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       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh


       The  Zsh  source distribution includes a number of items contributed by
       the user community.  These are not inherently a part of the shell,  and
       some  may  not  be  available  in  every  zsh  installation.   The most
       significant of these are documented here.  For documentation  on  other
       contributed  items  such  as  shell functions, look for comments in the
       function source files.


   Accessing On-Line Help
       The key sequence ESC h is normally bound by ZLE to execute the run-help
       widget  (see  zshzle(1)).   This  invokes the run-help command with the
       command word from the current input line as its argument.  By  default,
       run-help  is an alias for the man command, so this often fails when the
       command word is  a  shell  builtin  or  a  user-defined  function.   By
       redefining  the  run-help  alias,  one  can  improve  the  on-line help
       provided by the shell.

       The helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution,
       is a Perl program that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce
       a separate help file for each shell builtin and for  many  other  shell
       features  as  well.   The  autoloadable  run-help  function,  found  in
       Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and performs several other
       tests to produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       There  may already be a directory of help files on your system; look in
       /usr/share/zsh or /usr/local/share/zsh and subdirectories below  those,
       or ask your system administrator.

       To  create  your  own  help  files  with  helpfiles, choose or create a
       directory where the individual command help  files  will  reside.   For
       example,  you  might  choose  ~/zsh_help.   If  you  unpacked  the  zsh
       distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              cd ~/zsh_help
              man zshall | colcrt - | \
              perl ~/zsh-5.0.5/Util/helpfiles

       Next, to use the run-help function, you need  to  add  lines  something
       like the following to your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       The  HELPDIR parameter tells run-help where to look for the help files.
       If your system already has a help file directory installed, set HELPDIR
       to the path of that directory instead.

       Note  that  in order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file
       must be in one of the  directories  named  in  your  fpath  array  (see
       zshparam(1)).   This  should already be the case if you have a standard
       zsh installation; if it is  not,  copy  Functions/Misc/run-help  to  an
       appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If  you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your
       zsh installation to track the latest developments, you  may  find  that
       function  digests compiled with the zcompile builtin are frequently out
       of date with respect to the function source files.  This is not usually
       a  problem, because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and  function  loading.
       Also,  if  a digest file is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh
       won't check whether any of its source files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function, found in Functions/Misc,  can  be
       used to keep function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p args [ -- args ... ]
              This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them
              if at least one of the original files is newer than the compiled
              file.  This works only if the names stored in the compiled files
              are full paths or are relative to the  directory  that  contains
              the .zwc file.

              In the first form, each name is the name of a compiled file or a
              directory containing *.zwc files that should be checked.  If  no
              arguments  are  given,  the directories and *.zwc files in fpath
              are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation  is  performed,  but  a  return
              status  of zero (true) is set if there are files that need to be
              re-compiled and  non-zero  (false)  otherwise.   The  -q  option
              quiets  the  chatty  output  that  describes  what zrecompile is

              Without the -t option, the return status is zero  if  all  files
              that  needed  re-compilation  could  be compiled and non-zero if
              compilation for at least one of the files failed.

              If the -p option is given, the args are interpreted  as  one  or
              more  sets  of  arguments  for zcompile, separated by `--'.  For

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that  doesn't  exist
              or  if  it  is  older  than  ~/.zshrc. The compiled file will be
              marked for reading instead of mapping.  The  same  is  done  for
              ~/.zcompdump  and  ~/.zcompdump.zwc,  but  this compiled file is
              marked  for  mapping.  The  last  line   re-creates   the   file
              ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the files matching the given pattern is
              newer than it.

              Without the -p  option,  zrecompile  does  not  create  function
              digests that do not already exist, nor does it add new functions
              to the digest.

       The following shell loop  is  an  example  of  a  method  for  creating
       function  digests  for  all  functions in your fpath, assuming that you
       have write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default  zsh
       installation  fpath;  you  may  need  to use different options for your
       personal function directories.

       Once the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer  to
       them,  you  can  keep  them  up  to  date by running zrecompile with no

   Keyboard Definition
       The large number of possible combinations of  keyboards,  workstations,
       terminals, emulators, and window systems makes it impossible for zsh to
       have built-in key bindings for  every  situation.   The  zkbd  utility,
       found  in  Functions/Misc, can help you quickly create key bindings for
       your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-5.0.5/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When you run zkbd, it first asks you to enter your  terminal  type;  if
       the  default it offers is correct, just press return.  It then asks you
       to press a number of different keys  to  determine  characteristics  of
       your  keyboard and terminal; zkbd warns you if it finds anything out of
       the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by  zkbd  are  recorded  as  a  definition  for  an
       associative  array  named  key,  written  to a file in the subdirectory
       .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR directory.  The  name  of  the
       file is composed from the TERM, VENDOR and OSTYPE parameters, joined by

       You may read this file into your .zshrc or another  startup  file  with
       the  `source'  or  `.'  commands,  then  reference the key parameter in
       bindkey commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note that in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb file  must  be
       in  one of the directories named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).
       This  should  already  be  the  case  if  you  have  a   standard   zsh
       installation;  if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/zkbd to an appropriate

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally you may encounter what appears to be a bug in  the  shell,
       particularly  if  you  are using a beta version of zsh or a development
       release.  Usually it is sufficient to send a description of the problem
       to  one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but sometimes one of the
       zsh developers will need to recreate your environment in order to track
       the problem down.

       The  script  named  reporter,  found  in  the  Util  directory  of  the
       distribution, is provided for this purpose.  (It is  also  possible  to
       autoload  reporter, but reporter is not installed in fpath by default.)
       This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state, in the form  of
       another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To  use  reporter, read the script into your shell with the `.' command
       and redirect the output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-5.0.5/Util/reporter >

       You should check the file for any sensitive information such
       as  passwords  and delete them by hand before sending the script to the
       developers.  Also, as the output can be voluminous, it's best  to  wait
       for the developers to ask for this information before sending it.

       You  can  also  use  reporter to dump only a subset of the shell state.
       This is sometimes useful for creating startup files for the first time.
       Most  of  the output from reporter is far more detailed than usually is
       necessary for a startup file, but the  aliases,  options,  and  zstyles
       states  may  be  useful  because  they  include  only  changes from the
       defaults.  The bindings state may be useful if you have created any  of
       your own keymaps, because reporter arranges to dump the keymap creation
       commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As is usual with automated tools, if you create  a  startup  file  with
       reporter,  you  should edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.
       Note that if you're using the new completion  system,  you  should  not
       dump  the  functions state to your startup files with reporter; use the
       compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print to standard output the indicated  subset  of  the  current
              shell state.  The state arguments may be one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output  old-style  compctl  commands.   New completion is
                     covered by functions and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export  commands
                     for any environment variables.
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With  the  exception  of  `all',  every state can be abbreviated by any
       prefix, even a single letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z  is  the
       same as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [-dD] hook function
              Several  functions are special to the shell, as described in the
              section SPECIAL FUNCTIONS, see  zshmisc(1),  in  that  they  are
              automatic  called  at  a  specific point during shell execution.
              Each has an associated array consisting of names of functions to
              be   called  at  the  same  point;  these  are  so-called  `hook
              functions'.  The shell function add-zsh-hook provides  a  simple
              way of adding or removing functions from the array.

              hook  is one of chpwd, periodic, precmd, preexec, zshaddhistory,
              zshexit,  or  zsh_directory_name,  the  special   functions   in
              question.  Note that zsh_directory_name is called in a different
              way from the other functions, but may still be manipulated as  a

              function  is  name of an ordinary shell function.  If no options
              are given this will be added to the array  of  functions  to  be
              executed in the given context.

              If  the  option  -d  is  given, the function is removed from the
              array of functions to be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the function is treated as a  pattern
              and  any  matching names of functions are removed from the array
              of functions to be executed.

              The options -U, -z and -k are passed as  arguments  to  autoload
              for  function.   For functions contributed with zsh, the options
              -Uz are appropriate.


       The function cdr allows you  to  change  the  working  directory  to  a
       previous working directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is
       similar in concept to the directory stack controlled by the pushd, popd
       and  dirs  builtins,  but  is  more  configurable, and as it stores all
       entries in files it is maintained  across  sessions  and  (by  default)
       between   terminal  emulators  in  the  current  session.   (The  pushd
       directory stack is not actually modified or  used  by  cdr  unless  you
       configure it to do so as described in the configuration section below.)

       The  system works by means of a hook function that is called every time
       the directory changes.  To install the system,  autoload  the  required
       functions and use the add-zsh-hook function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now  every  time  you  change  directly  interactively, no matter which
       command you use, the directory to which you change will  be  remembered
       in most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The  argument  to  cdr  is  a  number  N  corresponding to the Nth most
       recently  changed-to  directory.   1  is  the   immediately   preceding
       directory;  the current directory is remembered but is not offered as a
       destination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1  may  refer
       to  a  directory  changed  to  in another window; you can avoid this by
       having per-terminal files for storing directory as  described  for  the
       recent-dirs-file style below.

       If  you  set  the  recent-dirs-default  style  described below cdr will
       behave the same as cd if given a non-numeric argument, or more than one
       argument.   The  recent directory list is updated just the same however
       you change directory.

       If the argument is omitted, 1 is assumed.  This is similar  to  pushd's
       behaviour of swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion  for  the  argument to cdr is available if compinit has been
       run; menu selection is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to allow  you  to  cycle  through  recent  directories;  the  order  is
       preserved,  so the first choice is the most recent directory before the
       current one.  The verbose style  is  also  recommended  to  ensure  the
       directory  is  shown;  this  style  is  on  by  default so no action is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists  the  numbers  and  the   corresponding   directories   in
              abbreviated  form  (i.e. with ~ substitution reapplied), one per
              line.  The directories here are not quoted (this would  only  be
              an issue if a directory name contained a newline).  This is used
              by the completion system.

       -r     sets the variable reply  to  the  current  set  of  directories.
              Nothing is printed and the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows  you  to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The
              list can be edited to any extent you like; no sanity checking is
              performed.   Completion  is  available.  No quoting is necessary
              (except for newlines, where I have in  any  case  no  sympathy);
              directories  are  in  unabbreviated from and contain an absolute
              path, i.e. they start with /.  Usually the first entry should be
              left as the current directory.

       Configuration  is  by  means  of  the  styles  mechanism that should be
       familiar from completion; if not, see the  description  of  the  zstyle
       command in see zshmodules(1).  The context for setting styles should be
       ':chpwd:*' in case the meaning of the context is  extended  in  future,
       for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets  the  value  of  the  recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the
       style name is specific enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used  exclusively  by  the
       completion  system  and  so  has  the  usual  completion system context
       (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is needed), though again  '*'
       should be fine in practice.

              If  true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index,
              and either there is more than one argument or  the  argument  is
              not an integer, then fall through to "cd".  This allows the lazy
              to use only one  command  for  directory  changing.   Completion
              recognises  this, too; see recent-dirs-insert for how to control
              completion when this option is in use.

              The file where the list of directories is saved.  The default is
              ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs,  i.e. this is in your home
              directory unless you have set  the  variable  ZDOTDIR  to  point
              somewhere  else.   Directory  names  are  saved in $'...' quoted
              form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly  to  the
              shell as an argument.

              The  value  of  this  style  may be an array.  In this case, the
              first  file  in  the  list  will  always  be  used  for   saving
              directories  while  any  other  files  are left untouched.  When
              reading the recent directory list, if there are fewer  than  the
              maximum  number  of  entries  in the first file, the contents of
              later files in  the  array  will  be  appended  with  duplicates
              removed  from the list shown.  The contents of the two files are
              not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file  are
              shown  first.   The  special  value  + can appear in the list to
              indicate the default file should be read at  that  point.   This
              allows effects like the following:

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent  directories  are  read from a file numbered according to
              the terminal.  If there are insufficient  entries  the  list  is
              supplemented from the default file.

              It   is  possible  to  use  zstyle  -e  to  make  the  directory
              configurable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or a
              directory  under  it,  then use a special file for saving recent
              directories, else use the default.

              Used  by  completion.   If  recent-dirs-default  is  true,  then
              setting  this  to  true causes the actual directory, rather than
              its index, to be inserted on the command line; this has the same
              effect  as  using the corresponding index, but makes the history
              clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this setting, if part
              of  an  argument  was already typed, normal directory completion
              rather than recent directory completion is done; this is because
              recent  directory  completion  is expected to be done by cycling
              through entries menu fashion.

              If  the  value  of  the  style  is  always,  then  only   recent
              directories  will be completed; in that case, use the cd command
              when you want to complete other directories.

              If the value is  fallback,  recent  directories  will  be  tried
              first,  then  normal directory completion is performed if recent
              directory completion failed to find a match.

              Finally, if the value is both then both sets of completions  are
              presented;  the  usual  tag mechanism can be used to distinguish
              results, with recent directories tagged  as  recent-dirs.   Note
              that  the  recent  directories  inserted  are  abbreviated  with
              directory names where appropriate.

              The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If  this
              is  zero  or  negative  there is no maximum.  The default is 20.
              Note this includes the current directory, which  isn't  offered,
              so  the highest number of directories you will be offered is one
              less than the maximum.

              This style is an array determining what directories  should  (or
              should  not) be added to the recent list.  Elements of the array
              can include:

              parent Prune  parents  (more  accurately,  ancestors)  from  the
                     recent  list.   If present, changing directly down by any
                     number of directories causes the current directory to  be
                     overwritten.    For   example,   changing  from  ~pws  to
                     ~pws/some/other/dir causes ~pws not to  be  left  on  the
                     recent  directory  stack.   This  only  applies to direct
                     changes to descendant directories; earlier directories on
                     the  list  are  not  pruned.   For example, changing from
                     ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir  does  not  cause
                     ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives  a  zsh  pattern for directories that should not be
                     added to the recent list (if not  already  there).   This
                     element  can  be repeated to add different patterns.  For
                     example,   'pattern:/tmp(|/*)'   stops   /tmp   or    its
                     descendants  from  being added.  The EXTENDED_GLOB option
                     is always turned on for these patterns.

              If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to  change  the
              directory, so the directory is saved on the directory stack.  As
              the directory stack is completely  separate  from  the  list  of
              files  saved  by  the  mechanism  used  in this file there is no
              obvious reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It is possible  to  refer  to  recent  directories  using  the  dynamic
       directory    name    syntax    by    using    the   supplied   function
       zsh_directory_name_cdr a hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When this is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent  directory  other
       than $PWD, and so on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This  section  is for the curious or confused; most users will not need
       to know this information.

       Recent directories are saved  to  a  file  immediately  and  hence  are
       preserved  across sessions.  Note currently no file locking is applied:
       the list is updated immediately on  interactive  commands  and  nowhere
       else  (unlike  history), and it is assumed you are only going to change
       directory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared  accounts,
       but  in  any  case  the system has limited utility when someone else is
       changing to a different set of directories behind your back.

       To make this a little safer, only directory changes instituted from the
       command  line,  either  directly  or  indirectly through shell function
       calls (but not through subshells, evals,  traps,  completion  functions
       and  the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd -q or pushd -q
       to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible
       at   the   command   line.    See   the   contents   of   the  function
       chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.


       In a lot of cases, it is nice  to  automatically  retrieve  information
       from version control systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to
       be able to provide it to the user; possibly in the  user's  prompt.  So
       that  you  can  instantly  tell  which branch you are currently on, for

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which
       they are referred to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There   is   also   support  for  the  patch  management  system  quilt
       ( See  Quilt  Support  below
       for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It  can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any
       specific $psvar entries to be available.

       To get this feature working quickly (including colors), you can do  the
       following (assuming, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously,  the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to
       call vcs_info from your precmd function. Once that is done you  need  a
       single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in your prompt.

       To  be  able  to  use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly in your prompt like
       this, you will need to have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You may not want all of these because there is no point in running  the
       code  to  detect  systems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable
       some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If you rerun vcs_info_printsys after one of these  commands,  you  will
       see  the  backends  listed in the disable style (or backends not in the
       enable style - if you used that) marked as disabled  by  a  hash  sign.
       That  means  the  detection  of these systems is skipped completely. No
       wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4,  hg,  hg-git,  hg-hgsubversion,
              hg-hgsvn,  darcs,  bzr,  cdv,  mtn,  svn,  cvs,  svk, tla, p4 or
              fossil. When hooks are active the hooks name is  added  after  a
              `+'. (See Hooks in vcs_info below.)

              is  a  freely configurable string, assignable by the user as the
              first argument to vcs_info (see its description below).

              is the name of a repository in which you want a style to  match.
              So,  if  you  want a setting specific to /usr/src/zsh, with that
              being a CVS checkout, you can set repo-root-name to zsh to  make
              it so.

       There  are  three  special  values  for  vcs-string: The first is named
       -init-, that is in effect as long as there was  no  decision  what  VCS
       backend  to use. The second is -preinit-; it is used before vcs_info is
       run, when initializing the data exporting variables. The third  special
       value is formats and is used by the vcs_info_lastmsg for looking up its

       The initial value of repo-root-name is -all- and it  is  replaced  with
       the  actual  name,  as  soon  as it is known. Only use this part of the
       context for defining the formats, actionformats or branchformat styles,
       as  it  is guaranteed that repo-root-name is set up correctly for these
       only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You  can  of  course  use  ':vcs_info:*'  to  match  all  VCSs  in  all
       user-contexts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is
              most of the time).

              A list of formats, used if there is a special action going on in
              your  current  repository; like an interactive rebase or a merge

              Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles
              above,  not only by a branch name but also by a revision number.
              This style lets you modify how that string should look.

              These "formats" are exported when we  didn't  detect  a  version
              control  system  for  the  current  directory  or  vcs_info  was
              disabled. This is useful if you want vcs_info to completely take
              over  the generation of your prompt. You would do something like
              PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg uses both a  hash  and  a  revision  number  to  reference  a
              specific  changeset  in  a  repository.  With this style you can
              format the revision string (see branchformat) to include  either
              or  both.  It's only useful when get-revision is true. Note, the
              full 40-character revision id  is  not  available  (except  when
              using the use-simple option) because executing hg more than once
              per prompt is too slow; you may customize  this  behavior  using

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info
              will export.

       enable A list of backends you  want  to  use.  Checked  in  the  -init-
              context. If this list contains an item called NONE no backend is
              used at all and vcs_info will do nothing. If this list  contains
              ALL,  vcs_info  will  use  all  known backends. Only with ALL in
              enable will the disable style have any effect. ALL and NONE  are
              case insensitive.

              A  list of VCSs you don't want vcs_info to test for repositories
              (checked in the  -init-  context,  too).  Only  used  if  enable
              contains ALL.

              A  list  of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If a pattern
              matches, vcs_info will be disabled. This style is checked in the
              :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say,  ~/.zsh  is a directory under version control, in which you
              do not want vcs_info to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "$HOME/.zsh(|/*)"

              If enabled, the quilt support code is active  in  `addon'  mode.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              If  enabled,  `standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS
              is active in a given directory. See Quilt Support for details.

              Overwrite the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment  variable.
              See Quilt Support for details.

              When  quilt  itself is called in quilt support the value of this
              style is used as the command name.

              If enabled, this style causes the %c and %u  format  escapes  to
              show  when  the  working  directory has uncommitted changes. The
              strings displayed by these escapes can  be  controlled  via  the
              stagedstr   and  unstagedstr  styles.  The  only  backends  that
              currently support this option are git and hg (hg  only  supports

              For  this  style  to  be  evaluated  with  the  hg  backend, the
              get-revision style needs to be  set  and  the  use-simple  style
              needs to be unset. The latter is the default; the former is not.

              Note, the actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially
              expensive (read: they may be slow,  depending  on  how  big  the
              current repository is).  Therefore, it is disabled by default.

              This  string  will  be used in the %c escape if there are staged
              changes in the repository.

              This string will be used in the %u escape if there are  unstaged
              changes in the repository.

              This  style  causes  vcs_info  to use the supplied string as the
              command to use as the VCS's binary. Note, that setting  this  in
              ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If  the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the
              used binary name is the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn  is
              used in an svn repository).

              The  repo-root-name  part  in  the context is always the default
              -all- when this style is looked up.

              For example, this  style  can  be  used  to  use  binaries  from
              non-default  installation  directories. Assume, git is installed
              in /usr/bin but your  sysadmin  installed  a  newer  version  in
              /usr/bin/local.  Instead  of  changing  the  order of your $PATH
              parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This is used by the Perforce backend (p4) to decide if it should
              contact  the  Perforce  server  to  find  out  if a directory is
              managed by Perforce.  This is the only  reliable  way  of  doing
              this,  but runs the risk of a delay if the server name cannot be
              found.  If the server (more  specifically,  the  host:port  pair
              describing the server) cannot be contacted, its name is put into
              the  associative  array  vcs_info_p4_dead_servers  and  is   not
              contacted  again during the session until it is removed by hand.
              If you do not set this style, the p4 backend is only  usable  if
              you  have  set  the environment variable P4CONFIG to a file name
              and have corresponding files in the  root  directories  of  each
              Perforce    client.     See    comments    in    the    function
              VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for more detail.

              If there are two different ways of  gathering  information,  you
              can  select  the  simpler one by setting this style to true; the
              default is to use the not-that-simple code, which is potentially
              a  lot  slower but might be more accurate in all possible cases.
              This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case of hg
              it  will invoke the external hexdump program to parse the binary
              dirstate cache file; this  method  will  not  return  the  local
              revision number.

              If  set  to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile to figure out the
              revision of a repository's work tree (currently for the git  and
              hg  backends,  where  this  kind  of  information  is not always
              vital). For git, the hash value of  the  currently  checked  out
              commit  is  available  via  the %i expansion. With hg, the local
              revision number and the corresponding global hash are  available
              via %i.

       get-mq If  set  to true, the hg backend will look for a Mercurial Queue
              (mq) patch directory. Information will be available via the `%m'

              If set to true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current
              bookmarks. They will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              Determines if we assume that the assembled string from  vcs_info
              includes prompt escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable  debugging  output  to track possible problems. Currently
              this style is only used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines  hook-function  names.  See  Hooks  in
              vcs_info below for details.

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES

       In  normal  formats  and  actionformats  the following replacements are

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action.  Only  makes  sense  in
       %i     The   current   revision   number  or  identifier.  For  hg  the
              hgrevformat style may be used to customize the output.
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged  changes
              in the repository.
       %u     The  string  from  the  unstagedstr  style if there are unstaged
              changes in the repository.
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A   subdirectory   within   a    repository.    If    $PWD    is
              /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty, %S is beer/tasty.
       %m     A  "misc" replacement. It is at the discretion of the backend to
              decide what this replacement expands to. It is currently used by
              the hg and git backends to display patch information from the mq
              and stgit extensions.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current global revision identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch (applied-string).
       %u     The number of unapplied patches (unapplied-string).
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %a     The number of all patches.
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For  nvcsformats
       no replacements are performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which
       expands %b itself, use %%b. That will cause the vcs_info  expansion  to
       replace  %%b  with  %b,  so  that  zsh's prompt expansion mechanism can
       handle it. Similarly, to hand down %b  from  branchformat,  use  %%%%b.
       Sorry  for this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided. Luckily
       we do not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this only needs  to
       be done for those.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt   is  not  a  version  control  system,  therefore  this  is  not
       implemented as a backend. It can help keeping  track  of  a  series  of
       patches. People use it to keep a set of changes they want to use on top
       of software packages (which is  tightly  integrated  into  the  package
       build  process  -  the  Debian  project does this for a large number of
       packages). Quilt can also help  individual  developers  keep  track  of
       their own patches on top of real version control systems.

       The  vcs_info  integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by
       having two slightly different modes  of  operation:  `addon'  mode  and
       `standalone' mode).

       For `addon' mode to become active vcs_info must have already detected a
       real version control system controlling the directory. If that  is  the
       case,  a  directory  that holds quilt's patches needs to be found. That
       directory is configurable via the `QUILT_PATCHES' environment variable.
       If  that  variable  exists  its  value  is  used,  otherwise  the value
       `patches' is assumed. The value from $QUILT_PATCHES can be  overwritten
       using  the  `quilt-patches'  style. (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep
       the value of $QUILT_PATCHES correct all the  time  via  the  post-quilt

       When the directory in question is found, quilt is assumed to be active.
       To gather more information,  vcs_info  looks  for  a  directory  called
       `.pc';  Quilt  uses  that directory to track its current state. If this
       directory does not exist we know that quilt has not  done  anything  to
       the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If  patches  are  applied,  vcs_info will try to find out which. If you
       want to know which patches of a series are not yet applied, you need to
       activate the get-unapplied style in the appropriate context.

       vcs_info  allows  for  very  detailed  control  over  how  the gathered
       information is presented (see the below sections, Styles and  Hooks  in
       vcs_info),  all  of which are documented below. Note there are a number
       of other patch tracking systems that work on top of a  certain  version
       control  system  (like  stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration
       for systems like that are generally configured  the  same  way  as  the
       quilt support.

       If the quilt support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string is
       available as a simple format replacement (%Q to be precise), which  can
       be used in formats and actionformats; see below for details).

       If,  on  the  other  hand,  the support code is working in `standalone'
       mode, vcs_info will pretend as if quilt were an actual version  control
       system.  That  means  that the version control system identifier (which
       otherwise would be something like  `svn'  or  `cvs')  will  be  set  to
       `-quilt-'.  This  has implications on the used style context where this
       identifier is the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper
       value  for  the "repository's" root directory and the string containing
       the information about quilt's state will be  available  as  the  `misc'
       replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode.

       What  is  left  to  discuss  is  how `standalone' mode is detected. The
       detection itself is a series of searches for directories. You can  have
       this  detection  enabled  all  the  time in every directory that is not
       otherwise under version control. If you know there is  only  a  limited
       set of trees where you would like vcs_info to try and look for Quilt in
       `standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call  to
       vcs_info, there are a number of ways to do that:

       Essentially,  `standalone'  mode  detection  is  controlled  by a style
       called `quilt-standalone'. It is a string style and its value can  have
       different  effects.  The simplest values are: `always' to run detection
       every time vcs_info is run, and  `never'  to  turn  the  detection  off

       If  the  value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted
       differently. If the value is the name of a scalar variable the value of
       that   variable  is  checked  and  that  value  is  used  in  the  same
       `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an  array,  the  elements  of  that
       array are used as directory names under which you want the detection to
       be active.

       If quilt-standalone is an associative array,  the  keys  are  taken  as
       directory  names  under  which you want the detection to be active, but
       only if the corresponding value is the string `true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is the name of  a
       function, the function is called without arguments and the return value
       decides whether detection should be active. A `0' return value is true;
       a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note,  if  there  is  both  a  function  and  a variable by the name of
       quilt-standalone, the function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The main function, that runs all backends and assembles all data
              into  ${vcs_info_msg_*_}.  This is the function you want to call
              from precmd if you want to  include  up-to-date  information  in
              your  prompt (see Variable description below). If an argument is
              given, that string will  be  used  instead  of  default  in  the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Statically  registers a number of functions to a given hook. The
              hook needs to be given as the first argument; what follows is  a
              list  of hook-function names to register to the hook. The `+vi-'
              prefix needs to be left out here. See Hooks  in  vcs_info  below
              for details.

              Remove  hook-functions  from  a given hook. The hook needs to be
              given as the first non-option argument; what follows is  a  list
              of  hook-function names to un-register from the hook. If `-a' is
              used as the first argument, all occurances of the functions  are
              unregistered. Otherwise only the last occurance is removed (if a
              function was registered to a hook more than once) .  The  `+vi-'
              prefix  needs  to  be left out here. See Hooks in vcs_info below
              for details.

              Outputs the last ${vcs_info_msg_*_} value.  Takes  into  account
              the     value     of    the    use-prompt-escapes    style    in
              ':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'.   It   also    only    prints
              max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints  a  list of all supported version control systems. Useful
              to find out possible contexts (and which of them are enabled) or
              values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With
              this  function,  you  can  add  support  for  new  VCSs  without
              restarting the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where  N  is  an integer, e.g., vcs_info_msg_0_. These variables
              are the storage for the informational message the last  vcs_info
              call has assembled. These are strongly connected to the formats,
              actionformats and  nvcsformats  styles  described  above.  Those
              styles  are  lists.  The first member of that list gets expanded
              into ${vcs_info_msg_0_}, the second into ${vcs_info_msg_1_}  and
              the Nth into ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}. These parameters are exported
              into the environment. (See the max-exports style above.)

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks are places in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code
       can  communicate  with the code that called it and through that, change
       the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To register functions to a hook, you need to list  them  in  the  hooks
       style in the appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This  registers  functions to the hook `foo' for all backends. In order
       to  avoid  namespace  problems,  all  registered  function  names   are
       prepended  by  a  `+vi-',  so the actual functions called for the `foo'
       hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If you would like to register a function to a hook  regardless  of  the
       current context, you may use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a
       function that was added like that, the vcs_info_hookdel function can be

       If  something  seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean style in
       the proper context and the hook-calling code will print what  it  tried
       to execute and whether the function in question existed.

       When  you  register more than one function to a hook, all functions are
       executed one after another until one function returns non-zero or until
       all  functions  have  been called. Context-sensitive hook functions are
       executed  before  statically  registered  ones  (the  ones   added   by

       You   may  pass  data  between  functions  via  an  associative  array,
       user_data.  For example:
                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The return value that  the  hooks  system  will  return  to  the
              caller.  The  default is an integer `zero'. If and how a changed
              ret value changes the execution of the  caller  depends  on  the
              specific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

              An   associated   array   which   is   used   for  bidirectional
              communication from the caller to hook functions. The  used  keys
              depend on the specific hook.

              The  active  context  of the hook. Functions that wish to change
              this variable should make it local scope first.

       vcs    The current VCS after it was detected. The same values as in the
              enable/disable  style  are  used.  Available in all hooks except

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called after starting  vcs_info  but  before  the  VCS  in  this
              directory  is  determined. It can be used to deactivate vcs_info
              temporarily if necessary. When ret is set to 1, vcs_info  aborts
              and  does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything as
              if no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called in the  Mercurial  backend  when  a  bookmark  string  is
              generated;  the  get-revision  and  get-bookmarks styles must be

              This hook  gets  the  names  of  the  Mercurial  bookmarks  that
              vcs_info collected from `hg'.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]} will be used in the %m escape in
              formats  and  actionformats  and  will be availabe in the global
              backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backends and in
              quilt   support   when  the  applied-string  is  generated;  the
              use-quilt zstyle must be  true  for  quilt  (the  mq  and  stgit
              backends are active by default).

              This  hook  gets the names of all applied patches which vcs_info
              collected so far in the opposite order,  which  means  that  the
              first argument is the top-most patch and so forth.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[applied-string]} will be used in  the  %m  escape  in
              formats  and  actionformats;  it will be available in the global
              backend_misc array as $backend_misc[patches]}; and  it  will  be
              available as %p in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called  in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backend and in
              quilt  support  when  the  unapplied-string  is  generated;  the
              get-unapplied style must be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info
              collected so far in the opposite  order,  which  mean  that  the
              first  argument  is  the patch next-in-line to be applied and so

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[unapplied-string]}  will  be  available  as %u in the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called in the hg backend when guards-string  is  generated;  the
              get-mq style must be true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When    setting    ret    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used in the %g escape in  the
              patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This  hooks  is  called  when  no  version  control  system  was

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  after  the  quilt  support  is   done.   The   following
              information   is  passed  as  arguments  to  the  hook:  1.  the
              quilt-support mode (`addon' or `standalone'); 2.  the  directory
              that  contains  the  patch  series;  3. the directory that holds
              quilt's status information (the `.pc' directory) or  the  string
              "-nopc-" if that directory wasn't found.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  before  `branchformat'  is set. The only argument to the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys  considered  are  `branch'  and  `revision'.
              They  are  set  to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and
              any change will be used directly when the actual replacement  is

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will be used unchanged as  the  `%b'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  before  a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the
              hook is the format that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.   They
              are  set  to  the  values figured out so far by vcs_info and any
              change will be used directly  when  the  actual  replacement  is

              If    ret    is    set    to    non-zero,    the    string    in
              ${hook_com[rev-replace]} will be  used  unchanged  as  the  `%i'
              replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  each time before a `vcs_info_msg_N_' message is set.  It
              takes two arguments; the first being  the  `N'  in  the  message
              variable name, the second is the currently configured formats or

              There are a number of  `hook_com'  keys,  that  are  used  here:
              `action',  `branch',  `base',  `base-name',  `subdir', `staged',
              `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs' and one `miscN' entry  for
              each  backend-specific data field (N starting at zero). They are
              set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any  change
              will be used directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since  this  hook  is  triggered  multiple  times (once for each
              configured formats or actionformats),  each  of  the  `hook_com'
              keys  mentioned  above  (except  for  the  miscN entries) has an
              `_orig' counterpart, so even if you  changed  a  value  to  your
              liking  you  can  still  get the original value in the next run.
              Changing the `_orig' values is probably not a good idea.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the  string  in  ${hook_com[message]}
              will be used unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If  all  of  this  sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples
       section below and also in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file  in  the  Zsh
       source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All  %x  expansion in all sorts of formats ("formats", "actionformats",
       branchformat, you name it) are done using the  `zformat'  builtin  from
       the  `zsh/zutil' module. That means you can do everything with these %x
       items what zformat supports. In particular, if you want something  that
       is  really  long  to  have  a  fixed  width, like a hash in a mercurial
       branchformat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character
       hash  to  its  12 leading characters. The form is actually `%min.maxx'.
       More  is  possible.   See  the  section  `The  zsh/zutil   Module'   in
       zshmodules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If    you    do    use   use-simple,   please   report   if   it   does

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If you want colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if
       you want to use the string provided by vcs_info in prompts.

       Here  is  how  to  print  the  VCS  information  as a command (not in a
              alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This way,  you  can  even  define  different  formats  for  output  via
       vcs_info_lastmsg in the ':vcs_info:*:command:*' namespace.

       Now  as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace
       the string `svn' by `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a  function  when  populating  the
       message variables with the gathered information:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual
       function yet. To see what the hooks subsystem is trying to  do,  enable
       the `debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That  should  give  you  an  idea  what  is going on. Specifically, the
       function that we are looking for  is  `+vi-svn2subversion'.  Note,  the
       `+vi-' prefix. So, everything is in order, just as documented. When you
       are done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been  simpler,  if  only  we  had
       registered  our function in a less generic context. If we do it only in
       the `svn' backend's context, we don't need to  test  which  the  active
       backend is:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses a hook to create
       a customised bookmark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks function:
              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  local s i
                  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
                  # the functions positional parameters.
                  (( $# == 0 )) && return 0
                  for i in "$@"; do
                      if [[ $i == sh/* ]]; then
                          [[ -n $s ]] && s=$s,
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key, at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks at is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal, that we want to use the sting we
                  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and  code  snippets  which  might  be  useful  are
       available in the examples file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the
       Zsh source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.


       You should make sure  all  the  functions  from  the  Functions/Prompts
       directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with
       the string `prompt_' except for the special function`promptinit'.   You
       also  need  the  `colors'  function  from Functions/Misc.  All of these
       functions may already have been installed on your system; if  not,  you
       will  need  to find them and copy them.  The directory should appear as
       one of the elements of the fpath array (this should already be the case
       if they were installed), and at least the function promptinit should be
       autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize the  use
       of  the system you need to call the promptinit function.  The following
       code in your .zshrc will arrange for this;  assume  the  functions  are
       stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use  the  prompt  command to select your preferred theme.  This command
       may be added to your .zshrc following the call to promptinit  in  order
       to start zsh with a theme already selected.

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set  or  examine  the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme
              argument, the theme with that name is set as the current  theme.
              The  available  themes  are  determined  at run time; use the -l
              option to see a list.  The special  theme  `random'  selects  at
              random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In  some  cases  the  theme  may  be  modified  by  one  or more
              arguments, which should be given after the theme name.  See  the
              help for each theme for descriptions of these arguments.

              Options are:

              -c     Show  the currently selected theme and its parameters, if
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or  all  themes  if  no
                     theme is given.
              -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the prompt
                     function if no theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the
              prompt function to install that theme.  This function may define
              other functions as necessary to maintain the  prompt,  including
              functions  used  to  preview  the prompt or provide help for its
              use.  You should not normally  call  a  theme's  setup  function


       These  functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1))
       which can be bound to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To  use  them,
       your .zshrc should contain lines of the form

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed  by  an  appropriate bindkey command to associate the function
       with a key sequence.  Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If you are looking for functions to implement  moving  over  and
              editing  words  in  the  manner of bash, where only alphanumeric
              characters are considered  word  characters,  you  can  use  the
              functions  described  in  the  next  section.   The following is

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The eight `-match' functions are drop-in  replacements  for  the
              builtin widgets without the suffix.  By default they behave in a
              similar way.  However, by the use of  styles  and  the  function
              select-word-style, the way words are matched can be altered.

              The  simplest  way  of  configuring  the  functions  is  to  use
              select-word-style, which  can  either  be  called  as  a  normal
              function   with  the  appropriate  argument,  or  invoked  as  a
              user-defined widget that will prompt for the first character  of
              the  word  style  to be used.  The first time it is invoked, the
              eight -match functions will automatically  replace  the  builtin
              versions, so they do not need to be loaded explicitly.

              The  word  styles  available  are  as  follows.   Only the first
              character is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As  in  normal  shell  operation:   word  characters  are
                     alphanumeric  characters  plus  any characters present in
                     the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words are  complete  shell  command  arguments,  possibly
                     including  complete quoted strings, or any tokens special
                     to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as

              All but `default' can be input as an upper case character, which
              has the same effect but with subword  matching  turned  on.   In
              this   case,  words  with  upper  case  characters  are  treated
              specially: each separate run of upper  case  characters,  or  an
              upper case character followed by any number of other characters,
              is considered a word.  The style  subword-range  can  supply  an
              alternative  character  range  to  the  default `[:upper:]'; the
              value of the style is treated  as  the  contents  of  a  `[...]'
              pattern  (note  that  the outer brackets should not be supplied,
              only those surrounding named ranges).

              More control can  be  obtained  using  the  zstyle  command,  as
              described  in  zshmodules(1).   Each  style  is looked up in the
              context :zle:widget where widget is the name of the user-defined
              widget,  not the name of the function implementing it, so in the
              case  of  the  definitions  supplied  by  select-word-style  the
              appropriate  contexts  are  :zle:forward-word,  and  so on.  The
              function select-word-style itself always defines styles for  the
              context  `:zle:*'  which  can  be  overridden  by  more specific
              (longer) patterns as well as explicit contexts.

              The style word-style specifies the rules to use.  This may  have
              the following values.

              normal Use  the  standard  shell  rules,  i.e. alphanumerics and
                     $WORDCHARS, unless overridden by the styles word-chars or

                     Similar to normal, but only the specified characters, and
                     not also alphanumerics, are considered word characters.

                     The negation of  specified.   The  given  characters  are
                     those which will not be considered part of a word.

              shell  Words  are  obtained  by  using  the  syntactic rules for
                     generating shell command arguments.  In addition, special
                     tokens which are never command arguments such as `()' are
                     also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The first three of those rules usually use $WORDCHARS,  but  the
              value   in   the  parameter  can  be  overridden  by  the  style
              word-chars, which works in exactly the same way  as  $WORDCHARS.
              In addition, the style word-class uses character class syntax to
              group characters and takes precedence over  word-chars  if  both
              are  set.  The word-class style does not include the surrounding
              brackets of the character class; for example, `-:[:alnum:]' is a
              valid   word-class   to   include  all  alphanumerics  plus  the
              characters `-' and `:'.  Be careful including `]', `^'  and  `-'
              as these are special inside character classes.

              word-style  may  also  have  `-subword' appended to its value to
              turn on subword matching, as described above.

              The style skip-chars is mostly useful  for  transpose-words  and
              similar  functions.   If  set,  it  gives  a count of characters
              starting at the cursor position which  will  not  be  considered
              part  of  the  word and are treated as space, regardless of what
              they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has been set,  and  transpose-words-match  is  called  with  the
              cursor  on  the X of fooXbar, where X can be any character, then
              the resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer grained control can  be  obtained  by  setting  the  style
              word-context  to  an  array  of  pairs of entries.  Each pair of
              entries consists of a  pattern  and  a  subcontext.   The  shell
              argument  the  cursor  is  on is matched against each pattern in
              turn until one matches; if it does, the context is extended by a
              colon  and  the corresponding subcontext.  Note that the test is
              made against the original word on the line, with no stripping of
              quotes.   Special  handling  is  done between words: the current
              context is examined and if it contains the string back, the word
              before  the  cursor is considered, else the word after cursor is
              considered. Some examples are given below.

              The  style  skip-whitespace-first  is   only   used   with   the
              forward-word  widget.   If  it is set to true, then forward-word
              skips    any    non-word-characters,     followed     by     any
              non-word-characters:  this  is similar to the behaviour of other
              word-orientated widgets, and also that used  by  other  editors,
              however  it differs from the standard zsh behaviour.  When using
              select-word-style the widget is set in  the  context  :zle:*  to
              true  if  the word style is bash and false otherwise.  It may be
              overridden  by  setting  it  in  the   more   specific   context

              Here are some examples of use of the styles, actually taken from
              the simplified interface in select-word-style:

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets,  i.e.  only
              alphanumerics  are  word  characters;  equivalent to setting the
              parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given context.

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word  `kill'  in
              the  name.   Neither  of the styles word-chars nor word-class is
              used in this case.

              Here are some examples of  use  of  the  word-context  style  to
              extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context "*/*" file "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This  provides  two  different  ways  of  using  transpose-words
              depending on whether the cursor is on whitespace  between  words
              or  on a filename, here any word containing a /.  On whitespace,
              complete arguments as defined by standard shell  rules  will  be
              transposed.    In   a   filename,  only  alphanumerics  will  be
              transposed.  Elsewhere,  words  will  be  transposed  using  the
              default style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The  word  matching  and  all the handling of zstyle settings is
              actually implemented by the function match-words-by-style.  This
              can  be  used  to  create new user-defined widgets.  The calling
              function  should  set  the   local   parameter   curcontext   to
              :zle:widget,  create  the local parameter matched_words and call
              match-words-by-style   with   no    arguments.     On    return,
              matched_words will be set to an array with the elements: (1) the
              start of the line  (2)  the  word  before  the  cursor  (3)  any
              non-word  characters  between  that  word and the cursor (4) any
              non-word character at the cursor  position  plus  any  remaining
              non-word   characters   before  the  next  word,  including  all
              characters specified by the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or
              following  the cursor (6) any non-word characters following that
              word (7) the remainder of the line.  Any of the elements may  be
              an  empty  string;  the calling function should test for this to
              decide whether it can perform its function.

              It   is   possible   to   pass   options   with   arguments   to
              match-words-by-style to override the use of styles.  The options
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be  used  to
              extract the command argument around the cursor.

              The   word-context   style   is   implemented  by  the  function
              match-word-context.  This should not usually need to  be  called

              This  widget  works  like  a combination of insert-last-word and
              copy-prev-shell-word.   Repeated  invocations  of   the   widget
              retrieve  earlier  words  on  the relevant history line.  With a
              numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N
              may be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a
              previous history line, repeated invocations  will  replace  that
              word with earlier words from the same line.

              Otherwise,  the  widget  applies  to words on the line currently
              being edited.  The widget style  can  be  set  to  the  name  of
              another  widget  that  should be called to retrieve words.  This
              widget must accept the same three arguments as insert-last-word.

              After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the
              new  function  based  completion  system may know about multiple
              places in this string where characters  are  missing  or  differ
              from  at  least one of the possible matches.  It will then place
              the  cursor  on  the  position  it  considers  to  be  the  most
              interesting one, i.e. the one where one can disambiguate between
              as many matches as possible with as little typing as possible.

              This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved  to  the  other
              interesting  spots.   It  can  be  invoked  repeatedly  to cycle
              between all positions reported by the completion system.

              This is another function which works like the  -match  functions
              described  immediately  above,  i.e.  using styles to decide the
              word boundaries.  However, it  is  not  a  replacement  for  any
              existing function.

              The  basic  behaviour  is  to delete the word around the cursor.
              There is no numeric prefix handling; only the single word around
              the  cursor  is  considered.   If the widget contains the string
              kill, the removed text will  be  placed  in  the  cutbuffer  for
              future    yanking.    This   can   be   obtained   by   defining
              kill-whole-word-match as follows:

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These   widgets   are   similar   to   the   builtin   functions
              up-line-or-search  and  down-line-or-search:   if in a multiline
              buffer they move up or down within the  buffer,  otherwise  they
              search  for  a  history  line  matching the start of the current
              line.  In this case, however,  they  search  for  a  line  which
              matches  the  current line up to the current cursor position, in
              the manner of  history-beginning-search-backward  and  -forward,
              rather than the first word on the line.

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              This        function        implements        the        widgets
              history-beginning-search-backward-end                        and
              history-beginning-search-forward-end.   These  commands  work by
              first calling the corresponding  builtin  widget  (see  `History
              Control'  in zshzle(1)) and then moving the cursor to the end of
              the line.   The  original  cursor  position  is  remembered  and
              restored  before  calling  the  builtin widget a second time, so
              that the same search is repeated to  look  farther  through  the

              Although  you autoload only one function, the commands to use it
              are slightly different because it implements two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This function implements yet another form of history  searching.
              The  text  before  the  cursor  is used to select lines from the
              history, as for  history-beginning-search-backward  except  that
              all   matches   are  shown  in  a  numbered  menu.   Typing  the
              appropriate digits inserts the full  history  line.   Note  that
              leading zeroes must be typed (they are only shown when necessary
              for removing ambiguity).  The entire history is searched;  there
              is no distinction between forwards and backwards.

              With  a prefix argument, the search is not anchored to the start
              of the line; the string typed by the use may appear anywhere  in
              the line in the history.

              If  the  widget  name contains `-end' the cursor is moved to the
              end of the line inserted.  If the widget name contains  `-space'
              any  space  in  the  text typed is treated as a wildcard and can
              match anything (hence a leading space is equivalent to giving  a
              prefix argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The  function  history-pattern-search  implements  widgets which
              prompt for a pattern with which to search the history  backwards
              or  forwards.   The  pattern is in the usual zsh format, however
              the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to  the  start
              of  the  line,  and  the  last  character may be $ to anchor the
              search to the end of the line.  If the search was  not  anchored
              to  the  end of the line the cursor is positioned just after the
              pattern found.

              The commands to create bindable widgets are similar to those  in
              the example immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing  the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on
              or to  the  left  of  an  integer  causes  that  integer  to  be
              incremented  by one.  With a numeric prefix argument, the number
              is incremented by the amount of the argument (decremented if the
              prefix argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be
              set to change the default increment to something other than one.

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This allows incremental completion of a  word.   After  starting
              this  command,  a  list of completion choices can be shown after
              every character you type, which you can delete with ^H  or  DEL.
              Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns you to
              normal editing (that is, the command  line  is  not  immediately
              executed).  You can hit TAB to do normal completion, ^G to abort
              back to the state when you started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear
              on  the  keyboard  to  be  inserted  into the command line.  The
              command  is  followed  by  two  keys  corresponding   to   ASCII
              characters  (there  is no prompt).  For accented characters, the
              two keys are a base character followed by a code for the accent,
              while  for  other special characters the two characters together
              form  a  mnemonic  for  the  character  to  be  inserted.    The
              two-character codes are a subset of those given by RFC 1345 (see
              for example

              The function may optionally be followed by up to two  characters
              which  replace  one  or  both  of  the  characters read from the
              keyboard; if both characters are supplied,  no  input  is  read.
              For example, insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget
              to insert an a with umlaut into the command line.  This has  the
              advantages  over  use  of  a  literal  character that it is more

              For best results zsh should have been  built  with  support  for
              multibyte   characters   (configured  with  --enable-multibyte);
              however, the function works for the limited range of  characters
              available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The  character  is  converted  into the local representation and
              inserted into the command line at  the  cursor  position.   (The
              conversion  is  done within the shell, using whatever facilities
              the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the character
              and its code are previewed in the status line

              The  function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the
              character (together with a newline) to standard  output.   Input
              is still read from keystrokes.

              See  insert-unicode-char  for  an  alternative  way of inserting
              Unicode characters using their hexadecimal character number.

              The set of accented characters  is  reasonably  complete  up  to
              Unicode character U+0180, the set of special characters less so.
              However, it is  very  sporadic  from  that  point.   Adding  new
              characters     is    easy,    however;    see    the    function
              define-composed-chars.    Please   send   any    additions    to

              The codes for the second character when used to accent the first
              are as follows.  Note that not every character  can  take  every
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.   (This  is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not assume that
                     character is present on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot above the base character, or in the case of i no dot,
                     or in the case of L and l a centered dot.
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline,  however  there  are  currently  no underlined
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.  (A little forward  facing  hook  at  the  bottom
                     right of the character.)
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The  most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek and
              Hebrew  alphabets  are  available;  consult  RFC  1345  for  the
              appropriate  sequences.   In addition, a set of two letter codes
              not in RFC 1345 are available for  the  double-width  characters
              corresponding to ASCII characters from !  to ~ (0x21 to 0x7e) by
              preceding  the  character  with  ^,  for  example   ^A   for   a
              double-width A.

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters   found  in  various  variants  of  the  Latin
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a 9
                     rather  than  6) rather than their grammatical use.  (For
                     example, a "right" low  double  quote  is  used  to  open
                     quotations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth
                     note), semiquavers (sixteenth notes), flag sign,  natural
                     sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This  function  allows  you  type  a  file  pattern, and see the
              results of the expansion at each step.  When you hit return, all
              expansions are inserted into the command line.

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

              When  first  executed,  the  user  inputs  a  set of hexadecimal
              digits.    This   is   terminated   with   another    call    to
              insert-unicode-char.   The  digits  are  then  turned  into  the
              corresponding Unicode character.  For example, if the widget  is
              bound  to  ^XU,  the  character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L
              (Unicode U+004c).

              See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters using
              a two-character mnemonic.

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
           [ -S statepm | -R statepm ] [ -n ] [ start end ])
              Narrow  the editable portion of the buffer to the region between
              the cursor and the mark, which may  be  in  either  order.   The
              region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region may be used as a widget or called as a function
              from a user-defined widget; by default,  the  text  outside  the
              editable  area  remains  visible.  A recursive-edit is performed
              and the original widening  status  is  then  restored.   Various
              options  and  arguments  are  available  when  it is called as a

              The options -p pretext and -P posttext may be  used  to  replace
              the  text  before  and after the display for the duration of the
              function; either or both may be an empty string.

              If the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be
              inserted   if   there   is  text  before  or  after  the  region
              respectively which will be made invisible.

              Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead of
              the cursor and mark positions.

              The  option  -S statepm is used to narrow according to the other
              options while saving the original state in  the  parameter  with
              name statepm, while the option -R statepm is used to restore the
              state from the parameter; note in both cases  the  name  of  the
              parameter  is  required.   In the second case, other options and
              arguments  are  irrelevant.   When  this  method  is  used,   no
              recursive-edit is performed; the calling widget should call this
              function with the option -S, perform  its  own  editing  on  the
              command   line   or   pass   control   to   the  user  via  `zle
              recursive-edit', then call this function  with  the  option  -R.
              The  argument  statepm  must  be a suitable name for an ordinary
              parameter, except that  parameters  beginning  with  the  prefix
              _ntr_  are  reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically
              the parameter will be local to the calling function.

              narrow-to-region-invisible  is  a  simple  widget  which   calls
              narrow-to-region  with  arguments which replace any text outside
              the region with `...'.

              The display is restored (and the widget returns)  upon  any  zle
              command  which  would  usually  cause the line to be accepted or
              aborted.  Hence an additional such command is required to accept
              or abort the current line.

              The  return  status  of  both  widgets  is  zero if the line was
              accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region
' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              This set of functions implements predictive typing using history
              search.   After  predict-on, typing characters causes the editor
              to look backward in the history for  the  first  line  beginning
              with  what  you  have  typed so far.  After predict-off, editing
              returns to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often  don't
              even  need to use predict-off, because if the line doesn't match
              something  in  the  history,  adding  a  key  performs  standard
              completion,  and  then  inserts  itself  if  no completions were
              found.  However, editing in the middle of a line  is  liable  to
              confuse prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With  the  function based completion system (which is needed for
              this), you should be able to type TAB at  almost  any  point  to
              advance   the  cursor  to  the  next  ``interesting''  character
              position (usually the end of the  current  word,  but  sometimes
              somewhere  in the middle of the word).  And of course as soon as
              the entire line is what you want, you can  accept  with  return,
              without needing to move the cursor to the end first.

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional
              widget functions:

                     Replaces the backward-delete-char  widget.   You  do  not
                     need to bind this yourself.
                     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert
                     widget.  You do not need to bind this yourself.
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although you  autoload  only  the  predict-on  function,  it  is
              necessary to create a keybinding for predict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This  is  most  useful  when  called as a function from inside a
              widget, but will work correctly as a widget in  its  own  right.
              It  prompts  for a value below the current command line; a value
              may be input using all of the standard zle operations  (and  not
              merely the restricted set available when executing, for example,
              execute-named-cmd).  The value is then returned to  the  calling
              function in the parameter $REPLY and the editing buffer restored
              to its previous state.  If the read was aborted  by  a  keyboard
              break  (typically  ^G), the function returns status 1 and $REPLY
              is not set.

              If one argument is supplied to the function it  is  taken  as  a
              prompt,  otherwise `? ' is used.  If two arguments are supplied,
              they are the prompt and the initial value of $LBUFFER, and if  a
              third  argument  is  given  it is the initial value of $RBUFFER.
              This provides a default value  and  starting  cursor  placement.
              Upon return the entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One  option is available: `-k num' specifies that num characters
              are to be read instead of a whole line.  The line editor is  not
              invoked  recursively  in this case, so depending on the terminal
              settings the input may not be visible, and only the  input  keys
              are  placed  in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note that unlike
              the read builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The name is a slight  misnomer,  as  in  fact  the  shell's  own
              minibuffer  is  not  used.   Hence  it is still possible to call
              executed-named-cmd and similar functions while reading a value.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The  function  replace-string  implements  three  widgets.    If
              defined  under the same name as the function, it prompts for two
              strings; the first (source)  string  will  be  replaced  by  the
              second everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If  the  widget name contains the word `pattern', for example by
              defining the widget using the command  `zle  -N  replace-pattern
              replace-string',  then  the  matching  is  performed  using  zsh
              patterns.  All zsh extended globbing patterns can be used in the
              source  string; note that unlike filename generation the pattern
              does not need to match an entire word, nor  do  glob  qualifiers
              have  any  effect.   In  addition,  the  replacement  string can
              contain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a  `&'
              in  the  replacement  string  will  be replaced with the matched
              source string, and a backquoted digit `\N' will be  replaced  by
              the  Nth  parenthesised expression matched.  The form `\{N}' may
              be used to protect the digit from following digits.

              If the widget instead contains the word `regex'  (or  `regexp'),
              then  the  matching  is  performed  using  regular  expressions,
              respecting the setting of  the  option  RE_MATCH_PCRE  (see  the
              description  of the function regexp-replace below).  The special
              replacement facilities described above for pattern matching  are

              By default the previous source or replacement string will not be
              offered for editing.  However, this feature can be activated  by
              setting  the style edit-previous in the context :zle:widget (for
              example, :zle:replace-string) to true.  In addition, a  positive
              numeric  argument  forces  the  previous values to be offered, a
              negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The function replace-string-again can  be  used  to  repeat  the
              previous   replacement;   no   prompting   is   done.   As  with
              replace-string, if the name of  the  widget  contains  the  word
              `pattern'  or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching is
              performed, else a literal string  replacement.   Note  that  the
              previous  source  and  replacement  text  are  the  same whether
              pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              In addition, replace-string shows the previous replacement above
              the prompt, so long as there was one during the current session;
              if the source string is empty, that replacement will be repeated
              without the widget prompting for a replacement string.

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and  invoking replace-pattern with the source string `f(?)n' and
              the replacement string `cr' produces the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The range of the replacement string can be limited by using  the
              narrow-to-region-invisible   widget.    One  limitation  of  the
              current version is that undo will cycle through changes  to  the
              replacement  and  source  strings before undoing the replacement

              This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called
              as  a  function  from  a  widget  or as a widget of its own, and
              interactively reads input from the keyboard.  However, the input
              being  typed  is  concealed  and  a string of asterisks (`*') is
              shown instead.  The value is saved in the  parameter  $INVISIBLE
              to  which a reference is inserted into the editing buffer at the
              restored cursor position.  If the read was aborted by a keyboard
              break  (typically  ^G)  or  another  escape from editing such as
              push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the original buffer is
              restored unchanged.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied to the function it is taken as a
              prompt, otherwise `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If
              a  second and third argument are supplied they are used to begin
              and end the reference to $INVISIBLE that is  inserted  into  the
              buffer.   The  default  is  to open with ${, then INVISIBLE, and
              close with }, but many other effects are possible.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With a numeric prefix, or when passed command line arguments  in
              a  call  from  another widget, it behaves like insert-last-word,
              except   that   words   in    comments    are    ignored    when
              INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

              Otherwise,  the rightmost ``interesting'' word from the previous
              command is  found  and  inserted.   The  default  definition  of
              ``interesting''   is   that  the  word  contains  at  least  one
              alphabetic character, slash, or backslash.  This definition  may
              be  overridden  by  use of the match style.  The context used to
              look up the style is the widget name, so usually the context  is
              :insert-last-word.   However,  you  can  bind  this  function to
              different widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous  style  is
              set  to  a  true  value, the search continues upward through the
              history.  When auto-previous is unset or  false  (the  default),
              the widget must be invoked repeatedly in order to search earlier
              history lines.

              Only useful with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are
              lines  within  the  current on-screen buffer, not history lines.
              The effect is similar to the function of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose the current line with the previous line and  move  the
              cursor to the start of the next line.  Repeating this (which can
              be done by providing a positive numeric prefix argument) has the
              effect  of  moving the line above the cursor down by a number of

              With a negative numeric  prefix  argument,  requires  two  lines
              above the cursor.  These two lines are transposed and the cursor
              moved to the start of the previous line.  Using a numeric prefix
              less  than -1 has the effect of moving the line above the cursor
              up by minus that number of lines.

              This function is a drop-in replacement for  the  builtin  widget
              which-command.   It has enhanced behaviour, in that it correctly
              detects whether or not the command word needs to be expanded  as
              an  alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word from the
              expanded alias  until  it  reaches  the  command  that  will  be

              The  style whence is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this
              may be set to an array to give the command and options that will
              be  used  to investigate the command word found.  The default is
              whence -c.

   Utility Functions
       These functions are useful in constructing  widgets.   They  should  be
       loaded  with  `autoload  -U  function'  and  called  as  indicated from
       user-defined widgets.

              This function splits the line currently being edited into  shell
              arguments  and  whitespace.   The  result is stored in the array
              reply.  The array contains all the parts of the line  in  order,
              starting  with  any  whitespace  before  the first argument, and
              finishing with any whitespace after the  last  argument.   Hence
              (so  long  as  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is
              given by odd indices in the array and arguments by even indices.
              Note  that  no stripping of quotes is done; joining together all
              the elements of reply in order  is  guaranteed  to  produce  the
              original line.

              The  parameter  REPLY  is  set to the index of the word in reply
              which contains the character after the cursor, where  the  first
              element  has  index 1.  The parameter REPLY2 is set to the index
              of the character under the cursor in that word, where the  first
              character has index 1.

              Hence  reply,  REPLY  and REPLY2 should all be made local to the
              enclosing function.

              See the function modify-current-argument, described  below,  for
              an example of how to call this function.

       modify-current-argument [ expr-using-$ARG | func ]
              This  function provides a simple method of allowing user-defined
              widgets to modify the command line argument under the cursor (or
              immediately  to  the left of the cursor if the cursor is between

              The argument can be an expression which when evaluated  operates
              on  the  shell  parameter  ARG,  which will have been set to the
              command line argument under the cursor.  The  expression  should
              be suitably quoted to prevent it being evaluated too early.

              Alternatively,  if the argument does not contain the string ARG,
              it is assumed to be a  shell  function,  to  which  the  current
              command  line  argument  is  passed  as  the only argument.  The
              function should set the variable REPLY to the new value for  the
              command line argument.  If the function returns non-zero status,
              so does the calling function.

              For example, a user-defined widget containing the following code
              converts  the  characters  in the argument under the cursor into
              all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The following strips any quoting from the current word  (whether
              backslashes  or  one  of  the styles of quotes), and replaces it
              with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

              The following performs directory expansion on the  command  line
              argument and replaces it by the absolute path:

                     expand-dir() {
                     modify-current-argument expand-dir

              In  practice  the  function  expand-dir  would  probably  not be
              defined  within  the  widget  where  modify-current-argument  is

       The  behavior  of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the
       use of the zstyle mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with
       the  completion system pass along their context to any completions that
       they invoke.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value  should  be  a pattern, and all keys matching this pattern
              will cause the widget to stop incremental completion without the
              key  having any further effect. Like all styles used directly by
              incremental-complete-word, this style is  looked  up  using  the
              context `:incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set
              up their top-level context name before calling completion.  This
              allows  one  to define different sets of completer functions for
              normal completion and for these widgets.  For  example,  to  use
              completion,  approximation and correction for normal completion,
              completion and correction for incremental  completion  and  only
              completion for prediction one could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction,
              because they may be automatically  invoked  as  you  type.   The
              _list and _menu completers should never be used with prediction.
              The _approximate, _correct, _expand, and _match  completers  may
              be  used,  but be aware that they may change characters anywhere
              in the word behind the cursor, so you need  to  watch  carefully
              that the result is what you intended.

       cursor The  insert-and-predict  widget  uses this style, in the context
              `:predict', to decide where to place the cursor after completion
              has been tried.  Values are:

                     The cursor is left where it was when completion finished,
                     but only if it is after a character equal to the one just
                     inserted  by the user.  If it is after another character,
                     this value is the same as `key'.

              key    The cursor is  left  after  the  nth  occurrence  of  the
                     character  just  inserted, where n is the number of times
                     that character appeared in the word before completion was
                     attempted.   In short, this has the effect of leaving the
                     cursor  after  the  character  just  typed  even  if  the
                     completion  code  found out that no other characters need
                     to be inserted at that position.

              Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor
              at the position where the completion code left it.

       list   When using the incremental-complete-word widget, this style says
              if the matches should be listed on every key press (if they  fit
              on      the     screen).      Use     the     context     prefix

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide  if  the
              completion  should  be  shown even if there is only one possible
              completion.  This is done if the value  of  this  style  is  the
              string  always.   In  this  case  the context is `:predict' (not

       match  This style  is  used  by  smart-insert-last-word  to  provide  a
              pattern  (using  full  EXTENDED_GLOB  syntax)  that  matches  an
              interesting word.  The context is the  name  of  the  widget  to
              which  smart-insert-last-word is bound (see above).  The default
              behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\]*'

              Or include  numbers  as  long  as  the  word  is  at  least  two
              characters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\])*'

              The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The  incremental-complete-word  widget  shows  the value of this
              style in the status line  during  incremental  completion.   The
              string  value may contain any of the following substrings in the
              manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced by the  name  of  the  completer  function  that
                     generated the matches (without the leading underscore).

              %l     When the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list
                     of matches is too long to fit on the screen and  with  an
                     empty  string otherwise.  If the list style is `false' or
                     not set, `%l' is always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced by `-no match-',  `-no  prefix-',  or  an  empty
                     string if there is no completion matching the word on the
                     line, if the matches have no common prefix different from
                     the  word  on  the  line,  or  if  there is such a common
                     prefix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there
                     is any, and if it is different from the word on the line.

              Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its
              value is treated similarly to the one for the  break-keys  style
              (and  uses  the same context: `:incremental').  However, in this
              case all keys matching the pattern given as its value will  stop
              incremental   completion  and  will  then  execute  their  usual

       toggle This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values,  predictive  typing  is  automatically  toggled  off  in
              situations  where  it  is  unlikely  to  be useful, such as when
              editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a
              line  and  then  deleting  a character.  The default is to leave
              prediction turned on until an explicit call to predict-off.

              This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related widgets
              in the context `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true'
              values, these widgets display a message below  the  prompt  when
              the  predictive  state  is  toggled.   This  is  most  useful in
              combination with the toggle style.  The default does not display
              these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions
              that use zle to call other widgets, this style can sometimes  be
              used  to  override  the widget which is called.  The context for
              this style is the name of the calling widget (not  the  name  of
              the  calling  function,  because  one  function  may be bound to
              multiple widget names).

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check the documentation for the calling widget  or  function  to
              determine whether the widget style is used.


       Two  functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception handling
       in a form that should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
              The function throw throws the named exception.  The name  is  an
              arbitrary  string  and  is  only  used  by  the  throw and catch
              functions.  An exception is for the most part treated  the  same
              as  a  shell  error,  i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the
              shell to abort all processing in a function  or  script  and  to
              return to the top level in an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The  function  catch  returns  status  zero  if an exception was
              thrown and  the  pattern  exception-pattern  matches  its  name.
              Otherwise  it returns status 1.  exception-pattern is a standard
              shell  pattern,  respecting   the   current   setting   of   the
              EXTENDED_GLOB option.  An alias catch is also defined to prevent
              the  argument  to  the  function  from  matching  filenames,  so
              patterns  may be used unquoted.  Note that as exceptions are not
              fundamentally different from other shell errors it  is  possible
              to  catch shell errors by using an empty string as the exception
              name.  The shell variable CAUGHT is set by catch to the name  of
              the exception caught.  It is possible to rethrow an exception by
              calling the throw function again  once  an  exception  has  been

       The  functions  are  designed  to  be  used  together  with  the always
       construct described in zshmisc(1).  This  is  important  as  only  this
       construct  provides  the  required  support  for exceptions.  A typical
       example is as follows.

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should  be  caught,  the  following  idiom  might  be

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may
       be thrown by code deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However,  note
       that  it  must  be  thrown  inside the current shell, not in a subshell
       forked for a pipeline, parenthesised current-shell construct,  or  some
       form of command or process substitution.

       The  system  internally uses the shell variable EXCEPTION to record the
       name of the exception between throwing and catching.  One  drawback  of
       this  scheme  is  that  if  the  exception  is not handled the variable
       EXCEPTION remains set and may be incorrectly recognised as the name  of
       an  exception  if  a  shell  error  subsequently  occurs.  Adding unset
       EXCEPTION at the start of the outermost layer of  any  code  that  uses
       exception handling will eliminate this problem.


       Three  functions  are available to provide handling of files recognised
       by extension, for example to dispatch a file when executed as a
       command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [-l] command arguments ...
              These   two   functions   use   the   files   ~/.mime.types  and
              /etc/mime.types, which associate types and extensions,  as  well
              as  ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which associate types and
              the programs that handle  them.   These  are  provided  on  many
              systems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To  enable  the  system,  the  function zsh-mime-setup should be
              autoloaded and run.  This allows files  with  extensions  to  be
              treated  as  executable; such files be completed by the function
              completion system.  The  function  zsh-mime-handler  should  not
              need to be called by the user.

              The  system  works by setting up suffix aliases with `alias -s'.
              Suffix aliases  already  installed  by  the  user  will  not  be

              For  suffixes  defined  in  lower case, upper case variants will
              also automatically be handled (e.g. PDF is automatically handled
              if handling for the suffix pdf is defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated  calls  to  zsh-mime-setup do not override the existing
              mapping between suffixes and executable files unless the  option
              -f  is  given.   Note,  however,  that  this  does  not override
              existing  suffix  aliases  assigned  to  handlers   other   than

              Calling  zsh-mime-setup  with  the  option -l lists the existing
              mappings without altering them.  Suffixes  to  list  (which  may
              contain  pattern characters that should be quoted from immediate
              interpretation on the command line) may be given  as  additional
              arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling  zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output
              to be shown during the setup operation.

              The  system  respects  the  mailcap  flags   needsterminal   and
              copiousoutput, see mailcap(4).

              The  functions  use the following styles, which are defined with
              the zstyle builtin command (see zshmodules(1)).  They should  be
              defined  before  zsh-mime-setup  is  run.  The contexts used all
              start with :mime:, with additional components in some cases.  It
              is  recommended  that a trailing * (suitably quoted) be appended
              to style patterns in case the  system  is  extended  in  future.
              Some examples are given below.

              For  files  that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz, where the
              context includes the suffix it will be looked up  starting  with
              the  longest  possible  suffix  until  a  match for the style is
              found.  For  example,  if  .pdf.gz  produces  a  match  for  the
              handler,  that  will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz will
              be used.  Note that, owing to the way suffix aliases work, it is
              always  required  that  there  be  a  handler  for  the shortest
              possible suffix, so in this example .pdf.gz can only be  handled
              if .gz is also handled (though not necessarily in the same way).
              Alternatively, if no handling for .gz  on  its  own  is  needed,
              simply adding the command

                     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

              to  the  initialisation  code  is  sufficient;  .gz  will not be
              handled on its  own,  but  may  be  in  combination  with  other

                     If  this  boolean  style is true, the mailcap handler for
                     the context in question is run  using  the  eval  builtin
                     instead  of  by  starting a new sh process.  This is more
                     efficient, but may not work in the occasional cases where
                     the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

              disown If  this  boolean style is true, mailcap handlers started
                     in the background will be disowned, i.e. not  subject  to
                     job  control  within  the  parent  shell.   Such handlers
                     nearly always produce their  own  windows,  so  the  only
                     likely  harmful  side effect of setting the style is that
                     it becomes harder to kill jobs from within the shell.

                     This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against
                     files  passed  for  execution with a handler program.  If
                     the file matches the pattern, the entire command line  is
                     executed  in  its current form, with no handler.  This is
                     useful  for  files  which   might   have   suffixes   but
                     nonetheless  be  executable  in  their own right.  If the
                     style is not set, the pattern *(*) *(/)  is  used;  hence
                     executable  files are executed directly and not passed to
                     a handler, and the option AUTO_CD may be used  to  change
                     to directories that happen to have MIME suffixes.

                     This  style  is useful in combination with execute-as-is.
                     It is set to an array of patterns corresponding  to  full
                     paths   to   files   that  should  never  be  treated  as
                     executable, even if the file passed to the  MIME  handler
                     matches  execute-as-is.   This is useful for file systems
                     that don't handle  execute  permission  or  that  contain
                     executables  from another operating system.  For example,
                     if /mnt/windows is a Windows mount, then

                            zstyle ':mime:*' execute-never '/mnt/windows/*'

                     will ensure that any files found in  that  area  will  be
                     executed  as  MIME types even if they are executable.  As
                     this example shows, the complete  file  name  is  matched
                     against  the  pattern,  regardless  of  how  the file was
                     passed to the handler.  The file is resolved  to  a  full
                     path  using  the  :A modifier described in the subsection
                     Modifers in zshexpn(1).RE; this means that symbolic links
                     are  resolved  where  possible,  so that links into other
                     file systems behave in the correct fashion.

                     Used if the style find-file-in-path is true for the  same
                     context.   Set  to  an array of directories that are used
                     for searching for the file to be handled; the default  is
                     the  command  path  given  by the special parameter path.
                     The shell option PATH_DIRS is respected; if that is  set,
                     the appropriate path will be searched even if the name of
                     the file to be handled as it appears on the command  line
                     contains  a  `/'.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as
                     described for the style handler.

                     If set, allows files whose names do not contain  absolute
                     paths  to be searched for in the command path or the path
                     specified by the file-path style.  If  the  file  is  not
                     found  in  the path, it is looked for locally (whether or
                     not the current directory is in the path); if it  is  not
                     found   locally,   the  handler  will  abort  unless  the
                     handle-nonexistent style is set.  Files found in the path
                     are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.  The
                     full context is  :mime:.suffix:,  as  described  for  the
                     style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for
                     the handler style, and the format is as for the flags  in

                     By  default, arguments that don't correspond to files are
                     not passed to the MIME handler in  order  to  prevent  it
                     from  intercepting commands found in the path that happen
                     to have suffixes.  This style may be set to an  array  of
                     extended  glob patterns for arguments that will be passed
                     to the handler even if they don't exist.  If  it  is  not
                     explicitly  set  it  defaults  to  [[:alpha:]]#:/*  which
                     allows URLs to be passed to the MIME handler even  though
                     they  don't exist in that format in the file system.  The
                     full context is  :mime:.suffix:,  as  described  for  the
                     style handler.

                     Specifies  a handler for a suffix; the suffix is given by
                     the context as :mime:.suffix:,  and  the  format  of  the
                     handler  is  exactly that in mailcap.  Note in particular
                     the `.' and trailing colon to distinguish this use of the
                     context.   This  overrides  any  handler specified by the
                     mailcap files.  If the handler requires a  terminal,  the
                     flags   style   should   be   set  to  include  the  word
                     needsterminal, or  if  the  output  is  to  be  displayed
                     through  a  pager  (but  not  if  the handler is itself a
                     pager), it should include copiousoutput.

                     A  list  of  files  in  the  format  of  ~/.mailcap   and
                     /etc/mailcap  to  be  read  during  setup,  replacing the
                     default list which consists  of  those  two  files.   The
                     context  is  :mime:.  A + in the list will be replaced by
                     the default files.

                     This style is used to resolve  multiple  mailcap  entries
                     for  the  same MIME type.  It consists of an array of the
                     following elements,  in  descending  order  of  priority;
                     later  entries will be used if earlier entries are unable
                     to resolve the entries being compared.  If  none  of  the
                     tests resolve the entries, the first entry encountered is

                     files  The order of files (entries in the mailcap  style)
                            read.   Earlier  files  are preferred.  (Note this
                            does not resolve entries in the same file.)

                            The priority flag from  the  mailcap  entry.   The
                            priority  is  an  integer  from  0  to  9 with the
                            default value being 5.

                     flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is
                            used to resolve entries.

                     place  Later  entries  are  preferred; as the entries are
                            strictly ordered, this test always succeeds.

                     Note that as this style is handled during initialisation,
                     the  context  is always :mime:, with no discrimination by

                     This style is used when the keyword flags is  encountered
                     in  the list of tests specified by the mailcap-priorities
                     style.  It should be set to a list of patterns,  each  of
                     which  is  tested  against  the  flags  specified  in the
                     mailcap entry (in other words, the  sets  of  assignments
                     found  with  some  entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier
                     patterns in the list are preferred  to  later  ones,  and
                     matched patterns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A  list  of  files  in  the  format  of ~/.mime.types and
                     /etc/mime.types to be read during  setup,  replacing  the
                     default  list  which  consists  of  those two files.  The
                     context is :mime:.  A + in the list will be  replaced  by
                     the default files.

                     If  this  boolean style is set, the handler for the given
                     context is always run in  the  foreground,  even  if  the
                     flags  provided  in the mailcap entry suggest it need not
                     be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

              pager  If set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to  handle
                     suffixes  where  the  copiousoutput  flag  is  set.   The
                     context  is  as  for  handler,  i.e.  :mime:.suffix:  for
                     handling a file with the given suffix.


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When  zsh-mime-setup  is  subsequently  run,  it  will  look for
              mailcap entries in the two files given.  Files  of  suffix  .txt
              will   be   handled   by  running  `less  file.txt'.   The  flag
              needsterminal is set to show that this program must run attached
              to a terminal.

              As  there  are  several  steps  to  dispatching  a  command, the
              following should be checked if attempting to execute a  file  by
              extension .ext does not have the expected effect.

              The  command  `alias  -s ext' should show `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.
              If it shows something else, another  suffix  alias  was  already
              installed  and  was  not  overwritten.   If it shows nothing, no
              handler was installed:  this is most likely because  no  handler
              was  found  in  the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext
              files.  In that case, appropriate handling should  be  added  to
              ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If  the extension is handled by zsh-mime-handler but the file is
              not opened correctly, either the handler defined for the type is
              incorrect,  or  the flags associated with it are in appropriate.
              Running zsh-mime-setup -l will show the handler  and,  if  there
              are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler is replaced by the file
              (suitably quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler  program
              listed  lists  and can be run in the way shown.  Also check that
              the flags needsterminal or copiousoutput are set if the  handler
              needs to be run under a terminal; the second flag is used if the
              output should be sent to a pager.   An  example  of  a  suitable
              mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running  `zsh-mime-handler  -l  command line' prints the command
              line that would be executed, simplified to remove the effect  of
              any  flags,  and  quoted  so  that  the  output  can be run as a
              complete zsh command line.   This  is  used  by  the  completion
              system  to  decide  how  to  complete  after  a  file handled by
              zsh-mime-setup.  )

                     This function is separate from  the  two  MIME  functions
                     described above and can be assigned directly to a suffix:

                            autoload -U pick-web-browser
                            alias -s html=pick-web-browser

                     It  is provided as an intelligent front end to dispatch a
                     web browser.  It may be run as either  a  function  or  a
                     shell  script.   The status 255 is returned if no browser
                     could be started.

                     Various styles are available to customize the  choice  of

                            The   value  of  the  style  is  an  array  giving
                            preferences in decreasing order for  the  type  of
                            browser to use.  The values of elements may be

                                   Use  a  GUI browser that is already running
                                   when an X Window display is available.  The
                                   browsers listed in the x-browsers style are
                                   tried in order until one is  found;  if  it
                                   is,  the  file  will  be  displayed in that
                                   browser, so the  user  may  need  to  check
                                   whether  it  has  appeared.   If no running
                                   browser  is  found,  one  is  not  started.
                                   Browsers  other  than  Firefox,  Opera  and
                                   Konqueror are  assumed  to  understand  the
                                   Mozilla syntax for opening a URL remotely.

                            x      Start  a  new  GUI browser when an X Window
                                   display  is  available.   Search  for   the
                                   availability  of one of the browsers listed
                                   in the x-browsers style and start the first
                                   one that is found.  No check is made for an
                                   already running browser.

                            tty    Start a terminal-based browser.  Search for
                                   the  availability  of  one  of the browsers
                                   listed in the tty-browsers style and  start
                                   the first one that is found.

                            If  the style is not set the default running x tty
                            is used.

                            An array in  decreasing  order  of  preference  of
                            browsers  to  use  when running under the X Window
                            System.  The array consists of  the  command  name
                            under which to start the browser.  They are looked
                            up in the context :mime: (which may be extended in
                            future,  so  appending  `*'  is recommended).  For

                                   zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                            specifies that pick-web-browser should first  look
                            for  a  running  instance  of  Opera, Konqueror or
                            Firefox, in that order, and if it  fails  to  find
                            any should attempt to start Opera.  The default is
                            firefox mozilla netscape opera konqueror.

                            An array similar to  x-browsers,  except  that  it
                            gives  browsers to use when no X Window display is
                            available.  The default is elinks links lynx.

                            If it is set  this  style  is  used  to  pick  the
                            command  used  to  open a page for a browser.  The
                            context is :mime:browser:new:$browser: to start  a
                            new  browser or :mime:browser:running:$browser: to
                            open a URL in a browser  already  running  on  the
                            current  X  display,  where  $browser is the value
                            matched in the x-browsers or  tty-browsers  style.
                            The  escape  sequence %b in the style's value will
                            be replaced by  the  browser,  while  %u  will  be
                            replaced by the URL.  If the style is not set, the
                            default for all new instances is equivalent to  %b
                            %u and the defaults for using running browsers are
                            equivalent to the values kfmclient openURL %u  for
                            Konqueror,  firefox -new-tab %u for Firefox, opera
                            -newpage   %u   for   Opera,   and   %b    -remote
                            "openUrl(%u)" for all others.


       zcalc [ -ef ] [ expression ... ]
              A  reasonably  powerful  calculator  based  on  zsh's arithmetic
              evaluation facility.  The syntax is similar to that of  formulae
              in  most  programming  languages;  see  the  section `Arithmetic
              Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for details.  The mathematical library
              zsh/mathfunc  will be loaded if it is available; see the section
              `The zsh/mathfunc Module' in  zshmodules(1).   The  mathematical
              functions   correspond   to   the   raw   system  libraries,  so
              trigonometric functions are evaluated using radians, and so on.

              Each line typed is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows
              a  number, which corresponds to a positional parameter where the
              result of that calculation is stored.  For example,  the  result
              of the calculation on the line preceded by `4> ' is available as
              $4.  The last  value  calculated  is  available  as  ans.   Full
              command   line   editing,  including  the  history  of  previous
              calculations, is available; the history is  saved  in  the  file
              ~/.zcalc_history.   To  exit, enter a blank line or type `:q' on
              its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

              A line ending with a single backslash is  treated  in  the  same
              fashion  as  it  is  in  command line editing:  the backslash is
              removed, the function prompts for  more  input  (the  prompt  is
              preceded  by `...' to indicate this), and the lines are combined
              into one to get the final result.  In addition, if the input  so
              far  contains more open than close parentheses zcalc will prompt
              for more input.

              If arguments are given to zcalc on start up, they  are  used  to
              prime  the first few positional parameters.  A visual indication
              of this is given when the calculator starts.

              The constants PI (3.14159...) and E (2.71828...)  are  provided.
              Parameter  assignment  is possible, but note that all parameters
              will be put into the global namespace.

              The output  base  can  be  initialised  by  passing  the  option
              `-#base',  for  example  `zcalc  -#16'  (the  `#' may have to be
              quoted, depending on the globbing options set).

              If the option `-e' is set, the function runs  non-interactively:
              the  arguments  are treated as expressions to be evaluated as if
              entered interactively line by line.

              If the option `-f' is set, all numbers are treated  as  floating
              point,  hence for example the expression `3/4' evaluates to 0.75
              rather than 0.  Options must appear in separate words.

              The prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT,  which
              undergoes  standard  prompt expansion.  The index of the current
              entry is stored locally in the first element of the array psvar,
              which  can  be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.  The default
              prompt is `%1v> '.

              A few special commands are available; these are introduced by  a
              colon.  For backward compatibility, the colon may be omitted for
              certain commands.  Completion is available if compinit has  been

              The  output  precision  may be specified within zcalc by special
              commands familiar from many calculators.
              :norm  The default output format.  It corresponds to the  printf
                     %g  specification.   Typically  this  shows  six  decimal

              :sci digits
                     Scientific  notation,  corresponding  to  the  printf  %g
                     output  format  with the precision given by digits.  This
                     produces  either  fixed  point  or  exponential  notation
                     depending on the value output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed  point  notation,  corresponding  to  the printf %f
                     output format with the precision given by digits.

              :eng digits
                     Exponential notation,  corresponding  to  the  printf  %E
                     output format with the precision given by digits.

              :raw   Raw  output:  this is the default form of the output from
                     a math evaluation.  This may show more precision than the
                     number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute  line...  as  a  normal shell command line.  Note
                     that it is executed in the context of the function,  i.e.
                     with local variables.  Space is optional after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare  variables  local  to  the  function.   Note that
                     certain variables are used by the function  for  its  own
                     purposes.   Other  variables  may  be used, too, but they
                     will be taken from or put into the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define a mathematical function or (with no  body)  delete
                     it.   :function may be abbreviated to :func or simply :f.
                     The name may contain  the  same  characters  as  a  shell
                     function   name.    The   function   is   defined   using
                     zmathfuncdef, see below.

                     Note that zcalc takes care of  all  quoting.   Hence  for

                            :f cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines a function to cube the sole argument.

                     This  is  not  a  special  command, rather part of normal
                     arithmetic syntax; however, when this form appears  on  a
                     line  by  itself the default output radix is set to base.
                     Use, for example, `[#16]' to display  hexadecimal  output
                     preceded  by  an indication of the base, or `[##16]' just
                     to display the raw  number  in  the  given  base.   Bases
                     themselves   are   always  specified  in  decimal.  `[#]'
                     restores the normal output format.  Note that setting  an
                     output  base  suppresses floating point output; use `[#]'
                     to return to normal operation.

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With  two  arguments,  define  a  mathematical  function   named
              mathfunc which can be used in any form of arithmetic evaluation.
              body is a mathematical expression to implement the function.  It
              may  contain  references  to position parameters $1, $2, ...  to
              refer to mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...   to  refer
              to  optional  parameters.   Note that the forms must be strictly
              adhered to for the function to calculate the correct  number  of
              arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell function named
              zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to  refer
              to  the  shell  function directly.  Any existing function of the
              same name is silently replaced.

              With one argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc  as
              well as the shell function implementation.

              With  no  arguments,  list  all  mathfunc  functions  in  a form
              suitable for restoring the definition.  The functions  have  not
              necessarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.


       The  zsh/newuser  module  comes  with  a function to aid in configuring
       shell options for new users.  If the module is installed, this function
       can  also be run by hand.  It is available even if the module's default
       behaviour, namely running the  function  for  a  new  user  logging  in
       without startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The   function  presents  the  user  with  various  options  for
              customizing  their  initialization  scripts.    Currently   only
              ~/.zshrc  is  handled.   $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc  is used instead if the
              parameter ZDOTDIR is set; this provides a way for  the  user  to
              configure a file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By default the function exits immediately if it finds any of the
              files .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc, or .zlogin in the  appropriate
              directory.   The  option  -f  is  required in order to force the
              function to continue.  Note  this  may  happen  even  if  .zshrc
              itself does not exist.

              As  currently  configured, the function will exit immediately if
              the  user  has  root  privileges;  this  behaviour   cannot   be

              Once  activated,  the  function's  behaviour  is  supposed to be
              self-explanatory.  Menus are present allowing the user to  alter
              the   value   of   options   and  parameters.   Suggestions  for
              improvements are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save
              the  new  file  or  not; changes are not irreversible until this
              point.  However, the script is careful to  restrict  changes  to
              the file only to a group marked by the lines `# Lines configured
              by zsh-newuser-install'  and  `#  End  of  lines  configured  by
              zsh-newuser-install'.  In addition, the old version of .zshrc is
              saved to a file with the suffix .zni appended.

              If the function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to  the  user
              to  ensure that the changes made will take effect.  For example,
              if control usually returns early from the  existing  .zshrc  the
              lines  will  not be executed; or a later initialization file may
              override options or parameters, and so on.  The function  itself
              does not attempt to detect any such conflicts.


       There  are  a  large  number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc
       directory of the zsh distribution.  Most are very  simple  and  do  not
       require documentation here, but a few are worthy of special mention.

       colors This  function  initializes  several  associative  arrays to map
              color names to (and from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal
              codes.   These  are used by the prompt theme system (see above).
              You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

              The eight base colors are:  black,  red,  green,  yellow,  blue,
              magenta,   cyan,  and  white.   Each  of  these  has  codes  for
              foreground  and  background.   In  addition  there   are   eight
              intensity  attributes:  bold, faint, standout, underline, blink,
              reverse, and conceal.  Finally, there  are  six  codes  used  to
              negate  attributes: none (reset all attributes to the defaults),
              normal (neither  bold  nor  faint),  no-standout,  no-underline,
              no-blink, and no-reverse.

              Some  terminals  do  not  support all combinations of colors and

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color  names  to  their  integer  codes,  and
                     integer  codes  to the color names.  The eight base names
                     map to the foreground color codes, as do  names  prefixed
                     with `fg-', such as `fg-red'.  Names prefixed with `bg-',
                     such as `bg-blue', refer to the  background  codes.   The
                     reverse  mapping  from code to color yields base name for
                     foreground codes and the bg- form for backgrounds.

                     Although it is a misnomer to call  them  `colors',  these
                     arrays  also map the other fourteen attributes from names
                     to codes and codes to names.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI  terminal  escape
                     sequences  that  set  the  corresponding  foreground text
                     properties.  The fg sequences change  the  color  without
                     changing the eight intensity attributes.

                     Map  the  eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape
                     sequences   that   set   the   corresponding   background
                     properties.   The  bg  sequences change the color without
                     changing the eight intensity attributes.

              In addition, the scalar parameters  reset_color  and  bold_color
              are  set  to  the  ANSI  terminal  escapes  that  turn  off  all
              attributes and turn on bold intensity, respectively.

       fned name
              Same as zed -f.  This  function  does  not  appear  in  the  zsh
              distribution, but can be created by linking zed to the name fned
              in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to  comparison  of  two  strings
              having  the format of a zsh version number; that is, a string of
              numbers and text with segments separated by dots or dashes.   If
              the  present  string  is  not  provided,  $ZSH_VERSION  is used.
              Segments are  paired  left-to-right  in  the  two  strings  with
              leading  non-number  parts  ignored.   If  one  string has fewer
              segments than the other, the  missing  segments  are  considered

              This  is  useful in startup files to set options and other state
              that are not available in all versions of zsh.

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This wrapper function for  the  nslookup  command  requires  the
              zsh/zpty  module  (see  zshmodules(1)).  It behaves exactly like
              the standard  nslookup  except  that  it  provides  customizable
              prompts  (including  a  right-side  prompt)  and  completion  of
              nslookup  commands,  host  names,   etc.   (if   you   use   the
              function-based completion system).  Completion styles may be set
              with the context prefix `:completion:nslookup'.

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use regular expressions to perform a global search  and  replace
              operation  on  a  variable.   If the option RE_MATCH_PCRE is not
              set,  POSIX  extended  regular  expressions   are   used,   else
              Perl-compatible  regular expressions (this requires the shell to
              be linked against the pcre library).

              var is the name of the variable  containing  the  string  to  be
              matched.    The  variable  will  be  modified  directly  by  the
              function.  The variables MATCH,  MBEGIN,  MEND,  match,  mbegin,
              mend  should  be  avoided  as  these  are  used  by  the regular
              expression code.

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace is the replacement text.  This  can  contain  parameter,
              command  and  arithmetic expressions which will be replaced:  in
              particular, a reference to $MATCH will be replaced by  the  text
              matched by the pattern.

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be  invoked  by  the  run-help  ZLE
              widget,  in  place of the default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line
              Help' above for setup instructions.

              In the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file  system  path,
              it is first reduced to its rightmost component (the file name).

              Help  is  first  sought  by  looking for a file named cmd in the
              directory named by the HELPDIR parameter.  If no file is  found,
              an  assistant  function, alias, or command named run-help-cmd is
              sought.  If found, the assistant is executed with  the  rest  of
              the current command line (everything after the command name cmd)
              as its arguments.  When neither file nor assistant is found, the
              external command `man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several  of  these assistants are provided in the Functions/Misc
              directory.  These must be autoloaded, or  placed  as  executable
              scripts  in  your  search path, in order to be found and used by

                     Assistant functions for the git, svk, and svn commands.

       tetris Zsh was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs,  because
              it  lacked  a  Tetris game.  This function was written to refute
              this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To start  a  game,  execute  the  widget  by  typing  the  keys.
              Whatever  command  line you were editing disappears temporarily,
              and your keymap is  also  temporarily  replaced  by  the  Tetris
              control  keys.   The  previous editor state is restored when you
              quit the game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

              If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of  the
              tetris widget will continue where you left off.  If you lost, it
              will start a new game.

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This function has a similar purpose to GNU  xargs.   Instead  of
              reading  lines  of  arguments  from the standard input, it takes
              them from  the  command  line.   This  is  useful  because  zsh,
              especially  with recursive glob operators, often can construct a
              command line for a shell function that is  longer  than  can  be
              accepted by an external command.

              The  option list represents options of the zargs command itself,
              which are the same as those of xargs.  The  input  list  is  the
              collection  of  strings  (often  file  names)  that  become  the
              arguments of the command, analogous to  the  standard  input  of
              xargs.   Finally,  the  arg  list  consists  of  those arguments
              (usually options) that are passed to the command  each  time  it
              runs.  The arg list precedes the elements from the input list in
              each run.  If no command is provided, then no arg  list  may  be
              provided,  and in that event the default command is `print' with
              arguments `-r --'.

              For example, to get a long ls listing of all plain files in  the
              current directory or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -l

              Note  that  `--' is used both to mark the end of the option list
              and to mark the end of the input list, so it must  appear  twice
              whenever the input list may be empty.  If there is guaranteed to
              be at least one input and the first input does not begin with  a
              `-', then the first `--' may be omitted.

              In  the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the -e
              option may be used to change  the  end-of-inputs  marker.   Note
              that  this  does  not  change  the  end-of-options  marker.  For
              example, to use `..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -l

              This is a good choice in that example because no plain file  can
              be   named   `..',  but  the  best  end-marker  depends  on  the

              The options -i, -I, -l, -L, and -n differ  slightly  from  their
              usage in xargs.  There are no input lines for zargs to count, so
              -l and -L count through the input list, and -n counts the number
              of  arguments passed to each execution of command, including any
              arg list.  Also, any time -i  or  -I  is  used,  each  input  is
              processed separately as if by `-L 1'.

              For  details  of the other zargs options, see xargs(1) (but note
              the difference in function between zargs and xargs) or run zargs
              with the --help option.

       zed [ -f ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only  one  name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given,
              the name is taken to be that of a function; if the  function  is
              marked  for  autoloading,  zed  searches for it in the fpath and
              loads it.  Note that functions edited  this  way  are  installed
              into  the  current  shell,  but not written back to the autoload

              Without -f, name is the path name of the  file  to  edit,  which
              need not exist; it is created on write, if necessary.

              While  editing, the function sets the main keymap to zed and the
              vi command keymap to zed-vicmd.  These will be copied  from  the
              existing  main  and vicmd keymaps if they do not exist the first
              time zed is run.  They  can  be  used  to  provide  special  key
              bindings used only in zed.

              If it creates the keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert a
              line break and `^X^W' to accept the edit in the zed keymap,  and
              binds `ZZ' to accept the edit in the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The  bindings  alone can be installed by running `zed -b'.  This
              is suitable for putting into a  startup  file.   Note  that,  if
              rerun,  this  will  overwrite  the  existing  zed  and zed-vicmd

              Completion is available, and styles may be set with the  context
              prefix `:completion:zed'.

              A zle widget zed-set-file-name is available.  This can be called
              by name from within zed  using  `x  zed-set-file-name'  (note,
              however,  that because of zed's rebindings you will have to type
              ^j at the end instead of the return key), or can be bound  to  a
              key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has
              been run.  When the widget is called, it prompts for a new  name
              for  the  file  being  edited.   When zed exits the file will be
              written under that name and  the  original  file  will  be  left
              alone.  The widget has no effect with `zed -f'.

              While   zed-set-file-name   is  running,  zed  uses  the  keymap
              zed-normal-keymap, which is  linked  from  the  main  keymap  in
              effect  at  the  time zed initialised its bindings.  (This is to
              make the return key operate normally.)  The result  is  that  if
              the main keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This
              is not a concern for most users.

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not
              appear  in  the  zsh distribution, but can be created by linking
              zmv to the names zcp and zln in some directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -[pP] program ] [  -o  optstring  ]
       srcpat dest
              Move  (usually,  rename)  files  matching  the pattern srcpat to
              corresponding files having names of  the  form  given  by  dest,
              where  srcpat  contains  parentheses  surrounding patterns which
              will be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For example,

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames   `foo.lis'   to   `foo.txt',   `my.old.stuff.lis'    to
              `my.old.stuff.txt', and so on.

              The  pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any
              file whose name is not changed by  the  substitution  is  simply
              ignored.  Any error (a substitution resulted in an empty string,
              two substitutions gave the same result, the destination  was  an
              existing  regular  file  and -f was not given) causes the entire
              function to abort without doing anything.


              -f     Force overwriting of destination  files.   Not  currently
                     passed  down  to  the mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of
                     implementations (but you can use -o-f to do that).
              -i     Interactive: show each line to be executed  and  ask  the
                     user  whether to execute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute it,
                     anything else will skip it.  Note that you just  need  to
                     type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now assumed by default, so
                     this has no effect.
              -Q     Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless
                     you are actually using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick  out  wildcard  parts  of  the pattern, as described
                     above, and implicitly add parentheses  for  referring  to
              -W     Just  like  -w, with the addition of turning wildcards in
                     the replacement pattern  into  sequential  ${1}  ..  ${N}
              -M     Force  cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name
                     of the function.
              -p program
                     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it  does,
                     it  should  at  least  understand  the  form  `program --
                     oldname newname' where oldname and newname are  filenames
                     generated  by  zmv.  program will be split into words, so
                     might be e.g. the name of an archive tool plus a copy  or
                     rename subcommand.
              -P program
                     As  -p  program,  except  that  program does not accept a
                     following -- to indicate the end  of  options.   In  this
                     case  filenames  must  already  be in a sane form for the
                     program in question.
              -o optstring
                     The  optstring  is  split  into  words  and  passed  down
                     verbatim  to  the  cp, ln or mv command called to perform
                     the work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in
              the  name,  replace every space by an underscore and display the
              commands executed.

              For more complete examples and other implementation details, see
              the  zmv  source file, usually located in one of the directories
              named in  your  fpath,  or  in  Functions/Misc/zmv  in  the  zsh

              See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This  makes  defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+'
              as a special token that allows you to append a context  name  to
              the previously used context name.  Like this:

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                            +':baz'     style2 value2 \
                            +':frob'    style3 value3

              This  defines `style1' with `value1' for the context :foo:bar as
              usual, but it  also  defines  `style2'  with  `value2'  for  the
              context    :foo:bar:baz   and   `style3'   with   `value3'   for
              :foo:bar:frob.  Any subcontext may be the empty string to re-use
              the first context unchanged.

              The  zed function sets this style in context `:completion:zed:*'
              to turn off completion when TAB is typed at the beginning  of  a
              line.   You may override this by setting your own value for this
              context and style.

       pager  The nslookup  function  looks  up  this  style  in  the  context
              `:nslookup' to determine the program used to display output that
              does not fit on a single screen.

              The nslookup  function  looks  up  this  style  in  the  context
              `:nslookup'  to  set  the  prompt  and  the  right-side  prompt,
              respectively.   The  usual  expansions  for  the  PS1  and  RPS1
              parameters  may  be  used  (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in

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