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NAME

       Object::InsideOut - Comprehensive inside-out object support module

VERSION

       This document describes Object::InsideOut version 3.97

SYNOPSIS

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            # Numeric field
            #   With combined get+set accessor
            my @data
                   :Field
                   :Type(numeric)
                   :Accessor(data);

            # Takes 'INPUT' (or 'input', etc.) as a mandatory parameter to ->new()
            my %init_args :InitArgs = (
                'INPUT' => {
                    'Regex'     => qr/^input$/i,
                    'Mandatory' => 1,
                    'Type'      => 'numeric',
                },
            );

            # Handle class-specific args as part of ->new()
            sub init :Init
            {
                my ($self, $args) = @_;

                # Put 'input' parameter into 'data' field
                $self->set(\@data, $args->{'INPUT'});
            }
        }

        package My::Class::Sub; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(My::Class);

            # List field
            #   With standard 'get_X' and 'set_X' accessors
            #   Takes 'INFO' as an optional list parameter to ->new()
            #     Value automatically added to @info array
            #     Defaults to [ 'empty' ]
            my @info
                   :Field
                   :Type(list)
                   :Standard(info)
                   :Arg('Name' => 'INFO', 'Default' => 'empty');
        }

        package Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            # Field containing My::Class objects
            #   With combined accessor
            #   Plus automatic parameter processing on object creation
            my @foo
                   :Field
                   :Type(My::Class)
                   :All(foo);
        }

        package main;

        my $obj = My::Class::Sub->new('Input' => 69);
        my $info = $obj->get_info();               # [ 'empty' ]
        my $data = $obj->data();                   # 69
        $obj->data(42);
        $data = $obj->data();                      # 42

        $obj = My::Class::Sub->new('INFO' => 'help', 'INPUT' => 86);
        $data = $obj->data();                      # 86
        $info = $obj->get_info();                  # [ 'help' ]
        $obj->set_info(qw(foo bar baz));
        $info = $obj->get_info();                  # [ 'foo', 'bar', 'baz' ]

        my $foo_obj = Foo->new('foo' => $obj);
        $foo_obj->foo()->data();                   # 86

DESCRIPTION

       This module provides comprehensive support for implementing classes
       using the inside-out object model.

       Object::InsideOut implements inside-out objects as anonymous scalar
       references that are blessed into a class with the scalar containing the
       ID for the object (usually a sequence number).  For Perl 5.8.3 and
       later, the scalar reference is set as read-only to prevent accidental
       modifications to the ID.  Object data (i.e., fields) are stored within
       the class's package in either arrays indexed by the object's ID, or
       hashes keyed to the object's ID.

       The virtues of the inside-out object model over the blessed hash object
       model have been extolled in detail elsewhere.  See the informational
       links under "SEE ALSO".  Briefly, inside-out objects offer the
       following advantages over blessed hash objects:

       ·   Encapsulation

           Object data is enclosed within the class's code and is accessible
           only through the class-defined interface.

       ·   Field Name Collision Avoidance

           Inheritance using blessed hash classes can lead to conflicts if any
           classes use the same name for a field (i.e., hash key).  Inside-out
           objects are immune to this problem because object data is stored
           inside each class's package, and not in the object itself.

       ·   Compile-time Name Checking

           A common error with blessed hash classes is the misspelling of
           field names:

            $obj->{'coment'} = 'Say what?';   # Should be 'comment' not 'coment'

           As there is no compile-time checking on hash keys, such errors do
           not usually manifest themselves until runtime.

           With inside-out objects, text hash keys are not used for accessing
           field data.  Field names and the data index (i.e., $$self) are
           checked by the Perl compiler such that any typos are easily caught
           using "perl -c".

            $coment[$$self] = $value;    # Causes a compile-time error
               # or with hash-based fields
            $comment{$$self} = $value;   # Also causes a compile-time error

       Object::InsideOut offers all the capabilities of other inside-out
       object modules with the following additional key advantages:

       ·   Speed

           When using arrays to store object data, Object::InsideOut objects
           are as much as 40% faster than blessed hash objects for fetching
           and setting data, and even with hashes they are still several
           percent faster than blessed hash objects.

       ·   Threads

           Object::InsideOut is thread safe, and thoroughly supports sharing
           objects between threads using threads::shared.

       ·   Flexibility

           Allows control over object ID specification, accessor naming,
           parameter name matching, and much more.

       ·   Runtime Support

           Supports classes that may be loaded at runtime (i.e., using
           "eval { require ...; };").  This makes it usable from within
           mod_perl, as well.  Also supports additions to class hierarchies,
           and dynamic creation of object fields during runtime.

       ·   Exception Objects

           Object::InsideOut uses Exception::Class for handling errors in an
           OO-compatible manner.

       ·   Object Serialization

           Object::InsideOut has built-in support for object dumping and
           reloading that can be accomplished in either an automated fashion
           or through the use of class-supplied subroutines.  Serialization
           using Storable is also supported.

       ·   Foreign Class Inheritance

           Object::InsideOut allows classes to inherit from foreign (i.e.,
           non-Object::InsideOut) classes, thus allowing you to sub-class
           other Perl class, and access their methods from your own objects.

       ·   Introspection

           Obtain constructor parameters and method metadata for
           Object::InsideOut classes.

CLASSES

       To use this module, each of your classes will start with
       "use Object::InsideOut;":

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;
            ...
        }

       Sub-classes (child classes) inherit from base classes (parent classes)
       by telling Object::InsideOut what the parent class is:

        package My::Sub; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(My::Parent);
            ...
        }

       Multiple inheritance is also supported:

        package My::Project; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(My::Class Another::Class);
            ...
        }

       Object::InsideOut acts as a replacement for the "base" pragma:  It
       loads the parent module(s), calls their "->import()" methods, and sets
       up the sub-class's @ISA array.  Therefore, you should not
       "use base ..." yourself, nor try to set up @ISA arrays.  Further, you
       should not use a class's @ISA array to determine a class's hierarchy:
       See "INTROSPECTION" for details on how to do this.

       If a parent class takes parameters (e.g., symbols to be exported via
       Exporter), enclose them in an array ref (mandatory) following the name
       of the parent class:

        package My::Project; {
            use Object::InsideOut 'My::Class'      => [ 'param1', 'param2' ],
                                  'Another::Class' => [ 'param' ];
            ...
        }

OBJECTS

   Object Creation
       Objects are created using the "->new()" method which is exported by
       Object::InsideOut to each class, and is invoked in the following
       manner:

        my $obj = My::Class->new();

       Object::InsideOut then handles all the messy details of initializing
       the object in each of the classes in the invoking class's hierarchy.
       As such, classes do not (normally) implement their own "->new()"
       method.

       Usually, object fields are initially populated with data as part of the
       object creation process by passing parameters to the "->new()" method.
       Parameters are passed in as combinations of "key => value" pairs and/or
       hash refs:

        my $obj = My::Class->new('param1' => 'value1');
            # or
        my $obj = My::Class->new({'param1' => 'value1'});
            # or even
        my $obj = My::Class->new(
            'param_X' => 'value_X',
            'param_Y' => 'value_Y',
            {
                'param_A' => 'value_A',
                'param_B' => 'value_B',
            },
            {
                'param_Q' => 'value_Q',
            },
        );

       Additionally, parameters can be segregated in hash refs for specific
       classes:

        my $obj = My::Class->new(
            'foo' => 'bar',
            'My::Class'      => { 'param' => 'value' },
            'Parent::Class'  => { 'data'  => 'info'  },
        );

       The initialization methods for both classes in the above will get
       'foo' => 'bar', "My::Class" will also get 'param' => 'value', and
       "Parent::Class" will also get 'data' => 'info'.  In this scheme, class-
       specific parameters will override general parameters specified at a
       higher level:

        my $obj = My::Class->new(
            'default' => 'bar',
            'Parent::Class'  => { 'default' => 'baz' },
        );

       "My::Class" will get 'default' => 'bar', and "Parent::Class" will get
       'default' => 'baz'.

       Calling "->new()" on an object works, too, and operates the same as
       calling "->new()" for the class of the object (i.e., "$obj->new()" is
       the same as "ref($obj)->new()").

       How the parameters passed to the "->new()" method are used to
       initialize the object is discussed later under "OBJECT INITIALIZATION".

       NOTE: You cannot create objects from Object::InsideOut itself:

        # This is an error
        # my $obj = Object::InsideOut->new();

       In this way, Object::InsideOut is not an object class, but functions
       more like a pragma.

   Object IDs
       As stated earlier, this module implements inside-out objects as
       anonymous, read-only scalar references that are blessed into a class
       with the scalar containing the ID for the object.

       Within methods, the object is passed in as the first argument:

        sub my_method
        {
            my $self = shift;
            ...
        }

       The object's ID is then obtained by dereferencing the object:  $$self.
       Normally, this is only needed when accessing the object's field data:

        my @my_field :Field;

        sub my_method
        {
            my $self = shift;
            ...
            my $data = $my_field[$$self];
            ...
        }

       At all other times, and especially in application code, the object
       should be treated as an opaque entity.

ATTRIBUTES

       Much of the power of Object::InsideOut comes from the use of
       attributes: Tags on variables and subroutines that the attributes
       module sends to Object::InsideOut at compile time.  Object::InsideOut
       then makes use of the information in these tags to handle such
       operations as object construction, automatic accessor generation, and
       so on.

       (Note:  The use of attributes is not the same thing as source
       filtering.)

       An attribute consists of an identifier preceded by a colon, and
       optionally followed by a set of parameters in parentheses.  For
       example, the attributes on the following array declare it as an object
       field, and specify the generation of an accessor method for that field:

        my @level :Field :Accessor(level);

       When multiple attributes are assigned to a single entity, they may all
       appear on the same line (as shown above), or on separate lines:

        my @level
            :Field
            :Accessor(level);

       However, due to limitations in the Perl parser, the entirety of any one
       attribute must be on a single line:

        # This doesn't work
        # my @level
        #     :Field
        #     :Accessor('Name'   => 'level',
        #               'Return' => 'Old');

        # Each attribute must be all on one line
        my @level
            :Field
            :Accessor('Name' => 'level', 'Return' => 'Old');

       For Object::InsideOut's purposes, the case of an attribute's name does
       not matter:

        my @data :Field;
           # or
        my @data :FIELD;

       However, by convention (as denoted in the attributes module), an
       attribute's name should not be all lowercase.

FIELDS

   Field Declarations
       Object data fields consist of arrays within a class's package into
       which data are stored using the object's ID as the array index.  An
       array is declared as being an object field by following its declaration
       with the ":Field" attribute:

        my @info :Field;

       Object data fields may also be hashes:

        my %data :Field;

       However, as array access is as much as 40% faster than hash access, you
       should stick to using arrays.  See "HASH ONLY CLASSES" for more
       information on when hashes may be required.

   Getting Data
       In class code, data can be fetched directly from an object's field
       array (hash) using the object's ID:

        $data = $field[$$self];
            # or
        $data = $field{$$self};

   Setting Data
       Analogous to the above, data can be put directly into an object's field
       array (hash) using the object's ID:

        $field[$$self] = $data;
            # or
        $field{$$self} = $data;

       However, in threaded applications that use data sharing (i.e., use
       "threads::shared"), the above will not work when the object is shared
       between threads and the data being stored is either an array, hash or
       scalar reference (this includes other objects).  This is because the
       $data must first be converted into shared data before it can be put
       into the field.

       Therefore, Object::InsideOut automatically exports a method called
       "->set()" to each class.  This method should be used in class code to
       put data into object fields whenever there is the possibility that the
       class code may be used in an application that uses threads::shared
       (i.e., to make your class code thread-safe).  The "->set()" method
       handles all details of converting the data to a shared form, and
       storing it in the field.

       The "->set()" method, requires two arguments:  A reference to the
       object field array/hash, and the data (as a scalar) to be put in it:

        my @my_field :Field;

        sub store_data
        {
            my ($self, $data) = @_;
            ...
            $self->set(\@my_field, $data);
        }

       To be clear, the "->set()" method is used inside class code; not
       application code.  Use it inside any object methods that set data in
       object field arrays/hashes.

       In the event of a method naming conflict, the "->set()" method can be
       called using its fully-qualified name:

        $self->Object::InsideOut::set(\@field, $data);

OBJECT INITIALIZATION

       As stated in "Object Creation", object fields are initially populated
       with data as part of the object creation process by passing
       "key => value" parameters to the "->new()" method.  These parameters
       can be processed automatically into object fields, or can be passed to
       a class-specific object initialization subroutine.

   Field-Specific Parameters
       When an object creation parameter corresponds directly to an object
       field, you can specify for Object::InsideOut to automatically place the
       parameter into the field by adding the ":Arg" attribute to the field
       declaration:

        my @foo :Field :Arg(foo);

       For the above, the following would result in $val being placed in
       "My::Class"'s @foo field during object creation:

        my $obj = My::Class->new('foo' => $val);

   Object Initialization Subroutines
       Many times, object initialization parameters do not correspond directly
       to object fields, or they may require special handling.  For these,
       parameter processing is accomplished through a combination of an
       ":InitArgs" labeled hash, and an ":Init" labeled subroutine.

       The ":InitArgs" labeled hash specifies the parameters to be extracted
       from the argument list supplied to the "->new()" method.  Those
       parameters (and only those parameters) which match the keys in the
       ":InitArgs" hash are then packaged together into a single hash ref.
       The newly created object and this parameter hash ref are then sent to
       the ":Init" subroutine for processing.

       Here is an example of a class with an automatically handled field and
       an :Init handled field:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            # Automatically handled field
            my @my_data  :Field  :Acc(data)  :Arg(MY_DATA);

            # ':Init' handled field
            my @my_field :Field;

            my %init_args :InitArgs = (
                'MY_PARAM' => '',
            );

            sub _init :Init
            {
                my ($self, $args) = @_;

                if (exists($args->{'MY_PARAM'})) {
                    $self->set(\@my_field, $args->{'MY_PARAM'});
                }
            }

            ...
        }

       An object for this class would be created as follows:

        my $obj = My::Class->new('MY_DATA'  => $dat,
                                 'MY_PARAM' => $parm);

       This results in, first of all, $dat being placed in the object's
       @my_data field because the "MY_DATA" key is specified in the ":Arg"
       attribute for that field.

       Then, "_init" is invoked with arguments consisting of the object (i.e.,
       $self) and a hash ref consisting only of "{ 'MY_PARAM' => $param }"
       because the key "MY_PARAM" is specified in the ":InitArgs" hash.
       "_init" checks that the parameter "MY_PARAM" exists in the hash ref,
       and then (since it does exist) adds $parm to the object's @my_field
       field.

       Setting Data
           Data processed by the ":Init" subroutine may be placed directly
           into the class's field arrays (hashes) using the object's ID (i.e.,
           $$self):

            $my_field[$$self] = $args->{'MY_PARAM'};

           However, as shown in the example above, it is strongly recommended
           that you use the ->set() method:

            $self->set(\@my_field, $args->{'MY_PARAM'});

           which handles converting the data to a shared format when needed
           for applications using threads::shared.

       All Parameters
           The ":InitArgs" hash and the ":Arg" attribute on fields act as
           filters that constrain which initialization parameters are and are
           not sent to the ":Init" subroutine.  If, however, a class does not
           have an ":InitArgs" hash and does not use the ":Arg" attribute on
           any of its fields, then its ":Init" subroutine (if it exists, of
           course) will get all the initialization parameters supplied to the
           "->new()" method.

   Mandatory Parameters
       Field-specific parameters may be declared mandatory as follows:

        my @data :Field
                 :Arg('Name' => 'data', 'Mandatory' => 1);

       If a mandatory parameter is missing from the argument list to
       "->new()", an error is generated.

       For ":Init" handled parameters, use:

        my %init_args :InitArgs = (
            'data' => {
                'Mandatory' => 1,
            },
        );

       "Mandatory" may be abbreviated to "Mand", and "Required" or "Req" are
       synonymous.

   Default Values
       For optional parameters, defaults can be specified for field-specific
       parameters using either of these syntaxes:

        my @data :Field
                 :Arg('Name' => 'data', 'Default' => 'foo');

        my @info :Field  :Arg(info)  :Default('bar');

       If an optional parameter with a specified default is missing from the
       argument list to "->new()", then the default is assigned to the field
       when the object is created (before the ":Init" subroutine, if any, is
       called).

       The format for ":Init" handled parameters is:

        my %init_args :InitArgs = (
            'data' => {
                'Default' => 'foo',
            },
        );

       In this case, if the parameter is missing from the argument list to
       "->new()", then the parameter key is paired with the default value and
       added to the ":Init" argument hash ref (e.g., "{ 'data' => 'foo' }").

       Fields can also be assigned a default value even if not associated with
       an initialization parameter:

        my @hash  :Field  :Default({});
        my @tuple :Field  :Default([1, 'bar']);

       Note that when using ":Default", the value must be properly structured
       Perl code (e.g., strings must be quoted as illustrated above).

       "Default" and ":Default" may be abbreviated to "Def" and ":Def"
       respectively.

       Generated Default Values

       It is also possible to generate default values on a per object basis by
       using code in the ":Default" directive.

        my @IQ :Field  :Default(50 + rand 100);
        my @ID :Field  :Default(our $next; ++$next);

       The above, for example, will initialize the "IQ" attribute of each new
       object to a different random number, while its "ID" attribute will be
       initialized with a sequential integer.

       The code in a ":Default" specifier can also refer to the object being
       initialized, either as $_[0] or as $self.  For example:

        my @unique_ID :Field  :Default($self->gen_unique_ID);

       Any code specified as a default will not have access to the surrounding
       lexical scope.  For example, this will not work:

        my $MAX = 100;
        my $MIN = 0;

        my @bar :Field
                :Default($MIN + rand($MAX-$MIX));     # Error

       For anything lexical or complex, you should factor the initializer out
       into a utility subroutine:

        sub _rand_max :Restricted
        {
            $MIN + rand($MAX-$MIX)
        }

        my @bar :Field
                :Default(_rand_max);

       When specifying a generated default using the "Default" tag inside an
       ":Arg" directive, you will need to wrap the code in a "sub { }", and
       $_[0] (but not $self) can be used to access the object being
       initialized:

        my @baz :Field
                :Arg(Name => 'baz', Default => sub { $_[0]->biz });

       System functions need to similarly be wrapped in "sub { }":

        my @rand :Field
                 :Type(numeric)
                 :Arg(Name => 'Rand', Default => sub { rand });

       Subroutines can be accessed using a code reference:

        my @data :Field
                 :Arg(Name => 'Data', Default => \&gen_default);

       On the other hand, the above can also be simplified by using the
       ":Default" directive instead:

        my @baz  :Field  :Arg(baz)   :Default($self->biz);
        my @rand :Field  :Arg(Rand)  :Default(rand)  :Type(numeric);
        my @data :Field  :Arg(Data)  :Default(gen_default);

       Using generated defaults in the ":InitArgs" hash requires the use of
       the same types of syntax as with the "Default" tag in an ":Arg"
       directive:

        my %init_args :InitArgs = (
            'Baz' => {
                'Default' => sub { $_[0]->biz },
            },
            'Rand' => {
                'Default' => sub { rand },
            },
            'Data' => {
                'Default' => \&gen_default,
            },
        );

       Sequential defaults

       In the previous section, one of the examples is not as safe or as
       convenient as it should be:

        my @ID :Field  :Default(our $next; ++$next);

       The problem is the shared variable ($next) that's needed to track the
       allocation of "ID" values.  Because it has to persist between calls,
       that variable has to be a package variable, except under Perl 5.10 or
       later where it could be a state variable instead:

        use feature 'state';

        my @ID :Field  :Default(state $next; ++$next);

       The version with the package variable is unsafe, because anyone could
       then spoof ID numbers just by reassigning that universally accessible
       variable:

           $MyClass::next = 0;        # Spoof the next object
           my $obj = MyClass->new;    # Object now has ID 1

       The state-variable version avoids this problem, but even that version
       is more complicated (and hence more error-prone) than it needs to be.

       The ":SequenceFrom" directive (which can be abbreviated to ":SeqFrom"
       or ":Seq") makes it much easier to specify that an attribute's default
       value is taken from a linearly increasing sequence.  For instance, the
       ID example above could be rewritten as:

        my @ID :Field  :SequenceFrom(1);

       This directive automatically creates a hidden variable, initializes it
       to the initial value specified, generates a sequence starting at that
       initial value, and then uses successive elements of that sequence each
       time a default value is needed for that attribute during object
       creation.

       If the initial value is a scalar, then the default sequence is
       generated by by computing "$previous_value++".  If it is an object, it
       is generated by calling "$obj->next()" (or by calling "$obj++" if the
       object doesn't have a "next()" method).

       This makes it simple to create a series of objects with attributes
       whose values default to simple numeric, alphabetic, or alphanumeric
       sequences, or to the sequence specified by an iterator object of some
       kind:

        my @ID :Field  :SeqFrom(1);                 # 1, 2, 3...

        my @ID :Field  :SeqFrom('AAA');             # 'AAA', 'AAB', 'AAC'...

        my @ID :Field  :SeqFrom('A01');             # 'A01', 'A02', 'A03'...

        my @ID :Field  :SeqFrom(ID_Iterator->new);  # ->next, ->next, ->next...

       In every other respect a ":SequenceFrom" directive is just like a
       ":Default".  For example, it can be used in conjunction with the ":Arg"
       directive as follows:

        my @ID :Field  :Arg(ID)  :SeqFrom(1);

       However, not as a tag inside the ":Arg" directive:

        my @ID :Field  :Arg('Name' => 'ID', 'SeqFrom' => 1)   # WRONG

       For the ":InitArgs" hash, you will need to roll your own sequential
       defaults if required:

        use feature 'state';

        my %init_args :InitArgs = (
            'Counter' => {
                'Default' => sub { state $next; ++$next }
            },
        );

   Parameter Name Matching
       Rather than having to rely on exact matches to parameter keys in the
       "->new()" argument list, you can specify a regular expressions to be
       used to match them to field-specific parameters:

        my @param :Field
                  :Arg('Name' => 'param', 'Regexp' => qr/^PARA?M$/i);

       In this case, the parameter's key could be any of the following: PARAM,
       PARM, Param, Parm, param, parm, and so on.  And the following would
       result in $data being placed in "My::Class"'s @param field during
       object creation:

        my $obj = My::Class->new('Parm' => $data);

       For ":Init" handled parameters, you would similarly use:

        my %init_args :InitArgs = (
            'Param' => {
                'Regex' => qr/^PARA?M$/i,
            },
        );

       In this case, the match results in "{ 'Param' => $data }" being sent to
       the ":Init" subroutine as the argument hash.  Note that the ":InitArgs"
       hash key is substituted for the original argument key.  This eliminates
       the need for any parameter key pattern matching within the ":Init"
       subroutine.

       "Regexp" may be abbreviated to "Regex" or "Re".

   Object Pre-initialization
       Occasionally, a child class may need to send a parameter to a parent
       class as part of object initialization.  This can be accomplished by
       supplying a ":PreInit" labeled subroutine in the child class.  These
       subroutines, if found, are called in order from the bottom of the class
       hierarchy upward (i.e., child classes first).

       The subroutine should expect two arguments:  The newly created
       (uninitialized) object (i.e., $self), and a hash ref of all the
       parameters from the "->new()" method call, including any additional
       parameters added by other ":PreInit" subroutines.

        sub pre_init :PreInit
        {
            my ($self, $args) = @_;
            ...
        }

       The parameter hash ref will not be exactly as supplied to "->new()",
       but will be flattened into a single hash ref.  For example,

        my $obj = My::Class->new(
            'param_X' => 'value_X',
            {
                'param_A' => 'value_A',
                'param_B' => 'value_B',
            },
            'My::Class' => { 'param' => 'value' },
        );

       would produce

        {
            'param_X' => 'value_X',
            'param_A' => 'value_A',
            'param_B' => 'value_B',
            'My::Class' => { 'param' => 'value' }
        }

       as the hash ref to the ":PreInit" subroutine.

       The ":PreInit" subroutine may then add, modify or even remove any
       parameters from the hash ref as needed for its purposes.  After all the
       ":PreInit" subroutines have been executed, object initialization will
       then proceed using the resulting parameter hash.

       The ":PreInit" subroutine should not try to set data in its class's
       fields or in other class's fields (e.g., using set methods) as such
       changes will be overwritten during initialization phase which follows
       pre-initialization.  The ":PreInit" subroutine is only intended for
       modifying initialization parameters prior to initialization.

   Initialization Sequence
       For the most part, object initialization can be conceptualized as
       proceeding from parent classes down through child classes.  As such,
       calling child class methods from a parent class during object
       initialization may not work because the object will not have been fully
       initialized in the child classes.

       Knowing the order of events during object initialization may help in
       determining when this can be done safely:

       1.  The scalar reference for the object is created, populated with an
       "Object ID", and blessed into the appropriate class.
       2.  :PreInit subroutines are called in order from the bottom of the
       class hierarchy upward (i.e., child classes first).
       3.  From the top of the class hierarchy downward (i.e., parent classes
       first), "Default Values" are assigned to fields.  (These may be
       overwritten by subsequent steps below.)
       4.  From the top of the class hierarchy downward, parameters to the
       "->new()" method are processed for ":Arg" field attributes and entries
       in the ":InitArgs" hash:
           a.  "Parameter Preprocessing" is performed.
           b.  Checks for "Mandatory Parameters" are made.
           c.  "Default Values" specified in the ":InitArgs" hash are added
           for subsequent processing by the ":Init" subroutine.
           d.  Type checking is performed.
           e.  "Field-Specific Parameters" are assigned to fields.
       5.  From the top of the class hierarchy downward, :Init subroutines are
       called with parameters specified in the ":InitArgs" hash.
       6.  Checks are made for any parameters to "->new()" that were not
       handled in the above.  (See next section.)

   Unhandled Parameters
       It is an error to include any parameters to the "->new()" method that
       are not handled by at least one class in the hierarchy.  The primary
       purpose of this is to catch typos in parameter names:

         my $obj = Person->new('nane' => 'John');   # Should be 'name'

       The only time that checks for unhandled parameters are not made is when
       at least one class in the hierarchy does not have an ":InitArgs" hash
       and does not use the ":Arg" attribute on any of its fields and uses an
       :Init subroutine for processing parameters.  In such a case, it is not
       possible for Object::InsideOut to determine which if any of the
       parameters are not handled by the ":Init" subroutine.

       If you add the following construct to the start of your application:

        BEGIN {
            no warnings 'once';
            $OIO::Args::Unhandled::WARN_ONLY = 1;
        }

       then unhandled parameters will only generate warnings rather than
       causing exceptions to be thrown.

   Modifying ":InitArgs"
       For performance purposes, Object::InsideOut normalizes each class's
       ":InitArgs" hash by creating keys in the form of '_X' for the various
       options it handles (e.g., '_R' for 'Regexp').

       If a class has the unusual requirement to modify its ":InitArgs" hash
       during runtime, then it must renormalize the hash after making such
       changes by invoking "Object::InsideOut::normalize()" on it so that
       Object::InsideOut will pick up the changes:

        Object::InsideOut::normalize(\%init_args);

ACCESSOR GENERATION

       Accessors are object methods used to get data out of and put data into
       an object.  You can, of course, write your own accessor code, but this
       can get a bit tedious, especially if your class has lots of fields.
       Object::InsideOut provides the capability to automatically generate
       accessors for you.

   Basic Accessors
       A get accessor is vary basic:  It just returns the value of an object's
       field:

        my @data :Field;

        sub fetch_data
        {
            my $self = shift;
            return ($data[$$self]);
        }

       and you would use it as follows:

        my $data = $obj->fetch_data();

       To have Object::InsideOut generate such a get accessor for you, add a
       ":Get" attribute to the field declaration, specifying the name for the
       accessor in parentheses:

        my @data :Field :Get(fetch_data);

       Similarly, a set accessor puts data in an object's field.  The set
       accessors generated by Object::InsideOut check that they are called
       with at least one argument.  They are specified using the ":Set"
       attribute:

        my @data :Field :Set(store_data);

       Some programmers use the convention of naming get and set accessors
       using get_ and set_ prefixes.  Such standard accessors can be generated
       using the ":Standard" attribute (which may be abbreviated to ":Std"):

        my @data :Field :Std(data);

       which is equivalent to:

        my @data :Field :Get(get_data) :Set(set_data);

       Other programmers prefer to use a single combination accessors that
       performs both functions:  When called with no arguments, it gets, and
       when called with an argument, it sets.  Object::InsideOut will generate
       such accessors with the ":Accessor" attribute.  (This can be
       abbreviated to ":Acc", or you can use ":Get_Set" or ":Combined" or
       ":Combo" or even "Mutator".)  For example:

        my @data :Field :Acc(data);

       The generated accessor would be used in this manner:

        $obj->data($val);           # Puts data into the object's field
        my $data = $obj->data();    # Fetches the object's field data

   Set Accessor Return Value
       For any of the automatically generated methods that perform set
       operations, the default for the method's return value is the value
       being set (i.e., the new value).

       You can specify the set accessor's return value using the "Return"
       attribute parameter (which may be abbreviated to "Ret").  For example,
       to explicitly specify the default behavior use:

        my @data :Field :Set('Name' => 'store_data', 'Return' => 'New');

       You can specify that the accessor should return the old (previous)
       value (or "undef" if unset):

        my @data :Field :Acc('Name' => 'data', 'Ret' => 'Old');

       You may use "Previous", "Prev" or "Prior" as synonyms for "Old".

       Finally, you can specify that the accessor should return the object
       itself:

        my @data :Field :Std('Name' => 'data', 'Ret' => 'Object');

       "Object" may be abbreviated to "Obj", and is also synonymous with
       "Self".

   Method Chaining
       An obvious case where method chaining can be used is when a field is
       used to store an object:  A method for the stored object can be chained
       to the get accessor call that retrieves that object:

        $obj->get_stored_object()->stored_object_method()

       Chaining can be done off of set accessors based on their return value
       (see above).  In this example with a set accessor that returns the new
       value:

        $obj->set_stored_object($stored_obj)->stored_object_method()

       the set_stored_object() call stores the new object, returning it as
       well, and then the stored_object_method() call is invoked via the
       stored/returned object.  The same would work for set accessors that
       return the old value, too, but in that case the chained method is
       invoked via the previously stored (and now returned) object.

       If the Want module (version 0.12 or later) is available, then
       Object::InsideOut also tries to do the right thing with method chaining
       for set accessors that don't store/return objects.  In this case, the
       object used to invoke the set accessor will also be used to invoke the
       chained method (just as though the set accessor were declared with
       'Return' => 'Object'):

        $obj->set_data('data')->do_something();

       To make use of this feature, just add "use Want;" to the beginning of
       your application.

       Note, however, that this special handling does not apply to get
       accessors, nor to combination accessors invoked without an argument
       (i.e., when used as a get accessor).  These must return objects in
       order for method chaining to succeed.

   :lvalue Accessors
       As documented in "Lvalue subroutines" in perlsub, an ":lvalue"
       subroutine returns a modifiable value.  This modifiable value can then,
       for example, be used on the left-hand side (hence "LVALUE") of an
       assignment statement, or a substitution regular expression.

       For Perl 5.8.0 and later, Object::InsideOut supports the generation of
       ":lvalue" accessors such that their use in an "LVALUE" context will set
       the value of the object's field.  Just add "'lvalue' => 1" to the set
       accessor's attribute.  ('lvalue' may be abbreviated to 'lv'.)

       Additionally, ":Lvalue" (or its abbreviation ":lv") may be used for a
       combined get/set :lvalue accessor.  In other words, the following are
       equivalent:

        :Acc('Name' => 'email', 'lvalue' => 1)

        :Lvalue(email)

       Here is a detailed example:

        package Contact; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            # Create separate a get accessor and an :lvalue set accessor
            my @name  :Field
                      :Get(name)
                      :Set('Name' => 'set_name', 'lvalue' => 1);

            # Create a standard get_/set_ pair of accessors
            #   The set_ accessor will be an :lvalue accessor
            my @phone :Field
                      :Std('Name' => 'phone', 'lvalue' => 1);

            # Create a combined get/set :lvalue accessor
            my @email :Field
                      :Lvalue(email);
        }

        package main;

        my $obj = Contact->new();

        # Use :lvalue accessors in assignment statements
        $obj->set_name()  = 'Jerry D. Hedden';
        $obj->set_phone() = '800-555-1212';
        $obj->email()     = 'jdhedden AT cpan DOT org';

        # Use :lvalue accessor in substituion regexp
        $obj->email() =~ s/ AT (\w+) DOT /\@$1./;

        # Use :lvalue accessor in a 'substr' call
        substr($obj->set_phone(), 0, 3) = '888';

        print("Contact info:
");
        print("	Name:  ", $obj->name(),      "
");
        print("	Phone: ", $obj->get_phone(), "
");
        print("	Email: ", $obj->email(),     "
");

       The use of ":lvalue" accessors requires the installation of the Want
       module (version 0.12 or later) from CPAN.  See particularly the section
       "Lvalue subroutines:" in Want for more information.

       ":lvalue" accessors also work like regular set accessors in being able
       to accept arguments, return values, and so on:

        my @pri :Field
                :Lvalue('Name' => 'priority', 'Return' => 'Old');
         ...
        my $old_pri = $obj->priority(10);

       ":lvalue" accessors can be used in method chains.

       Caveats: While still classified as experimental, Perl's support for
       ":lvalue" subroutines has been around since 5.6.0, and a good number of
       CPAN modules make use of them.

       By definition, because ":lvalue" accessors return the location of a
       field, they break encapsulation.  As a result, some OO advocates eschew
       the use of ":lvalue" accessors.

       ":lvalue" accessors are slower than corresponding non-lvalue accessors.
       This is due to the fact that more code is needed to handle all the
       diverse ways in which ":lvalue" accessors may be used.  (I've done my
       best to optimize the generated code.)  For example, here's the code
       that is generated for a simple combined accessor:

        *Foo::foo = sub {
            return ($$field[${$_[0]}]) if (@_ == 1);
            $$field[${$_[0]}] = $_[1];
        };

       And the corresponding code for an ":lvalue" combined accessor:

        *Foo::foo = sub :lvalue {
            my $rv = !Want::want_lvalue(0);
            Want::rreturn($$field[${$_[0]}]) if ($rv && (@_ == 1));
            my $assign;
            if (my @args = Want::wantassign(1)) {
                @_ = ($_[0], @args);
                $assign = 1;
            }
            if (@_ > 1) {
                $$field[${$_[0]}] = $_[1];
                Want::lnoreturn if $assign;
                Want::rreturn($$field[${$_[0]}]) if $rv;
            }
            ((@_ > 1) && (Want::wantref() eq 'OBJECT') &&
             !Scalar::Util::blessed($$field[${$_[0]}]))
                   ? $_[0] : $$field[${$_[0]}];
        };

ALL-IN-ONE

       Parameter naming and accessor generation may be combined:

        my @data :Field :All(data);

       This is syntactic shorthand for:

        my @data :Field :Arg(data) :Acc(data);

       If you want the accessor to be ":lvalue", use:

        my @data :Field :LV_All(data);

       If standard accessors are desired, use:

        my @data :Field :Std_All(data);

       Attribute parameters affecting the set accessor may also be used.  For
       example, if you want standard accessors with an ":lvalue" set accessor:

        my @data :Field :Std_All('Name' => 'data', 'Lvalue' => 1);

       If you want a combined accessor that returns the old value on set
       operations:

        my @data :Field :All('Name' => 'data', 'Ret' => 'Old');

       And so on.

       If you need to add attribute parameters that affect the ":Arg" portion
       (e.g., "Default", "Mandatory", etc.), then you cannot use ":All".  Fall
       back to using the separate attributes.  For example:

        my @data :Field :Arg('Name' => 'data', 'Mand' => 1)
                        :Acc('Name' => 'data', 'Ret' => 'Old');

READONLY FIELDS

       If you want to declare a read-only field (i.e., one that can be
       initialized and retrieved, but which doesn't have a set accessor):

        my @data :Field :Arg(data) :Get(data);

       there is a syntactic shorthand for that, too:

        my @data :Field :ReadOnly(data);

       or just:

        my @data :Field :RO(data);

       If a standard get accessor is desired, use:

        my @data :Field :Std_RO(data);

       For obvious reasons, attribute parameters affecting the set accessor
       cannot be used with read-only fields, nor can ":ReadOnly" be combined
       with ":LValue".

       As with ":All", if you need to add attribute parameters that affect the
       ":Arg" portion then you cannot use the ":RO" shorthand:  Fall back to
       using the separate attributes in such cases.  For example:

        my @data :Field :Arg('Name' => 'data', 'Mand' => 1)
                        :Get('Name' => 'data');

DELEGATORS

       In addition to autogenerating accessors for a given field, you can also
       autogenerate delegators to that field.  A delegator is an accessor that
       forwards its call to one of the object's fields.

       For example, if your Car object has an @engine field, then you might
       need to send all acceleration requests to the Engine object stored in
       that field.  Likewise, all braking requests may need to be forwarded to
       Car's field that stores the Brakes object:

        package Car; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            my @engine :Field :Get(engine);
            my @brakes :Field :Get(brakes);

            sub _init :Init(private)  {
                my ($self, $args) = @_;

                $self->engine(Engine->new());
                $self->brakes(Brakes->new());
            }

            sub accelerate {
                my ($self) = @_;
                $self->engine->accelerate();
            }

            sub decelerate {
                my ($self) = @_;
                $self->engine->decelerate();
            }

            sub brake {
                my ($self, $foot_pressure) = @_;
                $self->brakes->brake($foot_pressure);
            }
        }

       If the Car needs to forward other method calls to its Engine or Brakes,
       this quickly becomes tedious, repetitive, and error-prone. So, instead,
       you can just tell Object::InsideOut that a particular method should be
       automatically forwarded to a particular field, by specifying a
       ":Handles" attribute:

        package Car; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            my @engine :Field
                       :Get(engine)
                       :Handles(accelerate, decelerate);
            my @brakes :Field
                       :Get(brakes)
                       :Handles(brake);

            sub _init :Init(private)  {
                my ($self, $args) = @_;

                $self->engine(Engine->new());
                $self->brakes(Brakes->new());
            }
        }

       This option generates and installs a single delegator method for each
       of its arguments, so the second example has exactly the same effect as
       the first example. The delegator simply calls the corresponding method
       on the object stored in the field, passing it the same argument list it
       received.

       Sometimes, however, you may need to delegate a particular method to a
       field, but under a different name.  For example, if the Brake class
       provides an "engage()" method, rather than a "brake()" method, then
       you'd need "Car::brake()" to be implemented as:

            sub brake {
                my ($self, $foot_pressure) = @_;
                $self->brakes->engage($foot_pressure);
            }

       You can achieve that using the ":Handles" attribute, like so:

            my @brakes :Field
                       :Get(brakes)
                       :Handles(brake-->engage);

       The long arrow version still creates a delegator method "brake()", but
       makes that method delegate to your Brakes object by calling its
       "engage()" method instead.

       If you are delegating a large number of methods to a particular field,
       the ":Handles" declarations soon become tedious:

        my @onboard_computer :Field :Get(comp)
                             :Type(Computer::Onboard)
                             :Handles(engine_monitor engine_diagnostics)
                             :Handles(engine_control airbag_deploy)
                             :Handles(GPS_control GPS_diagnostics GPS_reset)
                             :Handles(climate_control reversing_camera)
                             :Handles(cruise_control auto_park)
                             :Handles(iPod_control cell_phone_connect);

       And, of course, every time the interface of the "Computer::Onboard"
       class changes, you have to change those ":Handles" declarations, too.

       Sometimes, all you really want to say is: "This field should handle
       anything it can handle".  To do that, you write:

        my @onboard_computer :Field :Get(comp)
                             :Type(Computer::Onboard)
                             :Handles(Computer::Onboard);

       That is, if a ":Handles" directive is given a name that includes a
       "::", it treats that name as a class name, rather than a method name.
       Then it checks that class's metadata (see INTROSPECTION), retrieves a
       list of all the method names from the class, and uses that as the list
       of method names to delegate.

       Unlike an explicit ":Handles( method_name )", a ":Handles( Class::Name
       )" is tolerant of name collisions. If any method of "Class::Name" has
       the same name as another method or delegator that has already been
       installed in the current class, then ":Handles" just silently ignores
       that particular method, and doesn't try to replace the existing one.
       In other words, a ":Handles(Class::Name)" won't install a delegator to
       a method in "Class::Name" if that method is already being handled
       somewhere else by the current class.

       For classes that don't have a "::" in their name (e.g., "DateTime" and
       "POE"), just append a "::" to the class name:

        my @init_time :Field :Get(init_time)
                             :Type(    DateTime        )
                             :Default( DateTime->now() )
                             :Handles( DateTime::      );

       Note that, when using the class-based version of ":Handles", every
       method is delegated with its name unchanged.  If some of the object's
       methods should be delegated under different names, you have to specify
       that explicitly (and beforehand):

        my @onboard_computer :Field :Get(comp) :Type(Computer::Onboard)
                       # rename this method when delegating...
                             :Handles( iPod_control-->get_iPod )
                       # delegate everything else with names unchanged...
                             :Handles( Computer::Onboard );

       "Handles" may be abbreviated to "Handle" or "Hand".

       NOTES: Failure to add the appropriate object to the delegation field
       will lead to errors such as:  Can't call method "bar" on an undefined
       value.

       Typos in ":Handles" attribute declarations will lead to errors such as:
       Can't locate object method "bat" via package "Foo".  Adding an object
       of the wrong class to the delegation field will lead to the same error,
       but can be avoided by adding a ":Type" attribute for the appropriate
       class.

PERMISSIONS

   Restricted and Private Accessors
       By default, automatically generated accessors, can be called at any
       time.  In other words, their access permission is public.

       If desired, accessors can be made restricted - in which case they can
       only be called from within the class and any child classes in the
       hierarchy that are derived from it - or private - such that they can
       only be called from within the accessors' class.  Here are examples of
       the syntax for adding permissions:

        my @data     :Field :Std('Name' => 'data',     'Permission' => 'private');
        my @info     :Field :Set('Name' => 'set_info', 'Perm' => 'restricted');
        my @internal :Field :Acc('Name' => 'internal', 'Private' => 1);
        my @state    :Field :Get('Name' => 'state',    'Restricted' => 1);

       When creating a standard pair of get_/set_ accessors, the permission
       setting is applied to both accessors.  If different permissions are
       required on the two accessors, then you'll have to use separate ":Get"
       and ":Set" attributes on the field.

        # Create a private set method
        #  and a restricted get method on the 'foo' field
        my @foo :Field
                :Set('Name' => 'set_foo', 'Priv' => 1)
                :Get('Name' => 'get_foo', 'Rest' => 1);

        # Create a restricted set method
        #  and a public get method on the 'bar' field
        my %bar :Field
                :Set('Name' => 'set_bar', 'Perm' => 'restrict')
                :Get(get_bar);

       "Permission" may be abbreviated to "Perm"; "Private" may be abbreviated
       to "Priv"; and "Restricted" may be abbreviated to "Restrict".

   Restricted and Private Methods
       In the same vein as describe above, access to methods can be narrowed
       by use of ":Restricted" and ":Private" attributes.

        sub foo :Restricted
        {
            my $self = shift;
            ...
        }

       Without either of these attributes, most methods have public access.
       If desired, you may explicitly label them with the ":Public" attribute.

   Exemptions
       It is also possible to specify classes that are exempt from the
       Restricted and Private access permissions (i.e., the method may be
       called from those classes as well):

        my %foo :Field
                :Acc('Name' => 'foo', 'Perm' => 'Restrict(Exempt::Class)')
                :Get(get_bar);

        sub bar :Private(Some::Class, Another::Class)
        {
            my $self = shift;
            ...
        }

       An example of when this might be needed is with delegation mechanisms.

   Hidden Methods
       For subroutines marked with the following attributes (most of which are
       discussed later in this document):

       :ID
       :PreInit
       :Init
       :Replicate
       :Destroy
       :Automethod
       :Dumper
       :Pumper
       :MOD_*_ATTRS
       :FETCH_*_ATTRS

       Object::InsideOut normally renders them uncallable (hidden) to class
       and application code (as they should normally only be needed by
       Object::InsideOut itself).  If needed, this behavior can be overridden
       by adding the "Public", "Restricted" or "Private" attribute parameters:

        sub _init :Init(private)    # Callable from within this class
        {
            my ($self, $args) = @_;

            ...
        }

   Restricted and Private Classes
       Permission for object creation on a class can be narrowed by adding a
       ":Restricted" or ":Private" flag to its "use Object::InsideOut ..."
       declaration.  This basically adds ":Restricted/:Private" permissions on
       the "->new()" method for that class.  Exemptions are also supported.

        package Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut;
            ...
        }

        package Bar; {
            use Object::InsideOut 'Foo', ':Restricted(Ping, Pong)';
            ...
        }

       In the above, class "Bar" inherits from class "Foo", and its
       constructor is restricted to itself, classes that inherit from "Bar",
       and the classes "Ping" and "Pong".

       As constructors are inherited, any class that inherits from "Bar" would
       also be a restricted class.  To overcome this, any child class would
       need to add its own permission declaration:

        package Baz; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw/Bar :Private(My::Class)/;
            ...
        }

       Here, class "Baz" inherits from class "Bar", and its constructor is
       restricted to itself (i.e., private) and class "My::Class".

       Inheriting from a ":Private" class is permitted, but objects cannot be
       created for that class unless it has a permission declaration of its
       own:

        package Zork; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw/:Public Baz/;
            ...
        }

       Here, class "Zork" inherits from class "Baz", and its constructor has
       unrestricted access.  (In general, don't use the ":Public" declaration
       for a class except to overcome constructor permissions inherited from
       parent classes.)

TYPE CHECKING

       Object::InsideOut can be directed to add type-checking code to the
       set/combined accessors it generates, and to perform type checking on
       object initialization parameters.

   Field Type Checking
       Type checking for a field can be specified by adding the ":Type"
       attribute to the field declaration:

        my @count :Field :Type(numeric);

        my @objs :Field :Type(list(My::Class));

       The ":Type" attribute results in type checking code being added to
       set/combined accessors generated by Object::InsideOut, and will perform
       type checking on object initialization parameters processed by the
       ":Arg" attribute.

       Available Types are:

       'scalar'
           Permits anything that is not a reference.

       'numeric'
           Can also be specified as "Num" or "Number".  This uses
           Scalar::Util::looks_like_number() to test the input value.

       'list' or 'array'
       'list(_subtype_)' or 'array(_subtype_)'
           This type permits an accessor to accept multiple values (which are
           then placed in an array ref) or a single array ref.

           For object initialization parameters, it permits a single value
           (which is then placed in an array ref) or an array ref.

           When specified, the contents of the resulting array ref are checked
           against the specified subtype:

           'scalar'
               Same as for the basic type above.

           'numeric'
               Same as for the basic type above.

           A class name
               Same as for the basic type below.

           A reference type
               Any reference type (in all caps) as returned by ref()).

       'ARRAY_ref'
       'ARRAY_ref(_subtype_)'
           This specifies that only a single array reference is permitted.
           Can also be specified as "ARRAYref".

           When specified, the contents of the array ref are checked against
           the specified subtype as per the above.

       'HASH'
           This type permits an accessor to accept multiple "key => value"
           pairs (which are then placed in a hash ref) or a single hash ref.

           For object initialization parameters, only a single ref is
           permitted.

       'HASH_ref'
           This specifies that only a single hash reference is permitted.  Can
           also be specified as "HASHref".

       'SCALAR_ref'
           This type permits an accessor to accept a single scalar reference.
           Can also be specified as "SCALARref".

       A class name
           This permits only an object of the specified class, or one of its
           sub-classes (i.e., type checking is done using "->isa()").  For
           example, "My::Class".  The class name "UNIVERSAL" permits any
           object.  The class name "Object::InsideOut" permits any object
           generated by an Object::InsideOut class.

       Other reference type
           This permits only a reference of the specified type (as returned by
           ref()).  The type must be specified in all caps.  For example,
           "CODE".

       The ":Type" attribute can also be supplied with a code reference to
       provide custom type checking.  The code ref may either be in the form
       of an anonymous subroutine, or a fully-qualified subroutine name.  The
       result of executing the code ref on the input argument should be a
       boolean value.  Here's some examples:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            # Type checking using an anonymous subroutine
            #  (This checks that the argument is an object)
            my @data :Field :Type(sub { Scalar::Util::blessed($_[0]) })
                            :Acc(data);

            # Type checking using a fully-qualified subroutine name
            my @num  :Field :Type(\&My::Class::positive)
                            :Acc(num);

            # The type checking subroutine may be made 'Private'
            sub positive :Private
            {
                return (Scalar::Util::looks_like_number($_[0]) &&
                        ($_[0] > 0));
            }
        }

   Type Checking on ":Init" Parameters
       For object initialization parameters that are sent to the ":Init"
       subroutine during object initialization, the parameter's type can be
       specified in the ":InitArgs" hash for that parameter using the same
       types as specified in the previous section.  For example:

        my %init_args :InitArgs = (
            'COUNT' => {
                'Type' => 'numeric',
            },
            'OBJS' => {
                'Type' => 'list(My::Class)',
            },
        );

       One exception involves custom type checking:  If referenced in an
       ":InitArgs" hash, the type checking subroutine cannot be made
       ":Private":

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub check_type   # Cannot be :Private
            {
               ...
            }

            my %init_args :InitArgs = (
                'ARG' => {
                    'Type' => \&check_type,
                },
            );

            ...
        }

       Also, as shown, it also doesn't have to be a fully-qualified name.

CUMULATIVE METHODS

       Normally, methods with the same name in a class hierarchy are masked
       (i.e., overridden) by inheritance - only the method in the most-derived
       class is called.  With cumulative methods, this masking is removed, and
       the same-named method is called in each of the classes within the
       hierarchy.  The return results from each call (if any) are then
       gathered together into the return value for the original method call.
       For example,

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub what_am_i :Cumulative
            {
                my $self = shift;

                my $ima = (ref($self) eq __PACKAGE__)
                            ? q/I was created as a /
                            : q/My top class is /;

                return ($ima . __PACKAGE__);
            }
        }

        package My::Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut 'My::Class';

            sub what_am_i :Cumulative
            {
                my $self = shift;

                my $ima = (ref($self) eq __PACKAGE__)
                            ? q/I was created as a /
                            : q/I'm also a /;

                return ($ima . __PACKAGE__);
            }
        }

        package My::Child; {
            use Object::InsideOut 'My::Foo';

            sub what_am_i :Cumulative
            {
                my $self = shift;

                my $ima = (ref($self) eq __PACKAGE__)
                            ? q/I was created as a /
                            : q/I'm in class /;

                return ($ima . __PACKAGE__);
            }
        }

        package main;

        my $obj = My::Child->new();
        my @desc = $obj->what_am_i();
        print(join("
", @desc), "
");

       produces:

        My top class is My::Class
        I'm also a My::Foo
        I was created as a My::Child

       When called in a list context (as in the above), the return results of
       cumulative methods are accumulated, and returned as a list.

       In a scalar context, a results object is returned that segregates the
       results by class for each of the cumulative method calls.  Through
       overloading, this object can then be dereferenced as an array, hash,
       string, number, or boolean.  For example, the above could be rewritten
       as:

        my $obj = My::Child->new();
        my $desc = $obj->what_am_i();        # Results object
        print(join("
", @{$desc}), "
");   # Dereference as an array

       The following uses hash dereferencing:

        my $obj = My::Child->new();
        my $desc = $obj->what_am_i();
        while (my ($class, $value) = each(%{$desc})) {
            print("Class $class reports:
	$value
");
        }

       and produces:

        Class My::Class reports:
                My top class is My::Class
        Class My::Child reports:
                I was created as a My::Child
        Class My::Foo reports:
                I'm also a My::Foo

       As illustrated above, cumulative methods are tagged with the
       ":Cumulative" attribute (or ":Cumulative(top down)"), and propagate
       from the top down through the class hierarchy (i.e., from the parent
       classes down through the child classes).  If tagged with
       ":Cumulative(bottom up)", they will propagated from the object's class
       upward through the parent classes.

CHAINED METHODS

       In addition to ":Cumulative", Object::InsideOut provides a way of
       creating methods that are chained together so that their return values
       are passed as input arguments to other similarly named methods in the
       same class hierarchy.  In this way, the chained methods act as though
       they were piped together.

       For example, imagine you had a method called "format_name" that formats
       some text for display:

        package Subscriber; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub format_name {
                my ($self, $name) = @_;

                # Strip leading and trailing whitespace
                $name =~ s/^\s+//;
                $name =~ s/\s+$//;

                return ($name);
            }
        }

       And elsewhere you have a second class that formats the case of names:

        package Person; {
            use Lingua::EN::NameCase qw(nc);
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub format_name
            {
                my ($self, $name) = @_;

                # Attempt to properly case names
                return (nc($name));
            }
        }

       And you decide that you'd like to perform some formatting of your own,
       and then have all the parent methods apply their own formatting.
       Normally, if you have a single parent class, you'd just call the method
       directly with "$self->SUPER::format_name($name)", but if you have more
       than one parent class you'd have to explicitly call each method
       directly:

        package Customer; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(Person Subscriber);

            sub format_name
            {
                my ($self, $name) = @_;

                # Compress all whitespace into a single space
                $name =~ s/\s+/ /g;

                $name = $self->Subscriber::format_name($name);
                $name = $self->Person::format_name($name);

                return $name;
            }
        }

       With Object::InsideOut, you'd add the ":Chained" attribute to each
       class's "format_name" method, and the methods will be chained together
       automatically:

        package Subscriber; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub format_name :Chained
            {
                my ($self, $name) = @_;

                # Strip leading and trailing whitespace
                $name =~ s/^\s+//;
                $name =~ s/\s+$//;

                return ($name);
            }
        }

        package Person; {
            use Lingua::EN::NameCase qw(nc);
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub format_name :Chained
            {
                my ($self, $name) = @_;

                # Attempt to properly case names
                return (nc($name));
            }
        }

        package Customer; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(Person Subscriber);

            sub format_name :Chained
            {
                my ($self, $name) = @_;

                # Compress all whitespace into a single space
                $name =~ s/\s+/ /g;

                return ($name);
            }
        }

       So passing in someone's name to "format_name" in "Customer" would cause
       leading and trailing whitespace to be removed, then the name to be
       properly cased, and finally whitespace to be compressed to a single
       space.  The resulting $name would be returned to the caller:

        my ($name) = $obj->format_name($name_raw);

       Unlike ":Cumulative" methods, ":Chained" methods always returns an
       array - even if there is only one value returned.  Therefore,
       ":Chained" methods should always be called in an array context, as
       illustrated above.

       The default direction is to chain methods from the parent classes at
       the top of the class hierarchy down through the child classes.  You may
       use the attribute ":Chained(top down)" to make this more explicit.

       If you label the method with the ":Chained(bottom up)" attribute, then
       the chained methods are called starting with the object's class and
       working upward through the parent classes in the class hierarchy,
       similar to how ":Cumulative(bottom up)" works.

ARGUMENT MERGING

       As mentioned under "Object Creation", the "->new()" method can take
       parameters that are passed in as combinations of "key => value" pairs
       and/or hash refs:

        my $obj = My::Class->new(
            'param_X' => 'value_X',
            'param_Y' => 'value_Y',
            {
                'param_A' => 'value_A',
                'param_B' => 'value_B',
            },
            {
                'param_Q' => 'value_Q',
            },
        );

       The parameters are merged into a single hash ref before they are
       processed.

       Adding the ":MergeArgs" attribute to your methods gives them a similar
       capability.  Your method will then get two arguments:  The object and a
       single hash ref of the merged arguments.  For example:

        package Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            ...

            sub my_method :MergeArgs {
                my ($self, $args) = @_;

                my $param = $args->{'param'};
                my $data  = $args->{'data'};
                my $flag  = $args->{'flag'};
                ...
            }
        }

        package main;

        my $obj = Foo->new(...);

        $obj->my_method( { 'data' => 42,
                           'flag' => 'true' },
                         'param' => 'foo' );

ARGUMENT VALIDATION

       A number of users have asked about argument validation for methods:
       <http://www.cpanforum.com/threads/3204>.  For this, I recommend using
       Params::Validate:

        package Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut;
            use Params::Validate ':all';

            sub foo
            {
                my $self = shift;
                my %args = validate(@_, { bar => 1 });
                my $bar = $args{bar};
                ...
            }
        }

       Using Attribute::Params::Validate, attributes are used for argument
       validation specifications:

        package Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut;
            use Attribute::Params::Validate;

            sub foo :method :Validate(bar => 1)
            {
                my $self = shift;
                my %args = @_;
                my $bar = $args{bar};
                ...
            }
        }

       Note that in the above, Perl's ":method" attribute (in all lowercase)
       is needed.

       There is some incompatibility between Attribute::Params::Validate and
       some of Object::InsideOut's attributes.  Namely, you cannot use
       ":Validate" with ":Private", ":Restricted", ":Cumulative", ":Chained"
       or ":MergeArgs".  In these cases, use the "validate()" function from
       Params::Validate instead.

AUTOMETHODS

       There are significant issues related to Perl's "AUTOLOAD" mechanism
       that cause it to be ill-suited for use in a class hierarchy. Therefore,
       Object::InsideOut implements its own ":Automethod" mechanism to
       overcome these problems.

       Classes requiring "AUTOLOAD"-type capabilities must provided a
       subroutine labeled with the ":Automethod" attribute.  The ":Automethod"
       subroutine will be called with the object and the arguments in the
       original method call (the same as for "AUTOLOAD").  The ":Automethod"
       subroutine should return either a subroutine reference that implements
       the requested method's functionality, or else just end with "return;"
       to indicate that it doesn't know how to handle the request.

       Using its own "AUTOLOAD" subroutine (which is exported to every class),
       Object::InsideOut walks through the class tree, calling each
       ":Automethod" subroutine, as needed, to fulfill an unimplemented method
       call.

       The name of the method being called is passed as $_ instead of
       $AUTOLOAD, and is not prefixed with the class name.  If the
       ":Automethod" subroutine also needs to access the $_ from the caller's
       scope, it is available as $CALLER::_.

       Automethods can also be made to act as "CUMULATIVE METHODS" or "CHAINED
       METHODS".  In these cases, the ":Automethod" subroutine should return
       two values: The subroutine ref to handle the method call, and a string
       designating the type of method.  The designator has the same form as
       the attributes used to designate ":Cumulative" and ":Chained" methods:

        ':Cumulative'  or  ':Cumulative(top down)'
        ':Cumulative(bottom up)'
        ':Chained'     or  ':Chained(top down)'
        ':Chained(bottom up)'

       The following skeletal code illustrates how an ":Automethod" subroutine
       could be structured:

        sub _automethod :Automethod
        {
            my $self = shift;
            my @args = @_;

            my $method_name = $_;

            # This class can handle the method directly
            if (...) {
                my $handler = sub {
                    my $self = shift;
                    ...
                    return ...;
                };

                ### OPTIONAL ###
                # Install the handler so it gets called directly next time
                # no strict refs;
                # *{__PACKAGE__.'::'.$method_name} = $handler;
                ################

                return ($handler);
            }

            # This class can handle the method as part of a chain
            if (...) {
                my $chained_handler = sub {
                    my $self = shift;
                    ...
                    return ...;
                };

                return ($chained_handler, ':Chained');
            }

            # This class cannot handle the method request
            return;
        }

       Note: The OPTIONAL code above for installing the generated handler as a
       method should not be used with ":Cumulative" or ":Chained" automethods.

OBJECT SERIALIZATION

   Basic Serialization
       my $array_ref = $obj->dump();
       my $string = $obj->dump(1);
           Object::InsideOut exports a method called "->dump()" to each class
           that returns either a Perl or a string representation of the object
           that invokes the method.

           The Perl representation is returned when "->dump()" is called
           without arguments.  It consists of an array ref whose first element
           is the name of the object's class, and whose second element is a
           hash ref containing the object's data.  The object data hash ref
           contains keys for each of the classes that make up the object's
           hierarchy. The values for those keys are hash refs containing
           "key => value" pairs for the object's fields.  For example:

            [
              'My::Class::Sub',
              {
                'My::Class' => {
                                 'data' => 'value'
                               },
                'My::Class::Sub' => {
                                      'life' => 42
                                    }
              }
            ]

           The name for an object field (data and life in the example above)
           can be specified by adding the ":Name" attribute to the field:

            my @life :Field :Name(life);

           If the ":Name" attribute is not used, then the name for a field
           will be either the name associated with an ":All" or ":Arg"
           attribute, its get method name, its set method name, or, failing
           all that, a string of the form "ARRAY(0x...)" or "HASH(0x...)".

           When called with a true argument, "->dump()" returns a string
           version of the Perl representation using Data::Dumper.

           Note that using Data::Dumper directly on an inside-out object will
           not produce the desired results (it'll just output the contents of
           the scalar ref).  Also, if inside-out objects are stored inside
           other structures, a dump of those structures will not contain the
           contents of the object's fields.

           In the event of a method naming conflict, the "->dump()" method can
           be called using its fully-qualified name:

            my $dump = $obj->Object::InsideOut::dump();

       my $obj = Object::InsideOut->pump($data);
           "Object::InsideOut->pump()" takes the output from the "->dump()"
           method, and returns an object that is created using that data.  If
           $data is the array ref returned by using "$obj->dump()", then the
           data is inserted directly into the corresponding fields for each
           class in the object's class hierarchy.  If $data is the string
           returned by using "$obj->dump(1)", then it is "eval"ed to turn it
           into an array ref, and then processed as above.

           Caveats: If any of an object's fields are dumped to field name keys
           of the form "ARRAY(0x...)" or "HASH(0x...)" (see above), then the
           data will not be reloadable using "Object::InsideOut->pump()".  To
           overcome this problem, the class developer must either add ":Name"
           attributes to the ":Field" declarations (see above), or provide a
           ":Dumper"/":Pumper" pair of subroutines as described below.

           Dynamically altering a class (e.g., using ->create_field()) after
           objects have been dumped will result in "undef" fields when pumped
           back in regardless of whether or not the added fields have
           defaults.

           Modifying the output from "->dump()", and then feeding it into
           "Object::InsideOut->pump()" will work, but is not specifically
           supported.  If you know what you're doing, fine, but you're on your
           own.

       ":Dumper" Subroutine Attribute
           If a class requires special processing to dump its data, then it
           can provide a subroutine labeled with the ":Dumper" attribute.
           This subroutine will be sent the object that is being dumped.  It
           may then return any type of scalar the developer deems appropriate.
           Usually, this would be a hash ref containing "key => value" pairs
           for the object's fields.  For example:

            my @data :Field;

            sub _dump :Dumper
            {
                my $obj = $_[0];

                my %field_data;
                $field_data{'data'} = $data[$$obj];

                return (\%field_data);
            }

           Just be sure not to call your ":Dumper" subroutine "dump" as that
           is the name of the dump method exported by Object::InsideOut as
           explained above.

       ":Pumper" Subroutine Attribute
           If a class supplies a ":Dumper" subroutine, it will most likely
           need to provide a complementary ":Pumper" labeled subroutine that
           will be used as part of creating an object from dumped data using
           "Object::InsideOut->pump()".  The subroutine will be supplied the
           new object that is being created, and whatever scalar was returned
           by the ":Dumper" subroutine.  The corresponding ":Pumper" for the
           example ":Dumper" above would be:

            sub _pump :Pumper
            {
                my ($obj, $field_data) = @_;

                $obj->set(\@data, $field_data->{'data'});
            }

   Storable
       Object::InsideOut also supports object serialization using the Storable
       module.  There are two methods for specifying that a class can be
       serialized using Storable.  The first method involves adding Storable
       to the Object::InsideOut declaration in your package:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(Storable);
            ...
        }

       and adding "use Storable;" in your application.  Then you can use the
       "->store()" and "->freeze()" methods to serialize your objects, and the
       "retrieve()" and "thaw()" subroutines to de-serialize them.

        package main;
        use Storable;
        use My::Class;

        my $obj = My::Class->new(...);
        $obj->store('/tmp/object.dat');
        ...
        my $obj2 = retrieve('/tmp/object.dat');

       The other method of specifying Storable serialization involves setting
       a "::storable" variable inside a "BEGIN" block for the class prior to
       its use:

        package main;
        use Storable;

        BEGIN {
            $My::Class::storable = 1;
        }
        use My::Class;

       NOTE: The caveats discussed above for the "->pump()" method are also
       applicable when using the Storable module.

OBJECT COERCION

       Object::InsideOut provides support for various forms of object coercion
       through the overload mechanism.  For instance, if you want an object to
       be usable directly in a string, you would supply a subroutine in your
       class labeled with the ":Stringify" attribute:

        sub as_string :Stringify
        {
            my $self = $_[0];
            my $string = ...;
            return ($string);
        }

       Then you could do things like:

        print("The object says, '$obj'
");

       For a boolean context, you would supply:

        sub as_bool :Boolify
        {
            my $self = $_[0];
            my $true_or_false = ...;
            return ($true_or_false);
        }

       and use it in this manner:

        if (! defined($obj)) {
            # The object is undefined
            ....

        } elsif (! $obj) {
            # The object returned a false value
            ...
        }

       The following coercion attributes are supported:

       :Stringify
       :Numerify
       :Boolify
       :Arrayify
       :Hashify
       :Globify
       :Codify

       Coercing an object to a scalar (":Scalarify") is not supported as $$obj
       is the ID of the object and cannot be overridden.

CLONING

   Object Cloning
       Copies of objects can be created using the "->clone()" method which is
       exported by Object::InsideOut to each class:

        my $obj2 = $obj->clone();

       When called without arguments, "->clone()" creates a shallow copy of
       the object, meaning that any complex data structures (i.e., array, hash
       or scalar refs) stored in the object will be shared with its clone.

       Calling "->clone()" with a true argument:

        my $obj2 = $obj->clone(1);

       creates a deep copy of the object such that internally held array, hash
       or scalar refs are replicated and stored in the newly created clone.

       Deep cloning can also be controlled at the field level, and is covered
       in the next section.

       Note that cloning does not clone internally held objects.  For example,
       if $foo contains a reference to $bar, a clone of $foo will also contain
       a reference to $bar; not a clone of $bar.  If such behavior is needed,
       it must be provided using a :Replicate subroutine.

   Field Cloning
       Object cloning can be controlled at the field level such that specified
       fields are deeply copied when "->clone()" is called without any
       arguments.  This is done by adding the ":Deep" attribute to the field:

        my @data :Field :Deep;

WEAK FIELDS

       Frequently, it is useful to store weakened references to data or
       objects in a field.  Such a field can be declared as ":Weak" so that
       data (i.e., references) set via Object::InsideOut generated accessors,
       parameter processing using ":Arg", the "->set()" method, etc., will
       automatically be weakened after being stored in the field array/hash.

        my @data :Field :Weak;

       NOTE: If data in a weak field is set directly (i.e., the "->set()"
       method is not used), then weaken() must be invoked on the stored
       reference afterwards:

        $self->set(\@field, $data);
        Scalar::Util::weaken($field[$$self]);

       (This is another reason why the "->set()" method is recommended for
       setting field data within class code.)

DYNAMIC FIELD CREATION

       Normally, object fields are declared as part of the class code.
       However, some classes may need the capability to create object fields
       on-the-fly, for example, as part of an ":Automethod".
       Object::InsideOut provides a class method for this:

        # Dynamically create a hash field with standard accessors
        My::Class->create_field('%'.$fld, ":Std($fld)");

       The first argument is the class into which the field will be added.
       The second argument is a string containing the name of the field
       preceded by either a "@" or "%" to declare an array field or hash
       field, respectively.  The remaining string arguments should be
       attributes declaring accessors and the like.  The ":Field" attribute is
       assumed, and does not need to be added to the attribute list.  For
       example:

        My::Class->create_field('@data', ":Type(numeric)",
                                         ":Acc(data)");

        My::Class->create_field('@obj', ":Type(Some::Class)",
                                        ":Acc(obj)",
                                        ":Weak");

       Field creation will fail if you try to create an array field within a
       class whose hierarchy has been declared :hash_only.

       Here's an example of an ":Automethod" subroutine that uses dynamic
       field creation:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub _automethod :Automethod
            {
                my $self = $_[0];
                my $class = ref($self) || $self;
                my $method = $_;

                # Extract desired field name from get_/set_ method name
                my ($fld_name) = $method =~ /^[gs]et_(.*)$/;
                if (! $fld_name) {
                    return;    # Not a recognized method
                }

                # Create the field and its standard accessors
                $class->create_field('@'.$fld_name, ":Std($fld_name)");

                # Return code ref for newly created accessor
                no strict 'refs';
                return *{$class.'::'.$method}{'CODE'};
            }
        }

RUNTIME INHERITANCE

       The class method "->add_class()" provides the capability to dynamically
       add classes to a class hierarchy at runtime.

       For example, suppose you had a simple state class:

        package Trait::State; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            my %state :Field :Set(state);
        }

       This could be added to another class at runtime using:

        My::Class->add_class('Trait::State');

       This permits, for example, application code to dynamically modify a
       class without having it create an actual sub-class.

PREPROCESSING

   Parameter Preprocessing
       You can specify a code ref (either in the form of an anonymous
       subroutine, or a subroutine name) for an object initialization
       parameter that will be called on that parameter prior to taking any of
       the other parameter actions described above.  Here's an example:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            # The parameter preprocessing subroutine
            sub preproc
            {
                my ($class, $param, $spec, $obj, $value) = @_;

                # Preform parameter preprocessing
                ...

                # Return result
                return ...;
            }

            my @data :Field
                     :Arg('Name' => 'DATA', 'Preprocess' => \&My::Class::preproc);

            my %init_args :InitArgs = (
                'PARAM' => {
                    'Preprocess' => \&preproc,
                },
            );

            ...
        }

       When used in the ":Arg" attribute, the subroutine name must be fully-
       qualified, as illustrated.  Further, if not referenced in the
       ":InitArgs" hash, the preprocessing subroutine can be given the
       ":Private" attribute.

       As the above illustrates, the parameter preprocessing subroutine is
       sent five arguments:

       ·   The name of the class associated with the parameter

           This would be "My::Class" in the example above.

       ·   The name of the parameter

           Either "DATA" or "PARAM" in the example above.

       ·   A hash ref of the parameter's specifiers

           This is either a hash ref containing the ":Arg" attribute
           parameters, or the hash ref paired to the parameter's key in the
           ":InitArgs" hash.

       ·   The object being initialized

       ·   The parameter's value

           This is the value assigned to the parameter in the "->new()"
           method's argument list.  If the parameter was not provided to
           "->new()", then "undef" will be sent.

       The return value of the preprocessing subroutine will then be assigned
       to the parameter.

       Be careful about what types of data the preprocessing subroutine tries
       to make use of "external" to the arguments supplied.  For instance,
       because the order of parameter processing is not specified, the
       preprocessing subroutine cannot rely on whether or not some other
       parameter is set.  Such processing would need to be done in the ":Init"
       subroutine.  It can, however, make use of object data set by classes
       higher up in the class hierarchy.  (That is why the object is provided
       as one of the arguments.)

       Possible uses for parameter preprocessing include:

       ·   Overriding the supplied value (or even deleting it by returning
           "undef")

       ·   Providing a dynamically-determined default value

       Preprocess may be abbreviated to Preproc or Pre.

   Set Accessor Preprocessing
       You can specify a code ref (either in the form of an anonymous
       subroutine, or a fully-qualified subroutine name) for a set/combined
       accessor that will be called on the arguments supplied to the accessor
       prior to its taking the usual actions of type checking and adding the
       data to the field.  Here's an example:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            my @data :Field
                     :Acc('Name' => 'data', 'Preprocess' => \&My::Class::preproc);

            # The set accessor preprocessing subroutine may be made 'Private'
            sub preproc :Private
            {
                my ($self, $field, @args) = @_;

                # Preform preprocessing on the accessor's arguments
                ...

                # Return result
                return ...;
            }
        }

       As the above illustrates, the accessor preprocessing subroutine is sent
       the following arguments:

       ·   The object used to invoke the accessor

       ·   A reference to the field associated with the accessor

       ·   The argument(s) sent to the accessor

           There will always be at least one argument.

       Usually, the preprocessing subroutine would return just a single value.
       For fields declared as type "List", multiple values may be returned.

       Following preprocessing, the set accessor will operate on whatever
       value(s) are returned by the preprocessing subroutine.

SPECIAL PROCESSING

   Object ID
       By default, the ID of an object is derived from a sequence counter for
       the object's class hierarchy.  This should suffice for nearly all cases
       of class development.  If there is a special need for the module code
       to control the object ID (see Math::Random::MT::Auto as an example),
       then a subroutine labelled with the ":ID" attribute can be specified:

        sub _id :ID
        {
            my $class = $_[0];

            # Generate/determine a unique object ID
            ...

            return ($id);
        }

       The ID returned by your subroutine can be any kind of regular scalar
       (e.g., a string or a number).  However, if the ID is something other
       than a low-valued integer, then you will have to architect all your
       classes using hashes for the object fields.  See "HASH ONLY CLASSES"
       for details.

       Within any class hierarchy, only one class may specify an ":ID"
       subroutine.

   Object Replication
       Object replication occurs explicitly when the "->clone()" method is
       called on an object, and implicitly when threads are created in a
       threaded application.  In nearly all cases, Object::InsideOut will take
       care of all the details for you.

       In rare cases, a class may require special handling for object
       replication.  It must then provide a subroutine labeled with the
       ":Replicate" attribute.  This subroutine will be sent three arguments:
       The parent and the cloned objects, and a flag:

        sub _replicate :Replicate
        {
            my ($parent, $clone, $flag) = @_;

            # Special object replication processing
            if ($clone eq 'CLONE') {
               # Handling for thread cloning
               ...
            } elsif ($clone eq 'deep') {
               # Deep copy of the parent
               ...
            } else {
               # Shallow copying
               ...
            }
        }

       In the case of thread cloning, $flag will be set to the 'CLONE', and
       the $parent object is just a non-blessed anonymous scalar reference
       that contains the ID for the object in the parent thread.

       When invoked via the "->clone()" method, $flag will be either an empty
       string which denotes that a shallow copy is being produced for the
       clone, or $flag will be set to 'deep' indicating a deep copy is being
       produced.

       The ":Replicate" subroutine only needs to deal with the special
       replication processing needed by the object:  Object::InsideOut will
       handle all the other details.

   Object Destruction
       Object::InsideOut exports a "DESTROY" method to each class that deletes
       an object's data from the object field arrays (hashes).  If a class
       requires additional destruction processing (e.g., closing filehandles),
       then it must provide a subroutine labeled with the ":Destroy"
       attribute.  This subroutine will be sent the object that is being
       destroyed:

        sub _destroy :Destroy
        {
            my $obj = $_[0];

            # Special object destruction processing
        }

       The ":Destroy" subroutine only needs to deal with the special
       destruction processing:  The "DESTROY" method will handle all the other
       details of object destruction.

FOREIGN CLASS INHERITANCE

       Object::InsideOut supports inheritance from foreign (i.e.,
       non-Object::InsideOut) classes.  This means that your classes can
       inherit from other Perl class, and access their methods from your own
       objects.

       One method of declaring foreign class inheritance is to add the class
       name to the Object::InsideOut declaration inside your package:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(Foreign::Class);
            ...
        }

       This allows you to access the foreign class's static (i.e., class)
       methods from your own class.  For example, suppose "Foreign::Class" has
       a class method called "foo".  With the above, you can access that
       method using "My::Class->foo()" instead.

       Multiple foreign inheritance is supported, as well:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(Foreign::Class Other::Foreign::Class);
            ...
        }

       $self->inherit($obj, ...);
           To use object methods from foreign classes, an object must inherit
           from an object of that class.  This would normally be done inside a
           class's ":Init" subroutine:

            package My::Class; {
                use Object::InsideOut qw(Foreign::Class);

                sub init :Init
                {
                    my ($self, $args) = @_;

                    my $foreign_obj = Foreign::Class->new(...);
                    $self->inherit($foreign_obj);
                }
            }

           Thus, with the above, if "Foreign::Class" has an object method
           called "bar", you can call that method from your own objects:

            package main;

            my $obj = My::Class->new();
            $obj->bar();

           Object::InsideOut's "AUTOLOAD" subroutine handles the dispatching
           of the "->bar()" method call using the internally held inherited
           object (in this case, $foreign_obj).

           Multiple inheritance is supported, as well:  You can call the
           "->inherit()" method multiple times, or make just one call with all
           the objects to be inherited from.

           "->inherit()" is a restricted method.  In other words, you cannot
           use it on an object outside of code belonging to the object's class
           tree (e.g., you can't call it from application code).

           In the event of a method naming conflict, the "->inherit()" method
           can be called using its fully-qualified name:

            $self->Object::InsideOut::inherit($obj);

       my @objs = $self->heritage();
       my $obj = $self->heritage($class);
       my @objs = $self->heritage($class1, $class2, ...);
           Your class code can retrieve any inherited objects using the
           "->heritage()" method. When called without any arguments, it
           returns a list of any objects that were stored by the calling class
           using the calling object.  In other words, if class "My::Class"
           uses object $obj to store foreign objects $fobj1 and $fobj2, then
           later on in class "My::Class", "$obj->heritage()" will return
           $fobj1 and $fobj2.

           "->heritage()" can also be called with one or more class name
           arguments.  In this case, only objects of the specified class(es)
           are returned.

           In the event of a method naming conflict, the "->heritage()" method
           can be called using its fully-qualified name:

            my @objs = $self->Object::InsideOut::heritage();

       $self->disinherit($class [, ...])
       $self->disinherit($obj [, ...])
           The "->disinherit()" method disassociates (i.e., deletes) the
           inheritance of foreign object(s) from an object.  The foreign
           objects may be specified by class, or using the actual inherited
           object (retrieved via "->heritage()", for example).

           The call is only effective when called inside the class code that
           established the initial inheritance.  In other words, if an
           inheritance is set up inside a class, then disinheritance can only
           be done from inside that class.

           In the event of a method naming conflict, the "->disinherit()"
           method can be called using its fully-qualified name:

            $self->Object::InsideOut::disinherit($obj [, ...])

       NOTE:  With foreign inheritance, you only have access to class and
       object methods.  The encapsulation of the inherited objects is strong,
       meaning that only the class where the inheritance takes place has
       direct access to the inherited object.  If access to the inherited
       objects themselves, or their internal hash fields (in the case of
       blessed hash objects), is needed outside the class, then you'll need to
       write your own accessors for that.

       LIMITATION:  You cannot use fully-qualified method names to access
       foreign methods (when encapsulated foreign objects are involved).
       Thus, the following will not work:

        my $obj = My::Class->new();
        $obj->Foreign::Class::bar();

       Normally, you shouldn't ever need to do the above:  "$obj->bar()" would
       suffice.

       The only time this may be an issue is when the native class overrides
       an inherited foreign class's method (e.g., "My::Class" has its own
       "->bar()" method).  Such overridden methods are not directly callable.
       If such overriding is intentional, then this should not be an issue:
       No one should be writing code that tries to by-pass the override.
       However, if the overriding is accidentally, then either the native
       method should be renamed, or the native class should provide a wrapper
       method so that the functionality of the overridden method is made
       available under a different name.

   "use base" and Fully-qualified Method Names
       The foreign inheritance methodology handled by the above is predicated
       on non-Object::InsideOut classes that generate their own objects and
       expect their object methods to be invoked via those objects.

       There are exceptions to this rule:

       1. Foreign object methods that expect to be invoked via the inheriting
       class's object, or foreign object methods that don't care how they are
       invoked (i.e., they don't make reference to the invoking object).
           This is the case where a class provides auxiliary methods for your
           objects, but from which you don't actually create any objects
           (i.e., there is no corresponding foreign object, and
           "$obj->inherit($foreign)" is not used.)

           In this case, you can either:

           a. Declare the foreign class using the standard method (i.e.,
           "use Object::InsideOut qw(Foreign::Class);"), and invoke its
           methods using their full path (e.g.,
           "$obj->Foreign::Class::method();"); or

           b. You can use the base pragma so that you don't have to use the
           full path for foreign methods.

            package My::Class; {
                use Object::InsideOut;
                use base 'Foreign::Class';
                ...
            }

           The former scheme is faster.

       2. Foreign class methods that expect to be invoked via the inheriting
       class.
           As with the above, you can either invoke the class methods using
           their full path (e.g., "My::Class->Foreign::Class::method();"), or
           you can "use base" so that you don't have to use the full path.
           Again, using the full path is faster.

           Class::Singleton is an example of this type of class.

       3. Class methods that don't care how they are invoked (i.e., they don't
       make reference to the invoking class).
           In this case, you can either use
           "use Object::InsideOut qw(Foreign::Class);" for consistency, or use
           "use base qw(Foreign::Class);" if (slightly) better performance is
           needed.

       If you're not familiar with the inner workings of the foreign class
       such that you don't know if or which of the above exceptions applies,
       then the formulaic approach would be to first use the documented method
       for foreign inheritance (i.e.,
       "use Object::InsideOut qw(Foreign::Class);").  If that works, then I
       strongly recommend that you just use that approach unless you have a
       good reason not to.  If it doesn't work, then try "use base".

INTROSPECTION

       For Perl 5.8.0 and later, Object::InsideOut provides an introspection
       API that allow you to obtain metadata on a class's hierarchy,
       constructor parameters, and methods.

       my $meta = My::Class->meta();
       my $meta = $obj->meta();
           The "->meta()" method, which is exported by Object::InsideOut to
           each class, returns an Object::InsideOut::Metadata object which can
           then be queried for information about the invoking class or
           invoking object's class:

            # Get an object's class hierarchy
            my @classes = $obj->meta()->get_classes();

            # Get info on the args for a class's constructor (i.e., ->new() parameters)
            my %args = My::Class->meta()->get_args();

            # Get info on the methods that can be called by an object
            my %methods = $obj->meta()->get_methods();

       My::Class->isa();
       $obj->isa();
           When called in an array context, calling "->isa()" without any
           arguments on an Object::InsideOut class or object returns a list of
           the classes in the class hierarchy for that class or object, and is
           equivalent to:

            my @classes = $obj->meta()->get_classes();

           When called in a scalar context, it returns an array ref containing
           the classes.

       My::Class->can();
       $obj->can();
           When called in an array context, calling "->can()" without any
           arguments on an Object::InsideOut class or object returns a list of
           the method names for that class or object, and is equivalent to:

            my %methods = $obj->meta()->get_methods();
            my @methods = keys(%methods);

           When called in a scalar context, it returns an array ref containing
           the method names.

       See Object::InsideOut::Metadata for more details.

THREAD SUPPORT

       For Perl 5.8.1 and later, Object::InsideOut fully supports threads
       (i.e., is thread safe), and supports the sharing of Object::InsideOut
       objects between threads using threads::shared.

       To use Object::InsideOut in a threaded application, you must put
       "use threads;" at the beginning of the application.  (The use of
       "require threads;" after the program is running is not supported.)  If
       object sharing is to be utilized, then "use threads::shared;" should
       follow.

       If you just "use threads;", then objects from one thread will be copied
       and made available in a child thread.

       The addition of "use threads::shared;" in and of itself does not alter
       the behavior of Object::InsideOut objects.  The default behavior is to
       not share objects between threads (i.e., they act the same as with
       "use threads;" alone).

       To enable the sharing of objects between threads, you must specify
       which classes will be involved with thread object sharing.  There are
       two methods for doing this.  The first involves setting a "::shared"
       variable (inside a "BEGIN" block) for the class prior to its use:

        use threads;
        use threads::shared;

        BEGIN {
            $My::Class::shared = 1;
        }
        use My::Class;

       The other method is for a class to add a ":SHARED" flag to its
       "use Object::InsideOut ..." declaration:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':SHARED';
            ...
        }

       When either sharing flag is set for one class in an object hierarchy,
       then all the classes in the hierarchy are affected.

       If a class cannot support thread object sharing (e.g., one of the
       object fields contains code refs [which Perl cannot share between
       threads]), it should specifically declare this fact:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':NOT_SHARED';
            ...
        }

       However, you cannot mix thread object sharing classes with non-sharing
       classes in the same class hierarchy:

        use threads;
        use threads::shared;

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':SHARED';
            ...
        }

        package Other::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':NOT_SHARED';
            ...
        }

        package My::Derived; {
            use Object::InsideOut qw(My::Class Other::Class);   # ERROR!
            ...
        }

       Here is a complete example with thread object sharing enabled:

        use threads;
        use threads::shared;

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':SHARED';

            # One list-type field
            my @data :Field :Type(list) :Acc(data);
        }

        package main;

        # New object
        my $obj = My::Class->new();

        # Set the object's 'data' field
        $obj->data(qw(foo bar baz));

        # Print out the object's data
        print(join(', ', @{$obj->data()}), "
");       # "foo, bar, baz"

        # Create a thread and manipulate the object's data
        my $rc = threads->create(
                sub {
                    # Read the object's data
                    my $data = $obj->data();
                    # Print out the object's data
                    print(join(', ', @{$data}), "
");  # "foo, bar, baz"
                    # Change the object's data
                    $obj->data(@$data[1..2], 'zooks');
                    # Print out the object's modified data
                    print(join(', ', @{$obj->data()}), "
");  # "bar, baz, zooks"
                    return (1);
                }
            )->join();

        # Show that changes in the object are visible in the parent thread
        # I.e., this shows that the object was indeed shared between threads
        print(join(', ', @{$obj->data()}), "
");       # "bar, baz, zooks"

HASH ONLY CLASSES

       For performance considerations, it is recommended that arrays be used
       for class fields whenever possible.  The only time when hash-bases
       fields are required is when a class must provide its own object ID, and
       those IDs are something other than low-valued integers.  In this case,
       hashes must be used for fields not only in the class that defines the
       object ID subroutine, but also in every class in any class hierarchy
       that include such a class.

       The hash only requirement can be enforced by adding the ":HASH_ONLY"
       flag to a class's "use Object::InsideOut ..." declaration:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':hash_only';

            ...
        }

       This will cause Object::Inside to check every class in any class
       hierarchy that includes such flagged classes to make sure their fields
       are hashes and not arrays.  It will also fail any ->create_field() call
       that tries to create an array-based field in any such class.

SECURITY

       In the default case where Object::InsideOut provides object IDs that
       are sequential integers, it is possible to hack together a fake
       Object::InsideOut object, and so gain access to another object's data:

        my $fake = bless(\do{my $scalar}, 'Some::Class');
        $$fake = 86;   # ID of another object
        my $stolen = $fake->get_data();

       Why anyone would try to do this is unknown.  How this could be used for
       any sort of malicious exploitation is also unknown.  However, if
       preventing this sort of security issue is a requirement, it can be
       accomplished by adding the ":SECURE" flag to a class's
       "use Object::InsideOut ..." declaration:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut ':SECURE';

            ...
        }

       This places the module "Object::InsideOut::Secure" in the class
       hierarchy.  Object::InsideOut::Secure provides an :ID subroutine that
       generates random integers for object IDs, thus preventing other code
       from being able to create fake objects by guessing at IDs.

       Using ":SECURE" mode requires Math::Random::MT::Auto (v5.04 or later).

       Because the object IDs used with ":SECURE" mode are large random
       values, the :HASH_ONLY flag is forced on all the classes in the
       hierarchy.

       For efficiency, it is recommended that the ":SECURE" flag be added to
       the topmost class(es) in a hierarchy.

ATTRIBUTE HANDLERS

       Object::InsideOut uses attribute 'modify' handlers as described in
       "Package-specific Attribute Handling" in attributes, and provides a
       mechanism for adding attribute handlers to your own classes.  Instead
       of naming your attribute handler as "MODIFY_*_ATTRIBUTES", name it
       something else and then label it with the ":MODIFY_*_ATTRIBUTES"
       attribute (or ":MOD_*_ATTRS" for short).  Your handler should work just
       as described in "Package-specific Attribute Handling" in attributes
       with regard to its input arguments, and must return a list of the
       attributes which were not recognized by your handler.  Here's an
       example:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub _scalar_attrs :MOD_SCALAR_ATTRS
            {
                my ($pkg, $scalar, @attrs) = @_;
                my @unused_attrs;         # List of any unhandled attributes

                while (my $attr = shift(@attrs)) {
                    if ($attr =~ /.../) {
                        # Handle attribute
                        ...
                    } else {
                        # We don't handle this attribute
                        push(@unused_attrs, $attr);
                    }
                }

                return (@unused_attrs);   # Pass along unhandled attributes
            }
        }

       Attribute 'modify' handlers are called upward through the class
       hierarchy (i.e., bottom up).  This provides child classes with the
       capability to override the handling of attributes by parent classes, or
       to add attributes (via the returned list of unhandled attributes) for
       parent classes to process.

       Attribute 'modify' handlers should be located at the beginning of a
       package, or at least before any use of attributes on the corresponding
       type of variable or subroutine:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            sub _array_attrs :MOD_ARRAY_ATTRS
            {
               ...
            }

            my @my_array :MyArrayAttr;
        }

       For attribute 'fetch' handlers, follow the same procedures:  Label the
       subroutine with the ":FETCH_*_ATTRIBUTES" attribute (or
       ":FETCH_*_ATTRS" for short).  Contrary to the documentation in
       "Package-specific Attribute Handling" in attributes, attribute 'fetch'
       handlers receive two arguments: The relevant package name, and a
       reference to a variable or subroutine for which package-defined
       attributes are desired.

       Attribute handlers are normal rendered hidden.

SPECIAL USAGE

   Usage With "Exporter"
       It is possible to use Exporter to export functions from one inside-out
       object class to another:

        use strict;
        use warnings;

        package Foo; {
            use Object::InsideOut 'Exporter';
            BEGIN {
                our @EXPORT_OK = qw(foo_name);
            }

            sub foo_name
            {
                return (__PACKAGE__);
            }
        }

        package Bar; {
            use Object::InsideOut 'Foo' => [ qw(foo_name) ];

            sub get_foo_name
            {
                return (foo_name());
            }
        }

        package main;

        print("Bar got Foo's name as '", Bar::get_foo_name(), "'
");

       Note that the "BEGIN" block is needed to ensure that the Exporter
       symbol arrays (in this case @EXPORT_OK) get populated properly.

   Usage With "require" and "mod_perl"
       Object::InsideOut usage under mod_perl and with runtime-loaded classes
       is supported automatically; no special coding is required.

       Caveat: Runtime loading of classes should be performed before any
       objects are created within any of the classes in their hierarchies.  If
       Object::InsideOut cannot create a hierarchy because of previously
       created objects (even if all those objects have been destroyed), a
       runtime error will be generated.

   Singleton Classes
       A singleton class is a case where you would provide your own "->new()"
       method that in turn calls Object::InsideOut's "->new()" method:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            my $singleton;

            sub new {
                my $thing = shift;
                if (! $singleton) {
                    $singleton = $thing->Object::InsideOut::new(@_);
                }
                return ($singleton);
            }
        }

DIAGNOSTICS

       Object::InsideOut uses "Exception::Class" for reporting errors.  The
       base error class for this module is "OIO".  Here is an example of the
       basic manner for trapping and handling errors:

        my $obj;
        eval { $obj = My::Class->new(); };
        if (my $e = OIO->caught()) {
            warn('Failure creating object: '.$e);
            ...
        }

       A more comprehensive approach might employ elements of the following:

        eval { ... };
        if (my $e = OIO->caught()) {
            # An error generated by Object::InsideOut
            ...
        } elsif (my $e = Exception::Class::Base->caught()) {
            # An error generated by other code that uses Exception::Class
            ...
        } elsif ($@) {
            # An unhandled error (i.e., generated by code that doesn't use
            # Exception::Class)
            ...
        }

       I have tried to make the messages and information returned by the error
       objects as informative as possible.  Suggested improvements are
       welcome.  Also, please bring to my attention any conditions that you
       encounter where an error occurs as a result of Object::InsideOut code
       that doesn't generate an Exception::Class object.  Here is one such
       error:

       Invalid ARRAY/HASH attribute
           This error indicates you forgot "use Object::InsideOut;" in your
           class's code.

       Object::InsideOut installs a "__DIE__" handler (see "die LIST" in
       perlfunc and "eval BLOCK" in perlfunc) to catch any errant exceptions
       from class-specific code, namely, ":Init", ":Replicate", ":Destroy",
       etc.  subroutines.  When using "eval" blocks inside these subroutines,
       you should localize $SIG{'__DIE__'} to keep Object::InsideOut's
       "__DIE__" handler from interfering with exceptions generated inside the
       "eval" blocks.  For example:

        sub _init :Init {
            ...
            eval {
                local $SIG{'__DIE__'};
                ...
            };
            if $@ {
                # Handle caught exception
            }
            ...
        }

       Here's another example, where the "die" function is used as a method of
       flow control for leaving an "eval" block:

        eval {
            local $SIG{'__DIE__'};           # Suppress any existing __DIE__ handler
            ...
            die({'found' => 1}) if $found;   # Leave the eval block
            ...
        };
        if ($@) {
            die unless (ref($@) && $@->{'found'});   # Propagate any 'real' error
            # Handle 'found' case
            ...
        }
        # Handle 'not found' case

       Similarly, if calling code from other modules that use the above flow
       control mechanism, but without localizing $SIG{'__DIE__'}, you can
       workaround this deficiency with your own "eval" block:

        eval {
            local $SIG{'__DIE__'};     # Suppress any existing __DIE__ handler
            Some::Module::func();      # Call function that fails to localize
        };
        if ($@) {
            # Handle caught exception
        }

       In addition, you should file a bug report against the offending module
       along with a patch that adds the missing "local $SIG{'__DIE__'};"
       statement.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS

       If you receive an error similar to this:

        ERROR: Attempt to DESTROY object ID 1 of class Foo twice

       the cause may be that some module used by your application is doing
       "require threads" somewhere in the background.  DBI is one such module.
       The workaround is to add "use threads;" at the start of your
       application.

       Another cause of the above is returning a non-shared object from a
       thread either explicitly or implicitly when the result of the last
       statement in the thread subroutine is an object.  For example:

        sub thr_func {
            my $obj = MyClass->new();
        }

       which is equivalent to:

        sub thr_func {
            return MyClass->new();
        }

       This can be avoided by ensuring your thread subroutine ends with
       "return;".

       The equality operator (e.g., "if ($obj1 == $obj2) { ...") is overloaded
       for ":SHARED" classes when threads::shared is loaded.  The overload
       subroutine compares object classes and IDs because references to the
       same thread shared object may have different refaddrs.

       You cannot overload an object to a scalar context (i.e., can't
       ":SCALARIFY").

       You cannot use two instances of the same class with mixed thread object
       sharing in same application.

       Cannot use attributes on subroutine stubs (i.e., forward declaration
       without later definition) with ":Automethod":

        package My::Class; {
            sub method :Private;   # Will not work

            sub _automethod :Automethod
            {
                # Code to handle call to 'method' stub
            }
        }

       Due to limitations in the Perl parser, the entirety of any one
       attribute must be on a single line.  (However, multiple attributes may
       appear on separate lines.)

       If a set accessor accepts scalars, then you can store any inside-out
       object type in it.  If its "Type" is set to "HASH", then it can store
       any blessed hash object.

       Returning objects from threads does not work:

        my $obj = threads->create(sub { return (Foo->new()); })->join();  # BAD

       Instead, use thread object sharing, create the object before launching
       the thread, and then manipulate the object inside the thread:

        my $obj = Foo->new();   # Class 'Foo' is set ':SHARED'
        threads->create(sub { $obj->set_data('bar'); })->join();
        my $data = $obj->get_data();

       Due to a limitation in threads::shared version 1.39 and earlier, if
       storing shared objects inside other shared objects, you should use
       "delete()" to remove them from internal fields (e.g.,
       "delete($field[$$self]);") when necessary so that the objects'
       destructor gets called.  Upgrading to version 1.40 or later alleviates
       most of this issue except during global destruction.  See
       threads::shared for more.

       With Perl 5.8.8 and earlier, there are bugs associated with
       threads::shared that may prevent you from storing objects inside of
       shared objects, or using foreign inheritance with shared objects.  With
       Perl 5.8.9 (and later) together with threads::shared 1.15 (and later),
       you can store shared objects inside of other shared objects, and you
       can use foreign inheritance with shared objects (provided the foreign
       class supports shared objects as well).

       Due to internal complexities, the following actions are not supported
       in code that uses threads::shared while there are any threads active:

       ·   Runtime loading of Object::InsideOut classes

       ·   Using ->add_class()

       It is recommended that such activities, if needed, be performed in the
       main application code before any threads are created (or at least while
       there are no active threads).

       For Perl 5.6.0 through 5.8.0, a Perl bug prevents package variables
       (e.g., object attribute arrays/hashes) from being referenced properly
       from subroutine refs returned by an ":Automethod" subroutine.  For Perl
       5.8.0 there is no workaround:  This bug causes Perl to core dump.  For
       Perl 5.6.0 through 5.6.2, the workaround is to create a ref to the
       required variable inside the ":Automethod" subroutine, and use that
       inside the subroutine ref:

        package My::Class; {
            use Object::InsideOut;

            my %data;

            sub auto :Automethod
            {
                my $self = $_[0];
                my $name = $_;

                my $data = \%data;      # Workaround for 5.6.X bug

                return sub {
                            my $self = shift;
                            if (! @_) {
                                return ($$data{$name});
                            }
                            $$data{$name} = shift;
                       };
            }
        }

       For Perl 5.8.1 through 5.8.4, a Perl bug produces spurious warning
       messages when threads are destroyed.  These messages are innocuous, and
       can be suppressed by adding the following to your application code:

        $SIG{'__WARN__'} = sub {
                if ($_[0] !~ /^Attempt to free unreferenced scalar/) {
                    print(STDERR @_);
                }
            };

       A better solution would be to upgrade threads and threads::shared from
       CPAN, especially if you encounter other problems associated with
       threads.

       For Perl 5.8.4 and 5.8.5, the "Storable" feature does not work due to a
       Perl bug.  Use Object::InsideOut v1.33 if needed.

       Due to bugs in the Perl interpreter, using the introspection API (i.e.
       "->meta()", etc.) requires Perl 5.8.0 or later.

       The version of Want that is available via PPM for ActivePerl is
       defective, and causes failures when using ":lvalue" accessors.  Remove
       it, and then download and install the Want module using CPAN.

       Devel::StackTrace (used by Exception::Class) makes use of the DB
       namespace.  As a consequence, Object::InsideOut thinks that
       "package DB" is already loaded.  Therefore, if you create a class
       called DB that is sub-classed by other packages, you may need to
       "require" it as follows:

        package DB::Sub; {
            require DB;
            use Object::InsideOut qw(DB);
            ...
        }

       View existing bug reports at, and submit any new bugs, problems,
       patches, etc.  to:
       http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.php?Name=Object-InsideOut
       <http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.php?Name=Object-InsideOut>

REQUIREMENTS

       Perl 5.6.0 or later
       Exception::Class v1.22 or later
       Scalar::Util v1.10 or later
           It is possible to install a pure perl version of Scalar::Util,
           however, it will be missing the weaken() function which is needed
           by Object::InsideOut.  You'll need to upgrade your version of
           Scalar::Util to one that supports its "XS" code.

       Test::More v0.50 or later
           Needed for testing during installation.

       Want v0.12 or later
           Optional.  Provides support for ":lvalue Accessors".

       Math::Random::MT::Auto v5.04 or later)
           Optional.  Provides support for :SECURE mode.

       To cover all of the above requirements and more, it is recommended that
       you install Bundle::Object::InsideOut using CPAN:

        perl -MCPAN -e 'install Bundle::Object::InsideOut'

       This will install the latest versions of all the required and optional
       modules needed for full support of all of the features provided by
       Object::InsideOut.

SEE ALSO

       Object::InsideOut Discussion Forum on CPAN:
       http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/Object-InsideOut
       <http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/Object-InsideOut>

       Inside-out Object Model:
       <http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl5/index.cgi?inside_out_object>,
       <http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=219378>,
       <http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=483162>,
       <http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=515650>, Chapters 15 and 16 of Perl
       Best Practices by Damian Conway

       Object::InsideOut::Metadata

       Storable, <Exception:Class>, Want, Math::Random::MT::Auto, attributes,
       overload

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

       Abigail <perl AT abigail DOT nl> for inside-out objects in general.

       Damian Conway <dconway AT cpan DOT org> for Class::Std, and for
       delegator methods.

       David A. Golden <dagolden AT cpan DOT org> for thread handling for
       inside-out objects.

       Dan Kubb <dan.kubb-cpan AT autopilotmarketing DOT com> for ":Chained"
       methods.

AUTHOR

       Jerry D. Hedden, <jdhedden AT cpan DOT org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

       Copyright 2005 - 2012 Jerry D. Hedden. All rights reserved.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

TRANSLATIONS

       A Japanese translation of this documentation by TSUJII, Naofumi
       <tsun DOT nt AT gmail DOT com> is available at
       <http://perldoc.jp/docs/modules/>.



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