GNU.WIKI: The GNU/Linux Knowledge Base

  [HOME] [PHP Manual] [HowTo] [ABS] [MAN1] [MAN2] [MAN3] [MAN4] [MAN5] [MAN6] [MAN7] [MAN8] [MAN9]

  [0-9] [Aa] [Bb] [Cc] [Dd] [Ee] [Ff] [Gg] [Hh] [Ii] [Jj] [Kk] [Ll] [Mm] [Nn] [Oo] [Pp] [Qq] [Rr] [Ss] [Tt] [Uu] [Vv] [Ww] [Xx] [Yy] [Zz]


NAME

       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS

       Some  shell  builtin  commands  take options as described in individual
       entries; these are often referred to in the list below  as  `flags'  to
       avoid  confusion  with  shell options, which may also have an effect on
       the behaviour of  builtin  commands.   In  this  introductory  section,
       `option'  always  has the meaning of an option to a command that should
       be familiar to most command line users.

       Typically, options  are  single  letters  preceded  by  a  hyphen  (-).
       Options  that  take  an argument accept it either immediately following
       the option letter or after white space, for example `print  -C3  *'  or
       `print  -C  3 *' are equivalent.  Arguments to options are not the same
       as arguments to the  command;  the  documentation  indicates  which  is
       which.   Options  that  do  not  take  an argument may be combined in a
       single word, for example  `print  -ca  *'  and  `print  -c  -a  *'  are
       equivalent.

       Some  shell  builtin  commands  also  take  options that begin with `+'
       instead of `-'.  The list below makes clear which commands these are.

       Options (together with their individual arguments, if any) must  appear
       in  a  group before any non-option arguments; once the first non-option
       argument has been found, option processing is terminated.

       All builtin commands other than precommand modifiers, even  those  that
       have  no  options,  can  be given the argument `--' to terminate option
       processing.  This indicates that the  following  words  are  non-option
       arguments,  but  is  otherwise  ignored.  This is useful in cases where
       arguments to the command may begin with `-'.  For  historical  reasons,
       most  builtin  commands  also recognize a single `-' in a separate word
       for this purpose; note that this is less standard and  use  of  `--  is
       recommended.

       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read  commands  from  file and execute them in the current shell
              environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS  is  set,  the
              shell  looks  in  the  components of $path to find the directory
              containing file.  Files in the current directory  are  not  read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in  $path.   If  a  file  named
              `file.zwc' is found, is newer than file,  and  is  the  compiled
              form  (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands
              are read from that file instead of file.

              If any arguments arg  are  given,  they  become  the  positional
              parameters;  the old positional parameters are restored when the
              file is done executing.  If file was not found the return status
              is  127;  if  file  was  found  but contained a syntax error the
              return status is 126; else the return status is the exit  status
              of the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This  command  does nothing, although normal argument expansions
              is performed which may have effects on shell parameters.  A zero
              exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with
              that value.  A trailing space in value causes the next  word  to
              be  checked  for  alias  expansion.   If the -g flag is present,
              define a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if  they
              do not occur in command position.

              If the -s flag is present, define a suffix alias: if the command
              word on a command line is in the form `text.name', where text is
              any  non-empty  string,  it  is  replaced  by  the  text  `value
              text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string,  not
              a  pattern.   A  trailing  space in value is not special in this
              case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv  *.ps'.   As
              alias expansion is carried out earlier than globbing, the `*.ps'
              will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases  constitute  a  different
              name  space  from  other  aliases (so in the above example it is
              still possible to create an alias for the command  ps)  and  the
              two sets are never listed together.

              For  each  name  with no value, print the value of name, if any.
              With no arguments, print all  currently  defined  aliases  other
              than  suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments are
              taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve  them  from
              being  interpreted  as  glob patterns), and the aliases matching
              these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases  and  one  of
              the  -g,  -r  or  -s  flags is present, restrict the printing to
              global, regular or suffix aliases, respectively; a regular alias
              is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.   Using `+'
              instead of `-', or ending the option list  with  a  single  `+',
              prevents the values of the aliases from being printed.

              If  the  -L  flag  is present, then print each alias in a manner
              suitable for putting in a startup script.  The  exit  status  is
              nonzero  if  a  name (with no value) is given for which no alias
              has been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems,  see  the  section
              ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

              The  flag  -X  may be used only inside a shell function, and may
              not be followed by a name.  It causes the calling function to be
              marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and executed,
              with the current array of positional  parameters  as  arguments.
              This  replaces  the  previous definition of the function.  If no
              function definition is  found,  an  error  is  printed  and  the
              function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts  to  load  each  name  as  an autoloaded
              function, but does not execute it.   The  exit  status  is  zero
              (success)  if  the  function  was  not  previously defined and a
              definition for it was found.  This does not replace any existing
              definition   of  the  function.   The  exit  status  is  nonzero
              (failure) if  the  function  was  already  defined  or  when  no
              definition  was  found.  In the latter case the function remains
              undefined and marked for autoloading.  If ksh-style  autoloading
              is  enabled,  the  function created will contain the contents of
              the file plus a call to the function itself appended to it, thus
              giving normal ksh autoloading behaviour on the first call to the
              function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is treated  as
              a  pattern  and  all  functions already marked for autoload that
              match the pattern are loaded.

              With the -w flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled
              with the zcompile builtin, and all functions defined in them are
              marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the
              zsh  or  ksh  style, as if the option KSH_AUTOLOAD were unset or
              were set, respectively.  The flags override the setting  of  the
              option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note  that  the  autoload command makes no attempt to ensure the
              shell options set during the loading or execution  of  the  file
              have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can be
              used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges that when func is loaded the shell  is  in  native  zsh
              emulation, and this emulation is also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put  each specified job in the background, or the current job if
              none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit from an enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.
              If n is specified, then break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change  the  current  directory.   In the first form, change the
              current directory to arg, or to the value of $HOME if arg is not
              specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise,  if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the
              directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash,  the  behaviour  depends  on
              whether  the  current  directory  `.'  occurs  in  the  list  of
              directories contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does
              not,  first  attempt  to  change  to the directory arg under the
              current directory, and if that  fails  but  cdpath  is  set  and
              contains at least one element attempt to change to the directory
              arg under each component of cdpath in turn until successful.  If
              `.'  occurs in cdpath, then cdpath is searched strictly in order
              so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The order of testing cdpath is modified if the  option  POSIX_CD
              is set, as described in the documentation for the option.

              If  no  directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and a
              parameter named arg exists whose  value  begins  with  a  slash,
              treat  its  value as the directory.  In that case, the parameter
              is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the  string
              old in the name of the current directory, and tries to change to
              this new directory.

              The third form of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack,
              and  changes  to  that  directory.  An argument of the form `+n'
              identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of  the  list
              shown  by  the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of
              the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS  option
              is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array chpwd_functions are  not  called.
              This  is  useful  for  calls  to  cd  that  do  not  change  the
              environment seen by an interactive user.

              If the -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the  current
              directory  if  the  given pathname contains symlinks.  If the -P
              option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set, symbolic links
              are  resolved  to  their true values.  If the -L option is given
              symbolic links are retained in the directory (and not  resolved)
              regardless of the state of the CHASE_LINKS option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command  argument  is  taken as an external command
              instead of a  function  or  builtin  and  is  executed.  If  the
              POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but
              certain special properties of them are suppressed. The  -p  flag
              causes  a  default path to be searched instead of that in $path.
              With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with  -V,  it
              is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the  next  iteration of the enclosing for, while, until,
              select or repeat loop.  If n is  specified,  break  out  of  n-1
              loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With  no  arguments,  print the contents of the directory stack.
              Directories are added to this stack with the pushd command,  and
              removed  with  the  cd  or  popd  commands.   If  arguments  are
              specified,  load  them  onto  the  directory  stack,   replacing
              anything that was there, and push the current directory onto the
              stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~
                     expressions  (see Dynamic and Static named directories in
                     zshexpn(1)).

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.

       disable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Temporarily disable the named hash table elements  or  patterns.
              The  default is to disable builtin commands.  This allows you to
              use an external command with the same name as a builtin command.
              The  -a  option  causes  disable  to  act  on  regular or global
              aliases.  The -s option causes disable to act on suffix aliases.
              The  -f option causes disable to act on shell functions.  The -r
              options causes  disable  to  act  on  reserved  words.   Without
              arguments   all   disabled   hash   table   elements   from  the
              corresponding hash table are printed.   With  the  -m  flag  the
              arguments  are  taken  as  patterns  (which  should be quoted to
              prevent them from undergoing filename expansion), and  all  hash
              table  elements from the corresponding hash table matching these
              patterns are disabled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the
              enable command.

              With  the  option  -p, name ... refer to elements of the shell's
              pattern  syntax  as   described   in   the   section   `Filename
              Generation'.   Certain  elements  can be disabled separately, as
              given below.

              Note that patterns not allowed by the current settings  for  the
              options  EXTENDED_GLOB,  KSH_GLOB and SH_GLOB are never enabled,
              regardless of the setting here.  For example,  if  EXTENDED_GLOB
              is  not active, the pattern ^ is ineffective even if `disable -p
              "^"' has not been issued.  The list below indicates  any  option
              settings  that  restrict  the  use of the pattern.  It should be
              noted that setting  SH_GLOB  has  a  wider  effect  then  merely
              disabling  patterns  as certain expressions, in particular those
              involving parentheses, are parsed differently.

              The following patterns may be disabled;  all  the  strings  need
              quoting   on  the  command  line  to  prevent  them  from  being
              interpreted immediately as patterns and the patterns  are  shown
              below in single quotes as a reminder.
              '?'    The  pattern  character  ?  wherever it occurs, including
                     when preceding a parenthesis with KSH_GLOB.

              '*'    The pattern character *  wherever  it  occurs,  including
                     recursive  globbing and when preceding a parenthesis with
                     KSH_GLOB.

              '['    Character classes.

              '<' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Numeric ranges.

              '|' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Alternation in  grouped  patterns,  case  statements,  or
                     KSH_GLOB parenthesised expressions.

              '(' (NO_SH_GLOB)
                     Grouping  using  single parentheses.  Disabling this does
                     not disable the use of  parentheses  for  KSH_GLOB  where
                     they  are introduced by a special character, nor for glob
                     qualifiers (use  `setopt  NO_BARE_GLOB_QUAL'  to  disable
                     glob qualifiers that use parentheses only).

              '~' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A~B.

              '^' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     Exclusion in the form A^B.

              '#' (EXTENDED_GLOB)
                     The  pattern  character  #  wherever  it occurs, both for
                     repetition of  a  previous  pattern  and  for  indicating
                     globbing flags.

              '?(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The  grouping form ?(...).  Note this is also disabled if
                     '?' is disabled.

              '*(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form *(...).  Note this is also disabled  if
                     '*' is disabled.

              '+(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form +(...).

              '!(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form !(...).

              '@(' (KSH_GLOB)
                     The grouping form @(...).

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove  the specified jobs from the job table; the shell will no
              longer report their status, and will not complain if you try  to
              exit  an  interactive shell with them running or stopped.  If no
              job is specified, disown the current job.

              If the jobs are currently stopped and the  AUTO_CONTINUE  option
              is  not  set,  a warning is printed containing information about
              how to make them running after they have been disowned.  If  one
              of  the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically be
              made running, independent of the setting  of  the  AUTO_CONTINUE
              option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write  each  arg on the standard output, with a space separating
              each one.  If the -n flag is not present, print a newline at the
              end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
                   escape
                   form feed
              
     linefeed (newline)
              
     carriage return
              	     horizontal tab
                   vertical tab
              \     backslash
              NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The  -E  flag,  or  the  BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable
              these escape sequences.  In the latter case, -e flag can be used
              to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified
              shell as much as possible.  csh will never  be  fully  emulated.
              If  the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh will
              be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the
              argument  are  the same as those used to determine the emulation
              at  startup  based  on  the  shell   name,   see   the   section
              COMPATIBILITY in zsh(1) .  In addition to setting shell options,
              the command also restores the pristine state of pattern enables,
              as if all patterns had been enabled using enable -p.

              If  the  emulate  command occurs inside a function that has been
              marked for execution tracing with functions -t then  the  xtrace
              option  will  be turned on regardless of emulation mode or other
              options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the  .,
              source,  or  eval  commands  is  not  considered  to  be running
              directly  from  the  function,  hence  does  not  provoke   this
              behaviour.

              If  the  -R  switch  is given, all settable options are reset to
              their default value corresponding  to  the  specified  emulation
              mode,  except  for  certain  options  describing the interactive
              environment; otherwise,  only  those  options  likely  to  cause
              portability  problems  in scripts and functions are altered.  If
              the   -L   switch   is   given,   the   options   LOCAL_OPTIONS,
              LOCAL_PATTERNS  and LOCAL_TRAPS will be set as well, causing the
              effects of the emulate command and any  setopt,  disable  -p  or
              enable  -p,  and  trap  commands  to be local to the immediately
              surrounding shell function, if any; normally these  options  are
              turned  off  in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is
              mutually exclusive with the use of -c in flags.

              The flags may be any of the invocation-time flags  described  in
              the section INVOCATION in zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS' and `-o
              VI' may not be used.  Flags such as `+r'/`+o RESTRICTED' may  be
              prohibited in some circumstances.

              If -c arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested
              emulation is temporarily in effect.  In this case the  emulation
              mode  and  all  options  are  restored  to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the  name  of
              the  shell  to  emulate;  note  this has a meaning distinct from
              including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions  defined
              within   the   evaluated  expression:   the  emulation  mode  is
              associated thereafter with the function  so  that  whenever  the
              function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if
              present) and all options are set (and pattern disables  cleared)
              before  entry  to  the function, and the state is restored after
              exit.  If the function is called when the  sticky  emulation  is
              already   in   effect,  either  within  an  `emulate  shell  -c'
              expression or within  another  function  with  the  same  sticky
              emulation, entry and exit from the function do not cause options
              to be altered (except due to standard  processing  such  as  the
              LOCAL_OPTIONS  option).   This  also applies to functions marked
              for autoload within the sticky emulation; the appropriate set of
              options  will  be applied at the point the function is loaded as
              well as when it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The two functions  fni  and  fno  are  defined  with  sticky  sh
              emulation.   fno  is  then  executed, causing options associated
              with emulations to be set to their values in sh.  fni then calls
              fno;  because  fno  is  also  marked for sticky sh emulation, no
              option changes take place on entry to or exit  from  it.   Hence
              the  option  cshnullglob,  turned  off  by sh emulation, will be
              turned on within fni and remain on on return to  fno.   On  exit
              from fno, the emulation mode and all options will be restored to
              the state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended
              purpose  of  executing  code  designed  for  other  shells  in a
              suitable environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The sticky emulation  environment  provided  by  `emulate
                     shell  -c'  is  identical  to that provided by entry to a
                     function marked for sticky emulation as a consequence  of
                     being   defined  in  such  an  environment.   Hence,  for
                     example,   the   sticky   emulation   is   inherited   by
                     subfunctions   defined   within   functions  with  sticky
                     emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from
                     functions that are not marked for sticky emulation, other
                     than those that would normally take place, even if  those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No  special handling is provided for functions marked for
                     autoload nor for functions present in wordcode created by
                     the zcompile command.
              4.     The  presence  or  absence  of  the  -R switch to emulate
                     corresponds to different sticky emulation modes,  so  for
                     example  `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c' and `emulate
                     csh -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference in shell options supplied in addition  to  the
                     basic  emulation  also  mean  the  sticky  emulations are
                     different, so for example `emulate zsh -c'  and  `emulate
                     zsh   -o  cbases  -c'  are  treated  as  distinct  sticky
                     emulations.

       enable [ -afmprs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named  hash  table  elements,  presumably  disabled
              earlier   with  disable.   The  default  is  to  enable  builtin
              commands.  The -a option causes enable  to  act  on  regular  or
              global  aliases.   The  -s option causes enable to act on suffix
              aliases.  The -f option causes enable to act on shell functions.
              The  -r  option causes enable to act on reserved words.  Without
              arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding
              hash  table  are  printed.   With  the -m flag the arguments are
              taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements
              from  the  corresponding  hash table matching these patterns are
              enabled.  Enabled objects  can  be  disabled  with  the  disable
              builtin command.

              enable  -p  reenables  patterns  disabled with disable -p.  Note
              that it does not override globbing options; for example, `enable
              -p  "~"'  does  not  cause  the pattern character ~ to be active
              unless the EXTENDED_GLOB option is  also  set.   To  enable  all
              possible  patterns (so that they may be invidually disabled with
              disable -p), use `setopt EXTENDED_GLOB KSH_GLOB NO_SH_GLOB'.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments  as  input  to  the  shell  and  execute  the
              resulting  command(s)  in the current shell process.  The return
              status is the same as if the commands had been executed directly
              by  the  shell; if there are no args or they contain no commands
              (i.e. are an empty string or whitespace) the  return  status  is
              zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv0 ] simple command
              Replace  the  current shell with an external command rather than
              forking.  With -c clear the environment; with -l  prepend  -  to
              the  argv[0] string of the command executed (to simulate a login
              shell); with -a argv0 set the  argv[0]  string  of  the  command
              executed.  See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit  the  shell with the exit status specified by n; if none is
              specified, use the exit status from the last  command  executed.
              An  EOF  condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless the
              IGNORE_EOF option is set.

              See notes at the end of the section JOBS in  in  zshmisc(1)  for
              some  possibly  unexpected interactions of the exit command with
              jobs.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are  marked  for  automatic  export  to  the
              environment  of  subsequently  executed commands.  Equivalent to
              typeset -gx.  If a parameter specified does not  already  exist,
              it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select  a  range of commands from first to last from the history
              list.  The arguments first and last may be specified as a number
              or  as  a string.  A negative number is used as an offset to the
              current history event  number.   A  string  specifies  the  most
              recent event beginning with the given string.  All substitutions
              old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands  are  listed  on
              standard  output.   If  the  -m  flag  is  also  given the first
              argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and  only  the
              history  events  matching this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise
              the editor program ename is invoked on a file  containing  these
              history  events.   If  ename  is  not  given,  the  value of the
              parameter FCEDIT is used; if that is not set the  value  of  the
              parameter  EDITOR is used; if that is not set a builtin default,
              usually `vi' is used.  If ename is `-', no  editor  is  invoked.
              When editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If first is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent
              event), or to -16 if the -l flag  is  given.   If  last  is  not
              specified,  it  will be set to first, or to -1 if the -l flag is
              given.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the  flag  -n
              suppresses command numbers when listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each command
              -f     prints  full  time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm'
                     format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European  `dd.mm.yyyy
                     hh:mm' format
              -i     prints  full  time-date  stamps  in  ISO8601  `yyyy-mm-dd
                     hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format;  fmt  is
                     formatted   with  the  strftime  function  with  the  zsh
                     extensions described for the %D{string} prompt format  in
                     the  section EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).
                     The resulting formatted string must be no more  than  256
                     characters or will not be printed.
              -D     prints  elapsed  times;  may  be combined with one of the
                     options above.

              `fc -p' pushes  the  current  history  list  onto  a  stack  and
              switches  to  a  new  history  list.   If  the -a option is also
              specified, this history list will be automatically  popped  when
              the  current  function  scope  is exited, which is a much better
              solution than creating a trap function to call `fc -P' manually.
              If  no  arguments are specified, the history list is left empty,
              $HISTFILE is unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set  to  their
              default  values.   If one argument is given, $HISTFILE is set to
              that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are left unchanged, and the
              history  file  is  read  in (if it exists) to initialize the new
              list.  If a second argument is specified, $HISTSIZE &  $SAVEHIST
              are instead set to the single specified numeric value.  Finally,
              if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate
              value  from $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment
              values for the new history list however you desire in  order  to
              manipulate the new history list.

              `fc -P' pops the history list back to an older list saved by `fc
              -p'.  The current list is saved to its $HISTFILE  before  it  is
              destroyed   (assuming  that  $HISTFILE  and  $SAVEHIST  are  set
              appropriately, of course).  The values of $HISTFILE,  $HISTSIZE,
              and  $SAVEHIST  are restored to the values they had when `fc -p'
              was called.  Note that this restoration can conflict with making
              these  variables  "local",  so  your  best bet is to avoid local
              declarations for these variables in functions that use `fc  -p'.
              The  one  other  guaranteed-safe  combination is declaring these
              variables to be local at the top of your function and using  the
              automatic  option  (-a)  with `fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is
              legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic popping if you
              need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc  -R'  reads  the history from the given file, `fc -W' writes
              the history out to the given  file,  and  `fc  -A'  appends  the
              history out to the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is  added  to  -R,  only
              those  events that are not already contained within the internal
              history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or  -W,
              only   those   events   that  are  new  since  last  incremental
              append/write to the history file are appended/written.   In  any
              case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring  each  specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job
              is specified, resume the current job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -E,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              floating point numbers are not permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtTuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
              Equivalent  to  typeset -f, with the exception of the -M option.
              Use of the -M option may not be combined with any of the options
              handled by typeset -f.

              functions -M mathfn defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical
              function recognised in all forms  of  arithmetical  expressions;
              see  the  section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1).  By
              default mathfn may take any number of comma-separated arguments.
              If  min  is given, it must have exactly min args; if min and max
              are both given, it must have at least min and at most max  args.
              max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By  default  the  function is implemented by a shell function of
              the same name; if shellfn is specified it gives the name of  the
              corresponding  shell function while mathfn remains the name used
              in arithmetical expressions.  The name of the function in $0  is
              mathfn  (not shellfn as would usually be the case), provided the
              option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional parameters
              in  the  shell  function  correspond  to  the  arguments  of the
              mathematical function call.  The result of the last arithmetical
              expression  evaluated inside the shell function (even if it is a
              form that normally only returns a status) gives  the  result  of
              the mathematical function.

              functions  -M  with  no  arguments  lists  all such user-defined
              functions in the same form as a definition.  With the additional
              option  -m  and  a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with the
              additional  option  -m the arguments are treated as patterns and
              all functions whose mathfn  matches  the  pattern  are  removed.
              Note  that  the shell function implementing the behaviour is not
              removed (regardless of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read the top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell
              parameter name.  Equivalent to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use
              the positional parameters.  A valid option argument begins  with
              a  `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a `-',
              or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single  `-'
              is  not  considered a valid option argument.  optstring contains
              the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is followed by
              a  `:',  that  option  requires an argument.  The options can be
              separated from the argument by blanks.

              Each time it is invoked, getopts places  the  option  letter  it
              finds in the shell parameter name, prepended with a `+' when arg
              begins with a `+'.  The index of  the  next  arg  is  stored  in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first  option  to  be examined may be changed by explicitly
              assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has an initial value of 1,  and  is
              normally  reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG is
              not reset and retains its value from the  most  recent  call  to
              getopts.   If either of OPTIND or OPTARG is explicitly unset, it
              remains unset, and the index or option argument is  not  stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of
              any invalid option in OPTARG, and to set  name  to  `?'  for  an
              unknown  option  and to `:' when a required argument is missing.
              Otherwise, getopts sets name to `?' and prints an error  message
              when  an  option  is  invalid.   The exit status is nonzero when
              there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the  command
              hash  table,  and  the named directory hash table.  Normally one
              would modify these tables  by  modifying  one's  PATH  (for  the
              command  hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters
              (for the named directory hash table).  The choice of hash  table
              to  work  on  is determined by the -d option; without the option
              the command hash table is used, and with the  option  the  named
              directory hash table is used.

              Given  no  arguments,  and  neither  the  -r  or -f options, the
              selected hash table will be listed in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.   It
              will  be  subsequently  rebuilt  in  the normal fashion.  The -f
              option causes the  selected  hash  table  to  be  fully  rebuilt
              immediately.   For  the  command  hash table this hashes all the
              absolute directories in the PATH, and for  the  named  directory
              hash  table  this  adds  all users' home directories.  These two
              options cannot be used with any arguments.

              The -m option causes the  arguments  to  be  taken  as  patterns
              (which  should  be  quoted)  and  the elements of the hash table
              matching those patterns are printed.  This is the  only  way  to
              display a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For  each  name  with  a  corresponding value, put `name' in the
              selected hash table, associating it with the  pathname  `value'.
              In  the  command  hash table, this means that whenever `name' is
              used as a command argument, the shell will try  to  execute  the
              file  given by `value'.  In the named directory hash table, this
              means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For each name with no corresponding value, attempt to  add  name
              to the hash table, checking what the appropriate value is in the
              normal manner for that hash  table.   If  an  appropriate  value
              can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are
              added by explicit specification.  If has no effect if used  with
              -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed
              in the form of a call to hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i,  except  that  options  irrelevant  to
              integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists  information  about  each given job, or all jobs if job is
              omitted.  The -l flag lists process IDs, and the -p  flag  lists
              process  groups.   If the -r flag is specified only running jobs
              will be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are
              shown.   If  the  -d flag is given, the directory from which the
              job was started (which may not be the current directory  of  the
              job) will also be shown.

              The  -Z  option  replaces  the  shell's argument and environment
              space with the given string,  truncated  if  necessary  to  fit.
              This  will  normally  be  visible  in ps (ps(1)) listings.  This
              feature is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends either SIGTERM or the specified signal to the  given  jobs
              or  processes.  Signals are given by number or by names, with or
              without the `SIG' prefix.  If  the  signal  being  sent  is  not
              `KILL'  or  `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if
              it is stopped.  The argument job can be the process ID of a  job
              not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l, if sig is not
              specified the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each  sig
              that  is a name, the corresponding signal number is listed.  For
              each sig that is a signal number or a  number  representing  the
              exit  status  of  a process which was terminated or stopped by a
              signal the name of the signal is printed.

              On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a  few
              signals.  Typical examples are SIGCHLD and SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and
              SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.  kill
              -l  will  only list the preferred form, however kill -l alt will
              show if the alternative form corresponds  to  a  signal  number.
              For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL both output
              29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many systems will allow process IDs to be  negative  to  kill  a
              process group or zero to kill the current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate  each arg as an arithmetic expression.  See the section
              `Arithmetic Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  a  description  of
              arithmetic  expressions.   The  exit status is 0 if the value of
              the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero,  and  2  if  an
              error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set  or  display  resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given,
              the limit applies only the children of  the  shell.   If  -s  is
              given  without  other  arguments,  the  resource  limits  of the
              current shell is set to the previously set  resource  limits  of
              the children.

              If  limit  is  not  specified, print the current limit placed on
              resource, otherwise set the limit to the  specified  value.   If
              the  -h  flag  is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.
              If no resource is given, print all limits.

              When looping over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will  abort
              immediately  if it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if
              it fails to set a limit for some other reason it  will  continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum   amount   of   memory  locked  in  RAM  for  AIO
                     operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              kqueues
                     Maximum number of kqueues allocated.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              posixlocks
                     Maximum number of POSIX locks per user.
              pseudoterminals
                     Maximum number of pseudo-terminals.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              swapsize
                     Maximum amount of swap used.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which of these resource limits  are  available  depends  on  the
              system.   resource can be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.
              It can also be an integer,  which  corresponds  to  the  integer
              defined for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of
              the resources configured into the shell, the shell will  try  to
              read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this
              fails.  As the shell does not store such  resources  internally,
              an  attempt  to  set the limit will fail unless the -s option is
              present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The limit command is not made  available  by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same as typeset, except that the options  -g,  and  -f  are  not
              permitted.  In this case the -x option does not force the use of
              -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged  in  who  are  affected  by  the
              current setting of the watch parameter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
              Remove  an  entry  from the directory stack, and perform a cd to
              the new top directory.  With no argument, the current top  entry
              is  removed.   An  argument  of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting with zero.  An argument of the form -n counts
              from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the  meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the  -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd
              and the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not  called,
              and  the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful for
              calls to popd that do not change  the  environment  seen  by  an
              interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With  the  `-f' option the arguments are printed as described by
              printf.  With no flags or with the flag `-', the  arguments  are
              printed  on  the  standard output as described by echo, with the
              following differences: the escape sequence `\M-x'  metafies  the
              character  x  (sets  the highest bit), `\C-x' produces a control
              character  (`\C-@'  and  `\C-?'  give  the  characters  NUL  and
              delete),  and `\E' is a synonym for `'.  Finally, if not in an
              escape sequence, `\' escapes the following character and is  not
              printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only
                     useful with the -c and -C options.

              -b     Recognize  all  the  escape  sequences  defined  for  the
                     bindkey command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print the arguments in columns.  Unless -a is also given,
                     arguments are printed with the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a  is  also
                     given,  arguments  are  printed with the row incrementing
                     first.

              -D     Treat  the  arguments  as  paths,   replacing   directory
                     prefixes  with  ~  expressions corresponding to directory
                     names, as appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or  -O,  sorting  is  performed
                     case-independently.

              -l     Print  the  arguments  separated  by  newlines instead of
                     spaces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be  quoted),
                     and  remove  it  from  the  argument  list  together with
                     subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform  prompt  expansion  (see  EXPANSION   OF   PROMPT
                     SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command,  which does not process
                     escape sequences unless the -e flag  is  given.   The  -n
                     flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n
                     flags are recognized after -R; all  other  arguments  and
                     options are printed.

              -s     Place  the  results in the history list instead of on the
                     standard output.  Each argument to the print  command  is
                     treated  as  a  single word in the history, regardless of
                     its content.

              -S     Place the results in the history list instead of  on  the
                     standard  output.  In this case only a single argument is
                     allowed; it will be split into words as if it were a full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the
                     line from a history file with the  HIST_LEX_WORDS  option
                     active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push   the  arguments  onto  the  editing  buffer  stack,
                     separated by spaces.

              If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination  with  `-f'
              and  there  are  no  arguments (after the removal process in the
              case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print the  arguments  according  to  the  format  specification.
              Formatting  rules  are  the  same  as used in C. The same escape
              sequences as for echo  are  recognised  in  the  format.  All  C
              conversion  specifications  ending  in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are
              handled. In addition to this, `%b' can be used instead  of  `%s'
              to  cause  escape sequences in the argument to be recognised and
              `%q' can be used to quote the argument in such a way that allows
              it  to  be  reused  as  shell  input.  With  the  numeric format
              specifiers, if the corresponding argument starts  with  a  quote
              character,  the numeric value of the following character is used
              as the number to print otherwise the argument is evaluated as an
              arithmetic  expression.  See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation'
              in zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions.  With
              `%n', the corresponding argument is taken as an identifier which
              is created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument
              in  order but they can explicitly specify the nth argument is to
              be used by replacing `%' by `%n$'  and  `*'  by  `*n$'.   It  is
              recommended  that  you  do  not  mix references of this explicit
              style with the normal style  and  the  handling  of  such  mixed
              styles may be subject to future change.

              If  arguments  remain unused after formatting, the format string
              is reused until all arguments have been consumed. With the print
              builtin,  this can be suppressed by using the -r option. If more
              arguments are required by the format than have  been  specified,
              the  behaviour  is  as  if  zero  or  an  empty  string had been
              specified as the argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory
              onto the directory stack.  In the first form, change the current
              directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the second
              directory  on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries),
              or change to $HOME if the PUSHD_TO_HOME  option  is  set  or  if
              there  is  only  one  entry  on  the  stack.   Otherwise, arg is
              interpreted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in
              the second form is also the same as for cd.

              The  third  form  of  pushd  changes  directory  by rotating the
              directory list.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack
              entry  by  counting  from the left of the list shown by the dirs
              command, starting with zero.   An  argument  of  the  form  `-n'
              counts  from  the  right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the
              meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook  function  chpwd
              and  the functions in the array $chpwd_functions are not called,
              and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful  for
              calls  to  pushd  that  do not change the environment seen by an
              interactive user.

              If  the  option  -q  is  not  specified  and  the  shell  option
              PUSHD_SILENT  is  not  set,  the directory stack will be printed
              after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for  the  cd
              builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
              If the -r or the -P flag is specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option
              is  set  and the -L flag is not given, the printed path will not
              contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read one line and break it into fields using the  characters  in
              $IFS  as  separators, except as noted below.  The first field is
              assigned to the first name, the second field to the second name,
              etc.,  with  leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name
              is omitted then REPLY is used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a  line  does  not  signify
                     line continuation and backslashes in the line don't quote
                     the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't echo back characters if reading from the  terminal.
                     Currently does not work with the -q option.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to
                     `y'  if  this  character  was  `y'  or  `Y'  and  to  `n'
                     otherwise.   With this flag set the return status is zero
                     only if the character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be
                     used with a timeout; if the read times out, or encounters
                     end of file, status 2 is returned.  Input  is  read  from
                     the  terminal  unless  one  of -u or -p is present.  This
                     option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are  assigned  to
                     the  first  name,  without  word splitting.  This flag is
                     ignored when -q is  present.   Input  is  read  from  the
                     terminal  unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option
                     may also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic  `key'  this  option  does
                     read full characters, which may consist of multiple bytes
                     if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read one entry from the editor buffer stack and assign it
                     to  the  first  name,  without  word  splitting.  Text is
                     pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or  with  push-line
                     from  the  line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This flag is
                     ignored when the -k or -q flags are present.

              -e
              -E     The input  read  is  printed  (echoed)  to  the  standard
                     output.   If the -e flag is used, no input is assigned to
                     the parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array  and  all
                     words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These  flags are allowed only if called inside a function
                     used for  completion  (specified  with  the  -K  flag  to
                     compctl).   If  the  -c  flag  is given, the words of the
                     current command are read. If the -l flag  is  given,  the
                     whole  line  is  assigned as a scalar.  If both flags are
                     present, -l is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on
                     is  read.  With -l, the index of the character the cursor
                     is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1,  not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of
                     the line, its character index is the length of  the  line
                     plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input  is  terminated  by  the  first  character of delim
                     instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If
                     num  is  present,  it must begin with a digit and will be
                     evaluated to give a number of seconds,  which  may  be  a
                     floating point number; in this case the read times out if
                     input is not available within this time.  If num  is  not
                     present,  it  is  taken  to be zero, so that read returns
                     immediately if no input is available.   If  no  input  is
                     available, return status 1 and do not set any variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor
                     buffer with -z, when called from within  completion  with
                     -c  or  -l,  with  -q which clears the input queue before
                     reading, or within zle where other mechanisms  should  be
                     used to test for input.

                     Note  that  read  does  not  attempt  to  alter the input
                     processing mode.  The default mode is canonical input, in
                     which  an entire line is read at a time, so usually `read
                     -t' will not read anything until an entire line has  been
                     typed.   However,  when reading from the terminal with -k
                     input is processed one key at a time; in this case,  only
                     availability  of  the  first character is tested, so that
                     e.g. `read -t  -k  2'  can  still  block  on  the  second
                     character.   Use two instances of `read -t -k' if this is
                     not what is wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word
              is  used  as  a  prompt  on  standard  error  when  the shell is
              interactive.

              The value (exit status) of read is  1  when  an  end-of-file  is
              encountered,  or when -c or -l is present and the command is not
              called  from  a  compctl  function,  or  as  described  for  -q.
              Otherwise the value is 0.

              The  behavior  of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z
              flags is undefined.  Presently -q cancels  all  the  others,  -p
              cancels  -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes a shell function or `.' script to return to the  invoking
              script  with the return status specified by n.  If n is omitted,
              the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a  TRAPNAL  function,  the
              effect  is  different for zero and non-zero return status.  With
              zero status (or after an implicit  return  at  the  end  of  the
              trap),  the  shell  will  return  to  whatever it was previously
              processing; with a non-zero status, the  shell  will  behave  as
              interrupted  except  that  the  return  status  of  the  trap is
              retained.  Note that the  numeric  value  of  the  signal  which
              caused  the  trap  is  passed  as  the  first  argument,  so the
              statement `return $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if
              the signal had not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [
       arg ... ]
              Set  the  options  for  the  shell  and/or  set  the  positional
              parameters,  or  declare  and set an array.  If the -s option is
              given, it causes the specified arguments  to  be  sorted  before
              assigning  them  to  the  positional parameters (or to the array
              name if -A is used).   With  +s  sort  arguments  in  descending
              order.   For  the meaning of the other flags, see zshoptions(1).
              Flags may be specified by name using the -o option. If no option
              name is supplied with -o, the current option states are printed:
              see the description of setopt below for more information on  the
              format.   With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as
              input to the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array  containing
              the  given args; if no name is specified, all arrays are printed
              together with their values.

              If +A is used and name is an array,  the  given  arguments  will
              replace  the  initial  elements  of  that  array;  if no name is
              specified, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name  depends  on
              whether  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS  is set.  If it is not set, all
              arguments following name are treated as values  for  the  array,
              regardless  of  their form.  If the option is set, normal option
              processing continues at that point; only regular  arguments  are
              treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the
              array to foo and turns on the option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there  are  arguments  beyond
              the  options,  the positional parameters are set.  If the option
              list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there  are  no  further
              arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values
              of all parameters are printed on the standard  output.   If  the
              only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set
              - args' as `set +xv -- args' when in any  other  emulation  mode
              than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set  the  options  for  the shell.  All options specified either
              with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently
              set  are  printed.   The  form  is  chosen so as to minimize the
              differences from the default options for the  current  emulation
              (the  default  emulation  being  native  zsh,  shown  as  <Z> in
              zshoptions(1)).   Options  that  are  on  by  default  for   the
              emulation  are  shown  with  the prefix no only if they are off,
              while other options are shown without the prefix no and only  if
              they  are  on.   In addition to options changed from the default
              state by the user, any options activated  automatically  by  the
              shell  (for example, SHIN_STDIN or INTERACTIVE) will be shown in
              the  list.   The  format  is  further  modified  by  the  option
              KSH_OPTION_PRINT,  however  the  rationale  for choosing options
              with or without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (which   should   be   quoted  to  protect  them  from  filename
              expansion), and all options with names matching  these  patterns
              are set.

              Note  that  a  bad  option  name  does  not  cause  execution of
              subsequent shell code  to  be  aborted;  this  is  behaviour  is
              different  from  that  of  `set  -o'.   This  is  because set is
              regarded as a special builtin by the POSIX standard, but  setopt
              is not.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The  positional  parameters  ${n+1}  ...  are renamed to $1 ...,
              where n is an arithmetic expression that defaults to 1.  If  any
              names  are  given  then  the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as  `.',  except  that  the  current  directory  is  always
              searched  and  is  always  searched first, before directories in
              $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend the execution of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until  it
              receives  a  SIGCONT.   Unless the -f option is given, this will
              refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for  compatibility;  use
              conditional  expressions  instead  (see the section `Conditional
              Expressions').  The main  differences  between  the  conditional
              expression  syntax  and  the  test  and  [  builtins are:  these
              commands are not handled syntactically, so for example an  empty
              variable  expansion  may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax
              errors cause status 2 to be returned instead of a  shell  error;
              and  arithmetic  operators  expect integer arguments rather than
              arithmetic expressions.

              The command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where
              these   are   specified.    Unfortunately  there  are  intrinsic
              ambiguities in the syntax; in particular there is no distinction
              between  test  operators  and  strings  that resemble them.  The
              standard  attempts  to  resolve  these  for  small  numbers   of
              arguments (up to four); for five or more arguments compatibility
              cannot be relied on.  Users are urged wherever possible  to  use
              the `[[' test syntax which does not have these ambiguities.

       times  Print  the  accumulated  user and system times for the shell and
              for processes run from the shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg is a series of commands (usually quoted to protect  it  from
              immediate  evaluation by the shell) to be read and executed when
              the shell receives any of the signals specified by one  or  more
              sig  args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of
              a signal either with or without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1,
              HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If  arg  is  `-',  then the specified signals are reset to their
              defaults, or, if no sig args are present, all traps are reset.

              If arg is an  empty  string,  then  the  specified  signals  are
              ignored by the shell (and by the commands it invokes).

              If  arg  is  omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.
              the first argument is a valid signal number or name), the effect
              is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The  trap  command  with  no arguments prints a list of commands
              associated with each signal.

              If sig is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with
              a nonzero exit status.  ERR is an alias for ZERR on systems that
              have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if
              the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set (as it is by default), else
              after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described as a
              `sublist'  in the shell grammar, see the section SIMPLE COMMANDS
              & PIPELINES in zshmisc(1).  If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is  set  various
              additional  features  are  available.   First, it is possible to
              skip the next command by setting the option  ERR_EXIT;  see  the
              description  of the ERR_EXIT option in zshoptions(1).  Also, the
              shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the string corresponding
              to  the  command  to  be executed following the trap.  Note that
              this string is reconstructed from the internal  format  and  may
              not  be  formatted  the  same  way  as  the  original text.  The
              parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement  is  executed  inside
              the  body  of a function, then the command arg is executed after
              the function completes.   The  value  of  $?  at  the  start  of
              execution  is  the exit status of the shell or the return status
              of the function exiting.  If sig is  0  or  EXIT  and  the  trap
              statement  is  not  executed inside the body of a function, then
              the command arg is executed when the shell terminates; the  trap
              runs before any zshexit hook functions.

              ZERR, DEBUG, and EXIT traps are not executed inside other traps.
              ZERR and DEBUG traps are  kept  within  subshells,  while  other
              traps are reset.

              Note  that  traps  defined  with  the  trap builtin are slightly
              different from those defined as `TRAPNAL () {  ...  }',  as  the
              latter  have their own function environment (line numbers, local
              variables, etc.) while the former use  the  environment  of  the
              command in which they were called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will  print  the  line number of a command executed after it has
              run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative signal names are allowed  as  described  under  kill
              above.   Defining a trap under either name causes any trap under
              an alternative name to be removed.  However, it  is  recommended
              that  for  consistency  users  stick  exclusively to one name or
              another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The -f option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes  it.   When  the
              tty  is  frozen, no changes made to the tty settings by external
              programs will be honored by the shell, except for changes in the
              size  of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to
              their previous values as  soon  as  each  command  exits  or  is
              suspended.   Thus, stty and similar programs have no effect when
              the tty is frozen.   Without  options  it  reports  whether  the
              terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A parameter is created for each name that does not already refer
              to one.  When inside a function, a new parameter is created  for
              every  name  (even those that already exist), and is unset again
              when  the  function  completes.   See  `Local   Parameters'   in
              zshparam(1).   The same rules apply to special shell parameters,
              which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter  name  is  set  to
              value.  Note that arrays currently cannot be assigned in typeset
              expressions, only  scalars  and  integers.   Unless  the  option
              KSH_TYPESET  is  set, normal expansion rules apply to assignment
              arguments, so value may be split into  separate  words;  if  the
              option   is  set,  assignments  which  can  be  recognised  when
              expansion is performed are treated as single words.  For example
              the command typeset vbl=$(echo one two) is treated as having one
              argument if KSH_TYPESET is set,  but  otherwise  is  treated  as
              having the two arguments vbl=one and two.

              If  the  shell  option  TYPESET_SILENT  is  not  set,  for  each
              remaining name that refers to a parameter that is set, the  name
              and  value  of  the  parameter  are  printed  in  the form of an
              assignment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or
              when  any  attribute flags listed below are given along with the
              name.  Using `+' instead of  minus  to  introduce  an  attribute
              turns it off.

              If  the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in
              the form of a typeset command and an assignment (which  will  be
              printed   separately   for   arrays   and  associative  arrays),
              regardless of other flags and options.  Note that the -h flag on
              parameters  is  respected;  no  value  will  be  shown for these
              parameters.

              If the -T option is  given,  two  or  three  arguments  must  be
              present (an exception is that zero arguments are allowed to show
              the list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first  two
              are  the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that order)
              that will be tied together in the manner  of  $PATH  and  $path.
              The  optional  third  argument  is  a single-character separator
              which will be used to join the elements of the array to form the
              scalar;  if  absent,  a  colon is used, as with $PATH.  Only the
              first character of the separator is significant;  any  remaining
              characters  are  ignored.   Only  the  scalar  parameter  may be
              assigned an initial value.  Both the scalar and  the  array  may
              otherwise  be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the other
              will automatically be unset too.  There is no way of untying the
              variables  without unsetting them, or converting the type of one
              of  them  with  another  typeset  command;  +T  does  not  work,
              assigning an array to SCALAR is an error, and assigning a scalar
              to array sets it to be a single-element array.  Note  that  both
              `typeset  -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work, but only the scalar
              will be marked for export.  Setting the value using  the  scalar
              version  causes  a  split  on  all  separators  (which cannot be
              quoted).  It is possible to use the same two tied variables with
              a  different  separator  character  in  which case the variables
              remain joined as before but the separator is changed.  This flag
              has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              The  -g  (global)  flag  is treated specially: it means that any
              resulting parameter will not be restricted to local scope.  Note
              that  this  does not necessarily mean that the parameter will be
              global, as the flag will apply to any existing  parameter  (even
              if unset) from an enclosing function.  This flag does not affect
              the parameter after  creation,  hence  it  has  no  effect  when
              listing  existing  parameters,  nor  does  the  flag +g have any
              effect except in combination with -m (see below).

              If no name is present, the names and values  of  all  parameters
              are  printed.   In  this  case  the attribute flags restrict the
              display  to  only  those  parameters  that  have  the  specified
              attributes,  and using `+' rather than `-' to introduce the flag
              suppresses printing of the values of parameters when there is no
              parameter  name.  Also, if the last option is the word `+', then
              names are printed but values are not.

              If the -m flag is given the name arguments are taken as patterns
              (which   should  be  quoted).   With  no  attribute  flags,  all
              parameters (or functions with the -f flag) with  matching  names
              are printed (the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not used in this
              case).  Note that -m is ignored if no patterns  are  given.   If
              the  +g  flag  is  combined  with  -m,  a new local parameter is
              created for every matching parameter that is not already  local.
              Otherwise  -m  applies  all  other  flags  or assignments to the
              existing parameters.  Except  when  assignments  are  made  with
              name=value,  using  +m  forces  the  matching  parameters  to be
              printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present
              or the +m form was used, each parameter name printed is preceded
              by  a  list  of  the  attributes  of  that   parameter   (array,
              association,  exported,  integer, readonly).  If +m is used with
              attribute flags, and all those flags are introduced with +,  the
              matching parameter names are printed but their values are not.

              Attribute  flags that transform the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l,
              u) are only applied to the expanded value  at  the  point  of  a
              parameter  expansion expression using `$'.  They are not applied
              when a parameter is retrieved internally by the  shell  for  any
              purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The  names  refer  to  associative  array parameters; see
                     `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If  n
                     is  nonzero,  it defines the width of the field.  If n is
                     zero, the width is determined by the width of  the  value
                     of   the  first  assignment.   In  the  case  of  numeric
                     parameters, the length of the complete value assigned  to
                     the  parameter  is  used  to determine the width, not the
                     value that would be output.

                     The width is  the  count  of  characters,  which  may  be
                     multibyte  characters  if  the  MULTIBYTE  option  is  in
                     effect.  Note that the screen width of the  character  is
                     not  taken into account; if this is required, use padding
                     with parameter expansion flags ${(ml...)...} as described
                     in `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When the parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right
                     with blanks or truncated if necessary to fit  the  field.
                     Note  truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results with
                     numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the  -Z
                     flag is also set.

              -R     Similar  to  -L, except that right justification is used;
                     when the parameter is expanded, the field is left  filled
                     with  blanks  or  truncated  from  the  end.   May not be
                     combined with the -Z flag.

              -U     For arrays (but not for associative  arrays),  keep  only
                     the  first occurrence of each duplicated value.  This may
                     also be set for colon-separated special  parameters  like
                     PATH  or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different meaning
                     when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Specially  handled  if  set  along  with  the  -L   flag.
                     Otherwise,  similar  to -R, except that leading zeros are
                     used for padding instead of blanks if the first non-blank
                     character  is  a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially
                     handled:  they  are  always  eligible  for  padding  with
                     zeroes,  and  the  zeroes  are inserted at an appropriate
                     place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array  parameter
                     may be created this way, but it may not be assigned to in
                     the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal  and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The  names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No
                     assignments can be made, and the only other  valid  flags
                     are  -t,  -T,  -k,  -u,  -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on
                     execution tracing for this function; the flag -T does the
                     same,  but  turns off tracing on any function called from
                     the present one, unless that function also has the -t  or
                     -T  flag.   The  -u and -U flags cause the function to be
                     marked for autoloading; -U also causes alias expansion to
                     be  suppressed  when  the  function is loaded.  The fpath
                     parameter  will  be  searched  to   find   the   function
                     definition when the function is first referenced; see the
                     section  `Functions'.  The  -k  and  -z  flags  make  the
                     function   be   loaded   using   ksh-style  or  zsh-style
                     autoloading  respectively.  If  neither  is  given,   the
                     setting  of  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option determines how the
                     function is loaded.

              -h     Hide: only useful for special  parameters  (those  marked
                     `<S>'  in  the  table  in  zshparam(1)),  and  for  local
                     parameters with the same name  as  a  special  parameter,
                     though  harmless  for  others.   A special parameter with
                     this attribute will not retain its  special  effect  when
                     made  local.   Thus  after  `typeset -h PATH', a function
                     containing `typeset PATH' will create an  ordinary  local
                     parameter   without   the   usual   behaviour   of  PATH.
                     Alternatively, the local parameter may  itself  be  given
                     this attribute; hence inside a function `typeset -h PATH'
                     creates an ordinary local parameter and the special  PATH
                     parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible
                     to create a local parameter using `typeset  +h  special',
                     where  the  local copy of special will retain its special
                     properties regardless of having the -h attribute.  Global
                     special  parameters  loaded from shell modules (currently
                     those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are automatically
                     given the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide  value:  specifies that typeset will not display the
                     value of  the  parameter  when  listing  parameters;  the
                     display  for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag
                     had been  given.   Use  of  the  parameter  is  in  other
                     respects  normal,  and  the  option does not apply if the
                     parameter is specified by name, or by pattern with the -m
                     option.   This is on by default for the parameters in the
                     zsh/parameter and zsh/mapfile  modules.   Note,  however,
                     that   unlike  the  -h  flag  this  is  also  useful  for
                     non-special parameters.

              -i     Use an internal integer representation.  If n is  nonzero
                     it  defines  the  output arithmetic base, otherwise it is
                     determined by the first assignment.  Bases from 2  to  36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E     Use   an   internal   double-precision   floating   point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to  scientific  notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the
                     number of significant figures to display; the default  is
                     ten.

              -F     Use   an   internal   double-precision   floating   point
                     representation.  On output the variable will be converted
                     to  fixed-point  decimal  notation.   If  n is nonzero it
                     defines the number of digits to display after the decimal
                     point; the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the  result to lower case whenever the parameter
                     is expanded.  The value is not converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that  if  name
                     is  a  special  parameter,  the readonly attribute can be
                     turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special  meaning
                     to  the  shell.   This  flag has a different meaning when
                     used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever  the  parameter
                     is  expanded.   The value is not converted when assigned.
                     This flag has a different meaning when used with -f;  see
                     above.

              -x     Mark   for   automatic   export  to  the  environment  of
                     subsequently   executed   commands.    If   the    option
                     GLOBAL_EXPORT  is set, this implies the option -g, unless
                     +g is also explicitly given; in other words the parameter
                     is not made local to the enclosing function.  This is for
                     compatibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfiklmnpqsTtvwx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell  and  the  processes
              started by the shell.  The value of limit can be a number in the
              unit specified below or one of  the  values  `unlimited',  which
              removes  the  limit  on  the resource, or `hard', which uses the
              current value of the hard limit on the resource.

              By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag  is
              given use hard limits instead of soft limits.  If the -S flag is
              given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft limits.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources
              are  printed.  When more than one resource value is printed, the
              limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When looping over  multiple  resources,  the  shell  will  abort
              immediately  if it detects a badly formed argument.  However, if
              it fails to set a limit for some other reason it  will  continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              Not  all  the  following resources are supported on all systems.
              Running ulimit -a will show which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -k     The number of kqueues allocated.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -p     The number of pseudo-terminals.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -T     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems
                     this refers to the limit called `address space'.
              -w     Kilobytes on the size of swapped out memory.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A  resource  may  also  be  specified by integer in the form `-N
              resource', where resource corresponds to the integer defined for
              the  resource  by the operating system.  This may be used to set
              the limits for  resources  known  to  the  shell  which  do  not
              correspond  to  option  letters.   Such  limits will be shown by
              number in the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be  out  of  the  range  of  limits
              compiled  into  the  shell.  The shell will try to read or write
              the limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or
              a  symbolic value as described in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted,
              the current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask  to
              be  printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed
              as an  octal  number.   Note  that  in  the  symbolic  form  the
              permissions  you  specify are those which are to be allowed (not
              denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove the element named name from an internal hash table.   The
              default  is remove elements from the command hash table.  The -a
              option causes unhash to remove regular or global  aliases;  note
              when  removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted
              to prevent it from being expanded before  being  passed  to  the
              command.   The -s option causes unhash to remove suffix aliases.
              The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.   The  -d
              options  causes  unhash  to remove named directories.  If the -m
              flag is given the arguments are taken  as  patterns  (should  be
              quoted)  and  all  elements of the corresponding hash table with
              matching names will be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the  hard  limit.
              If   the  -h  flag  is  given  and  the  shell  has  appropriate
              privileges,  the  hard  resource  limit  for  each  resource  is
              removed.  The resources of the shell process are only changed if
              the -s flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local  parameters  remain  local
              even  if unset; they appear unset within scope, but the previous
              value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual elements of associative array parameters may be unset
              by  using  subscript  syntax on name, which should be quoted (or
              the  entire  command  prefixed  with  noglob)  to  protect   the
              subscript from filename generation.

              If  the -m flag is specified the arguments are taken as patterns
              (should be quoted) and all parameters with  matching  names  are
              unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting associative
              array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of  the
              pattern.

              The  -v  flag  specifies that name refers to parameters. This is
              the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset the options for the shell.  All options  specified  either
              with  flags or by name are unset.  If no arguments are supplied,
              the names of all options currently unset are printed.  If the -m
              flag  is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should
              be quoted to  preserve  them  from  being  interpreted  as  glob
              patterns),  and  all  options with names matching these patterns
              are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is  not  given
              then  all currently active child processes are waited for.  Each
              job can be either a job specification or the process ID of a job
              in  the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of
              the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
              command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print  the  results  in  a  csh-like  format.  This takes
                     precedence over -v.

              -w     For each name, print `name: word' where word  is  one  of
                     alias,  builtin,  command,  function, hashed, reserved or
                     none, according  as  name  corresponds  to  an  alias,  a
                     built-in  command, an external command, a shell function,
                     a command defined with the hash builtin, a reserved word,
                     or  is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and
                     -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be  displayed,
                     which  would otherwise not happen unless the -c flag were
                     used.

              -p     Do a path search  for  name  even  if  it  is  an  alias,
                     reserved word, shell function or builtin.

              -a     Do  a  search  for all occurrences of name throughout the
                     command path.  Normally  only  the  first  occurrence  is
                     printed.

              -m     The  arguments  are taken as patterns (should be quoted),
                     and  the  information  is  displayed  for  each   command
                     matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If  a  pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free
                     pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin  command  can  be  used  to  compile  functions  or
              scripts,  storing  the  compiled  form in a file, and to examine
              files  containing  the  compiled  form.   This   allows   faster
              autoloading  of  functions  and execution of scripts by avoiding
              parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The first form (without the -c, -a  or  -t  options)  creates  a
              compiled  file.   If only the file argument is given, the output
              file has the name `file.zwc' and will  be  placed  in  the  same
              directory  as  the  file.  The shell will load the compiled file
              instead of  the  normal  function  file  when  the  function  is
              autoloaded;   see   the   section   `Autoloading  Functions'  in
              zshmisc(1) for a description of  how  autoloaded  functions  are
              searched.  The extension .zwc stands for `zsh word code'.

              If  there is at least one name argument, all the named files are
              compiled into the output file given as the first  argument.   If
              file  does  not  end  in  .zwc,  this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files  containing  multiple  compiled  functions  are
              called  `digest'  files, and are intended to be used as elements
              of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the  compiled
              definitions  for all the named functions into file.  For -c, the
              names must be functions currently  defined  in  the  shell,  not
              those  marked  for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions that are
              marked for autoloading may be written by using the -a option, in
              which  case  the  fpath  is  searched  and  the  contents of the
              definition files for those functions,  if  found,  are  compiled
              into  file.   If both -c and -a are given, names of both defined
              functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.  In
              either  case,  the  functions in files written with the -c or -a
              option will be autoloaded as if  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  were
              unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with
              different options is that some definition files for  autoloading
              define  multiple functions, including the function with the same
              name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In  such
              cases   the  output  of  `zcompile  -c'  does  not  include  the
              additional  functions  defined  in  the  file,  and  any   other
              initialization  code  in  the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a'
              captures all this extra information.

              If the -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names  are  used
              as  patterns  and  all  functions whose names match one of these
              patterns will be written. If no name is given,  the  definitions
              of  all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will
              be written.

              The third  form,  with  the  -t  option,  examines  an  existing
              compiled  file.   Without  further  arguments,  the names of the
              original files compiled into it are listed.  The first  line  of
              output  shows  the  version of the shell which compiled the file
              and how the file will be used (i.e. by reading it directly or by
              mapping  it into memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and
              the return status is set to zero if definitions  for  all  names
              were  found in the compiled file, and non-zero if the definition
              for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents  are  copied
                     into  the  shell's memory, rather than memory-mapped (see
                     -M).  This happens automatically on systems that  do  not
                     support memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions,
                     it is often desirable to use this option;  otherwise  the
                     whole  file, including the code to define functions which
                     have  already   been   defined,   will   remain   mapped,
                     consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The  compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when
                     read. This is done in such a way that multiple  instances
                     of  the  shell  running  on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile
                     builtin  decides  what  to  do  based  on the size of the
                     compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These options are used when the  compiled  file  contains
                     functions which are to be autoloaded. If -z is given, the
                     function will be autoloaded as if the KSH_AUTOLOAD option
                     is  not  set,  even if it is set at the time the compiled
                     file is read, while if the -k is given, the function will
                     be  loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These options also
                     take precedence over any -k or -z  options  specified  to
                     the  autoload  builtin.  If  neither  of these options is
                     given, the function will be loaded as determined  by  the
                     setting  of  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD  option  at  the  time the
                     compiled file is read.

                     These options may also appear as many times as  necessary
                     between  the listed names to specify the loading style of
                     all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file always  contains  two  versions  of  the
                     compiled  format, one for big-endian machines and one for
                     small-endian machines.  The upshot of this  is  that  the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or
                     mapped, only one half of the file is actually  used  (and
                     mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading
              of modules while the shell is running (`dynamical  loading')  is
              not  available on all operating systems, or on all installations
              on a particular operating system, although the zmodload  command
              itself is always available and can be used to manipulate modules
              built into versions of the shell  executable  without  dynamical
              loading.

              Without  arguments  the  names  of  all  currently loaded binary
              modules are printed.  The -L option causes this list  to  be  in
              the form of a series of zmodload commands.  Forms with arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In the simplest case, zmodload  loads  a  binary  module.
                     The  module  must  be in a file with a name consisting of
                     the specified name followed by a standard suffix, usually
                     `.so'  (`.sl'  on  HPUX).   If the module to be loaded is
                     already loaded  the  duplicate  module  is  ignored.   If
                     zmodload  detects  an  inconsistency,  such as an invalid
                     module name or circular dependency list, the current code
                     block  is  aborted.   Hence `zmodload module 2>/dev/null'
                     is sufficient to test whether a module is available.   If
                     it is available, the module is loaded if necessary, while
                     if it is  not  available,  non-zero  status  is  silently
                     returned.   The  option  -i is accepted for compatibility
                     but has no effect.

                     The named module is  searched  for  in  the  same  way  a
                     command   is,   using   $module_path  instead  of  $path.
                     However, the path  search  is  performed  even  when  the
                     module name contains a `/', which it usually does.  There
                     is no way to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports  features  (see  below),  zmodload
                     tries  to  enable all features when loading a module.  If
                     the module was successfully loaded but not  all  features
                     could be enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be
                     given that was given when the module was loaded,  but  it
                     is  not  necessary  for  the  module to exist in the file
                     system.  The -i option suppresses the error if the module
                     is already unloaded (or was never loaded).

                     Each  module  has  a  boot  and  a cleanup function.  The
                     module will not be loaded if  its  boot  function  fails.
                     Similarly  a  module  can only be unloaded if its cleanup
                     function runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
                     zmodload  -F  allows  more  selective  control  over  the
                     features provided by modules.  With no options apart from
                     -F, the module named module is  loaded,  if  it  was  not
                     already  loaded,  and  the list of features is set to the
                     required state.  If no features are specified, the module
                     is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the state of
                     features is unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a
                     +  to  turn the feature on, or - to turn it off; the + is
                     assumed if neither character is present.  Any feature not
                     explicitly mentioned is left in its current state; if the
                     module was not previously  loaded  this  means  any  such
                     features will remain disabled.  The return status is zero
                     if all features were set, 1 if the module failed to load,
                     and  2  if some features could not be set (for example, a
                     parameter couldn't be added because there was a different
                     parameter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The   standard   features   are   builtins,   conditions,
                     parameters and math functions; these are indicated by the
                     prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix condition), `p:' and
                     `f:',  respectively,  followed  by  the  name  that   the
                     corresponding  feature  would  have  in  the  shell.  For
                     example, `b:strftime' indicates a builtin named  strftime
                     and    p:EPOCHSECONDS   indicates   a   parameter   named
                     EPOCHSECONDS.  The module may provide other  (`abstract')
                     features  of  its  own as indicated by its documentation;
                     these have no prefix.

                     With -l or  -L,  features  provided  by  the  module  are
                     listed.   With -l alone, a list of features together with
                     their states is shown, one feature  per  line.   With  -L
                     alone,  a  zmodload  -F  command that would cause enabled
                     features of the module to be turned on  is  shown.   With
                     -lL,  a  zmodload  -F  command  that  would cause all the
                     features to be set to their current state is  shown.   If
                     one  of  these  combinations is given the option -P param
                     then the parameter param is set to an array of  features,
                     either features together with their state or (if -L alone
                     is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a
                     list  of  all  enabled features for all modules providing
                     features is printed in the form of zmodload -F  commands.
                     If  -l  is  also  given,  the  state  of both enabled and
                     disabled features is output in that form.

                     A set of features may be provided together with -l or  -L
                     and  a  module name; in that case only the state of those
                     features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded  by
                     +  or  -  but  the character has no effect.  If no set of
                     features is provided, all features are considered.

                     With -e, the command  first  tests  that  the  module  is
                     loaded;  if  it  is  not,  status  1 is returned.  If the
                     module is loaded,  the  list  of  features  given  as  an
                     argument  is  examined.  Any feature given with no prefix
                     is simply tested to see if the module  provides  it;  any
                     feature given with a prefix + or - is tested to see if is
                     provided and in the given state.  If  the  tests  on  all
                     features  in the list succeed, status 0 is returned, else
                     status 1.

                     With -m, each entry in the  given  list  of  features  is
                     taken  as  a  pattern  to  be matched against the list of
                     features provided by the module.  An initial + or -  must
                     be  given  explicitly.  This may not be combined with the
                     -a option as autoloads must be specified explicitly.

                     With -a,  the  given  list  of  features  is  marked  for
                     autoload  from the specified module, which may not yet be
                     loaded.  An optional +  may  appear  before  the  feature
                     name.   If  the  feature is prefixed with -, any existing
                     autoload is removed.  The options -l and -L may  be  used
                     to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual
                     features; when the module is loaded  only  the  requested
                     feature  is  enabled.  Autoload requests are preserved if
                     the module is subsequently  unloaded  until  an  explicit
                     `zmodload  -Fa  module -feature' is issued.  It is not an
                     error to request an autoload for a feature  of  a  module
                     that is already loaded.

                     When  the  module  is  loaded  each  autoload  is checked
                     against the features actually provided by the module;  if
                     the  feature  is  not  provided  the  autoload request is
                     deleted.  A warning message is output; if the  module  is
                     being  loaded  to  provide  a different feature, and that
                     autoload is successful, there is no effect on the  status
                     of  the current command.  If the module is already loaded
                     at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an error message is
                     printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload  -Fa  can  be  used  with  the -l, -L, -e and -P
                     options  for  listing  and  testing  the   existence   of
                     autoloadable  features.  In this case -l is ignored if -L
                     is specified.  zmodload -FaL with no  module  name  lists
                     autoloads for all modules.

                     Note  that  only standard features as described above can
                     be autoloaded; other features require the  module  to  be
                     loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The -d option can be used to specify module dependencies.
                     The modules named in the second and subsequent  arguments
                     will  be  loaded  before  the  module  named in the first
                     argument.

                     With -d and  one  argument,  all  dependencies  for  that
                     module  are listed.  With -d and no arguments, all module
                     dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in a
                     Makefile-like  format.  The -L option changes this format
                     to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If
                     only  one  argument  is  given, all dependencies for that
                     module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The -ab option defines autoloaded builtins.   It  defines
                     the  specified  builtins.   When any of those builtins is
                     called, the module specified in  the  first  argument  is
                     loaded  and  all  its features are enabled (for selective
                     control of features use `zmodload  -F  -a'  as  described
                     above).   If  only  the  name  is  given,  one builtin is
                     defined, with the same name as the module.  -i suppresses
                     the   error   if   the  builtin  is  already  defined  or
                     autoloaded, but not if another builtin of the  same  name
                     is already defined.

                     With  -ab  and  no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are
                     listed, with the module  name  (if  different)  shown  in
                     parentheses  after  the  builtin  name.   The  -L  option
                     changes this format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the  -u  option,  it  removes
                     builtins  previously  defined  with  -ab.   This  is only
                     possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses
                     the  error  if  the  builtin is already removed (or never
                     existed).

                     Autoload  requests  are  retained  if   the   module   is
                     subsequently  unloaded  until  an  explicit `zmodload -ub
                     builtin' is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The -ac option is used  to  define  autoloaded  condition
                     codes.  The cond strings give the names of the conditions
                     defined by the module. The optional -I option is used  to
                     define  infix condition names. Without this option prefix
                     condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed
                     (as  a  series  of  zmodload commands if the -L option is
                     given).

                     The  -uc  option  removes  definitions   for   autoloaded
                     conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The  -p  option  is like the -b and -c options, but makes
                     zmodload work on autoloaded parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p,  and  -c  options,  but
                     makes zmodload work on autoloaded math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules;
                     if  the  -A  option  is  also   given,   module   aliases
                     corresponding  to  loaded  modules  are  also  shown.  If
                     arguments are provided, nothing is  printed;  the  return
                     status  is  set to zero if all strings given as arguments
                     are names of loaded modules and to one  if  at  least  on
                     string  is  not the name of a loaded module.  This can be
                     used to test for the availability of  things  implemented
                     by  modules.  In this case, any aliases are automatically
                     resolved and the -A flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,
                     define modalias to be an alias for the module module.  If
                     the  module  modalias  is  ever  subsequently  requested,
                     either  via  a  call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell
                     will attempt to load module instead.  If  module  is  not
                     given,  show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments
                     are  given,  list  all  defined  module  aliases.    When
                     listing,  if  the  -L  flag  was  also  given,  list  the
                     definition as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence  of  aliases  for  modules  is  completely
                     independent  of  whether  the  name  resolved is actually
                     loaded as a module: while the alias exists,  loading  and
                     unloading the module under any alias has exactly the same
                     effect as using the resolved name, and  does  not  affect
                     the  connection  between  the alias and the resolved name
                     which  can  be  removed  either  by  zmodload  -R  or  by
                     redefining  the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e. where the
                     first resolved name is itself an alias) are valid so long
                     as  these are not circular.  As the aliases take the same
                     format as module names, they may include path separators:
                     in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the
                     path named to exist as the alias will be resolved  first.
                     For example, `any/old/alias' is always a valid alias.

                     Dependencies  added to aliased modules are actually added
                     to the resolved module; these  remain  if  the  alias  is
                     removed.   It  is  valid to create an alias whose name is
                     one of the standard shell modules and which resolves to a
                     different module.  However, if a module has dependencies,
                     it will not be possible to use  the  module  name  as  an
                     alias  as the module will already be marked as a loadable
                     module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload
                     command  anywhere  module  names  are required.  However,
                     aliases will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with
                     a bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as
                     a module alias via zmodload -A, delete the alias.  If any
                     was  not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction  between  modules  that  were
              linked  into  the shell and modules that are loaded dynamically.
              In both cases this builtin  command  has  to  be  used  to  make
              available  the  builtins  and  other  things  defined by modules
              (unless the module is autoloaded on these definitions). This  is
              true  even  for  systems  that  don't support dynamic loading of
              modules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



  All copyrights belong to their respective owners. Other content (c) 2014-2018, GNU.WIKI. Please report site errors to webmaster@gnu.wiki.
Page load time: 0.159 seconds. Last modified: November 04 2018 12:49:43.