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NAME

       Mail::Box::File - handle file-based folders

INHERITANCE

        Mail::Box::File
          is a Mail::Box
          is a Mail::Reporter

        Mail::Box::File is extended by
          Mail::Box::Dbx
          Mail::Box::Mbox

SYNOPSIS


DESCRIPTION

       "Mail::Box::File" is the base-class for all file-based folders: folders
       which bundle multiple messages into one single file.  Usually, these
       messages are separated by a special line which indicates the start of
       the next one.

       Extends "DESCRIPTION" in Mail::Box.

OVERLOADED

       Extends "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box.

       overload: ""
           Inherited, see "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box

       overload: @{}
           Inherited, see "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box

       overload: cmp
           Inherited, see "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box

METHODS

       Extends "METHODS" in Mail::Box.

   Constructors
       Extends "Constructors" in Mail::Box.

       Mail::Box::File->new(%options)
            -Option           --Defined in     --Default
             access             Mail::Box        'r'
             body_delayed_type  Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Body::Delayed
             body_type                           <see description>
             coerce_options     Mail::Box        []
             create             Mail::Box        <false>
             extract            Mail::Box        10240
             field_type         Mail::Box        undef
             fix_headers        Mail::Box        <false>
             folder             Mail::Box        $ENV{MAIL}
             folderdir          Mail::Box        $ENV{HOME}.'/Mail'
             head_delayed_type  Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Head::Delayed
             head_type          Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Head::Complete
             keep_dups          Mail::Box        <false>
             lock_extension                      '.lock'
             lock_file          Mail::Box        <foldername><lock-extension>
             lock_timeout       Mail::Box        1 hour
             lock_type          Mail::Box        Mail::Box::Locker::DotLock
             lock_wait          Mail::Box        10 seconds
             locker             Mail::Box        undef
             log                Mail::Reporter   'WARNINGS'
             manager            Mail::Box        undef
             message_type       Mail::Box        Mail::Box::File::Message
             multipart_type     Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Body::Multipart
             remove_when_empty  Mail::Box        <true>
             save_on_exit       Mail::Box        <true>
             trace              Mail::Reporter   'WARNINGS'
             trusted            Mail::Box        <depends on folder location>
             write_policy                        undef

           access => MODE
           body_delayed_type => CLASS
           body_type => CLASS|CODE
             The default "body_type" option for "File" folders, which will
             cause messages larger than 10kB to be stored in files and smaller
             files in memory, is implemented like this:

              sub determine_body_type($$)
              {   my $head = shift;
                  my $size = shift || 0;
                  'Mail::Message::Body::'
                     . ($size > 10000 ? 'File' : 'Lines');
              }

           coerce_options => ARRAY
           create => BOOLEAN
           extract => INTEGER | CODE | METHOD | 'LAZY'|'ALWAYS'
           field_type => CLASS
           fix_headers => BOOLEAN
           folder => FOLDERNAME
           folderdir => DIRECTORY
           head_delayed_type => CLASS
           head_type => CLASS
           keep_dups => BOOLEAN
           lock_extension => FILENAME|STRING
             When the dotlock locking mechanism is used, the lock is created
             with a hardlink to the folder file.  For "Mail::Box::File" type
             of folders, this file is by default named as the folder-file
             itself followed by ".lock".  For example: the "Mail/inbox" folder
             file will have a hardlink made as "Mail/inbox.lock".

             You may specify an absolute filename, a relative (to the folder's
             directory) filename, or an extension (preceded by a dot).  So
             valid examples are:

              .lock        # appended to the folder's filename
              my_own_lockfile.test   # full filename, same dir
              /etc/passwd            # somewhere else

             When the program runs with less privileges (as normal user),
             often the default inbox folder can not be locked with the
             lockfile name which is produced by default.

           lock_file => FILENAME
           lock_timeout => SECONDS
           lock_type => CLASS|STRING|ARRAY
           lock_wait => SECONDS
           locker => OBJECT
           log => LEVEL
           manager => MANAGER
           message_type => CLASS
           multipart_type => CLASS
           remove_when_empty => BOOLEAN
           save_on_exit => BOOLEAN
           trace => LEVEL
           trusted => BOOLEAN
           write_policy => 'REPLACE'|'INPLACE'|undef
             Sets the default write policy, as default for a later call to
             write(policy).  With "undef", the best policy is autodetected.

   The folder
       Extends "The folder" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->addMessage($message, %options)
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->addMessages(@messages)
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       Mail::Box::File->appendMessages(%options)
           Appending messages to a file based folder which is not opened is a
           little risky.  In practice, this is often done without locking the
           folder.  So, another application may write to the folder at the
           same time... :(  Hopefully, all goes fast enough that the chance on
           collition is small.

           All %options of Mail::Box::Mbox::new() can be supplied.

            -Option   --Defined in     --Default
             folder     Mail::Box        <required>
             lock_type                   NONE
             message    Mail::Box        undef
             messages   Mail::Box        undef
             share      Mail::Box        <false>

           folder => FOLDERNAME
           lock_type => ...
             See Mail::Box::new(lock_type) for possible values.

           message => MESSAGE
           messages => ARRAY-OF-MESSAGES
           share => BOOLEAN
       $obj->close(%options)
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->copyTo($folder, %options)
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->delete(%options)
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->filename()
           Returns the filename for this folder, which may be an absolute or
           relative path to the file.

           example:

            print $folder->filename;

       $obj->folderdir( [$directory] )
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->name()
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->organization()
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->size()
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->type()
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->update(%options)
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->url()
           Inherited, see "The folder" in Mail::Box

   Folder flags
       Extends "Folder flags" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->access()
           Inherited, see "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       $obj->isModified()
           Inherited, see "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       $obj->modified( [BOOLEAN] )
           Inherited, see "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       $obj->writable()
           Inherited, see "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

   The messages
       Extends "The messages" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->current( [$number|$message|$message_id] )
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->find($message_id)
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->findFirstLabeled( $label, [BOOLEAN, [$msgs]] )
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->message( $index, [$message] )
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messageId( $message_id, [$message] )
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messageIds()
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messages( <'ALL'|$range|'ACTIVE'|'DELETED'|$label|
       !$label|$filter> )
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->nrMessages(%options)
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->scanForMessages($message, $message_ids, $timespan, $window)
           Inherited, see "The messages" in Mail::Box

   Sub-folders
       Extends "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->listSubFolders(%options)
       Mail::Box::File->listSubFolders(%options)
           Inherited, see "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->nameOfSubFolder( $subname, [$parentname] )
       Mail::Box::File->nameOfSubFolder( $subname, [$parentname] )
           Inherited, see "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->openRelatedFolder(%options)
           Inherited, see "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->openSubFolder($subname, %options)
           Inherited, see "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->topFolderWithMessages()
       Mail::Box::File->topFolderWithMessages()
           Inherited, see "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

   Internals
       Extends "Internals" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->coerce($message, %options)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->create($foldername, %options)
       Mail::Box::File->create($foldername, %options)
            -Option   --Defined in--Default
             folderdir  Mail::Box   undef

           folderdir => DIRECTORY
       $obj->determineBodyType($message, $head)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->folderToFilename( $foldername, $folderdir, [$subext] )
       Mail::Box::File->folderToFilename( $foldername, $folderdir, [$subext] )
           Translate a folder name into a filename, using the $folderdir value
           to replace a leading "=".  $subext is only used for MBOX folders.

       Mail::Box::File->foundIn( [$foldername], %options )
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->lineSeparator( [<STRING|'CR'|'LF'|'CRLF'>] )
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->locker()
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messageCreateOptions( [$type, $config] )
           Returns a key-value list of options to be used each time a new
           message is read from a file.  The list is preceded by the $type of
           message which has to be created.

           This data is used by readMessages() and updateMessages().  With
           $type and $config, a new configuration is set.

       $obj->moveAwaySubFolder($directory, $extension)
           The $directory is renamed by appending the $extension, which
           defaults to ".d", to make place for a folder file on that specific
           location.  "false" is returned if this failed.

       $obj->parser()
           Create a parser for this mailbox.  The parser stays alive as long
           as the folder is open.

       $obj->read(%options)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->readMessages(%options)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->storeMessage($message)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->toBeThreaded($messages)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->toBeUnthreaded($messages)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->updateMessages(%options)
           For file based folders, the file handle stays open until the folder
           is closed.  Update is therefore rather simple: move to the end of
           the last known message, and continue reading...

       $obj->write(%options)
            -Option      --Defined in     --Default
             force         Mail::Box        <false>
             policy                         undef
             save_deleted  Mail::Box        <false>

           force => BOOLEAN
           policy => 'REPLACE'|'INPLACE'|undef
             In what way will the mail folder be updated.  If not specified
             during the write, the value of the new(write_policy) at folder
             creation is taken.

             Valid values:

             ·   "REPLACE"

                 First a new folder is written in the same directory as the
                 folder which has to be updated, and then a call to move will
                 throw away the old immediately replacing it by the new.

                 Writing in "REPLACE" module is slightly optimized: messages
                 which are not modified are copied from file to file, byte by
                 byte.  This is much faster than printing the data which is
                 will be done for modified messages.

             ·   "INPLACE"

                 The original folder file will be opened read/write.  All
                 message which where not changed will be left untouched, until
                 the first deleted or modified message is detected.  All
                 further messages are printed again.

             ·   "undef"

                 As default, or when "undef" is explicitly specified, first
                 "REPLACE" mode is tried.  Only when that fails, an "INPLACE"
                 update is performed.

             "INPLACE" will be much faster than "REPLACE" when applied on
             large folders, however requires the "truncate" function to be
             implemented on your operating system (at least available for
             recent versions of Linux, Solaris, Tru64, HPUX).  It is also
             dangerous: when the program is interrupted during the update
             process, the folder is corrupted.  Data may be lost.

             However, in some cases it is not possible to write the folder
             with "REPLACE".  For instance, the usual incoming mail folder on
             UNIX is stored in a directory where a user can not write.  Of
             course, the "root" and "mail" users can, but if you want to use
             this Perl module with permission of a normal user, you can only
             get it to work in "INPLACE" mode.  Be warned that in this case
             folder locking via a lockfile is not possible as well.

           save_deleted => BOOLEAN
       $obj->writeMessages(%options)
           Inherited, see "Internals" in Mail::Box

   Other methods
       Extends "Other methods" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->timespan2seconds($time)
       Mail::Box::File->timespan2seconds($time)
           Inherited, see "Other methods" in Mail::Box

   Error handling
       Extends "Error handling" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->AUTOLOAD()
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->addReport($object)
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->defaultTrace( [$level]|[$loglevel, $tracelevel]|[$level,
       $callback] )
       Mail::Box::File->defaultTrace( [$level]|[$loglevel,
       $tracelevel]|[$level, $callback] )
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->errors()
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->log( [$level, [$strings]] )
       Mail::Box::File->log( [$level, [$strings]] )
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->logPriority($level)
       Mail::Box::File->logPriority($level)
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->logSettings()
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->notImplemented()
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->report( [$level] )
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->reportAll( [$level] )
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->trace( [$level] )
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->warnings()
           Inherited, see "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

   Cleanup
       Extends "Cleanup" in Mail::Box.

       $obj->DESTROY()
           Inherited, see "Cleanup" in Mail::Box

   DETAILS
       File based folders

       File based folders maintain a folder (a set of messages) in one single
       file.  The advantage is that your folder has only one single name,
       which speeds-up access to all messages at once.

       The disadvantage over directory based folder (see Mail::Box::Dir) is
       that you have to construct some means to keep all message apart, for
       instance by adding a message separator, and this will cause problems.
       Where access to all messages at once is faster in file based folders,
       access to a single message is (much) slower, because the whole folder
       must be read.

DETAILS

       Extends "DETAILS" in Mail::Box.

DIAGNOSTICS

       Error: Cannot append messages to folder file $filename: $!
           Appending messages to a not-opened file-organized folder may fail
           when the operating system does not allow write access to the file
           at hand.

       Error: Cannot create directory $dir for folder $name.
           While creating a file-organized folder, at most one level of
           directories is created above it.  Apparently, more levels of
           directories are needed, or the operating system does not allow you
           to create the directory.

       Error: Cannot create folder file $name: $!
           The file-organized folder file cannot be created for the indicated
           reason.  In common cases, the operating system does not grant you
           write access to the directory where the folder file should be
           stored.

       Error: Cannot get a lock on $type folder $self.
           A lock is required to get access to the folder.  If no locking is
           needed, specify the NONE lock type.

       Error: Cannot move away sub-folder $dir
       Warning: Cannot remove folder $name file $filename: $!
           Writing an empty folder will usually cause that folder to be
           removed, which fails for the indicated reason.
           new(remove_when_empty)

       Warning: Cannot remove folder $name file $filename: $!
           Writing an empty folder will usually cause that folder to be
           removed, which fails for the indicated reason.
           new(remove_when_empty) controls whether the empty folder will
           removed; setting it to false (0) may be needed to avoid this
           message.

       Error: Cannot replace $filename by $tempname, to update folder $name:
       $!
           The replace policy wrote a new folder file to update the existing,
           but was unable to give the final touch: replacing the old version
           of the folder file for the indicated reason.

       Warning: Changes not written to read-only folder $self.
           You have opened the folder read-only --which is the default set by
           new(access)--, made modifications, and now want to close it.  Set
           close(force) if you want to overrule the access mode, or close the
           folder with close(write) set to "NEVER".

       Error: Copying failed for one message.
           For some reason, for instance disc full, removed by external
           process, or read-protection, it is impossible to copy one of the
           messages.  Copying will proceed for the other messages.

       Error: Destination folder $name is not writable.
           The folder where the messages are copied to is not opened with
           write access (see new(access)).  This has no relation with write
           permission to the folder which is controled by your operating
           system.

       Warning: Different messages with id $msgid
           The message id is discovered more than once within the same folder,
           but the content of the message seems to be different.  This should
           not be possible: each message must be unique.

       Error: File too short to get write message $nr ($size, $need)
           Mail::Box is lazy: it tries to leave messages in the folders until
           they are used, which saves time and memory usage.  When this
           message appears, something is terribly wrong: some lazy message are
           needed for updating the folder, but they cannot be retrieved from
           the original file anymore.  In this case, messages can be lost.

           This message does appear regularly on Windows systems when using
           the 'replace' write policy.  Please help to find the cause,
           probably something to do with Windows incorrectly handling multiple
           filehandles open in the same file.

       Warning: Folder $name file $filename is write-protected.
           The folder is opened writable or for appending via new(access), but
           the operating system does not permit writing to the file.  The
           folder will be opened read-only.

       Error: Folder $name not deleted: not writable.
           The folder must be opened with write access via new(access),
           otherwise removing it will be refused.  So, you may have write-
           access according to the operating system, but that will not
           automatically mean that this "delete" method permits you to.  The
           reverse remark is valid as well.

       Error: Invalid timespan '$timespan' specified.
           The string does not follow the strict rules of the time span syntax
           which is permitted as parameter.

       Warning: Message-id '$msgid' does not contain a domain.
           According to the RFCs, message-ids need to contain a unique random
           part, then an "@", and then a domain name.  This is made to avoid
           the creation of two messages with the same id.  The warning emerges
           when the "@" is missing from the string.

       Error: Package $package does not implement $method.
           Fatal error: the specific package (or one of its superclasses) does
           not implement this method where it should. This message means that
           some other related classes do implement this method however the
           class at hand does not.  Probably you should investigate this and
           probably inform the author of the package.

       Error: Unable to create subfolder $name of $folder.
           The copy includes the subfolders, but for some reason it was not
           possible to copy one of these.  Copying will proceed for all other
           sub-folders.

       Error: Unable to update folder $self.
           When a folder is to be written, both replace and inplace write
           policies are tried,  If both fail, the whole update fails.  You may
           see other, related, error messages to indicate the real problem.

SEE ALSO

       This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.115, built on
       May 28, 2014. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/mailbox/

LICENSE

       Copyrights 2001-2014 by [Mark Overmeer]. For other contributors see
       ChangeLog.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.  See
       http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.php



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