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       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules


       Some  optional  parts  of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of
       the shell.  Each of these modules may be linked  in  to  the  shell  at
       build  time, or can be dynamically linked while the shell is running if
       the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked at  runtime
       with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins   for   manipulating   POSIX.1e   (POSIX.6)  capability
              (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed  for  the  shell  function
              based completion system.

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Interface to locale information.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard   scientific   functions   for   use   in  mathematical

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution  facility  within  the

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration
              via styles.


       The zsh/attr module is used for manipulating extended attributes.   The
       -h  option  causes all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of
       their targets.  The builtins in this module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get  the  extended  attribute  attribute  from   the   specified
              filename.  If  the  optional  argument  parameter  is given, the
              attribute is set on that parameter instead of being  printed  to

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set  the  extended attribute attribute on the specified filename
              to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the  extended  attribute  attribute  from  the  specified

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List  the  extended  attributes  currently  set on the specified
              filename. If the optional argument parameter is given, the  list
              of  attributes is set on that parameter instead of being printed
              to stdout.

       zgetattr and zlistattr allocate memory dynamically.  If  the  attribute
       or  list of attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get
       them, they return 2.  On all other errors, 1 is returned.  This  allows
       the calling function to check for this case and retry.


       The   zsh/cap  module  is  used  for  manipulating  POSIX.1e  (POSIX.6)
       capability sets.   If  the  operating  system  does  not  support  this
       interface,  the  builtins  defined by this module will do nothing.  The
       builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process  capability  sets  to  the  specified
              capabilities,    otherwise    display    the   shell's   current

       getcap filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It displays the capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.
              It sets the capability sets on each specified  filename  to  the
              specified capabilities.


       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the
              specified tty.  In the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY  special
              parameters  are changed appropriately.  $! is set to zero in the
              new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original shell.

              The return status of the builtin  is  zero  in  both  shells  if
              successful, and non-zero on error.

              The  target  of  clone  should be an unused terminal, such as an
              unused virtual console or a virtual terminal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty;  while  :;  do  sleep
              100000000; done'

              Some  words  of  explanation are warranted about this long xterm
              command line: when doing clone on a pseudo-terminal, some  other
              session  ("session"  meant  as  a unix session group, or SID) is
              already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh cannot acquire
              the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              the  job  control  signals  will  go  to the sh-started-by-xterm
                    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with  trap;
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning to a used (and unprepared) terminal will result  in  two
              processes  reading  simultaneously  from the same terminal, with
              input bytes going randomly to either process.

              clone is mostly useful  as  a  shell  built-in  replacement  for


       The  zsh/compctl  module makes available two builtin commands. compctl,
       is the old,  deprecated  way  to  control  completions  for  ZLE.   See
       zshcompctl(1).   The  other  builtin  command,  compcall can be used in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complete module makes available several builtin commands  which
       can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).


       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion listings:
       the ability to highlight matches in such a list, the ability to  scroll
       through long lists and a different style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the
       zsh/complist module is loaded or  linked  into  the  shell,  completion
       lists   will  be  colored.   Note,  however,  that  complist  will  not
       automatically be loaded if it  is  not  linked  in:   on  systems  with
       dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The  parameters  ZLS_COLORS  and  ZLS_COLOURS  describe how matches are
       highlighted.  To turn on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which
       case  all  the  default values given below will be used.  The format of
       the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU version of
       the  ls  command:  a colon-separated list of specifications of the form
       `name=value'.  The name may be one of the following  strings,  most  of
       which specify file types for which the value will be used.  The strings
       and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying  something  other  than  a
              matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for  symbolic  links.   If  this  has  the special value target,
              symbolic links are dereferenced and  the  target  file  used  to
              determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for  a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined
              for ln)

       mi none
              for a non-existent file (default is the value defined  for  fi);
              this code is currently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for  files  with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested
              after specific suffixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc [ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for the  character  indicating  the  file  type   printed  after
              filenames if the LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart  from  these  strings,  the  name  may  also be an asterisk (`*')
       followed by any string. The value given for such a string will be  used
       for all files whose name ends with the string.  The name may also be an
       equals sign (`=') followed by a pattern; the EXTENDED_GLOB option  will
       be  turned  on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for this
       pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose display
       string  are  matched by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the
       leading equal sign take precedence over the  values  defined  for  file
       types,  which  in  turn  take precedence over the form with the leading
       asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts  of  the  displayed
       strings  to  be  colored differently.  For this, the pattern has to use
       the `(#b)' globbing flag and pairs of parentheses surrounding the parts
       of  the  strings  that are to be colored differently.  In this case the
       value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.
       The first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is
       specified and the following codes will be used for the parts matched by
       the  sub-patterns  in  parentheses.   For  example,  the  specification
       `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which  are  at  least
       two  characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character,
       `7' for the last character and `0' for the rest.

       All three forms of name may be preceded by a  pattern  in  parentheses.
       If  this  is  given,  the value will be used only for matches in groups
       whose names are matched by the pattern given in the  parentheses.   For
       example,  `(g*)m*=43'  highlights  all  matches  beginning  with `m' in
       groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In  case
       of the `lc', `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note also that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear
       in the parameter value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the  value  for
       the  file-type or the last matching specification with a `*', the value
       of rc, the string to display for the match itself, and then  the  value
       of  ec  if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and rc if ec is not

       The default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and  can  be  used  on
       vt100 compatible terminals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the
       default values will have no visible effect.  The colors  function  from
       the  contribution  can be used to get associative arrays containing the
       codes  for  ANSI  terminals  (see  the  section  `Other  Functions'  in
       zshcontrib(1)).   For  example,  after  loading  colors,  one could use
       `$colors[red]'  to  get  the  code  for  foreground   color   red   and
       `$colors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If  the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters
       should not be set directly because the  system  controls  them  itself.
       Instead,  the  list-colors  style  should  be  used  (see  the  section
       `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter
       must  be set.  Its value will be used as the prompt; if it is the empty
       string, a default prompt will be used.  The value may  contain  escapes
       of  the  form  `%x'.   It  supports the escapes `%B', `%b', `%S', `%s',
       `%U', `%u', `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}'  used  also  in  shell
       prompts  as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L'
       is replaced by the number of the last line shown and the  total  number
       of  lines  in  the form `number/total'; a `%m' or `%M' is replaced with
       the number of the last match shown and the total number of matches; and
       `%p'  or  `%P'  is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the
       first line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.
       In  each  of  these  cases  the  form with the uppercase letter will be
       replaced with a string of fixed width, padded to the right with spaces,
       while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if
       the list should be shown.  Instead it immediately starts displaying the
       list,  stopping  after  the  first screenful, showing the prompt at the
       bottom, waiting for a  keypress  after  temporarily  switching  to  the
       listscroll  keymap.   Some  of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes  the  key
       as  usual.   Any key that is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that
       is bound  to  undefined-key  is  looked  up  in  the  keymap  currently

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not
       be set directly when using the shell function based completion  system.
       Instead, the list-prompt style should be used.

   Menu selection
       The  zsh/complist  module also offers an alternative style of selecting
       matches from a list, called menu selection, which can be  used  if  the
       shell is set up to return to the last prompt after showing a completion
       list (see the ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT option in zshoptions(1)).

       Menu selection can  be  invoked  directly  by  the  widget  menu-select
       defined  by  this  module.   This  is a standard ZLE widget that can be
       bound to a key in the usual way as described in zshzle(1).

       Alternatively, the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which
       gives  the  minimum  number of matches that must be present before menu
       selection is automatically turned on.  This second method requires that
       menu  completion  be  started,  either  directly  from a widget such as
       menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or  AUTO_MENU
       being  set.  If MENUSELECT is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection
       will always be started during an ambiguous menu completion.

       When  using  the  completion  system  based  on  shell  functions,  the
       MENUSELECT  parameter  should  not  be  used  (like  the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters  described  above).   Instead,  the  menu  style
       should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After  menu  selection is started, the matches will be listed. If there
       are more matches than fit on the screen, only the  first  screenful  is
       shown.   The  matches  to  insert into the command line can be selected
       from this list.  In the list one match is highlighted using  the  value
       for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value
       for this is `7' which forces the selected match to be highlighted using
       standout  mode  on  a vt100-compatible terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS
       nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same terminal control sequence as  for  the
       `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If  there  are  more  matches  than fit on the screen and the parameter
       MENUPROMPT is set, its value will  be  shown  below  the  matches.   It
       supports the same escape sequences as LISTPROMPT, but the number of the
       match or line shown will be that of the one where the mark  is  placed.
       If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL  parameter  can  be  used  to  specify  how the list is
       scrolled.  If the parameter is unset, this is done line by line, if  it
       is  set to `0' (zero), the list will scroll half the number of lines of
       the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of lines  to
       scroll  and  if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number of
       lines of the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS, ZLS_COLOURS and LISTPROMPT  parameters,  neither
       MENUPROMPT  nor  MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell
       function based  completion  system.   Instead,  the  select-prompt  and
       select-scroll styles should be used.

       The completion code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in
       the list.  These hidden  matches  are  either  matches  for  which  the
       completion function which added them explicitly requested that they not
       appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd builtin command)
       or  they  are  matches  which  duplicate  a  string already in the list
       (because they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that  are
       not  displayed).   In  the  list used for menu selection, however, even
       these matches are shown so that it is  possible  to  select  them.   To
       highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches  of  the  first
       and second kind, respectively.

       Selecting  matches  is  done  by  moving  the mark around using the zle
       movement functions.  When not all matches can be shown on the screen at
       the  same  time, the list will scroll up and down when crossing the top
       or bottom line.  The  following  zle  functions  have  special  meaning
       during menu selection.  Note that the following always perform the same
       task within the menu selection map  and  cannot  be  replaced  by  user
       defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept  the  current  match and leave menu selection (but do not
              cause the command line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of  the
              command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept  the  currently  inserted  match  and  continue selection
              allowing to select the next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries  completion  with  menu
              selection again;  in the case of files this allows one to select
              a directory and immediately attempt to complete files in it;  if
              there are no matches, a message is shown and one can use undo to
              go back to completion on the previous  level,  every  other  key
              leaves  menu  selection (including the other zle functions which
              are otherwise special during menu selection)

       undo   removes matches inserted during the menu selection by one of the
              three functions before

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode; in interactive
              mode the keys bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert
              into  the  command  line  as  in normal editing mode but without
              leaving menu selection; after each character completion is tried
              again  and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the
              completion  widgets  make  the  longest  unambiguous  string  be
              inserted  in  the command line and undo and backward-delete-char
              go back to the previous set of matches

              this starts incremental searches  in  the  list  of  completions
              displayed;  in  this  mode,  accept-line only leaves incremental
              search, going back to the normal menu selection mode

       All movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function
       not  listed  leaves  menu  selection and executes that function.  It is
       possible to make widgets in the above list do the  same  by  using  the
       form  of  the  widget  with  a  `.'  in front.  For example, the widget
       `.accept-line' has the effect of leaving menu selection  and  accepting
       the entire command line.

       During  this  selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key
       that is not defined in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is
       looked  up  in  the  keymap currently selected.  This is used to ensure
       that the most important keys used during selection (namely  the  cursor
       keys,  return,  and  TAB) have sensible defaults.  However, keys in the
       menuselect keymap can be modified directly using  the  bindkey  builtin
       command  (see zshmodules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave
       menu selection without accepting the match currently selected one could

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.


       The  zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by
       some of the completion functions in  the  completion  system  based  on
       shell  functions  (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).   Except  for compquote these
       builtin commands are very specialised and  thus  not  very  interesting
       when  writing your own completion functions.  In summary, these builtin
       commands are:

              This is used by the _arguments function to do the  argument  and
              command  line parsing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i to
              do the parsing and initialize some internal  state  and  various
              options to access the state information to decide what should be

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for
              the  matches and to get the strings to add as matches with their
              options.  On the first call one of the options -i or  -I  should
              be  supplied  as the first argument.  In the first case, display
              strings without the  descriptions  will  be  generated,  in  the
              second  case, the string used to separate the matches from their
              descriptions must be  given  as  the  second  argument  and  the
              descriptions  (if  any)  will be shown.  All other arguments are
              like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once compdescribe has been called with either the -i or  the  -I
              option,  it  can be repeatedly called with the -g option and the
              names of five arrays as its arguments.  This will  step  through
              the different sets of matches and store the options in the first
              array, the strings with descriptions in the second, the  matches
              for  these in the third, the strings without descriptions in the
              fourth, and the matches for them in the fifth array.  These  are
              then  directly given to compadd to register the matches with the
              completion code.

              Used by the _path_files function to optimize  complex  recursive
              filename generation (globbing).  It does three things.  With the
              -p and -P options it builds the glob patterns to use,  including
              the  paths  already  handled and trying to optimize the patterns
              with respect to the prefix and suffix  from  the  line  and  the
              match  specification  currently  used.   The  -i option does the
              directory tests for the ignore-parents style and the  -r  option
              tests  if  a  component for some of the matches are equal to the
              string on the line and removes all  other  matches  if  that  is

              Used  by  the  _tags  function to implement the internals of the
              group-order style.  This only takes its arguments  as  names  of
              completion  groups and creates the groups for it (all six types:
              sorted and unsorted,  both  without  removing  duplicates,  with
              removing   all   duplicates   and   with   removing  consecutive

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There may be reasons to write completion functions that have  to
              add  the  matches  using  the  -Q  option to compadd and perform
              quoting themselves.  Instead of interpreting the first character
              of  the  all_quotes key of the compstate special association and
              using the q flag for parameter  expansions,  one  can  use  this
              builtin command.  The arguments are the names of scalar or array
              parameters and the values of  these  parameters  are  quoted  as
              needed  for  the  innermost  quoting level.  If the -p option is
              given, quoting is done as if there is  some  prefix  before  the
              values  of the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not
              be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in  case  of  an  error  and  zero

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.


       The  zsh/curses  module makes available one builtin command and various

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate curses windows.  All uses of this command  should  be
              bracketed  by  `zcurses  init'  to initialise use of curses, and
              `zcurses end' to end it; omitting `zcurses end'  can  cause  the
              terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The  subcommand  addwin  creates  a window with nlines lines and
              ncols columns.  Its upper left corner  will  be  placed  at  row
              begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.  targetwin is a string
              and refers to the  name  of  a  window  that  is  not  currently
              assigned.    Note  in  particular  the  curses  convention  that
              vertical values appear before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the
              new window is created as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs
              from an ordinary new window in that the  memory  of  the  window
              contents is shared with the parent's memory.  Subwindows must be
              deleted before their  parent.   Note  that  the  coordinates  of
              subwindows  are  relative to the screen, not the parent, as with
              other windows.

              Use the subcommand  delwin  to  delete  a  window  created  with
              addwin.   Note  that end does not implicitly delete windows, and
              that delwin does not erase the screen image of the window.

              The window corresponding to the full visible  screen  is  called
              stdscr;  it  always  exists  after  `zcurses init' and cannot be
              delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window  targetwin;  this  is
              necessary  to  make  any pending changes (such as characters you
              have prepared for output  with  char)  visible  on  the  screen.
              refresh  without an argument causes the screen to be cleared and
              redrawn.  If multiple windows are given, the screen  is  updated
              once at the end.

              The  subcommand  touch  marks  the targetwins listed as changed.
              This is necessary before refreshing windows if a window that was
              in front of another window (which may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The  subcommand  move  moves the cursor position in targetwin to
              new coordinates new_y  and  new_x.   Note  that  the  subcommand
              string  (but  not  the  subcommand  char)  advances  the  cursor
              position over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and
              no  more  than one) of three options may be specified.  With the
              option redraw, in addition the next refresh  of  targetwin  will
              cause  the  screen to be cleared and repainted.  With the option
              eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current  cursor
              line.   With  the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the end of
              the window, i.e everything to the right and below the cursor  is

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with
              targetwin into the array named array.  These are, in order:
              -      The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top
                     left of targetwin
              -      The  y  and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on
                     the screen
              -      The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and  strings  are  achieved  by  char  and
              string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that
              the border is not  subsequently  handled  specially:   in  other
              words,  the  border  is simply a set of characters output at the
              edge of the window.  Hence it can be overwritten, can scroll off
              the window, etc.

              The   subcommand   attr   will  set  targetwin's  attributes  or
              foreground/background color pair for  any  successive  character
              output.   Each attribute given on the line may be prepended by a
              + to set or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed if absent.
              The   attributes   supported  are  blink,  bold,  dim,  reverse,
              standout, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on  bg_col')
              sets  the  foreground and background color for character output.
              The color default is sometimes available (in particular  if  the
              library  is  ncurses),  specifying  the foreground or background
              color  with  which  the  terminal  started.   The   color   pair
              default/default is always available.

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in
              the window.  Its usual use is to set the  background  initially,
              but  it  will  overwrite the attributes of any characters at the
              time when it is called.  In addition to  the  arguments  allowed
              with  attr,  an argument @char specifies a character to be shown
              in otherwise blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of
              curses  this  cannot  be  a  multibyte  character  (use of ASCII
              characters only  is  recommended).   As  the  specified  set  of
              attributes  override the existing background, turning attributes
              off in the arguments is not useful, though this does  not  cause
              an error.

              The  subcommand  scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or
              disable scrolling of a window when the  cursor  would  otherwise
              move  below  the window due to typing or output.  It can also be
              used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the window up
              or  down  the given number of lines without changing the current
              cursor position (which therefore appears to move in the opposite
              direction  relative  to  the  window).   In  the second case, if
              scrolling is off it is temporarily turned on to allow the window
              to be scrolled.

              The  subcommand  input  reads a single character from the window
              without echoing it back.  If param is supplied the character  is
              assigned  to  the  parameter  param,  else it is assigned to the
              parameter REPLY.

              If both param and kparam  are  supplied,  the  key  is  read  in
              `keypad'  mode.  In this mode special keys such as function keys
              and arrow keys return the name  of  the  key  in  the  parameter
              kparam.  The key names are the macros defined in the curses.h or
              ncurses.h  with  the  prefix  `KEY_'  removed;  see   also   the
              description of the parameter zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys
              cause a value to be set in param as  before.   On  a  successful
              return  only one of param or kparam contains a non-empty string;
              the other is set to an empty string.

              If mparam is also  supplied,  input  attempts  to  handle  mouse
              input.   This  is only available with the ncurses library; mouse
              handling can be detected by checking  for  the  exit  status  of
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or double- or triple-clicked, or pressed  or  released  with  a
              configurable delay from being clicked) then kparam is set to the
              string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an array  consisting  of  the
              following elements:
              -      An  identifier  to  discriminate different input devices;
                     this is only rarely useful.
              -      The x, y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to
                     the  full  screen,  as three elements in that order (i.e.
                     the y coordinate is, unusually, after the x  coordinate).
                     The  z  coordinate  is  only  available for a few unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there
                     will   be  just  one.   An  event  consists  of  PRESSED,
                     followed  immediately (in the same element) by the number
                     of the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not all mouse events may  be  passed  through  to  the  terminal
              window;   most  terminal  emulators  handle  some  mouse  events
              themselves.  Note that the ncurses  manual  implies  that  using
              input  both  with and without mouse handling may cause the mouse
              cursor to appear and disappear.

              The subcommand mouse can be used to configure  the  use  of  the
              mouse.   There  is no window argument; mouse options are global.
              `zcurses mouse' with no arguments  returns  status  0  if  mouse
              handling  is  possible,  else status 1.  Otherwise, the possible
              arguments (which may be combined on the same command  line)  are
              as  follows.   delay  num sets the maximum delay in milliseconds
              between press and release events to be considered  as  a  click;
              the  value  0  disables click resolution, and the default is one
              sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by  an  optional  `+'  (the
              default)  or  -  turns  on  or  off reporting of mouse motion in
              addition to clicks,  presses  and  releases,  which  are  always
              reported.   However, it appears reports for mouse motion are not
              currently implemented.

              The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input  from
              targetwin.    If  intval  is  negative,  `zcurses  input'  waits
              indefinitely for a character to be typed; this is  the  default.
              If intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if there
              is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status  1
              is  returned.   If  intval  is  positive,  `zcurses input' waits
              intval milliseconds for input and if there is none at the end of
              that period returns status 1.

              The  subcommand  querychar  queries the character at the current
              cursor position.  The return values  are  stored  in  the  array
              named  param  if  supplied,  else in the array reply.  The first
              value is the character (which may be a  multibyte  character  if
              the  system  supports them); the second is the color pair in the
              usual fg_col/bg_col notation, or 0 if color  is  not  supported.
              Any  attributes other than color that apply to the character, as
              set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional elements.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number  of  colors  the  terminal
              supports.   This  value is initialised by the curses library and
              is not available until the first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly  integer.   The   maximum   number   of   color   pairs
              fg_col/bg_col  that  may  be defined in `zcurses attr' commands;
              note this limit applies to all color pairs that have  been  used
              whether  or  not  they  are  currently  active.   This  value is
              initialised by the curses library and is not available until the
              first time zcurses init is run.

              Readonly   array.    The  attributes  supported  by  zsh/curses;
              available as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The colors supported by  zsh/curses;  available
              as soon as the module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.   The values that may be returned in the second
              parameter supplied to `zcurses input' in the order in which they
              are  defined  internally  by  curses.  Not all function keys are
              listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly array.  The current list of windows, i.e.  all  windows
              that  have  been  created  with `zcurses addwin' and not removed
              with `zcurses delwin'.


       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With the option -r (reverse), use the format format to parse the
              input  string  timestring and output the number of seconds since
              the epoch at which the time occurred.  If no timezone is parsed,
              the  current  timezone is used; other parameters are set to zero
              if not present.  If timestring does not match format the command
              returns  status  1;  it will additionally print an error message
              unless the option -q (quiet) is given.   If  timestring  matches
              format  but  not  all  characters  in  timestring were used, the
              conversion succeeds; however, a warning  is  issued  unless  the
              option  -q  is given.  The matching is implemented by the system
              function strptime; see strptime(3).  This means that zsh  format
              extensions  are  not  available, however for reverse lookup they
              are not required.  If  the  function  is  not  implemented,  the
              command  returns  status  2  and  (unless  -q is given) prints a

              If -s scalar is given, assign the date string (or epoch time  in
              seconds if -r is given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The  zsh/datetime  module  makes  available several parameters; all are

              A floating point value representing the number of seconds  since
              the  epoch.   The  notional  accuracy  is  to nanoseconds if the
              clock_gettime call is available and to  microseconds  otherwise,
              but in practice the range of double precision floating point and
              shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An integer value representing the number of  seconds  since  the

              An  array value containing the number of seconds since the epoch
              in the first element and the remainder of  the  time  since  the
              epoch  in  nanoseconds in the second element.  To ensure the two
              elements are consistent the array should be copied or  otherwise
              referenced  as a single substitution before the values are used.
              The following idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do


       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read a character from the keyboard, and delete from  the  cursor
              position  up to and including the next (or, with repeat count n,
              the nth) instance of that  character.   Negative  repeat  counts
              mean delete backwards.

              This   behaves   like  delete-to-char,  except  that  the  final
              occurrence of the character itself is not deleted.


       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to  write  a


       The  zsh/files  module  makes  available  some common commands for file
       manipulation as builtins; these commands are probably  not  needed  for
       many  normal  situations  but  can  be  useful  in  emergency  recovery
       situations with constrained resources.  The commands do  not  implement
       all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For  all commands, a variant beginning zf_ is also available and loaded
       automatically.  Using the features capability of zmodload will let  you
       load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes  group  of files specified.  This is equivalent to chown
              with a user-spec argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user;  change  group  to  user's  primary
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In each case, the `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if
              there is a `:' then the separator is `:', otherwise if there  is
              a  `.'  then  the  separator  is  `.',  otherwise  there  is  no

              Each of user and group may be either a username (or group  name,
              as appropriate) or a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation
              as a name takes precedence, if there is an all-numeric  username
              (or group name).

              If  the target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to
              set the ownership of the link instead of its target.

              The  -R  option  causes  chown  to  recursively   descend   into
              directories,   changing  the  ownership  of  all  files  in  the
              directory after changing the ownership of the directory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension  to  chown  functionality.   It
              enables  paranoid behaviour, intended to avoid security problems
              involving a chown being tricked into affecting files other  than
              the  ones intended.  It will refuse to follow symbolic links, so
              that  (for  example)  ``chown  luser   /tmp/foo/passwd''   can't
              accidentally  chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link
              to  /etc.   It  will  also  check  where  it  is  after  leaving
              directories,  so that a recursive chown of a deep directory tree
              can't  end  up  recursively  chowning  /usr  as  a   result   of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates  hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form,
              the specified destination is created, as a link to the specified
              filename.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in
              turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified  directory  that
              has the same last pathname component.

              Normally,   ln   will  not  attempt  to  create  hard  links  to
              directories.  This check can be overridden using the -d  option.
              Typically  only  the super-user can actually succeed in creating
              hard links to directories.  This  does  not  apply  to  symbolic
              links in any case.

              By  default, existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i
              option causes the user to be queried  about  replacing  existing
              files.   The  -f  option  causes  existing  files to be silently
              deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -h  and  -n  options  are  identical  and  both  exist  for
              compatibility;  either  one  indicates  that  if the target is a
              symlink then it should not be dereferenced.  Typically  this  is
              used  in combination with -sf so that if an existing link points
              to a directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If
              this  option is used with multiple filenames and the target is a
              symbolic link pointing to a directory  then  the  result  is  an

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates  directories.   With  the -p option, non-existing parent
              directories are first created if necessary, and there will be no
              complaint if the directory already exists.  The -m option can be
              used to specify (in octal) a set of  file  permissions  for  the
              created  directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the current
              umask (see umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved
              to  the  specified destination.  In the second form, each of the
              filenames is taken in turn, and  moved  to  a  pathname  in  the
              specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By  default,  the user will be queried before replacing any file
              that the user cannot  write  to,  but  writable  files  will  be
              silently  removed.   The -i option causes the user to be queried
              about replacing any existing files.  The -f  option  causes  any
              existing  files  to  be  silently deleted, without querying.  -f
              takes precedence.

              Note  that  this  mv  will  not  move  files   across   devices.
              Historical  versions  of mv, when actual renaming is impossible,
              fall back on copying and removing files; if  this  behaviour  is
              desired,  use  cp  and rm manually.  This may change in a future

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally, rm will not remove directories  (except  with  the  -r
              option).   The  -d  option causes rm to try removing directories
              with unlink (see unlink(2)), the same  method  used  for  files.
              Typically  only the super-user can actually succeed in unlinking
              directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By default, the user will be queried before  removing  any  file
              that  the  user  cannot  write  to,  but  writable files will be
              silently removed.  The -i option causes the user to  be  queried
              about  removing  any  files.   The  -f option causes files to be
              silently deleted, without querying,  and  suppresses  all  error
              indications.  -f takes precedence.

              The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories,
              deleting  all  files  in  the  directory  before  removing   the
              directory with the rmdir system call (see rmdir(2)).

              The  -s  option  is  a  zsh  extension  to rm functionality.  It
              enables paranoid behaviour, intended to  avoid  common  security
              problems  involving  a  root-run  rm being tricked into removing
              files other than the ones intended.  It will  refuse  to  follow
              symbolic  links,  so  that  (for example) ``rm /tmp/foo/passwd''
              can't accidentally remove /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to  be
              a  link  to  /etc.  It will also check where it is after leaving
              directories, so that a recursive removal  of  a  deep  directory
              tree  can't  end  up  recursively  removing  /usr as a result of
              directories being moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls the system call of the  same  name  (see  sync(2)),  which
              flushes  dirty  buffers to disk.  It might return before the I/O
              has actually been completed.


       The zsh/langinfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative  array  that  maps  langinfo  elements  to  their

              Your implementation may support a number of the following keys:

              NOEXPR,  CRNCYSTR,  ABDAY_{1..7},   DAY_{1..7},   ABMON_{1..12},
              MON_{1..12},   T_FMT_AMPM,   AM_STR,   PM_STR,  ERA,  ERA_D_FMT,
              ERA_D_T_FMT, ERA_T_FMT, ALT_DIGITS


       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter
       of the same name.

              This  associative  array  takes  as keys the names of files; the
              resulting value is the  content  of  the  file.   The  value  is
              treated  identically  to any other text coming from a parameter.
              The value may also be assigned to, in which  case  the  file  in
              question  is  written (whether or not it originally existed); or
              an element may be unset, which will delete the file in question.
              For  example, `vared mapfile[myfile]' works as expected, editing
              the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of
              files  in  the  current  directory, and the values are empty (to
              save a huge overhead in memory).   Thus  ${(k)mapfile}  has  the
              same  affect  as  the  glob operator *(D), since files beginning
              with a dot are not special.  Care must be taken with expressions
              such  as  rm  ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the
              current directory without the usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files
              referenced may not be written or deleted.

              A  file  may  conveniently be read into an array as one line per
              element with the form `array=("${(f@)mapfile[filename]}")'.  The
              double  quotes  and the `@' are necessary to prevent empty lines
              from being removed.  Note that if the file ends with a  newline,
              the  shell  will  split  on  the  final  newline,  generating an
              additional  empty  field;  this  can  be  suppressed  by   using

       Although  reading  and  writing  of the file in question is efficiently
       handled, zsh's internal memory management may be  arbitrarily  baroque;
       however,  mapfile  is  usually  very  much more efficient than anything
       involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole  contents  of  the
       file  will  always  reside physically in memory when accessed (possibly
       multiple times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In
       particular,  this  means  handling  of sufficiently long files (greater
       than the machine's swap space, or than the range of the  pointer  type)
       will be incorrect.

       No  errors  are  printed  or  flagged  for non-existent, unreadable, or
       unwritable files, as the parameter mechanism is too low  in  the  shell
       execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It  is  unfortunate that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet
       allow the user to specify the name of the shell parameter to  be  given
       the special behaviour.


       The  zsh/mathfunc  module  provides standard mathematical functions for
       use when evaluating mathematical  formulae.   The  syntax  agrees  with
       normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for example,

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most  functions  take  floating  point  arguments and return a floating
       point value.  However, any necessary conversions  from  or  to  integer
       type  will  be  performed  automatically by the shell.  Apart from atan
       with a second argument and  the  abs,  int  and  float  functions,  all
       functions  behave  as  noted in the manual page for the corresponding C
       function, except that any arguments out of range for  the  function  in
       question will be detected by the shell and an error reported.

       The  following  functions  take a single floating point argument: acos,
       acosh, asin, asinh, atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp,
       expm1,  fabs,  floor,  gamma,  j0, j1, lgamma, log, log10, log1p, logb,
       sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function  can  optionally
       take  a  second  argument, in which case it behaves like the C function
       atan2.  The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument,  but
       returns an integer.

       The  function signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which
       is the C variable of the same name, as  described  in  gamma(3).   Note
       that  it  is therefore only useful immediately after a call to gamma or
       lgamma.   Note  also  that  `signgam()'  and  `signgam'  are   distinct

       The  following  functions  take two floating point arguments: copysign,
       fmod, hypot, nextafter.

       The following take an integer  first  argument  and  a  floating  point
       second argument: jn, yn.

       The  following  take  a  floating  point  first argument and an integer
       second argument: ldexp, scalb.

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single  argument;  it
       returns  the  absolute  value  of  either a floating point number or an
       integer.  The functions float and int convert their  arguments  into  a
       floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note  that  the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation
       as the `**' operator and is not provided here.

       The function rand48 is available if your system's mathematical  library
       has the function erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point
       number between 0 and 1.  It takes a single string optional argument.

       If the argument is not present, the random number seed  is  initialised
       by  three  calls  to  the  rand(3)  function --- this produces the same
       random numbers as the next three values of $RANDOM.

       If the argument is present, it gives the name  of  a  scalar  parameter
       where  the  current  random  number  seed will be stored.  On the first
       call, the value must contain at least twelve  hexadecimal  digits  (the
       remainder of the string is ignored), or the seed will be initialised in
       the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no  argument.   Subsequent
       calls  to  rand48(param)  will  then maintain the seed in the parameter
       param as a string of twelve hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.
       The  random  number  sequences  for different parameters are completely
       independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to rand48
       with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming  $seed  does  not  exist,  it will be initialised by the first
       call.  In the second call,  the  default  seed  is  initialised;  note,
       however,   that  because  of  the  properties  of  rand()  there  is  a
       correlation between the seeds used for the two initialisations, so  for
       more secure uses, you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third
       call returns to the same sequence of random numbers used in  the  first
       call, unaffected by the intervening rand48().


       The  zsh/newuser  module  is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS
       option is set, and the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true
       by default).  This takes place immediately after commands in the global
       zshenv file (typically /etc/zshenv), if any, have  been  executed.   If
       the  module  is  not available it is silently ignored by the shell; the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator  if
       it is not required.

       On  loading,  the  module  tests  if any of the start-up files .zshenv,
       .zprofile, .zshrc or .zlogin  exist  in  the  directory  given  by  the
       environment  variable  ZDOTDIR, or the user's home directory if that is
       not set.  The test is not performed and the module halts processing  if
       the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some other
       shell than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the
       file  newuser  first  in  a  sitewide  directory,  usually  the  parent
       directory of the site-functions directory, and if that is not found the
       module  searches in a version-specific directory, usually the parent of
       the functions directory containing version-specific functions.   (These
       directories   can   be   configured   when   zsh  is  built  using  the
       --enable-site-scriptdir=dir   and   --enable-scriptdir=dir   flags   to
       configure,   respectively;   the   defaults  are  prefix/share/zsh  and
       prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If the file newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner  as
       a  start-up  file.   The  file  is  expected to contain code to install
       start-up files for the user, however  any  valid  shell  code  will  be

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note  that  it  is  possible  to achieve exactly the same effect as the
       zsh/newuser module by adding code to /etc/zshenv.   The  module  exists
       simply  to  allow  the shell to make arrangements for new users without
       the  need  for  intervention  by   package   maintainers   and   system

       The  script  supplied  with  the  module  invokes  the  shell  function
       zsh-newuser-install.  This may be invoked directly by the user even  if
       the  zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note, however, that if the module
       is not installed the  function  will  not  be  installed  either.   The
       function  is  documented in the section User Configuration Functions in


       The zsh/parameter module gives access to  some  of  the  internal  hash
       tables used by the shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options
              that can  be  set  and  unset  using  the  setopt  and  unsetopt
              builtins.  The  value of each key is either the string on if the
              option is currently set, or the string  off  if  the  option  is
              unset.  Setting a key to one of these strings is like setting or
              unsetting the option, respectively.  Unsetting  a  key  in  this
              array is like setting it to the value off.

              This  array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are
              the names of external commands, the values are the pathnames  of
              the  files  that  would  be  executed  when the command would be
              invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in this
              table  in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key
              as in `unset "commands[foo]"' removes the entry  for  the  given
              key from the command hash table.

              This  associative array maps names of enabled functions to their
              definitions. Setting a key in it is  like  defining  a  function
              with  the name given by the key and the body given by the value.
              Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function named by
              the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This  associative  array  gives  information  about  the builtin
              commands currently enabled.  The  keys  are  the  names  of  the
              builtin  commands  and  the  values  are  either `undefined' for
              builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module
              if  invoked  or  `defined' for builtin commands that are already

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This array contains the enabled pattern characters.

              Like patchars but for disabled pattern characters.

              This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled  to
              their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The  keys  in  this  associative  array  are  the  names  of the
              parameters currently defined. The values are strings  describing
              the  type  of  the  parameter,  in the same format used by the t
              parameter flag, see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting  keys  in
              this array is not possible.

              An  associative array giving information about modules. The keys
              are  the  names  of  the  modules  loaded,  registered   to   be
              autoloaded,  or  aliased.  The  value says which state the named
              module is in and is one of the strings  `loaded',  `autoloaded',
              or  `alias:name',  where  name is the name the module is aliased

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note
              that  the  output  of the dirs builtin command includes one more
              directory, the current working directory.

              This associative array maps history event numbers  to  the  full
              history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This  associative array maps job numbers to the directories from
              which the  job  was  started  (which  may  not  be  the  current
              directory of the job).

              The  keys  of  the  associative  arrays  are  usually  valid job
              numbers, and these are the  values  output  with,  for  example,
              ${(k)jobdirs}.   Non-numeric  job  references  may  be used when
              looking up a value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]}  refers  to  the
              current job.

              This  associative  array  maps  job  numbers to the texts of the
              command lines that were used to start the jobs.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array  is  as  described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states of the
              jobs currently known. The keys  are  the  job  numbers  and  the
              values  are  strings  of the form `job-state:mark:pid=state...'.
              The job-state gives the state the whole job is currently in, one
              of  `running',  `suspended',  or `done'. The mark is `+' for the
              current job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise.  This
              is followed by one `pid=state' for every process in the job. The
              pids are, of course, the process IDs and the state describes the
              state of that process.

              Handling  of  the  keys of the associative array is as described
              for jobdirs above.

              This associative array maps the names of  named  directories  to
              the pathnames they stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their
              home directories.

              This associative array maps names of system groups of which  the
              current user is a member to the corresponding group identifiers.
              The contents are the  same  as  the  groups  output  by  the  id

              This  array contains the absolute line numbers and corresponding
              file names for the point where  the  current  function,  sourced
              file,  or  (if EVAL_LINENO is set) eval command was called.  The
              array is of the same length as  funcsourcetrace  and  functrace,
              but  differs  from funcsourcetrace in that the line and file are
              the point of call, not the point of definition, and differs from
              functrace in that all values are absolute line numbers in files,
              rather than relative to the start of a function, if any.

              This array contains the file  names  and  line  numbers  of  the
              points  where  the functions, sourced files, and (if EVAL_LINENO
              is set) eval commands currently  being  executed  were  defined.
              The  line  number is the line where the `function name' or `name
              ()' started.  In the case of an autoloaded  function   the  line
              number  is  reported  as  zero.   The  format of each element is
              filename:lineno.  For functions autoloaded from a file in native
              zsh  format,  where  only the body of the function occurs in the
              file, or for files that have been executed by the source or  `.'
              builtins,  the  trace  information is shown as filename:0, since
              the entire file is the definition.

              Most  users  will  be  interested  in  the  information  in  the
              funcfiletrace array instead.

              This  array  contains the names of the functions, sourced files,
              and (if EVAL_LINENO  is  set)  eval  commands.  currently  being
              executed.  The  first  element is the name of the function using
              the parameter.

              This array contains the names and line numbers  of  the  callers
              corresponding  to  the  functions currently being executed.  The
              format of each element is name:lineno.  Callers are  also  shown
              for  sourced  files; the caller is the point where the source or
              `.' command was executed.


       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option -a will force the pattern to be anchored.  Option -i will
              compile  a  case-insensitive  pattern.  Option -m will compile a
              multi-line pattern; that is, ^ and $ will match newlines  within
              the  pattern.   Option  -x  will  compile  an  extended pattern,
              wherein whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s  makes
              the dot metacharacter match all characters, including those that
              indicate newline.

              Studies the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in  faster

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns  successfully  if string matches the previously-compiled

              Upon successful match, if  the  expression  captures  substrings
              within  parentheses,  pcre_match  will  set  the array $match to
              those substrings, unless the -a option is given, in  which  case
              it  will  set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will
              be set to the entire matched portion of the string,  unless  the
              -v  option is given, in which case the variable var will be set.
              No variables are altered if there is no successful match.  A  -n
              option  starts  searching  for  a  match  from  the  byte offset
              position in string.  If the -b option  is  given,  the  variable
              ZPCRE_OP  will be set to an offset pair string, representing the
              byte offset positions of the entire matched portion  within  the
              string.   For  example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45" indicates that
              the matched portion began on byte offset 32 and  ended  on  byte
              offset  44.   Here,  byte  offset  position  45  is the position
              directly after the matched portion.  Keep in mind that the  byte
              position  isn't  necessarily  the same as the character position
              when UTF-8 characters  are  involved.   Consequently,  the  byte
              offset  positions  are  only  to  be relied on in the context of
              using them for subsequent searches on string,  using  an  offset
              position  as  an argument to the -n option.  This is mostly used
              to   implement   the   "find   all   non-overlapping    matches"

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[  "$text"  -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text variable contains
              only "d's".


       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX  extended  regular  expression.
              On successful match, matched portion of the string will normally
              be placed in the MATCH variable.  If  there  are  any  capturing
              parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable will
              contain those.   If  the  match  is  not  successful,  then  the
              variables will not be altered.

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will
              automatically load this module as needed  and  will  invoke  the
              -regex-match operator.

              If  BASH_REMATCH is set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set
              instead of MATCH and match.


       The zsh/sched module  makes  available  one  builtin  command  and  one

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The
              time may be specified in either absolute or relative  time,  and
              either as hours, minutes and (optionally) seconds separated by a
              colon,  or  seconds  alone.   An  absolute  number  of   seconds
              indicates  the  time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is
              useful in combination with  the  features  in  the  zsh/datetime
              module, see the zsh/datetime module entry in zshmodules(1).

              With  no  arguments,  prints the list of scheduled commands.  If
              the scheduled command has the -o flag set, this is shown at  the
              start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.
              The numbering of the list is continuous and entries are in  time
              order,  so  the  numbering  can change when entries are added or

              Commands are executed either immediately  before  a  prompt,  or
              while  the  shell's  line  editor  is waiting for input.  In the
              latter case it is useful to be able to produce output that  does
              not  interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the option
              -o causes the shell to clear the command line before  the  event
              and  redraw  it  afterwards.   This  should  be  used  with  any
              scheduled event that produces visible output to the terminal; it
              is  not needed, for example, with output that updates a terminal
              emulator's title bar.

              The sched builtin is not made  available  by  default  when  the
              shell  starts in a mode emulating another shell.  It can be made
              available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A readonly array corresponding to the events  scheduled  by  the
              sched  builtin.   The  indices  of  the  array correspond to the
              numbers shown when sched is run with no arguments (provided that
              the  KSH_ARRAYS  option  is  not  set).   The value of the array
              consists of the scheduled time in seconds since the  epoch  (see
              the  section  `The zsh/datetime Module' for facilities for using
              this number), followed by  a  colon,  followed  by  any  options
              (which  may  be  empty but will be preceded by a `-' otherwise),
              followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The sched builtin should be used for  manipulating  the  events.
              Note  that this will have an immediate effect on the contents of
              the array, so that indices may become invalid.


       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket is implemented as a builtin to allow full use  of  shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open  a  new  Unix  domain  connection  to  filename.  The shell
              parameter REPLY will be set to the  file  descriptor  associated
              with  that  connection.   Currently, only stream connections are

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket  -l will open a socket listening on filename.  The shell
              parameter REPLY will be set to the  file  descriptor  associated
              with that listener.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket -a will accept an  incoming  connection  to  the  socket
              associated with listenfd.  The shell parameter REPLY will be set
              to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be  taken  as  the  target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If   -t  is  specified,  zsocket  will  return  if  no  incoming
              connection is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.


       The zsh/stat module makes  available  one  builtin  command  under  two
       possible names:

       zstat  [  -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ] [
       +element ] [ file ... ]
       stat ...
              The command acts as a front end to the  stat  system  call  (see
              stat(2)).   The  same command is provided with two names; as the
              name stat is often used by an external command it is recommended
              that  only  the  zstat form of the command is used.  This can be
              arranged by loading the module with  the  command  `zmodload  -F
              zsh/stat b:zstat'.

              If  the  stat  call  fails, the appropriate system error message
              printed and status 1 is returned.  The  fields  of  struct  stat
              give  information  about  the files provided as arguments to the
              command.  In addition to those available from the stat call,  an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The  unique  number  of  the file on this device (`inode'

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access
                     permissions.   With  the -s option, this will be returned
                     as a string corresponding to  the  first  column  in  the
                     display of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The  user  ID  of  the  owner  of  the file.  With the -s
                     option, this is displayed as a user name.

              gid    The group ID of the file.  With the -s  option,  this  is
                     displayed as a group name.

              rdev   The  raw  device number.  This is only useful for special

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The last access, modification and inode change  times  of
                     the  file,  respectively,  as the number of seconds since
                     midnight GMT on 1st January, 1970.  With the  -s  option,
                     these are printed as strings for the local time zone; the
                     format can be altered with the -F option, and with the -g
                     option the times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device
                     on which the file resides.

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If the file is a link and the -L  option  is  in  effect,
                     this  contains  the name of the file linked to, otherwise
                     it is empty.  Note  that  if  this  element  is  selected
                     (``zstat  +link'')  then  the  -L option is automatically

              A particular element may  be  selected  by  including  its  name
              preceded  by  a  `+'  in  the  option  list; only one element is
              allowed.  The element may be shortened  to  any  unique  set  of
              leading  characters.   Otherwise, all elements will be shown for
              all files.


              -A array
                     Instead of displaying the  results  on  standard  output,
                     assign  them  to  an  array,  one struct stat element per
                     array element for each  file  in  order.   In  this  case
                     neither the name of the element nor the name of the files
                     appears in array unless the -t or -n options were  given,
                     respectively.   If  -t is given, the element name appears
                     as a prefix to the appropriate array element;  if  -n  is
                     given,  the file name appears as a separate array element
                     preceding all the others.  Other formatting  options  are

              -H hash
                     Similar  to  -A,  but  instead assign the values to hash.
                     The keys are the elements listed above.  If the -n option
                     is  provided then the name of the file is included in the
                     hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use the file on  file  descriptor  fd  instead  of  named
                     files; no list of file names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies  a  strftime  (see  strftime(3))  string for the
                     formatting of  the  time  elements.   The  -s  option  is

              -g     Show  the  time  elements  in  the GMT time zone.  The -s
                     option is implied.

              -l     List the names of the type elements (to  standard  output
                     or  an  array  as  appropriate)  and  return immediately;
                     options other than -A and arguments are ignored.

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat system
                     call.   In  this case, if the file is a link, information
                     about the link itself rather  than  the  target  file  is
                     returned.   This  option  is  required  to  make the link
                     element useful.  It's important to note that this is  the
                     exact opposite from ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always  show  the names of files.  Usually these are only
                     shown when output is to standard output and there is more
                     than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If a raw file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is
                     more useful for human consumption  than  the  default  of
                     decimal.   A  leading  zero will be printed in this case.
                     Note that this does not affect whether a raw or formatted
                     file  mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s
                     options, nor whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print raw data (the default format) alongside string data
                     (the  -s  format); the string data appears in parentheses
                     after the raw data.

              -s     Print mode, uid, gid  and  the  three  time  elements  as
                     strings  instead  of numbers.  In each case the format is
                     like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always show the type names for  the  elements  of  struct
                     stat.   Usually  these  are  only shown when output is to
                     standard  output  and  no  individual  element  has  been

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.


       The  zsh/system  module  makes  available  various builtin commands and

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This command prints out the error message associated with errno,
              a system error number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT,
              may be used.  The set of names is the same as  the  contents  of
              the array errnos, see below.

              If  the  string  prefix  is given, it is printed in front of the
              error message, with no intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is
              assigned to the parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A  return  status  of  0  indicates the message was successfully
              printed (although it may not be useful if the error  number  was
              out  of  the  system's range), a return status of 1 indicates an
              error in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates  the
              error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform  a single system read from file descriptor infd, or zero
              if that is not given.  The result of the read is stored in param
              or REPLY if that is not given.  If countvar is given, the number
              of bytes read is assigned to the parameter named by countvar.

              The maximum number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if  that  is
              not  given, however the command returns as soon as any number of
              bytes was successfully read.

              If timeout is given, it specifies a timeout  in  seconds,  which
              may be zero to poll the file descriptor.  This is handled by the
              poll system call if available, otherwise the select system  call
              if available.

              If  outfd  is  given,  an attempt is made to write all the bytes
              just read to the file descriptor outfd.  If this fails,  because
              of a system error other than EINTR or because of an internal zsh
              error during an interrupt, the bytes read but  not  written  are
              stored  in  the parameter named by param if supplied (no default
              is used in this case), and the number  of  bytes  read  but  not
              written  is stored in the parameter named by countvar if that is
              supplied.  If it was  successful,  countvar  contains  the  full
              number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The  error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              so that shell interrupts are transparent  to  the  caller.   Any
              other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At  least  one byte of data was successfully read and, if
                     appropriate, written.

              1      There was an error in  the  parameters  to  the  command.
                     This  is the only error for which a message is printed to
                     standard error.

              2      There was an error on the read, or on polling  the  input
                     file descriptor for a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives
                     the error.

              3      Data were successfully  read,  but  there  was  an  error
                     writing  them  to  outfd.   The parameter ERRNO gives the

              4      The attempt to read timed out.  Note this  does  not  set
                     ERRNO as this is not a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This
                     usually indicates end of file.  The  parameters  are  set
                     according  to  the  usual  rules;  no  write  to outfd is

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The data (a single string of bytes)  are  written  to  the  file
              descriptor  outfd,  or  1  if that is not given, using the write
              system call.  Multiple write operations may be used if the first
              does not write all the data.

              If  countvar  is  given, the number of byte written is stored in
              the parameter named by countvar; this may not be the full length
              of data if an error occurred.

              The  error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally
              by retrying; otherwise an error causes the  command  to  return.
              For  example,  if  the  file  descriptor  is set to non-blocking
              output, an error  EAGAIN  (on  some  systems,  EWOULDBLOCK)  may
              result in the command returning early.

              The  return  status  may be 0 for success, 1 for an error in the
              parameters to the command, or 2 for an error on  the  write;  no
              error  message  is  printed  in the last case, but the parameter
              ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand flock  performs  advisory  file
              locking  (via the fcntl(2) system call) over the entire contents
              of the given file.  This form of locking requires the  processes
              accessing the file to cooperate; its most obvious use is between
              two instances of the shell itself.

              In the first form the named file, which must already  exist,  is
              locked  by  opening a file descriptor to the file and applying a
              lock to the file descriptor.  The lock terminates when the shell
              process  that  created  the  lock  exits;  it is therefore often
              convenient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock
              is  automatically released when the subshell exits.  Status 0 is
              returned if the lock succeeds, else status 1.

              In the second form the file descriptor given by  the  arithmetic
              expression  fd_expr  is  closed,  releasing  a  lock.   The file
              descriptor can be queried by using the `-f var' form during  the
              lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is set to the
              file descriptor used for locking.  The lock will be released  if
              the  file  descriptor  is closed by any other means, for example
              using `exec {var}>&-'; however, the form described here performs
              a  safety  check  that  the  file  descriptor is in use for file

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to succeed.
              The  option  -t  timeout  specifies  a  timeout  for the lock in
              seconds; currently this must be  an  integer.   The  shell  will
              attempt  to  lock the file once a second during this period.  If
              the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If the option -e is given, the file descriptor for the  lock  is
              preserved  when  the  shell  uses  exec  to start a new process;
              otherwise it is closed at that point and the lock released.

              If the option -r  is  given,  the  lock  is  only  for  reading,
              otherwise it is for reading and writing.  The file descriptor is
              opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a  given
              subcommand is supported.  It returns status 0 if so, else status
              1.  It operates silently unless there was a syntax  error  (i.e.
              the  wrong  number  of  arguments),  in which case status 255 is
              returned.  Status 1 can indicate one of two things:   subcommand
              is  known  but not supported by the current operating system, or
              subcommand is not known  (possibly  because  this  is  an  older
              version of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A  readonly  array of the names of errors defined on the system.
              These are typically macros defined in C by including the  system
              header  file  errno.h.   The  index  of  each name (assuming the
              option KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds  to  the  error  number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name
              are given the name Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical
              name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns   the  process  ID  of  the  current  process,  even  in
              subshells.  Compare $$, which returns the process ID of the main
              shell process.

       ppid   Returns  the  process  ID  of the parent of the current process,
              even in subshells.  Compare $PPID, which returns the process  ID
              of the parent of the main shell process.


       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp  is  implemented  as  a  builtin to allow full use of shell
              command line editing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the  contents  of
              its session table.

              If  it  is  run  with  only  the  option  -L, it will output the
              contents of the session table in a format suitable for automatic
              parsing.   The option is ignored if given with a command to open
              or close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines,  one
              per session, each containing the following elements separated by

              File descriptor
                     The file descriptor  in  use  for  the  connection.   For
                     normal  inbound (I) and outbound (O) connections this may
                     be read  and  written  by  the  usual  shell  mechanisms.
                     However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An  outbound  connection  created  with `ztcp host

              The local host
                     This is usually set to an  all-zero  IP  address  as  the
                     address of the localhost is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This  is  likely  to be zero unless the connection is for

              The remote host
                     This is the fully qualified domain name of the  peer,  if
                     available,  else  an  IP  address.   It is an all-zero IP
                     address for a session opened for listening.

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is  omitted,  it
              will  default  to  port 23.  The connection will be added to the
              session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set  to  the
              file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp -l will open a socket listening on TCP  port.   The  socket
              will be added to the session table and the shell parameter REPLY
              will  be  set  to  the  file  descriptor  associated  with  that

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp  -a  will  accept  an  incoming  connection  to  the   port
              associated  with  listenfd.  The connection will be added to the
              session table and the shell parameter REPLY will be set  to  the
              file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If  -d  is  specified,  its argument will be taken as the target
              file descriptor for the connection.

              If -t is specified, ztcp will return if no  incoming  connection
              is pending.  Otherwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp  -c  will  close the socket associated with fd.  The socket
              will be removed from the session table.  If fd is not specified,
              ztcp will close everything in the session table.

              Normally, sockets registered by zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot
              be closed this way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here  is  how  to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.
       We need to pick an unassigned port; here we  use  the  randomly  chosen

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The  second  from  last  command  blocks  until  there  is  an incoming

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be  the  same
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now  on  each  host,  $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the
       other.  For example, on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd


       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output the termcap value corresponding to  the  capability  cap,
              with optional arguments.

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their


       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output the terminfo value corresponding to the  capability  cap,
              instantiated with arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An  associative  array  that  maps  terminfo capability names to
              their values.


       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The  zsh/zftp  module  is  a  client  for  FTP  (file   transfer
              protocol).   It is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of
              shell  command  line  editing,  file  I/O,   and   job   control
              mechanisms.   Often,  users  will  access it via shell functions
              providing a more powerful interface; a set is provided with  the
              zsh  distribution  and  is described in zshzftpsys(1).  However,
              the zftp command is entirely usable in its own right.

              All commands consist of the command name zftp  followed  by  the
              name  of  a  subcommand.   These  are  listed below.  The return
              status of each subcommand is supposed to reflect the success  or
              failure  of  the  remote  operation.   See  a description of the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from
              the server may be printed.

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open  a  new  FTP  session  to  host, which may be the name of a
              TCP/IP connected host or  an  IP  number  in  the  standard  dot
              notation.   If  the  argument  is  in the form host:port, open a
              connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.
              This  may  be  the  name  of a TCP service or a number:  see the
              description of ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If IPv6 addresses in colon format are used, the host  should  be
              surrounded  by quoted square brackets to distinguish it from the
              port, for example '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.  For consistency
              this is allowed with all forms of host.

              Remaining  arguments  are  passed to the login subcommand.  Note
              that if no arguments beyond host are  supplied,  open  will  not
              automatically  call login.  If no arguments at all are supplied,
              open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After  a  successful  open,  the  shell   variables   ZFTP_HOST,
              ZFTP_PORT,   ZFTP_IP   and   ZFTP_SYSTEM   are   available;  see
              `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login the user name with parameters password and  account.   Any
              of the parameters can be omitted, and will be read from standard
              input if needed (name is always needed).  If standard input is a
              terminal,  a  prompt  for  each  one will be printed on standard
              error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters
              are not used, a warning message is printed.

              After   a  successful  login,  the  shell  variables  ZFTP_USER,
              ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD are available; see `Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged  in,
              and the server will first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store  the  given  parameters  for  a later open command with no
              arguments.  Only  those  given  on  the  command  line  will  be
              remembered.  If no arguments are given, the parameters currently
              set are printed, although the password will appear as a line  of
              stars;  the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero

              Any of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may  need
              to  be quoted to protect it from shell expansion.  In this case,
              the appropriate parameter will be read from stdin  as  with  the
              login  subcommand,  including  special handling of password.  If
              the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt  for
              reading  the  parameter  instead  of  the  default  message (any
              necessary punctuation and whitespace should be included  at  the
              end  of  the  prompt).  The first letter of the parameter (only)
              may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\$word" guarantees
              that  the  string from the shell parameter $word will be treated
              literally, whether or not it begins with a `?'.

              If instead a single `-' is given, the  existing  parameters,  if
              any,  are deleted.  In that case, calling open with no arguments
              will cause an error.

              The list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however  it
              will be deleted if the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then
              prompt the user for the corresponding password  with  the  given

       test   Test  the  connection;  if  the  server has reported that it has
              closed the connection (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2;
              if  no  connection was open anyway, return status 1; else return
              status 0.  The test subcommand is silent,  apart  from  messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the
              connection closes.  There is no network overhead for this test.

              The test is only supported on systems with either the  select(2)
              or poll(2) system calls; otherwise the message `not supported on
              this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of
              any  other  subcommand for the current session when a connection
              is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell
              variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change  the  remote directory to the one higher in the directory
              tree.  Note that cd .. will  also  work  correctly  on  non-UNIX

       dir [ args... ]
              Give  a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are
              passed directly  to  the  server.  The  command's  behaviour  is
              implementation  dependent,  but  a  UNIX  server  will typically
              interpret args as arguments  to  the  ls  command  and  with  no
              arguments  return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed
              to standard output.

       ls [ args ]
              Give a (short) listing of the remote directory.  With  no  args,
              produces a raw list of the files in the directory, one per line.
              Otherwise, up to vagaries of the server implementation,  behaves
              similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change  the  type for the transfer to type, or print the current
              type if type is absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I'
              (Image, i.e. binary), or `B' (a synonym for `I').

              The FTP default for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds
              that the remote host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes, it  will
              automatically  switch  to  using  binary for file transfers upon
              open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The transfer type is only passed to the remote host when a  data
              connection  is  established;  this  command  involves no network

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set the mode type to stream (S) or block (B).   Stream  mode  is
              the default; block mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print the size and last modification time of the remote or local
              files.  If there is more than one item on the list, the name  of
              the  file  is printed first.  The first number is the file size,
              the second is the last modification time  of  the  file  in  the
              format  CCYYMMDDhhmmSS  consisting  of  year, month, date, hour,
              minutes and seconds in GMT.  Note that  this  format,  including
              the  length, is guaranteed, so that time strings can be directly
              compared via the [[ builtin's < and > operators,  even  if  they
              are too long to be represented as integers.

              Not  all  servers  support  the  commands  for  retrieving  this
              information.  In  that  case,  the  remote  command  will  print
              nothing  and  return status 2, compared with status 1 for a file
              not found.

              The  local  command  (but  not  remote)  may  be  used  with  no
              arguments,  in  which  case the information comes from examining
              file descriptor zero.  This is the same file as seen  by  a  put
              command with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
              Retrieve  all  files  from  the  server,  concatenating them and
              sending them to standard output.

       put file [...]
              For each file, read a file from standard input and send that  to
              the remote host with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As  put, but if the remote file already exists, data is appended
              to it instead of overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at
              the  given  point  in  the  remote  file.   This  is  useful for
              appending to an incomplete local file.  However, note that  this
              ability  is  not  universally  supported  by servers (and is not
              quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send a host-specific command to the server.  You  will  probably
              only need this if instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send  the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be
              familiar with the FTP command set as defined  in  RFC959  before
              doing  this.   Useful  commands may include STAT and HELP.  Note
              also the mechanism for returning messages as described  for  the
              variable  ZFTP_VERBOSE  below,  in  particular that all messages
              from the control connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close the  current  data  connection.   This  unsets  the  shell
              parameters    ZFTP_HOST,    ZFTP_PORT,   ZFTP_IP,   ZFTP_SYSTEM,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows multiple FTP sessions to be used at once.   The  name  of
              the  session  is  an arbitrary string of characters; the default
              session is called `default'.  If this command is called  without
              an  argument,  it  will  list  all the current sessions; with an
              argument, it will either switch to the existing  session  called
              sessname, or create a new session of that name.

              Each  session remembers the status of the connection, the set of
              connection-specific shell parameters (the same set as are  unset
              when a connection closes, as given in the description of close),
              and any user parameters specified with  the  params  subcommand.
              Changing  to  a previous session restores those values; changing
              to a new session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had
              just  been  loaded.  The name of the current session is given by
              the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete a session; if a name is not given, the current session is
              deleted.   If  the  current  session  is  deleted,  the earliest
              existing session becomes the new current session, otherwise  the
              current session is not changed.  If the session being deleted is
              the only one, a new session  called  `default'  is  created  and
              becomes  the  current  session;  note that this is a new session
              even if the session being deleted is also called  `default'.  It
              is  recommended  that  sessions  not be deleted while background
              commands which use zftp are still active.

       The following shell parameters are used by  zftp.   Currently  none  of
       them are special.

              Integer.  The time in seconds to wait for a network operation to
              complete before returning an error.  If this is not set when the
              module  is  loaded,  it  will  be given the default value 60.  A
              value of zero turns off timeouts.  If a timeout  occurs  on  the
              control  connection  it  will  be closed.  Use a larger value if
              this occurs too frequently.

              Readonly.  The IP address  of  the  current  connection  in  dot

              Readonly.   The  hostname  of the current remote server.  If the
              host was  opened  as  an  IP  number,  ZFTP_HOST  contains  that
              instead;  this  saves  the  overhead  for  a  name lookup, as IP
              numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.  The number of  the  remote  TCP  port  to  which  the
              connection is open (even if the port was originally specified as
              a named service).  Usually this is the standard FTP port, 21.

              In the unlikely  event  that  your  system  does  not  have  the
              appropriate  conversion  functions, this appears in network byte
              order.  If your system is little-endian, the port then  consists
              of  two  swapped bytes and the standard port will be reported as
              5376.  In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also
              need to be in this format.

              Readonly.   The  system  type  string  returned by the server in
              response to an FTP SYST request.  The most interesting case is a
              string   beginning   "UNIX  Type:  L8",  which  ensures  maximum
              compatibility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.  The type to be used for data transfers ,  either  `A'
              or `I'.   Use the type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.   The  account name of the current user, if any.  Most
              servers do not require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.  The three digit code of the last FTP reply  from  the
              server as a string.  This can still be read after the connection
              is closed, and is not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.  The last line of the last reply sent by  the  server.
              This  can  still  be read after the connection is closed, and is
              not changed when the current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  name  of  the  current  FTP  session;  see  the
              description of the session subcommand.

              A   string   of  preferences  for  altering  aspects  of  zftp's
              behaviour.   Each  preference  is  a  single   character.    The
              following are defined:

              P      Passive:  attempt to make the remote server initiate data
                     transfers.  This is slightly more efficient than sendport
                     mode.   If  the letter S occurs later in the string, zftp
                     will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:  initiate transfers by the  FTP  PORT  command.
                     If  this  occurs before any P in the string, passive mode
                     will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:  use only the bare minimum of FTP  commands.   This
                     prevents  the  variables  ZFTP_SYSTEM  and  ZFTP_PWD from
                     being set, and will mean all connections default to ASCII
                     type.   It  may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from being set during a
                     transfer if the server does  not  send  it  anyway  (many
                     servers do).

              If  ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to
              a default of `PS', i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise
              fall back to sendport mode.

              A  string  of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which
              responses from the server should be printed.  All  responses  go
              to  standard  error.  If any of the numbers 1 to 5 appear in the
              string, raw responses from the server with reply codes beginning
              with  that  digit  will be printed to standard error.  The first
              digit of the three digit reply code  is  defined  by  RFC959  to
              correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply `Service
              not available', which forces termination  of  a  connection,  is
              classified  as  421,  i.e.  `transient negative', an interesting
              interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The code 0 is special:  it indicates that all but the last  line
              of  multiline  replies  read  from the server will be printed to
              standard error in a processed format.   By  convention,  servers
              use this mechanism for sending information for the user to read.
              The appropriate reply code, if it  matches  the  same  response,
              takes priority.

              If  ZFTP_VERBOSE  is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set
              to the default value 450, i.e., messages destined for  the  user
              and  all  errors  will  be  printed.  A null string is valid and
              specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the
              directory changes on the server, including when a user is logged
              in, or when a connection is closed.  In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD
              will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new directory.

              If  this function is set by the user, it will be called during a
              get, put or append operation each time sufficient data has  been
              received  from  the  host.   During  a  get, the data is sent to
              standard output, so it is vital that this function should  write
              to  standard  error or directly to the terminal, not to standard

              When it is called with a transfer  in  progress,  the  following
              additional shell parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The  total  size  of the complete file being transferred:
                     the same as the first value provided by  the  remote  and
                     local  subcommands  for a particular file.  If the server
                     cannot  supply  this  value  for  a  remote  file   being
                     retrieved,  it  will not be set.  If input is from a pipe
                     the value may be incorrect and  correspond  simply  to  a
                     full pipe buffer.

                     The  amount  of data so far transferred; a number between
                     zero and $ZFTP_SIZE, if that  is  set.   This  number  is
                     always available.

              The   function   is  initially  called  with  ZFTP_TRANSFER  set
              appropriately and ZFTP_COUNT set to zero.  After the transfer is
              finished,  the  function  will  be  called  one  more  time with
              ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to tidy up.  It
              is   otherwise  never  called  twice  with  the  same  value  of

              Sometimes the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up  to
              the user to decide whether the function should be defined and to
              use unfunction when necessary.

       A connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as  this
       occurs  in  a  subshell  and the file information is not updated in the
       main shell.  In the case  of  type  or  mode  changes  or  closing  the
       connection in a subshell, the information is returned but variables are
       not updated until the next call  to  zftp.   Other  status  changes  in
       subshells will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should
       be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting sessions while a zftp command is active in the background  can
       have  unexpected  effects,  even  if  it does not use the session being
       deleted.  This is because all shell subprocesses share  information  on
       the  state  of  all  connections,  and  deleting  a session changes the
       ordering of that information.

       On some operating systems, the control connection is not valid after  a
       fork(),  so  that  operations  in subshells, on the left hand side of a
       pipeline, or in the background are not possible,  as  they  should  be.
       This is presumably a bug in the operating system.


       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).


       The  zsh/zleparameter module defines two special parameters that can be
       used to access  internal  information  of  the  Zsh  Line  Editor  (see

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This  associative  array  contains one entry per widget defined.
              The  name  of  the  widget  is  the  key  and  the  value  gives
              information  about the widget. It is either the string `builtin'
              for builtin widgets,  a  string  of  the  form  `user:name'  for
              user-defined  widgets,  where  name  is  the  name  of the shell
              function implementing the widget, or it is a string of the  form
              `completion:type:name', for completion widgets. In the last case
              type is the name of the builtin widgets  the  completion  widget
              imitates  in  its  behavior  and  name  is the name of the shell
              function implementing the completion widget.


       When loaded, the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.   The
       profiling  results  can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made
       available by this module.  There is no way to turn profiling off  other
       than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard
              output.  The format is  comparable  to  that  of  commands  like

              At  the  top  there is a summary listing all functions that were
              called at least once.  This  summary  is  sorted  in  decreasing
              order  of  the  amount of time spent in each.  The lines contain
              the number of the function in order,  which  is  used  in  other
              parts  of  the  list  in  suffixes of the form `[num]', then the
              number of calls made to the function.  The  next  three  columns
              list  the  time  in  milliseconds  spent in the function and its
              descendants, the average  time  in  milliseconds  spent  in  the
              function and its descendants per call and the percentage of time
              spent in all shell functions  used  in  this  function  and  its
              descendants.    The   following  three  columns  give  the  same
              information, but counting only the time spent  in  the  function
              itself.  The final column shows the name of the function.

              After  the  summary,  detailed  information about every function
              that was invoked is listed, sorted in decreasing  order  of  the
              amount of time spent in each function and its descendants.  Each
              of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions that
              called  the  function  described,  the  function itself, and the
              functions that were called from it.   The  description  for  the
              function itself has the same format as in the summary (and shows
              the same information).  The other lines don't show the number of
              the  function  at  the  beginning  and have their function named
              indented to make it easier to distinguish the line  showing  the
              function described in the section from the surrounding lines.

              The  information shown in this case is almost the same as in the
              summary, but only refers to the call hierarchy being  displayed.
              For example, for a calling function the column showing the total
              running time lists the time spent in the described function  and
              its  descendants only for the times when it was called from that
              particular calling function.  Likewise, for a  called  function,
              this  columns  lists the total time spent in the called function
              and its descendants only for the times when it was  called  from
              the function described.

              Also  in  this case, the column showing the number of calls to a
              function also shows  a  slash  and  then  the  total  number  of
              invocations made to the called function.

              As  long  as  the  zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling will be
              done and multiple invocations of the zprof builtin command  will
              show the times and numbers of calls since the module was loaded.
              With the -c option, the zprof builtin  command  will  reset  its
              internal counters and will not show the listing.


       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The  arguments  following  name  are  concatenated  with  spaces
              between, then executed as a command, as if passed  to  the  eval
              builtin.     The   command   runs   under   a   newly   assigned
              pseudo-terminal;   this   is   useful   for   running   commands
              non-interactively  which expect an interactive environment.  The
              name is not part of the command, but is used to  refer  to  this
              command in later calls to zpty.

              With  the -e option, the pseudo-terminal is set up so that input
              characters are echoed.

              With the -b option, input to and output from the pseudo-terminal
              are made non-blocking.

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The  second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands
              previously started, by supplying a list of their names.   If  no
              names  are  given, all commands are deleted.  Deleting a command
              causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding process.

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The -w option can be used to send the to command name the  given
              strings as input (separated by spaces).  If the -n option is not
              given, a newline is added at the end.

              If no strings are provided, the standard input is copied to  the
              pseudo-terminal;  this may stop before copying the full input if
              the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note that the command under the pseudo-terminal sees this  input
              as  if  it were typed, so beware when sending special tty driver
              characters such as word-erase, line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The -r option can be used to read  the  output  of  the  command
              name.   With  only a name argument, the output read is copied to
              the   standard   output.    Unless   the   pseudo-terminal    is
              non-blocking,  copying  continues  until  the  command under the
              pseudo-terminal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as
              is  immediately  available is copied.  The return status is zero
              if any output is copied.

              When also given a param argument, at most one line is  read  and
              stored  in the parameter named param.  Less than a full line may
              be read if the  pseudo-terminal  is  non-blocking.   The  return
              status is zero if at least one character is stored in param.

              If  a  pattern  is given as well, output is read until the whole
              string read matches the pattern, even in the non-blocking  case.
              The  return  status  is  zero  if  the  string  read matches the
              pattern, or if the command has exited but at least one character
              could  still  be  read.  If the option -m is present, the return
              status is zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing,
              a maximum of one megabyte of output can be consumed this way; if
              a full megabyte is read without matching the pattern, the return
              status is non-zero.

              In  all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could be
              read, and is 2 if this is because the command has finished.

              If the -r option is combined with  the  -t  option,  zpty  tests
              whether output is available before trying to read.  If no output
              is available, zpty immediately returns the status 1.  When  used
              with  a  pattern,  the  behaviour on a failed poll is similar to
              when the command has exited:  the return value  is  zero  if  at
              least  one  character  could  still  be read even if the pattern
              failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The -t option without the -r option can be used to test  whether
              the  command name is still running.  It returns a zero status if
              the command is running and a non-zero value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The last form, without  any  arguments,  is  used  to  list  the
              commands  currently defined.  If the -L option is given, this is
              done in the form of calls to the zpty builtin.


       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system  call,
              which  blocks  until  a  file descriptor is ready for reading or
              writing, or has an error condition, with  an  optional  timeout.
              If  this  is not available on your system, the command prints an
              error message and returns status 2 (normal errors return  status
              1).   For  more  information, see your systems documentation for
              select(3).  Note there is no connection with the  shell  builtin
              of the same name.

              Arguments   and  options  may  be  intermingled  in  any  order.
              Non-option arguments are file descriptors, which must be decimal
              integers.   By  default,  file  descriptors are to be tested for
              reading, i.e. zselect will return when data is available  to  be
              read  from  the  file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read
              operation from the file descriptor will not block.  After a  -r,
              -w  and  -e,  the  given  file  descriptors are to be tested for
              reading, writing, or error conditions.   These  options  and  an
              arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the
              documentation for many  implementations  of  the  select  system
              call.   According to recent versions of the POSIX specification,
              it is really an exception condition, of which the only  standard
              example  is out-of-band data received on a socket.  So zsh users
              are unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The option `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths  of  a
              second.   This  may  be zero, in which case the file descriptors
              will simply be polled and zselect will return  immediately.   It
              is  possible  to  call  zselect  with  no file descriptors and a
              non-zero timeout for use  as  a  finer-grained  replacement  for
              `sleep';  note,  however,  the  return  status is always 1 for a

              The option `-a array' indicates that  array  should  be  set  to
              indicate  the file descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option
              is not given, the array reply will be  used  for  this  purpose.
              The  array  will  contain  a string similar to the arguments for
              zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might return immediately with status 0 and $reply containing `-r
              0  -w  1'  to  show that both file descriptors are ready for the
              requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc
              should  be  set  to  indicate  the  file descriptor(s( which are
              ready.  This option overrides the option -a, nor will  reply  be
              modified.   The  keys of assoc are the file descriptors, and the
              corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate
              the condition.

              The  command returns status 0 if some file descriptors are ready
              for reading.  If the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0  was
              given and no file descriptors were ready, or there was an error,
              it returns status 1 and the array will not be set (nor  modified
              in  any way).  If there was an error in the select operation the
              appropriate error message is printed.


       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This builtin command  is  used  to  define  and  lookup  styles.
              Styles  are  pairs of names and values, where the values consist
              of any  number  of  strings.   They  are  stored  together  with
              patterns  and  lookup  is  done  by  giving a string, called the
              `context', which is compared to the  patterns.   The  definition
              stored for the first matching pattern will be returned.

              For  ordering  of  comparisons,  patterns are searched from most
              specific to  least  specific,  and  patterns  that  are  equally
              specific  keep  the order in which they were defined.  A pattern
              is considered to be more specific than another  if  it  contains
              more  components  (substrings  separated  by  colons)  or if the
              patterns for the components  are  more  specific,  where  simple
              strings  are  considered  to  be more specific than patterns and
              complex patterns are considered to be  more  specific  than  the
              pattern `*'.

              The  first  form  (without  arguments)  lists  the  definitions.
              Styles are shown in alphabetic order and patterns are  shown  in
              the order zstyle will test them.

              If  the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of calls
              to zstyle.  The optional first argument is a pattern which  will
              be  matched  against  the string supplied as the pattern for the
              context;  note  that  this  means,  for  example,   `zstyle   -L
              ":completion:*"'  will  match  any  supplied  pattern  beginning
              `:completion:', not just ":completion:*":  use  ":completion:\*"
              to  match  that.  The optional second argument limits the output
              to a specific style (not a pattern).  -L is not compatible  with
              any other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines  the given style for the pattern with the strings
                     as the value.  If the -e option  is  given,  the  strings
                     will  be  concatenated  (separated  by  spaces)  and  the
                     resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way as it
                     is  done  by  the eval builtin command) when the style is
                     looked up.  In this case the parameter  `reply'  must  be
                     assigned   to   set   the   strings  returned  after  the
                     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset,
                     and  if it is still unset after the evaluation, the style
                     is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete   style   definitions.   Without   arguments   all
                     definitions  are  deleted, with a pattern all definitions
                     for that pattern are deleted and if any styles are given,
                     then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name
                     of an array in which the results are stored. Without  any
                     further  arguments,  all  patterns  defined are returned.
                     With a pattern the styles defined for  that  pattern  are
                     returned  and  with both a pattern and a style, the value
                     strings of that combination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The parameter name is set  to  the  value  of  the  style
                     interpreted  as  a string.  If the value contains several
                     strings they are concatenated with spaces  (or  with  the
                     sep string if that is given) between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The  value  is  stored  in name as a boolean, i.e. as the
                     string `yes' if the value has only one  string  and  that
                     string is equal to one of `yes', `true', `on', or `1'. If
                     the value is any  other  string  or  has  more  than  one
                     string, the parameter is set to `no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The  value  is  stored  in  name  as an array. If name is
                     declared as an associative array,  the first, third, etc.
                     strings  are  used  as the keys and the other strings are
                     used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test the value of  a  style,  i.e.  the  -t  option  only
                     returns  a  status  (sets  $?).   Without any strings the
                     return status is zero if the  style  is  defined  for  at
                     least  one  matching  pattern, has only one string in its
                     value, and that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or
                     `1'.  If  any strings are given the status is zero if and
                     only if at least one of the strings is equal to at  least
                     one  of the strings in the value. If the style is defined
                     but doesn't match, the return status is 1. If  the  style
                     is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The  -T option tests the values of the style like -t, but
                     it returns status zero (rather than 2) if  the  style  is
                     not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches
                     at least one of the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This builtin provides two different  forms  of  formatting.  The
              first  form  is  selected  with  the -f option. In this case the
              format string will be modified by replacing  sequences  starting
              with  a  percent  sign  in it with strings from the specs.  Each
              spec should be of the form `char:string' which will cause  every
              appearance  of  the sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by
              the string.  The `%' sequence may also contain optional  minimum
              and  maximum  field width specifications between the `%' and the
              `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width  is
              given first and if the maximum field width is used, it has to be
              preceded by a dot.  Specifying a minimum field width  makes  the
              result  be  padded  with  spaces  to  the right if the string is
              shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the  left  can  be
              achieved by giving a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum
              field width is specified, the string  will  be  truncated  after
              that  many  characters.   After  all `%' sequences for the given
              specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the
              parameter param.

              The  %-escapes  also  understand ternary expressions in the form
              used by prompts.  The %  is  followed  by  a  `('  and  then  an
              ordinary  format  specifier character as described above.  There
              may be a set of digits either before or  after  the  `(';  these
              specify a test number, which defaults to zero.  Negative numbers
              are also allowed.  An arbitrary delimiter character follows  the
              format  specifier,  which is followed by a piece of `true' text,
              the delimiter character again, a piece of `false'  text,  and  a
              closing  parenthesis.   The  complete  expression  (without  the
              digits) thus looks like `%(X.text1.text2)', except that the  `.'
              character   is  arbitrary.   The  value  given  for  the  format
              specifier in the  char:string  expressions  is  evaluated  as  a
              mathematical  expression, and compared with the test number.  If
              they are the same, text1 is output, else  text2  is  output.   A
              parenthesis  may  be escaped in text2 as %).  Either of text1 or
              text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3('." c:3

              outputs "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for  the
              format specifier c is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the
              ternary expression.

              The second form, using the -a option, can be used  for  aligning
              strings.   Here,  the  specs  are of the form `left:right' where
              `left' and `right' are arbitrary  strings.   These  strings  are
              modified  by  replacing the colons by the sep string and padding
              the left strings with spaces  to  the  right  so  that  the  sep
              strings  in  the result (and hence the right strings after them)
              are all aligned if the strings are  printed  below  each  other.
              All  strings  without a colon are left unchanged and all strings
              with an empty right string have the trailing colon removed.   In
              both  cases the lengths of the strings are not used to determine
              how the other strings are to be aligned.  The resulting  strings
              are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -M ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This  builtin  simplifies  the  parsing of options in positional
              parameters, i.e. the set of arguments given by  $*.   Each  spec
              describes  one option and must be of the form `opt[=array]'.  If
              an option described by opt is found in the positional parameters
              it is copied into the array specified with the -a option; if the
              optional `=array' is given,  it  is  instead  copied  into  that

              Note  that  it  is an error to give any spec without an `=array'
              unless one of the -a or -A options is used.

              Unless the -E option is given, parsing stops at the first string
              that isn't described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing
              always stops at a positional parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

              The opt description must be one of the following.   Any  of  the
              special  characters can appear in the option name provided it is
              preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The name is the name of the option  without  the  leading
                     `-'.   To  specify  a  GNU-style  long option, one of the
                     usual two leading `-'  must  be  included  in  name;  for
                     example,  a  `--file'  option is represented by a name of

                     If a `+' appears after name, the option  is  appended  to
                     array each time it is found in the positional parameters;
                     without the `+' only the last occurrence of the option is

                     If  one  of  these  forms  is  used,  the option takes no
                     argument,  so  parsing  stops  if  the  next   positional
                     parameter  does  not  also  begin with `-' (unless the -E
                     option is used).

              name:: If one or two colons  are  given,  the  option  takes  an
                     argument;  with  one colon, the argument is mandatory and
                     with two colons it is optional.  The argument is appended
                     to the array after the option itself.

                     An  optional  argument is put into the same array element
                     as the option name (note that this makes empty strings as
                     arguments  indistinguishable).   A  mandatory argument is
                     added as a separate element unless the `:-' form is used,
                     in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A  `+' as described above may appear between the name and
                     the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As described above, this names the default  array  in  which  to
              store the recognised options.

       -A assoc
              If this is given, the options and their values are also put into
              an associative array with the  option  names  as  keys  and  the
              arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If  this option is given, all options found are removed from the
              positional parameters of the calling shell or shell function, up
              to  but  not  including any not described by the specs.  This is
              similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With this option, the  arrays  specified  with  the  -a  and  -A
              options and with the `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none
              of the specs for  them  is  used.   This  allows  assignment  of
              default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -M     This  changes  the  assignment  rules  to  implement a map among
              equivalent option names.  If any spec uses  the  `=array'  form,
              the  string  array  is  interpreted as the name of another spec,
              which is used to choose where to store the values.  If no  other
              spec  is  found,  the  values are stored as usual.  This changes
              only the way the values are stored, not the way $* is parsed, so
              results  may  be  unpredicable  if the `name+' specifier is used

       -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop at the  first  string
              that  isn't  described  by  one of the specs.  It can be used to
              test for or (if used together with -D) extract options and their
              arguments,  ignoring all other options and arguments that may be
              in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e., the option -b and its arguments are  taken  from  the  positional
       parameters and put into the array bar.

       The -M option can be used like this:

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

       to have the effect of

              bar=(-a '' -b xyz)

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