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NAME

       XLoadFont, XQueryFont, XLoadQueryFont, XFreeFont, XGetFontProperty,
       XUnloadFont, XCharStruct, XFontProp, XChar2b, XFontStruct - load or
       unload fonts and font metric structures

SYNTAX

       Font XLoadFont(Display *display, char *name);

       XFontStruct *XQueryFont(Display *display, XID font_ID);

       XFontStruct *XLoadQueryFont(Display *display, char *name);

       int XFreeFont(Display *display, XFontStruct *font_struct);

       Bool XGetFontProperty(XFontStruct *font_struct, Atom atom, unsigned
              long *value_return);

       int XUnloadFont(Display *display, Font font);

ARGUMENTS

       atom      Specifies the atom for the property name you want returned.

       display   Specifies the connection to the X server.

       font      Specifies the font.

       font_ID   Specifies the font ID or the GContext ID.

       font_struct
                 Specifies the storage associated with the font.

       gc        Specifies the GC.

       name      Specifies the name of the font, which is a null-terminated
                 string.

       value_return
                 Returns the value of the font property.

DESCRIPTION

       The XLoadFont function loads the specified font and returns its
       associated font ID.  If the font name is not in the Host Portable
       Character Encoding, the result is implementation-dependent.  Use of
       uppercase or lowercase does not matter.  When the characters ``?'' and
       ``*'' are used in a font name, a pattern match is performed and any
       matching font is used.  In the pattern, the ``?'' character will match
       any single character, and the ``*'' character will match any number of
       characters.  A structured format for font names is specified in the X
       Consortium standard X Logical Font Description Conventions.  If
       XLoadFont was unsuccessful at loading the specified font, a BadName
       error results.  Fonts are not associated with a particular screen and
       can be stored as a component of any GC.  When the font is no longer
       needed, call XUnloadFont.

       XLoadFont can generate BadAlloc and BadName errors.

       The XQueryFont function returns a pointer to the XFontStruct structure,
       which contains information associated with the font.  You can query a
       font or the font stored in a GC.  The font ID stored in the XFontStruct
       structure will be the GContext ID, and you need to be careful when
       using this ID in other functions (see XGContextFromGC).  If the font
       does not exist, XQueryFont returns NULL.  To free this data, use
       XFreeFontInfo.

       XLoadQueryFont can generate a BadAlloc error.

       The XLoadQueryFont function provides the most common way for accessing
       a font.  XLoadQueryFont both opens (loads) the specified font and
       returns a pointer to the appropriate XFontStruct structure.  If the
       font name is not in the Host Portable Character Encoding, the result is
       implementation-dependent.  If the font does not exist, XLoadQueryFont
       returns NULL.

       The XFreeFont function deletes the association between the font
       resource ID and the specified font and frees the XFontStruct structure.
       The font itself will be freed when no other resource references it.
       The data and the font should not be referenced again.

       XFreeFont can generate a BadFont error.

       Given the atom for that property, the XGetFontProperty function returns
       the value of the specified font property.  XGetFontProperty also
       returns False if the property was not defined or True if it was
       defined.  A set of predefined atoms exists for font properties, which
       can be found in <X11/Xatom.h>.  This set contains the standard
       properties associated with a font.  Although it is not guaranteed, it
       is likely that the predefined font properties will be present.

       The XUnloadFont function deletes the association between the font
       resource ID and the specified font.  The font itself will be freed when
       no other resource references it.  The font should not be referenced
       again.

       XUnloadFont can generate a BadFont error.

STRUCTURES

       The XFontStruct structure contains all of the information for the font
       and consists of the font-specific information as well as a pointer to
       an array of XCharStruct structures for the characters contained in the
       font.  The XFontStruct, XFontProp, and XCharStruct structures contain:

       typedef struct {
            short lbearing;     /* origin to left edge of raster */
            short rbearing;     /* origin to right edge of raster */
            short width;   /* advance to next char's origin */
            short ascent;  /* baseline to top edge of raster */
            short descent; /* baseline to bottom edge of raster */
            unsigned short attributes;    /* per char flags (not predefined) */
       } XCharStruct;

       typedef struct {
            Atom name;
            unsigned long card32;
       } XFontProp;

       typedef struct {    /* normal 16 bit characters are two bytes */
           unsigned char byte1;
           unsigned char byte2;
       } XChar2b;

       typedef struct {
            XExtData *ext_data; /* hook for extension to hang data */
            Font fid; /* Font id for this font */
            unsigned direction; /* hint about the direction font is painted */
            unsigned min_char_or_byte2;   /* first character */
            unsigned max_char_or_byte2;   /* last character */
            unsigned min_byte1; /* first row that exists */
            unsigned max_byte1; /* last row that exists */
            Bool all_chars_exist;    /* flag if all characters have nonzero size */
            unsigned default_char;   /* char to print for undefined character */
            int n_properties;   /* how many properties there are */
            XFontProp *properties;   /* pointer to array of additional properties */
            XCharStruct min_bounds;  /* minimum bounds over all existing char */
            XCharStruct max_bounds;  /* maximum bounds over all existing char */
            XCharStruct *per_char;   /* first_char to last_char information */
            int ascent;    /* logical extent above baseline for spacing */
            int descent;   /* logical decent below baseline for spacing */
       } XFontStruct;

       X supports single byte/character, two bytes/character matrix, and
       16-bit character text operations.  Note that any of these forms can be
       used with a font, but a single byte/character text request can only
       specify a single byte (that is, the first row of a 2-byte font).  You
       should view 2-byte fonts as a two-dimensional matrix of defined
       characters: byte1 specifies the range of defined rows and byte2 defines
       the range of defined columns of the font.  Single byte/character fonts
       have one row defined, and the byte2 range specified in the structure
       defines a range of characters.

       The bounding box of a character is defined by the XCharStruct of that
       character.  When characters are absent from a font, the default_char is
       used.  When fonts have all characters of the same size, only the
       information in the XFontStruct min and max bounds are used.

       The members of the XFontStruct have the following semantics:

       ·    The direction member can be either FontLeftToRight or
            FontRightToLeft.  It is just a hint as to whether most XCharStruct
            elements have a positive (FontLeftToRight) or a negative
            (FontRightToLeft) character width metric.  The core protocol
            defines no support for vertical text.

       ·    If the min_byte1 and max_byte1 members are both zero,
            min_char_or_byte2 specifies the linear character index
            corresponding to the first element of the per_char array, and
            max_char_or_byte2 specifies the linear character index of the last
            element.

            If either min_byte1 or max_byte1 are nonzero, both
            min_char_or_byte2 and max_char_or_byte2 are less than 256, and the
            2-byte character index values corresponding to the per_char array
            element N (counting from 0) are:

                 byte1 = N/D + min_byte1
                 byte2 = N\D + min_char_or_byte2
            where:
                    D = max_char_or_byte2 - min_char_or_byte2 + 1
                    / = integer division
                    \ = integer modulus

       ·    If the per_char pointer is NULL, all glyphs between the first and
            last character indexes inclusive have the same information, as
            given by both min_bounds and max_bounds.

       ·    If all_chars_exist is True, all characters in the per_char array
            have nonzero bounding boxes.

       ·    The default_char member specifies the character that will be used
            when an undefined or nonexistent character is printed.  The
            default_char is a 16-bit character (not a 2-byte character).  For
            a font using 2-byte matrix format, the default_char has byte1 in
            the most-significant byte and byte2 in the least significant byte.
            If the default_char itself specifies an undefined or nonexistent
            character, no printing is performed for an undefined or
            nonexistent character.

       ·    The min_bounds and max_bounds members contain the most extreme
            values of each individual XCharStruct component over all elements
            of this array (and ignore nonexistent characters).  The bounding
            box of the font (the smallest rectangle enclosing the shape
            obtained by superimposing all of the characters at the same origin
            [x,y]) has its upper-left coordinate at:
                 [x + min_bounds.lbearing, y - max_bounds.ascent]

            Its width is:
                 max_bounds.rbearing - min_bounds.lbearing

            Its height is:
                 max_bounds.ascent + max_bounds.descent

       ·    The ascent member is the logical extent of the font above the
            baseline that is used for determining line spacing.  Specific
            characters may extend beyond this.

       ·    The descent member is the logical extent of the font at or below
            the baseline that is used for determining line spacing.  Specific
            characters may extend beyond this.

       ·    If the baseline is at Y-coordinate y, the logical extent of the
            font is inclusive between the Y-coordinate values (y -
            font.ascent) and (y + font.descent - 1).  Typically, the minimum
            interline spacing between rows of text is given by ascent +
            descent.

       For a character origin at [x,y], the bounding box of a character (that
       is, the smallest rectangle that encloses the character's shape)
       described in terms of XCharStruct components is a rectangle with its
       upper-left corner at:

       [x + lbearing, y - ascent]

       Its width is:

       rbearing - lbearing

       Its height is:

       ascent + descent

       The origin for the next character is defined to be:

       [x + width, y]

       The lbearing member defines the extent of the left edge of the
       character ink from the origin.  The rbearing member defines the extent
       of the right edge of the character ink from the origin.  The ascent
       member defines the extent of the top edge of the character ink from the
       origin.  The descent member defines the extent of the bottom edge of
       the character ink from the origin.  The width member defines the
       logical width of the character.

DIAGNOSTICS

       BadAlloc  The server failed to allocate the requested resource or
                 server memory.

       BadFont   A value for a Font or GContext argument does not name a
                 defined Font.

       BadName   A font or color of the specified name does not exist.

SEE ALSO

       XCreateGC(3), XListFonts(3), XSetFontPath(3)
       Xlib - C Language X Interface



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