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       syscalls - Linux system calls


       Linux system calls.


       The system call is the fundamental interface between an application and
       the Linux kernel.

   System calls and library wrapper functions
       System calls are generally not invoked directly, but rather via wrapper
       functions  in  glibc  (or  perhaps some other library).  For details of
       direct invocation of a system  call,  see  intro(2).   Often,  but  not
       always, the name of the wrapper function is the same as the name of the
       system call that it invokes.  For example, glibc  contains  a  function
       truncate() which invokes the underlying "truncate" system call.

       Often the glibc wrapper function is quite thin, doing little work other
       than copying arguments to  the  right  registers  before  invoking  the
       system call, and then setting errno appropriately after the system call
       has returned.   (These  are  the  same  steps  that  are  performed  by
       syscall(2),  which  can  be  used  to  invoke system calls for which no
       wrapper function is provided.)  Note: system calls indicate  a  failure
       by  returning a negative error number to the caller; when this happens,
       the wrapper function negates the returned  error  number  (to  make  it
       positive),  copies  it  to  errno,  and returns -1 to the caller of the

       Sometimes, however, the wrapper function does some  extra  work  before
       invoking the system call.  For example, nowadays there are (for reasons
       described  below)   two   related   system   calls,   truncate(2)   and
       truncate64(2),  and  the glibc truncate() wrapper function checks which
       of those system calls are provided by the kernel and  determines  which
       should be employed.

   System call list
       Below  is  a  list  of the Linux system calls.  In the list, the Kernel
       column indicates the kernel version for those system  calls  that  were
       new in Linux 2.2, or have appeared since that kernel version.  Note the
       following points:

       *  Where no kernel version is indicated, the system  call  appeared  in
          kernel 1.0 or earlier.

       *  Where  a  system  call  is  marked  "1.2" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 1.1.x kernel version, and first appeared in a
          stable  kernel  with  1.2.   (Development  of  the  1.2  kernel  was
          initiated from a branch of  kernel  1.0.6  via  the  1.1.x  unstable
          kernel series.)

       *  Where  a  system  call  is  marked  "2.0" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 1.3.x kernel version, and first appeared in a
          stable  kernel  with  2.0.   (Development  of  the  2.0  kernel  was
          initiated from a branch of kernel 1.2.x,  somewhere  around  1.2.10,
          via the 1.3.x unstable kernel series.)

       *  Where  a  system  call  is  marked  "2.2" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 2.1.x kernel version, and first appeared in a
          stable  kernel  with  2.2.0.   (Development  of  the  2.2 kernel was
          initiated from a branch of kernel  2.0.21  via  the  2.1.x  unstable
          kernel series.)

       *  Where  a  system  call  is  marked  "2.4" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 2.3.x kernel version, and first appeared in a
          stable  kernel  with  2.4.0.   (Development  of  the  2.4 kernel was
          initiated from a branch of  kernel  2.2.8  via  the  2.3.x  unstable
          kernel series.)

       *  Where  a  system  call  is  marked  "2.6" this means the system call
          probably appeared in a 2.5.x kernel version, and first appeared in a
          stable  kernel with 2.6.0.  (Development of kernel 2.6 was initiated
          from a branch  of  kernel  2.4.15  via  the  2.5.x  unstable  kernel

       *  Starting  with  kernel 2.6.0, the development model changed, and new
          system calls may appear in each 2.6.x release.  In  this  case,  the
          exact  version number where the system call appeared is shown.  This
          convention continues with the 3.x kernel series, which  followed  on
          from kernel 2.6.39.

       *  In  some  cases,  a  system call was added to a stable kernel series
          after it branched from the previous stable kernel series,  and  then
          backported  into the earlier stable kernel series.  For example some
          system calls that appeared in 2.6.x  were  also  backported  into  a
          2.4.x  release after 2.4.15.  When this is so, the version where the
          system call appeared in both of the major kernel series is listed.

       The list of system calls that are available as at kernel 3.14 (or in  a
       few cases only on older kernels) is as follows:

       System call                 Kernel        Notes

       _llseek(2)                  1.2
       _newselect(2)               2.0
       _sysctl(2)                  2.0
       accept(2)                   2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       accept4(2)                  2.6.28
       access(2)                   1.0
       acct(2)                     1.0
       add_key(2)                  2.6.11
       adjtimex(2)                 1.0
       alarm(2)                    1.0
       alloc_hugepages(2)          2.5.36        Removed in 2.5.44
       bdflush(2)                  1.2           Deprecated (does nothing)
                                                 since 2.6
       bind(2)                     2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       brk(2)                      1.0
       cacheflush(2)               1.2           Not on x86
       capget(2)                   2.2
       capset(2)                   2.2
       chdir(2)                    1.0
       chmod(2)                    1.0
       chown(2)                    2.2           See chown(2) for
                                                 version details
       chown32(2)                  2.4
       chroot(2)                   1.0
       clock_adjtime(2)            2.6.39
       clock_getres(2)             2.6
       clock_gettime(2)            2.6
       clock_nanosleep(2)          2.6
       clock_settime(2)            2.6
       clone(2)                    1.0
       close(2)                    1.0
       connect(2)                  2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       creat(2)                    1.0

       create_module(2)                          Removed in 2.6
       delete_module(2)            1.0
       dup(2)                      1.0
       dup2(2)                     1.0
       dup3(2)                     2.6.27
       epoll_create(2)             2.6
       epoll_create1(2)            2.6.27
       epoll_ctl(2)                2.6
       epoll_pwait(2)              2.6.19
       epoll_wait(2)               2.6
       eventfd(2)                  2.6.22
       eventfd2(2)                 2.6.27
       execve(2)                   1.0
       exit(2)                     1.0
       exit_group(2)               2.6
       faccessat(2)                2.6.16
       fadvise64(2)                2.6
       fadvise64_64(2)             2.6
       fallocate(2)                2.6.23
       fanotify_init(2)            2.6.37
       fanotify_mark(2)            2.6.37
       fchdir(2)                   1.0
       fchmod(2)                   1.0
       fchmodat(2)                 2.6.16
       fchown(2)                   1.0
       fchown32(2)                 2.4
       fchownat(2)                 2.6.16
       fcntl(2)                    1.0
       fcntl64(2)                  2.4
       fdatasync(2)                2.0
       fgetxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       finit_module(2)             3.8
       flistxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       flock(2)                    2.0
       fork(2)                     1.0
       free_hugepages(2)           2.5.36        Removed in 2.5.44
       fremovexattr(2)             2.6; 2.4.18
       fsetxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       fstat(2)                    1.0
       fstat64(2)                  2.4
       fstatat64(2)                2.6.16
       fstatfs(2)                  1.0
       fstatfs64(2)                2.6
       fsync(2)                    1.0           1.0
       ftruncate(2)                1.0
       ftruncate64(2)              2.4
       futex(2)                    2.6
       futimesat(2)                2.6.16
       get_kernel_syms(2)                        Removed in 2.6
       get_mempolicy(2)            2.6.6
       get_robust_list(2)          2.6.17
       get_thread_area(2)          2.6
       getcpu(2)                   2.6.19
       getcwd(2)                   2.2
       getdents(2)                 2.0
       getdents64(2)               2.4
       getegid(2)                  1.0
       getegid32(2)                2.4
       geteuid(2)                  1.0
       geteuid32(2)                2.4
       getgid(2)                   1.0
       getgid32(2)                 2.4
       getgroups(2)                1.0
       getgroups32(2)              2.4
       getitimer(2)                1.0

       getpeername(2)              2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       getpagesize(2)              2.0           Not on x86
       getpgid(2)                  1.0
       getpgrp(2)                  1.0
       getpid(2)                   1.0
       getppid(2)                  1.0
       getpriority(2)              1.0
       getresgid(2)                2.2
       getresgid32(2)              2.4
       getresuid(2)                2.2
       getresuid32(2)              2.4
       getrlimit(2)                1.0
       getrusage(2)                1.0
       getsid(2)                   2.0
       getsockname(2)              2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       getsockopt(2)               2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       gettid(2)                   2.4.11
       gettimeofday(2)             1.0
       getuid(2)                   1.0
       getuid32(2)                 2.4
       getxattr(2)                 2.6; 2.4.18
       init_module(2)              1.0
       inotify_add_watch(2)        2.6.13
       inotify_init(2)             2.6.13
       inotify_init1(2)            2.6.27
       inotify_rm_watch(2)         2.6.13
       io_cancel(2)                2.6
       io_destroy(2)               2.6
       io_getevents(2)             2.6
       io_setup(2)                 2.6
       io_submit(2)                2.6
       ioctl(2)                    1.0
       ioperm(2)                   1.0
       iopl(2)                     1.0
       ioprio_get(2)               2.6.13
       ioprio_set(2)               2.6.13
       ipc(2)                      1.0
       kcmp(2)                     3.5
       kern_features(2)            3.7           Sparc64
       kexec_load(2)               2.6.13
       keyctl(2)                   2.6.11
       kill(2)                     1.0
       lchown(2)                   1.0           See chown(2) for
                                                 version details
       lchown32(2)                 2.4
       lgetxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       link(2)                     1.0
       linkat(2)                   2.6.16
       listen(2)                   2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       listxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       llistxattr(2)               2.6; 2.4.18
       lookup_dcookie(2)           2.6
       lremovexattr(2)             2.6; 2.4.18
       lseek(2)                    1.0
       lsetxattr(2)                2.6; 2.4.18
       lstat(2)                    1.0
       lstat64(2)                  2.4
       madvise(2)                  2.4
       mbind(2)                    2.6.6
       migrate_pages(2)            2.6.16
       mincore(2)                  2.4
       mkdir(2)                    1.0
       mkdirat(2)                  2.6.16
       mknod(2)                    1.0
       mknodat(2)                  2.6.16

       mlock(2)                    2.0
       mlockall(2)                 2.0
       mmap(2)                     1.0
       mmap2(2)                    2.4
       modify_ldt(2)               1.0
       mount(2)                    1.0
       move_pages(2)               2.6.18
       mprotect(2)                 1.0
       mq_getsetattr(2)            2.6.6
       mq_notify(2)                2.6.6
       mq_open(2)                  2.6.6
       mq_timedreceive(2)          2.6.6
       mq_timedsend(2)             2.6.6
       mq_unlink(2)                2.6.6
       mremap(2)                   2.0
       msgctl(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msgget(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msgrcv(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msgsnd(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       msync(2)                    2.0
       munlock(2)                  2.0
       munlockall(2)               2.0
       munmap(2)                   1.0
       name_to_handle_at(2)        2.6.39
       nanosleep(2)                2.0
       nfsservctl(2)               2.2           Removed in 3.1
       nice(2)                     1.0
       oldfstat(2)                 1.0
       oldlstat(2)                 1.0
       oldolduname(2)              1.0
       oldstat(2)                  1.0
       olduname(2)                 1.0
       open(2)                     1.0
       open_by_handle_at(2)        2.6.39
       openat(2)                   2.6.16
       pause(2)                    1.0
       pciconfig_iobase(2)         2.2.15; 2.4   Not on x86
       pciconfig_read(2)           2.0.26; 2.2   Not on x86
       pciconfig_write(2)          2.0.26; 2.2   Not on x86
       perf_event_open(2)          2.6.31        Was called
                                                 in 2.6.31; renamed in
       personality(2)              1.2
       perfctr(2)                  2.2           Sparc; removed in 2.6.34
       perfmonctl(2)               2.4           ia64
       pipe(2)                     1.0
       pipe2(2)                    2.6.27
       pivot_root(2)               2.4
       poll(2)                     2.0.36; 2.2
       ppc_rtas(2)                               PowerPC only
       ppoll(2)                    2.6.16
       prctl(2)                    2.2
       pread64(2)                                Added as "pread" in 2.2;
                                                 renamed "pread64" in 2.6
       preadv(2)                   2.6.30
       prlimit(2)                  2.6.36
       process_vm_readv(2)         3.2
       process_vm_writev(2)        3.2
       pselect6(2)                 2.6.16
       ptrace(2)                   1.0
       pwrite64(2)                               Added as "pwrite" in 2.2;
                                                 renamed "pwrite64" in 2.6
       pwritev(2)                  2.6.30
       query_module(2)             2.2           Removed in 2.6

       quotactl(2)                 1.0
       read(2)                     1.0
       readahead(2)                2.4.13
       readdir(2)                  1.0
       readlink(2)                 1.0
       readlinkat(2)               2.6.16
       readv(2)                    2.0
       reboot(2)                   1.0
       recv(2)                     2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       recvfrom(2)                 2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       recvmsg(2)                  2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       recvmmsg(2)                 2.6.33
       remap_file_pages(2)         2.6
       removexattr(2)              2.6; 2.4.18
       rename(2)                   1.0
       renameat(2)                 2.6.16
       request_key(2)              2.6.11
       restart_syscall(2)          2.6
       rmdir(2)                    1.0
       rt_sigaction(2)             2.2
       rt_sigpending(2)            2.2
       rt_sigprocmask(2)           2.2
       rt_sigqueueinfo(2)          2.2
       rt_sigreturn(2)             2.2
       rt_sigsuspend(2)            2.2
       rt_sigtimedwait(2)          2.2
       rt_tgsigqueueinfo(2)        2.6.31
       s390_runtime_instr(2)       3.7           s390 only
       sched_get_priority_max(2)   2.0
       sched_get_priority_min(2)   2.0
       sched_getaffinity(2)        2.6
       sched_getattr(2)            3.14
       sched_getparam(2)           2.0
       sched_getscheduler(2)       2.0
       sched_rr_get_interval(2)    2.0
       sched_setaffinity(2)        2.6
       sched_setattr(2)            3.14
       sched_setparam(2)           2.0
       sched_setscheduler(2)       2.0
       sched_yield(2)              2.0
       select(2)                   1.0
       semctl(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       semget(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       semop(2)                    2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       semtimedop(2)               2.6; 2.4.22
       send(2)                     2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       sendfile(2)                 2.2
       sendfile64(2)               2.6; 2.4.19
       sendmmsg(2)                 3.0
       sendmsg(2)                  2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       sendto(2)                   2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       set_mempolicy(2)            2.6.6
       set_robust_list(2)          2.6.17
       set_thread_area(2)          2.6
       set_tid_address(2)          2.6
       setdomainname(2)            1.0
       setfsgid(2)                 1.2
       setfsgid32(2)               2.4
       setfsuid(2)                 1.2
       setfsuid32(2)               2.4
       setgid(2)                   1.0
       setgid32(2)                 2.4
       setgroups(2)                1.0
       setgroups32(2)              2.4
       sethostname(2)              1.0

       setitimer(2)                1.0
       setns(2)                    3.0
       setpgid(2)                  1.0
       setpriority(2)              1.0
       setregid(2)                 1.0
       setregid32(2)               2.4
       setresgid(2)                2.2
       setresgid32(2)              2.4
       setresuid(2)                2.2
       setresuid32(2)              2.4
       setreuid(2)                 1.0
       setreuid32(2)               2.4
       setrlimit(2)                1.0
       setsid(2)                   1.0
       setsockopt(2)               2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       settimeofday(2)             1.0
       setuid(2)                   1.0
       setuid32(2)                 2.4
       setup(2)                                  Removed in 2.2
       setxattr(2)                 2.6; 2.4.18
       sgetmask(2)                 1.0
       shmat(2)                    2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shmctl(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shmdt(2)                    2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shmget(2)                   2.0           See notes on ipc(2)
       shutdown(2)                 2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       sigaction(2)                1.0
       sigaltstack(2)              2.2
       signal(2)                   1.0
       signalfd(2)                 2.6.22
       signalfd4(2)                2.6.27
       sigpending(2)               1.0
       sigprocmask(2)              1.0
       sigreturn(2)                1.0
       sigsuspend(2)               1.0
       socket(2)                   2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       socketcall(2)               1.0
       socketpair(2)               2.0           See notes on socketcall(2)
       splice(2)                   2.6.17
       spu_create(2)               2.6.16        PowerPC only
       spu_run(2)                  2.6.16        PowerPC only
       ssetmask(2)                 1.0
       stat(2)                     1.0
       stat64(2)                   2.4
       statfs(2)                   1.0
       statfs64(2)                 2.6
       stime(2)                    1.0
       subpage_prot(2)             2.6.25        PowerPC if
       swapoff(2)                  1.0
       swapon(2)                   1.0
       symlink(2)                  1.0
       symlinkat(2)                2.6.16
       sync(2)                     1.0
       sync_file_range(2)          2.6.17
       sync_file_range2(2)         2.6.22        Architecture-specific
                                                 variant of
       syncfs(2)                   2.6.39
       sysfs(2)                    1.2
       sysinfo(2)                  1.0
       syslog(2)                   1.0
       tee(2)                      2.6.17
       tgkill(2)                   2.6
       time(2)                     1.0

       timer_create(2)             2.6
       timer_delete(2)             2.6
       timer_getoverrun(2)         2.6
       timer_gettime(2)            2.6
       timer_settime(2)            2.6
       timerfd_create(2)           2.6.25
       timerfd_gettime(2)          2.6.25
       timerfd_settime(2)          2.6.25
       times(2)                    1.0
       tkill(2)                    2.6; 2.4.22
       truncate(2)                 1.0
       truncate64(2)               2.4
       ugetrlimit(2)               2.4
       umask(2)                    1.0
       umount(2)                   1.0
       umount2(2)                  2.2
       uname(2)                    1.0
       unlink(2)                   1.0
       unlinkat(2)                 2.6.16
       unshare(2)                  2.6.16
       uselib(2)                   1.0
       ustat(2)                    1.0
       utime(2)                    1.0
       utimensat(2)                2.6.22
       utimes(2)                   2.2
       utrap_install(2)            2.2           Sparc
       vfork(2)                    2.2
       vhangup(2)                  1.0
       vm86old(2)                  1.0           Was "vm86"; renamed in
       vm86(2)                     2.0.28; 2.2
       vmsplice(2)                 2.6.17
       wait4(2)                    1.0
       waitid(2)                   2.6.10
       waitpid(2)                  1.0
       write(2)                    1.0
       writev(2)                   2.0

       On many platforms, including x86-32, socket calls are  all  multiplexed
       (via  glibc  wrapper  functions)  through  socketcall(2)  and similarly
       System V IPC calls are multiplexed through ipc(2).

       Although slots are reserved for them in  the  system  call  table,  the
       following  system  calls  are  not  implemented in the standard kernel:
       afs_syscall(2),  break(2),  ftime(2),  getpmsg(2),  gtty(2),   idle(2),
       lock(2),  madvise1(2), mpx(2), phys(2), prof(2), profil(2), putpmsg(2),
       security(2), stty(2), tuxcall(2), ulimit(2), and vserver(2)  (see  also
       unimplemented(2)).  However, ftime(3), profil(3) and ulimit(3) exist as
       library routines.  The slot for phys(2) is in use since kernel  2.1.116
       for  umount(2);  phys(2) will never be implemented.  The getpmsg(2) and
       putpmsg(2) calls are for kernels patched to support  STREAMS,  and  may
       never be in the standard kernel.

       There  was  briefly  set_zone_reclaim(2),  added  in  Linux 2.6.13, and
       removed in 2.6.16; this system call was never available to user space.


       Roughly speaking, the code belonging to the  system  call  with  number
       __NR_xxx defined in /usr/include/asm/unistd.h can be found in the Linux
       kernel source in the routine sys_xxx().  (The dispatch table  for  i386
       can  be  found  in /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/kernel/entry.S.)  There are
       many exceptions,  however,  mostly  because  older  system  calls  were
       superseded   by   newer  ones,  and  this  has  been  treated  somewhat
       unsystematically.   On  platforms  with  proprietary   operating-system
       emulation,  such  as  parisc, sparc, sparc64, and alpha, there are many
       additional system calls; mips64 also contains  a  full  set  of  32-bit
       system calls.

       Over  time,  changes  to  the interfaces of some system calls have been
       necessary.  One reason for such changes was the need  to  increase  the
       size of structures or scalar values passed to the system call.  Because
       of these changes, there are now various groups of related system  calls
       (e.g.,  truncate(2) and truncate64(2)) which perform similar tasks, but
       which vary in details such as the size of their arguments.   (As  noted
       earlier,  applications are generally unaware of this: the glibc wrapper
       functions do some work to ensure that the right system call is invoked,
       and that ABI compatibility is preserved for old binaries.)  Examples of
       systems calls that exist in multiple versions are the following:

       *  By now there are three different  versions  of  stat(2):  sys_stat()
          (slot    __NR_oldstat),    sys_newstat()   (slot   __NR_stat),   and
          sys_stat64() (slot  __NR_stat64),  with  the  last  being  the  most
          current.  A similar story applies for lstat(2) and fstat(2).

       *  Similarly,   the   defines   __NR_oldolduname,   __NR_olduname,  and
          __NR_uname refer to the  routines  sys_olduname(),  sys_uname()  and

       *  In  Linux  2.0,  a new version of vm86(2) appeared, with the old and
          the new kernel routines being named sys_vm86old() and sys_vm86().

       *  In Linux 2.4, a new version of getrlimit(2) appeared, with  the  old
          and  the  new  kernel routines being named sys_old_getrlimit() (slot
          __NR_getrlimit) and sys_getrlimit() (slot __NR_ugetrlimit).

       *  Linux 2.4 increased the size of user and group IDs  from  16  to  32
          bits.   To  support  this change, a range of system calls were added
          (e.g.,  chown32(2),  getuid32(2),  getgroups32(2),  setresuid32(2)),
          superseding earlier calls of the same name without the "32" suffix.

       *  Linux  2.4 added support for applications on 32-bit architectures to
          access large files (i.e., files for which the sizes and file offsets
          can't   be  represented  in  32  bits.)   To  support  this  change,
          replacements were required for system  calls  that  deal  with  file
          offsets  and  sizes.   Thus  the  following system calls were added:
          fcntl64(2), ftruncate64(2), getdents64(2),  stat64(2),  statfs64(2),
          and their analogs that work with file descriptors or symbolic links.
          These system calls supersede the older system calls which, except in
          the  case  of  the "stat" calls, have the same name without the "64"

          On newer platforms that only have 64-bit file access and 32-bit uids
          (e.g., alpha, ia64, s390x) there are no *64 or *32 calls.  Where the
          *64 and *32 calls exist, the other versions are obsolete.

       *  The rt_sig* calls were added in kernel 2.2 to support  the  addition
          of  real-time signals (see signal(7)).  These system calls supersede
          the older system calls of the same name without the "rt_" prefix.

       *  The select(2) and mmap(2) system calls use five or  more  arguments,
          which  caused  problems in the way argument passing on the i386 used
          to be set up.  Thus, while other architectures have sys_select() and
          sys_mmap()  corresponding  to __NR_select and __NR_mmap, on i386 one
          finds old_select() and old_mmap() (routines that use a pointer to  a
          argument block) instead.  These days passing five arguments is not a
          problem any more, and there is a  __NR__newselect  that  corresponds
          directly to sys_select() and similarly __NR_mmap2.


       intro(2), syscall(2), unimplemented(2), libc(7), vdso(7)


       This  page  is  part of release 3.65 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at

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