GNU.WIKI: The GNU/Linux Knowledge Base

  [HOME] [PHP Manual] [HowTo] [ABS] [MAN1] [MAN2] [MAN3] [MAN4] [MAN5] [MAN6] [MAN7] [MAN8] [MAN9]

  [0-9] [Aa] [Bb] [Cc] [Dd] [Ee] [Ff] [Gg] [Hh] [Ii] [Jj] [Kk] [Ll] [Mm] [Nn] [Oo] [Pp] [Qq] [Rr] [Ss] [Tt] [Uu] [Vv] [Ww] [Xx] [Yy] [Zz]


       MIME::EncWords - deal with RFC 2047 encoded words (improved)


       MIME::EncWords is aimed to be another implimentation of MIME::Words so
       that it will achieve more exact conformance with RFC 2047 (formerly RFC
       1522) specifications.  Additionally, it contains some improvements.
       Following synopsis and descriptions are inherited from its inspirer,
       then added descriptions on improvements (**) or changes and
       clarifications (*).

       Before reading further, you should see MIME::Tools to make sure that
       you understand where this module fits into the grand scheme of things.
       Go on, do it now.  I'll wait.

       Ready?  Ok...

           use MIME::EncWords qw(:all);

           ### Decode the string into another string, forgetting the charsets:
           $decoded = decode_mimewords(
                 'To: =?ISO-8859-1?Q?Keld_J=F8rn_Simonsen?= <>',

           ### Split string into array of decoded [DATA,CHARSET] pairs:
           @decoded = decode_mimewords(
                 'To: =?ISO-8859-1?Q?Keld_J=F8rn_Simonsen?= <>',

           ### Encode a single unsafe word:
           $encoded = encode_mimeword("«François»");

           ### Encode a string, trying to find the unsafe words inside it:
           $encoded = encode_mimewords("Me and «François» in town");


       Fellow Americans, you probably won't know what the hell this module is
       for.  Europeans, Russians, et al, you probably do.  ":-)".

       For example, here's a valid MIME header you might get:

             From: =?US-ASCII?Q?Keith_Moore?= <>
             To: =?ISO-8859-1?Q?Keld_J=F8rn_Simonsen?= <>
             CC: =?ISO-8859-1?Q?Andr=E9_?= Pirard <>
             Subject: =?ISO-8859-1?B?SWYgeW91IGNhbiByZWFkIHRoaXMgeW8=?=

       The fields basically decode to (sorry, I can only approximate the Latin
       characters with 7 bit sequences /o and 'e):

             From: Keith Moore <>
             To: Keld J/orn Simonsen <>
             CC: Andr'e  Pirard <>
             Subject: If you can read this you understand the example... cool!

       Supplement: Fellow Americans, Europeans, you probably won't know what
       the hell this module is for.  East Asians, et al, you probably do.

       For example, here's a valid MIME header you might get:

             Subject: =?EUC-KR?B?sNTAuLinKGxhemluZXNzKSwgwvzB9ri7seIoaW1w?=

       The fields basically decode to (sorry, I cannot approximate the non-
       Latin multibyte characters with any 7 bit sequences):

             Subject: ???(laziness), ????(impatience), ??(hubris)


       decode_mimewords ENCODED, [OPTS...]
           Function.  Go through the string looking for RFC 2047-style "Q"
           (quoted-printable, sort of) or "B" (base64) encoding, and decode

           In an array context, splits the ENCODED string into a list of
           decoded "[DATA, CHARSET]" pairs, and returns that list.  Unencoded
           data are returned in a 1-element array "[DATA]", giving an
           effective CHARSET of "undef".

               $enc = '=?ISO-8859-1?Q?Keld_J=F8rn_Simonsen?= <>';
               foreach (decode_mimewords($enc)) {
                   print "", ($_[1] || 'US-ASCII'), ": ", $_[0], "

           ** However, adjacent encoded-words with same charset will be
           concatenated to handle multibyte sequences safely.

           ** Language information defined by RFC2231, section 5 will be
           additonal third element, if any.

           * Whitespaces surrounding unencoded data will not be stripped so
           that compatibility with MIME::Words will be ensured.

           In a scalar context, joins the "data" elements of the above list
           together, and returns that.  Warning: this is information-lossy,
           and probably not what you want, but if you know that all charsets
           in the ENCODED string are identical, it might be useful to you.
           (Before you use this, please see "unmime" in MIME::WordDecoder,
           which is probably what you want.)  ** See also "Charset" option

           In the event of a syntax error, $@ will be set to a description of
           the error, but parsing will continue as best as possible (so as to
           get something back when decoding headers).  $@ will be false if no
           error was detected.

           * Malformed encoded-words will be kept encoded.  In this case $@
           will be set.

           Any arguments past the ENCODED string are taken to define a hash of
           options.  ** When Unicode/multibyte support is disabled (see
           "USE_ENCODE" in MIME::Charset), these options will not have any

           Charset **
               Name of character set by which data elements in scalar context
               will be converted.  The default is no conversion.  If this
               option is specified as special value "_UNICODE_", returned
               value will be Unicode string.

               Note: This feature is still information-lossy, except when
               "_UNICODE_" is specified.

           Detect7bit **
               Try to detect 7-bit charset on unencoded portions.  Default is

           Mapping **
               In scalar context, specify mappings actually used for charset
               names.  "EXTENDED" uses extended mappings.  "STANDARD" uses
               standardized strict mappings.  Default is "EXTENDED".

       encode_mimeword RAW, [ENCODING], [CHARSET]
           Function.  Encode a single RAW "word" that has unsafe characters.
           The "word" will be encoded in its entirety.

               ### Encode "<<Franc,ois>>":
               $encoded = encode_mimeword("«François»");

           You may specify the ENCODING ("Q" or "B"), which defaults to "Q".
           ** You may also specify it as ``special'' value: "S" to choose
           shorter one of either "Q" or "B".

           You may specify the CHARSET, which defaults to "iso-8859-1".

           * Spaces will be escaped with ``_'' by "Q" encoding.

       encode_mimewords RAW, [OPTS]
           Function.  Given a RAW string, try to find and encode all "unsafe"
           sequences of characters:

               ### Encode a string with some unsafe "words":
               $encoded = encode_mimewords("Me and «François»");

           Returns the encoded string.

           ** RAW may be a Unicode string when Unicode/multibyte support is
           enabled (see "USE_ENCODE" in MIME::Charset).  Furthermore, RAW may
           be a reference to that returned by "decode_mimewords" on array
           context.  In latter case "Charset" option (see below) will be
           overridden (see also a note below).

           Note: * When RAW is an arrayref, adjacent encoded-words (i.e.
           elements having non-ASCII charset element) are concatenated.  Then
           they are split taking care of character boundaries of multibyte
           sequences when Unicode/multibyte support is enabled.  Portions for
           unencoded data should include surrounding whitespace(s), or they
           will be merged into adjoining encoded-word(s).

           Any arguments past the RAW string are taken to define a hash of

               Encode all unsafe stuff with this charset.  Default is
               'ISO-8859-1', a.k.a. "Latin-1".

           Detect7bit **
               When "Encoding" option (see below) is specified as "a" and
               "Charset" option is unknown, try to detect 7-bit charset on
               given RAW string.  Default is "YES".  When Unicode/multibyte
               support is disabled, this option will not have any effects (see
               "USE_ENCODE" in MIME::Charset).

               The encoding to use, "q" or "b".  ** You may also specify
               ``special'' values: "a" will automatically choose recommended
               encoding to use (with charset conversion if alternative charset
               is recommended: see MIME::Charset); "s" will choose shorter one
               of either "q" or "b".  Note: * As of release 1.005, The default
               was changed from "q" (the default on MIME::Words) to "a".

               Name of the mail field this string will be used in.  ** Length
               of mail field name will be considered in the first line of
               encoded header.

           Folding **
               A Sequence to fold encoded lines.  The default is "
".  If
               empty string "" is specified, encoded-words exceeding line
               length (see "MaxLineLen" below) will be split by SPACE.

               Note: * Though RFC 5322 (formerly RFC 2822) states that the
               lines in Internet messages are delimited by CRLF ("
"), this
               module chose LF ("
") as a default to keep backward
               compatibility.  When you use the default, you might need
               converting newlines before encoded headers are thrown into

           Mapping **
               Specify mappings actually used for charset names.  "EXTENDED"
               uses extended mappings.  "STANDARD" uses standardized strict
               mappings.  The default is "EXTENDED".  When Unicode/multibyte
               support is disabled, this option will not have any effects (see
               "USE_ENCODE" in MIME::Charset).

           MaxLineLen **
               Maximum line length excluding newline.  The default is 76.
               Negative value means unlimited line length (as of release

           Minimal **
               Takes care of natural word separators (i.e. whitespaces) in the
               text to be encoded.  If "NO" is specified, this module will
               encode whole text (if encoding needed) not regarding
               whitespaces; encoded-words exceeding line length will be split
               based only on their lengths.  Default is "YES" by which minimal
               portions of text are encoded.  If "DISPNAME" is specified,
               portions including special characters described in RFC5322
               (formerly RFC2822, RFC822) address specification (section 3.4)
               are also encoded.  This is useful for encoding display-name of
               address fields.

               Note: As of release 0.040, default has been changed to "YES" to
               ensure compatibility with MIME::Words.  On earlier releases,
               this option was fixed to be "NO".

               Note: "DISPNAME" option was introduced at release 1.012.

           Replacement **
               See "Error Handling" in MIME::Charset.

   Configuration Files **
       Built-in defaults of option parameters for "decode_mimewords" (except
       'Charset' option) and "encode_mimewords" can be overridden by
       configuration files: MIME/Charset/ and
       MIME/EncWords/  For more details read


       Consult $VERSION variable.

       Development versions of this module may be found at


       MIME::Charset, MIME::Tools


       The original version of function decode_mimewords() is derived from
       MIME::Words module that was written by:
           Eryq (, ZeeGee Software Inc
           David F. Skoll (

       Other stuff are rewritten or added by:
           Hatuka*nezumi - IKEDA Soji <hatuka(at)>.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

  All copyrights belong to their respective owners. Other content (c) 2014-2018, GNU.WIKI. Please report site errors to
Page load time: 0.150 seconds. Last modified: November 04 2018 12:49:43.