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NAME

       zwrite - write to another user via Zephyr

SYNOPSIS

       zwrite [ -a ] [ -d ] [ -v ] [ -q ] [ -t ] [ -u ] [ -o ] [ -n ] [ -l ] [
       -C ] [ -U ] [ -O opcode ] [ -s signature ] [ -c class ] [ -i instance ]
       [ -r realm ] [ -f arg ] [ -S sender ] [ user ...  ] [ -m message ]

DESCRIPTION

       Zwrite  sends  a message from you to another user through the zephyr(1)
       notification service.  The user must have subscribed to messages of the
       appropriate class and instance using the zctl(1) program.

       Zwrite understands the following options.

       -a          Causes  zwrite  to  send  the  message authenticated, using
                   Kerberos  to  perform  the  authentication.   This  is  the
                   default.

       -d          Causes zwrite to send the message unauthenticated.

       -v          Causes  zwrite to print what type of message it is sending,
                   and whether or not it was successful.

       -q          Forces zwrite to suppress information about whether or  not
                   the message was sent.

       -t          Prevents  zwrite  from  expanding  tabs in the message into
                   appropriate spaces.  Normally zwrite will expand  any  tabs
                   it  finds into the appropriate number of spaces to maintain
                   separation based on 8-character tab stops.

       -l          Causes zwrite to ignore `.' on a  line  by  itself  in  the
                   input  and only end a typed message when the user types the
                   end-of-file character (usually control-D).  When the  input
                   is not a terminal, this is the default action.

       -u          Sends  an urgent message.  This changes the zephyr instance
                   of the message to ``URGENT''.

       -o          Causes zwrite to ignore the Zephyr variables  zwrite-class,
                   zwrite-inst,  and  zwrite-opcode  when  picking  a  default
                   class, instance, and opcode.

       -n          prevents zwrite from sending a PING message to  verify  the
                   recipient  is  subscribing to messages.  By default, zwrite
                   will send a notice to the destination class, instance,  and
                   recipient, with opcode ``PING'' before sending the message.
                   If the PING is sent,  and  the  server  response  indicates
                   there  are no recipients subscribed to your message, zwrite
                   exits without sending a message.  When  the  -n  option  is
                   used, no PING is sent.

       -C          prepends a "CC:" line to the body of the message indicating
                   the  recipients  of  the  message.  This  is   strictly   a
                   convenience:  the  presence of a "CC:" line at the top of a
                   zephyr body does not necessarily indicate that this  option
                   was used, or that the message really was sent to the listed
                   users, and its lack doesn't indicate that the  message  was
                   not sent to multiple users.

       -U          Send   an  unacked  message.   zwrite  will  not  wait  for
                   acknowledgement that the message  was  sent,  nor  will  it
                   issue a PING before sending.

       -s signature
                   sets  the  signature  to  be included in the message.  This
                   overrides both the user's name (as found  in  the  password
                   file)  and  any  setting  of  the  Zephyr  variable zwrite-
                   signature.  signature must be a single argument, hence when
                   using  a  shell  it should be quoted with double quotes.  A
                   signature argument  of  ""  leaves  the  signature  in  the
                   message empty.

       -c class    Allows a user to specify a different class for the message.
                   This allows a message to be sent to a large group of people
                   with some degree of security.  See zephyr(1) and zephyrd(8)
                   for a description of how to  restrict  access  to  classes.
                   When  this  option  is  specified,  the  message is sent to
                   recipient "*" unless an additional list  of  recipients  is
                   specified.
                   This  argument  may  not be used in conjunction with the -f
                   option.

       -i instance Allows a user to specify  a  different  instance  than  the
                   default.   When this option is used, the message is sent to
                   recipient "*" unless an additional list  of  recipients  is
                   specified.   This  allows  a  message to be sent to a large
                   group of people (e.g. a development group) just  by  having
                   the  members  subscribe to messages of class "MESSAGE", the
                   specified instance, and recipient "*".
                   This argument may not be used in conjunction  with  the  -f
                   option.

       -r realm    Allows a user to specify a different realm for the message,
                   if the server supports interrealm Zephyr.

       -S sender   Specify   a   sender.    The   message   will    be    sent
                   unauthenticated.

       -F format   Allows a user to specify a different default format for the
                   message.

       -O opcode   Allows a  user  to  specify  a  different  opcode  for  the
                   message.   Some  Zephyr notice display programs may use the
                   opcode to decide how to display a notice.

       -f arg      Allows a user to specify an argument to be interpreted as a
                   filesystem  specification.  The class is set to FILSRV.  he
                   instance is set to arg as  modified:  If  arg  contains  no
                   colons  (`:'),  it  is assumed to be a host name, and it is
                   converted into an official host name via  gethostbyname(3).
                   If arg contains a colon, the portion preceding the colon is
                   treated as a host name, and  the  colon  and  any  trailing
                   characters  are  appended to the offical host name returned
                   by gethostbyname.  If the name fails  to  resolve  into  an
                   official host name, the instance is set to arg unmodified.
                   This  option  may not be used in conjunction with the -c or
                   -i option.

       -m          Zwrite sends the remaining arguments on the command line as
                   the message.

       If the -m option is not specified, the user is prompted for the message
       to be sent.  The message may be terminated by typing ^D or ``.''  on  a
       line by itself.

       The  default class for messages is ``MESSAGE'', the default instance is
       ``PERSONAL'', andthe default opcode is ``'' (an empty  string).   These
       defaults  can  be  overridden  by  setting the Zephyr variables zwrite-
       class,  zwrite-inst,  and  zwrite-opcode,  respectively.   Command-line
       options can override the defaults.

       If  the class is ``MESSAGE'' and the instance is either ``PERSONAL'' or
       ``URGENT'', a recipient must be specified.  These comparisons are case-
       sensitive.

       Unless  the  -s  option  is  used,  the contents of the Zephyr variable
       zwrite-signature are  used  to  augment  the  user's  username  in  the
       message.   If  zwrite-signature  is  not  set  and the -s option is not
       specified, the user's full name (as specified in the password file)  is
       used instead.

BUGS

       Tab expansion should really be done by the receiver of the message.
       The -u option is provided for compatibility with old versions of zwrite
       and is not necessarily useful for sending messages to users who do  not
       have old subscription files.

SEE ALSO

       kerberosintro(1),  zctl(1),  zephyr(1),  zwgc(1),  zhm(8),  zephyrd(8),
       gethostbyname(3)
       Project Athena  Technical  Plan  Section  E.4.1,  `Zephyr  Notification
       Service'

FILES

       /etc/passwd
       $ZEPHYR_VARS or $HOME/.zephyr.vars

AUTHOR

       Robert S. French (MIT-Project Athena)

RESTRICTIONS

       Copyright  (c)  1987,1988 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
       All Rights Reserved.
       zephyr(1) specifies the terms and conditions for redistribution.



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