*.vf TeX virtual font files
PostScript Type 1 font files
The Kpathsea library configuration file. The location of this
file may be found by typing
dvipdft(1), extractbb(1), tex(1), dvips(1), groff(1), grodvi(1),
pic(1), and the Kpathsea library Info documentation
Primarily Mark A. Wicks; dvipdfmx extensions primarily by Jin-Hwan Cho,
Shunsaku Hirata, and Matthias Franz. For the version in TeX Live, all
bugs and other reports should go to the dvipdfmx maintainers at tex-
live (at) tug.org. This man page edited for TeX Live by Bob Tennent
9 Apr 2014 DVIPDFMX(1)