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       zshzftpsys - zftp function front-end


       This  describes  the  set  of  shell functions supplied with the source
       distribution as an interface to the zftp builtin command, allowing  you
       to  perform  FTP  operations  from  the  shell  command  line or within
       functions or scripts.  The interface is similar to  a  traditional  FTP
       client (e.g. the ftp command itself, see ftp(1)), but as it is entirely
       done within the shell all the familiar completion, editing and globbing
       features, and so on, are present, and macros are particularly simple to
       write as they are just ordinary shell functions.

       The  prerequisite  is  that  the  zftp   command,   as   described   in
       zshmodules(1)  ,  must  be available in the version of zsh installed at
       your site.  If the shell is configured to  load  new  commands  at  run
       time,  it  probably  is:  typing `zmodload zsh/zftp' will make sure (if
       that runs silently, it has worked).  If this is not  the  case,  it  is
       possible  zftp  was  linked  into  the shell anyway: to test this, type
       `which zftp' and if zftp is available you will get the  message  `zftp:
       shell built-in command'.

       Commands  given  directly with zftp builtin may be interspersed between
       the functions in this suite; in a few cases, using  zftp  directly  may
       cause  some  of  the  status  information stored in shell parameters to
       become invalid.  Note in particular the description  of  the  variables
       $ZFTP_TMOUT, $ZFTP_PREFS and $ZFTP_VERBOSE for zftp.


       You  should  make  sure  all  the  functions  from  the  Functions/Zftp
       directory of the source distribution are available; they all begin with
       the  two  letters  `zf'.   They may already have been installed on your
       system; otherwise, you will need to  find  them  and  copy  them.   The
       directory  should  appear  as  one  of the elements of the $fpath array
       (this should already be the case if they were installed), and at  least
       the  function  zfinit  should be autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.
       Finally, to initialize the use of the  system  you  need  to  call  the
       zfinit  function.   The  following code in your .zshrc will arrange for
       this; assume the functions are stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U zfinit

       Note that zfinit assumes you are using the zmodload method to load  the
       zftp  command.  If it is already built into the shell, change zfinit to
       zfinit -n.  It is helpful (though not essential) if the call to  zfinit
       appears  after  any  code to initialize the new completion system, else
       unnecessary compctl commands will be given.


       The sequence of operations in performing a file transfer is essentially
       the  same  as that in a standard FTP client.  Note that, due to a quirk
       of the shell's getopts builtin, for those functions that handle options
       you must use `--' rather than `-' to ensure the remaining arguments are
       treated literally (a single `-' is treated as an argument).

   Opening a connection
       zfparams [ host [ user [ password ... ] ] ]
              Set  or  show  the  parameters  for  a  future  zfopen  with  no
              arguments.   If  no  arguments are given, the current parameters
              are  displayed  (the  password  will  be  shown  as  a  line  of
              asterisks).  If a host is given, and either the user or password
              is not, they will be prompted for; also, any parameter given  as
              `?'  will  be  prompted  for,  and  if  the `?' is followed by a
              string, that will be  used  as  the  prompt.   As  zfopen  calls
              zfparams  to  store  the  parameters,  this  usually need not be
              called directly.

              A single argument `-' will delete the stored  parameters.   This
              will  also cause the memory of the last directory (and so on) on
              the other host to be deleted.

       zfopen [ -1 ] [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
              If host is  present,  open  a  connection  to  that  host  under
              username user with password password (and, on the rare occasions
              when  it  is  necessary,  account  account).   If  a   necessary
              parameter  is  missing  or given as `?' it will be prompted for.
              If  host  is  not  present,  use  a  previously  stored  set  of

              If  the  command  was successful, and the terminal is compatible
              with xterm or is sun-cmd, a summary will  appear  in  the  title
              bar,   giving   the   local   host:directory   and   the  remote
              host:directory; this is  handled  by  the  function  zftp_chpwd,
              described below.

              Normally,  the  host,  user and password are internally recorded
              for later re-opening, either by a zfopen with no  arguments,  or
              automatically (see below).  With the option `-1', no information
              is stored.  Also, if an open command with arguments failed,  the
              parameters  will  not  be  retained (and any previous parameters
              will also be deleted).  A zfopen on its own,  or  a  zfopen  -1,
              never alters the stored parameters.

              Both zfopen and zfanon (but not zfparams) understand URLs of the
              form ftp://host/path... as meaning to connect to the host,  then
              change  directory  to  path  (which  must  be a directory, not a
              file).  The `ftp://' can be omitted; the trailing `/' is  enough
              to  trigger  recognition  of the path.  Note prefixes other than
              `ftp:' are not recognized, and that  all  characters  after  the
              first slash beyond host are significant in path.

       zfanon [ -1 ] host
              Open  a connection host for anonymous FTP.  The username used is
              `anonymous'.  The password (which will  be  reported  the  first
              time)  is  generated  as  user@host;  this is then stored in the
              shell parameter  $EMAIL_ADDR  which  can  alternatively  be  set
              manually to a suitable string.

   Directory management
       zfcd [ dir ]
       zfcd -
       zfcd old new
              Change  the  current  directory  on  the remote server:  this is
              implemented to have many of the features of  the  shell  builtin

              In the first form with dir present, change to the directory dir.
              The command `zfcd ..' is treated specially, so is guaranteed  to
              work  on  non-UNIX  servers  (note this is handled internally by
              zftp).  If dir is omitted, has the effect of `zfcd ~'.

              The second form changes to the directory previously current.

              The third form attempts  to  change  the  current  directory  by
              replacing the first occurrence of the string old with the string
              new in the current directory.

              Note that in this command, and indeed anywhere a remote filename
              is  expected,  the string which on the local host corresponds to
              `~' is converted back to a `~' before being passed to the remote
              machine.   This  is  convenient  because of the way expansion is
              performed on the command line before  zfcd  receives  a  string.
              For  example,  suppose  the  command is `zfcd ~/foo'.  The shell
              will   expand   this   to   a   full   path   such   as    `zfcd
              /home/user2/pws/foo'.    At  this  stage,  zfcd  recognises  the
              initial path as corresponding to `~' and will send the directory
              to the remote host as ~/foo, so that the `~' will be expanded by
              the server to the correct remote host  directory.   Other  named
              directories of the form `~name' are not treated in this fashion.

       zfhere Change  directory  on the remote server to the one corresponding
              to the current local directory, with special handling of `~'  as
              in  zfcd.   For  example,  if  the  current  local  directory is
              ~/foo/bar, then zfhere performs the effect of `zfcd ~/foo/bar'.

       zfdir [ -rfd ] [ - ] [ dir-options ] [ dir ]
              Produce a long directory listing.  The arguments dir-options and
              dir  are  passed  directly  to  the  server  and their effect is
              implementation dependent, but  specifying  a  particular  remote
              directory dir is usually possible.  The output is passed through
              a pager given by the environment variable $PAGER, or  `more'  if
              that is not set.

              The directory is usually cached for re-use.  In fact, two caches
              are maintained.  One is for use when there is no dir-options  or
              dir,  i.e. a full listing of the current remote directory; it is
              flushed when the current remote directory changes.  The other is
              kept  for  repeated  use  of  zfdir with the same arguments; for
              example, repeated use of `zfdir /pub/gnu' will only require  the
              directory  to  be  retrieved  on the first call.  Alternatively,
              this cache can be re-viewed with the  -r  option.   As  relative
              directories  will  confuse  zfdir,  the -f option can be used to
              force the cache to be flushed before the  directory  is  listed.
              The  option  -d  will  delete  both  caches  without  showing  a
              directory listing; it will also delete the cache of  file  names
              in the current remote directory, if any.

       zfls [ ls-options ] [ dir ]
              List  files  on the remote server.  With no arguments, this will
              produce a simple list of  file  names  for  the  current  remote
              directory.  Any arguments are passed directly to the server.  No
              pager and no caching is used.

   Status commands
       zftype [ type ]
              With no arguments, show the type  of  data  to  be  transferred,
              usually ASCII or binary.  With an argument, change the type: the
              types `A' or `ASCII' for ASCII data and `B' or `BINARY', `I'  or
              `IMAGE' for binary data are understood case-insensitively.

       zfstat [ -v ]
              Show  the  status  of the current or last connection, as well as
              the status of some of zftp's  status  variables.   With  the  -v
              option,  a  more  verbose  listing  is  produced by querying the
              server for its version of events, too.

   Retrieving files
       The commands for retrieving files all take at  least  two  options.  -G
       suppresses remote filename expansion which would otherwise be performed
       (see below for a more detailed description of that).   -t  attempts  to
       set the modification time of the local file to that of the remote file:
       see the description of the function zfrtime below for more information.

       zfget [ -Gtc ] file1 ...
              Retrieve all the listed files file1 ... one at a time  from  the
              remote  server.   If  a  file  contains  a `/', the full name is
              passed to the remote server, but  the  file  is  stored  locally
              under  the  name  given  by  the  part after the final `/'.  The
              option -c (cat) forces all files to be sent as a  single  stream
              to standard output; in this case the -t option has no effect.

       zfuget [ -Gvst ] file1 ...
              As  zfget,  but  only  retrieve  files  where the version on the
              remote server is newer (has a later modification time), or where
              the  local file does not exist.  If the remote file is older but
              the files have different sizes, or if the sizes are the same but
              the  remote  file  is  newer,  the user will usually be queried.
              With the option -s, the command runs silently  and  will  always
              retrieve the file in either of those two cases.  With the option
              -v, the command prints more information about the files while it
              is working out whether or not to transfer them.

       zfcget [ -Gt ] file1 ...
              As  zfget,  but if any of the local files exists, and is shorter
              than the corresponding remote file, the command assumes that  it
              is  the result of a partially completed transfer and attempts to
              transfer the rest of  the  file.   This  is  useful  on  a  poor
              connection which keeps failing.

              Note   that   this   requires   a   commonly   implemented,  but
              non-standard, version of the FTP protocol, so is not  guaranteed
              to work on all servers.

       zfgcp [ -Gt ] remote-file local-file
       zfgcp [ -Gt ] rfile1 ... ldir
              This  retrieves  files  from  the  remote  server with arguments
              behaving similarly to the cp command.

              In the first form, copy remote-file from the server to the local
              file local-file.

              In  the  second  form, copy all the remote files rfile1 ... into
              the local directory ldir retaining  the  same  basenames.   This
              assumes UNIX directory semantics.

   Sending files
       zfput [ -r ] file1 ...
              Send  all  the  file1 ... given separately to the remote server.
              If a filename contains a `/', the full filename is used  locally
              to  find  the file, but only the basename is used for the remote
              file name.

              With the option -r, if any of the files are directories they are
              sent  recursively with all their subdirectories, including files
              beginning with `.'.   This  requires  that  the  remote  machine
              understand UNIX file semantics, since `/' is used as a directory

       zfuput [ -vs ] file1 ...
              As zfput, but only send files which are newer than  their  local
              equivalents, or if the remote file does not exist.  The logic is
              the same as for zfuget, but reversed between  local  and  remote

       zfcput file1 ...
              As  zfput,  but if any remote file already exists and is shorter
              than the local  equivalent,  assume  it  is  the  result  of  an
              incomplete  transfer  and send the rest of the file to append to
              the existing part.  As the FTP append command  is  part  of  the
              standard  set,  this  is  in  principle more likely to work than

       zfpcp local-file remote-file
       zfpcp lfile1 ... rdir
              This sends files to the remote server  with  arguments  behaving
              similarly to the cp command.

              With   two   arguments,   copy   local-file  to  the  server  as

              With more than two arguments, copy all the  local  files  lfile1
              ...  into  the existing remote directory rdir retaining the same
              basenames.  This assumes UNIX directory semantics.

              A problem arises if you attempt to use zfpcp lfile1  rdir,  i.e.
              the  second  form  of  copying  but  with  two arguments, as the
              command has no simple way of knowing if rdir  corresponds  to  a
              directory or a filename.  It attempts to resolve this in various
              ways.  First, if the rdir argument is `.' or `..' or ends  in  a
              slash,  it  is  assumed  to  be  a  directory.  Secondly, if the
              operation of copying to a remote file in the first form  failed,
              and  the  remote server sends back the expected failure code 553
              and a reply including the string `Is a  directory',  then  zfpcp
              will retry using the second form.

   Closing the connection
              Close the connection.

   Session management
       zfsession [ -lvod ] [ sessname ]
              Allows you to manage multiple FTP sessions at once.  By default,
              connections take place in a session called `default'; by  giving
              the  command  `zfsession  sessname'  you  can change to a new or
              existing session with a name of your choice.   The  new  session
              remembers  its  own  connection,  as  well  as  associated shell
              parameters, and also the host/user parameters set  by  zfparams.
              Hence  you  can  have  different  sessions  set up to connect to
              different hosts, each remembering the appropriate host, user and

              With  no  arguments,  zfsession  prints  the name of the current
              session;  with  the  option  -l  it  lists  all  sessions  which
              currently  exist, and with the option -v it gives a verbose list
              showing the host and  directory  for  each  session,  where  the
              current  session  is  marked with an asterisk.  With -o, it will
              switch to the most recent previous session.

              With -d, the given session (or else the current one) is removed;
              everything to do with it is completely forgotten.  If it was the
              only session, a new session called `default' is created and made
              current.   It  is safest not to delete sessions while background
              commands using zftp are active.

       zftransfer sess1:file1 sess2:file2
              Transfer files between two sessions; no local copy is made.  The
              file  is  read  from  the  session sess1 as file1 and written to
              session sess2 as file file2; file1 and file2 may be relative  to
              the  current  directories of the session.  Either sess1 or sess2
              may be omitted (though the colon should be retained if there  is
              a  possibility  of  a  colon  appearing  in  the  file name) and
              defaults to the current session; file2 may be omitted or may end
              with a slash, in which case the basename of file1 will be added.
              The sessions sess1 and sess2 must be distinct.

              The operation is performed using pipes, so it is  required  that
              the  connections  still be valid in a subshell, which is not the
              case under versions of some operating systems, presumably due to
              a system bug.

       The two functions zfmark and zfgoto allow you to `bookmark' the present
       location (host, user and directory) of the current FTP  connection  for
       later use.  The file to be used for storing and retrieving bookmarks is
       given by the parameter $ZFTP_BMFILE; if not set when  one  of  the  two
       functions  is  called,  it  will  be  set to the file .zfbkmarks in the
       directory where your zsh startup files live (usually ~).

       zfmark [ bookmark ]
              If given an argument, mark the current host, user and  directory
              under the name bookmark for later use by zfgoto.  If there is no
              connection  open,  use  the  values  for  the  last   connection
              immediately  before  it  was closed; it is an error if there was
              none.  Any  existing  bookmark  under  the  same  name  will  be
              silently replaced.

              If  not  given  an argument, list the existing bookmarks and the
              points to which they refer in the form user@host:directory; this
              is  the  format  in  which  they are stored, and the file may be
              edited directly.

       zfgoto [ -n ] bookmark
              Return to the location given by bookmark, as previously  set  by
              zfmark.  If the location has user `ftp' or `anonymous', open the
              connection with zfanon, so that no password is required.  If the
              user  and  host  parameters  match  those stored for the current
              session, if any, those will be used, and again  no  password  is
              required.  Otherwise a password will be prompted for.

              With  the  option  -n,  the  bookmark  is taken to be a nickname
              stored by the ncftp program  in  its  bookmark  file,  which  is
              assumed   to   be   ~/.ncftp/bookmarks.    The   function  works
              identically in other ways.  Note that there is no mechanism  for
              adding or modifying ncftp bookmarks from the zftp functions.

   Other functions
       Mostly,  these  functions  will  not  be  called  directly  (apart from
       zfinit), but are described here for  completeness.   You  may  wish  to
       alter zftp_chpwd and zftp_progress, in particular.

       zfinit [ -n ]
              As described above, this is used to initialize the zftp function
              system.  The -n option should be used if  the  zftp  command  is
              already built into the shell.

       zfautocheck [ -dn ]
              This   function  is  called  to  implement  automatic  reopening
              behaviour, as described in more detail below.  The options  must
              appear  in  the  first  argument;  -n  prevents the command from
              changing to the old directory, while -d prevents it from setting
              the  variable  do_close,  which  it otherwise does as a flag for
              automatically closing the connection after a transfer.  The host
              and  directory  for  the last session are stored in the variable
              $zflastsession, but the internal  host/user/password  parameters
              must also be correctly set.

       zfcd_match prefix suffix
              This performs matching for completion of remote directory names.
              If the remote server is UNIX, it will attempt  to  persuade  the
              server  to list the remote directory with subdirectories marked,
              which usually works but is not guaranteed.  On  other  hosts  it
              simply calls zfget_match and hence completes all files, not just
              directories.  On some systems, directories  may  not  even  look
              like filenames.

       zfget_match prefix suffix
              This  performs  matching for completion of remote filenames.  It
              caches files for the  current  directory  (only)  in  the  shell
              parameter  $zftp_fcache.   It is in the form to be called by the
              -K option  of  compctl,  but  also  works  when  called  from  a
              widget-style  completion  function  with  prefix  and suffix set

       zfrglob varname
              Perform remote globbing, as  describes  in  more  detail  below.
              varname  is  the name of a variable containing the pattern to be
              expanded; if there were any matches, the same variable  will  be
              set to the expanded set of filenames on return.

       zfrtime lfile rfile [ time ]
              Set  the  local file lfile to have the same modification time as
              the remote file rfile, or the explicit time time in  FTP  format
              CCYYMMDDhhmmSS  for  the  GMT  timezone.   This uses the shell's
              zsh/datetime module to perform the conversion from GMT to  local

              This  function  is  called every time a connection is opened, or
              closed, or the remote directory changes.   This  version  alters
              the  title  bar  of  an  xterm-compatible  or  sun-cmd  terminal
              emulator to reflect the local and remote hostnames  and  current
              directories.   It  works  best  when  combined with the function
              chpwd.  In particular, a function of the form

                     chpwd() {
                       if [[ -n $ZFTP_USER ]]; then
                         # usual chpwd e.g put host:directory in title bar

              fits in well.

              This function shows the status of the  transfer.   It  will  not
              write  anything  unless  the  output  is  going  to  a terminal;
              however, if you transfer files in  the  background,  you  should
              turn  off  progress  reports  by  hand  using  `zstyle ':zftp:*'
              progress none'.  Note also that if you alter it, any output must
              be  to  standard  error,  as standard output may be a file being
              received.  The form of the progress meter, or whether it is used
              at  all,  can  be  configured  without altering the function, as
              described in the next section.

              This is used to  implement  caching  of  files  in  the  current
              directory   for   each   session  separately.   It  is  used  by
              zfget_match and zfrglob.


       Various styles are available using the standard shell style  mechanism,
       described  in  zshmodules(1).  Briefly,  the  command `zstyle ':zftp:*'
       style value ...'.  defines the style to have value value; more than one
       value  may be given, although that is not useful in the cases described
       here.  These values will then be  used  throughout  the  zftp  function
       system.   For  more  precise control, the first argument, which gives a
       context in which the style  applies,  can  be  modified  to  include  a
       particular  function, as for example `:zftp:zfget': the style will then
       have the given value only in the zfget function.  Values for  the  same
       style in different contexts may be set; the most specific function will
       be used, where strings are held to be more specific than patterns,  and
       longer  patterns  and  shorter  patterns.  Note that only the top level
       function name, as called by the user, is used; calling of  lower  level
       functions is transparent to the user.  Hence modifications to the title
       bar in zftp_chpwd use  the  contexts  :zftp:zfopen,  :zftp:zfcd,  etc.,
       depending   where  it  was  called  from.   The  following  styles  are

              Controls the way that zftp_progress reports on the progress of a
              transfer.   If  empty,  unset,  or `none', no progress report is
              made; if `bar' a growing bar  of  inverse  video  is  shown;  if
              `percent'  (or  any  other  string,  though  this  may change in
              future), the percentage of the file transferred is  shown.   The
              bar  meter  requires that the width of the terminal be available
              via the $COLUMNS parameter (normally this is set automatically).
              If  the size of the file being transferred is not available, bar
              and  percent  meters  will  simply  show  the  number  of  bytes
              transferred so far.

              When zfinit is run, if this style is not defined for the context
              :zftp:*, it will be set to `bar'.

       update Specifies the minimum  time  interval  between  updates  of  the
              progress  meter  in  seconds.  No update is made unless new data
              has been received, so the actual time interval is  limited  only
              by $ZFTP_TIMEOUT.

              As  described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to

              If set to `1', `yes' or `true', filename  generation  (globbing)
              is performed on the remote machine instead of by zsh itself; see

              If set to `1', `yes' or `true', zftp_chpwd will put  the  remote
              host   and  remote  directory  into  the  titlebar  of  terminal
              emulators such as xterm or sun-cmd that allow this.

              As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default  to

       chpwd  If set to `1' `yes' or `true', zftp_chpwd will call the function
              chpwd when a connection is closed.  This is useful if the remote
              host  details were put into the terminal title bar by zftp_chpwd
              and your usual chpwd also modifies the title bar.

              When zfinit is run, it will determine whether chpwd  exists  and
              if  so  it will set the default value for the style to 1 if none
              exists already.

       Note that there is also an associative array  zfconfig  which  contains
       values  used  by  the  function system.  This should not be modified or

   Remote globbing
       The commands for retrieving files usually perform  filename  generation
       (globbing)  on  their  arguments; this can be turned off by passing the
       option  -G  to  each  of  the  commands.   Normally  this  operates  by
       retrieving a complete list of files for the directory in question, then
       matching these locally against the  pattern  supplied.   This  has  the
       advantage  that  the full range of zsh patterns (respecting the setting
       of the option EXTENDED_GLOB) can be used.  However, it means  that  the
       directory  part  of  a  filename will not be expanded and must be given
       exactly.  If the remote server does  not  support  the  UNIX  directory
       semantics, directory handling is problematic and it is recommended that
       globbing only be used within the current directory.  The list of  files
       in  the  current  directory,  if  retrieved,  will  be  cached, so that
       subsequent globs in the same directory without an intervening zfcd  are
       much faster.

       If  the  remote-glob  style  (see  above)  is  set, globbing is instead
       performed on the remote host:  the  server  is  asked  for  a  list  of
       matching  files.   This  is  highly  dependent  on  how  the  server is
       implemented, though typically UNIX servers  will  provide  support  for
       basic  glob  patterns.   This may in some cases be faster, as it avoids
       retrieving the entire list of directory contents.

   Automatic and temporary reopening
       As described for the  zfopen  command,  a  subsequent  zfopen  with  no
       parameters  will  reopen the connection to the last host (this includes
       connections made with the zfanon command).  Opened in this fashion, the
       connection  starts in the default remote directory and will remain open
       until explicitly closed.

       Automatic re-opening  is  also  available.   If  a  connection  is  not
       currently  open and a command requiring a connection is given, the last
       connection is implicitly reopened.  In this case  the  directory  which
       was  current  when  the connection was closed again becomes the current
       directory (unless, of course, the command given changes it).  Automatic
       reopening  will  also  take  place  if  the connection was close by the
       remote server  for  whatever  reason  (e.g.  a  timeout).   It  is  not
       available if the -1 option to zfopen or zfanon was used.

       Furthermore,  if  the command issued is a file transfer, the connection
       will be closed after  the  transfer  is  finished,  hence  providing  a
       one-shot mode for transfers.  This does not apply to directory changing
       or listing commands; for example a zfdir may reopen  a  connection  but
       will  leave  it open.  Also, automatic closure will only ever happen in
       the same command as automatic opening, i.e a zfdir directly followed by
       a zfget will never close the connection automatically.

       Information  about  the  previous  connection  is  given  by the zfstat
       function.  So, for example, if that reports:

              Session:        default
              Not connected.
              Last session:

       then the command zfget file.txt will attempt to reopen a connection  to, retrieve the file /pub/textfiles/file.txt, and immediately
       close the connection again.  On the other hand, zfcd ..  will open  the
       connection in the directory /pub and leave it open.

       Note  that  all  the above is local to each session; if you return to a
       previous session, the connection for that session is the one which will
       be reopened.

       Completion  of  local  and  remote  files,  directories,  sessions  and
       bookmarks is supported.  The older, compctl-style completion is defined
       when  zfinit  is  called;  support  for the new widget-based completion
       system is provided in the function Completion/Zsh/Command/_zftp,  which
       should  be  installed with the other functions of the completion system
       and hence should automatically be available.

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