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       XML::Generator - Perl extension for generating XML


         use XML::Generator ':pretty';

         print foo(bar({ baz => 3 }, bam()),
                   bar([ 'qux' => '' ],
                         "Hey there, world"));

         # OR

         require XML::Generator;

         my $X = XML::Generator->new(':pretty');

         print $X->foo($X->bar({ baz => 3 }, $X->bam()),
                       $X->bar([ 'qux' => '' ],
                                 "Hey there, world"));

       Either of the above yield:

          <foo xmlns:qux="">
            <bar baz="3">
              <bam />
            <qux:bar>Hey there, world</qux:bar>


       In general, once you have an XML::Generator object, you then simply
       call methods on that object named for each XML tag you wish to

       XML::Generator can also arrange for undefined subroutines in the
       caller's package to generate the corresponding XML, by exporting an
       "AUTOLOAD" subroutine to your package.  Just supply an ':import'
       argument to your "use XML::Generator;" call.  If you already have an
       "AUTOLOAD" defined then XML::Generator can be configured to cooperate
       with it.  See "STACKABLE AUTOLOADs".

       Say you want to generate this XML:


       Here's a snippet of code that does the job, complete with pretty

          use XML::Generator;
          my $gen = XML::Generator->new(':pretty');
          print $gen->person(

       The only problem with this is if you want to use a tag name that Perl's
       lexer won't understand as a method name, such as "shoe-size".
       Fortunately, since you can store the name of a method in a variable,
       there's a simple work-around:

          my $shoe_size = "shoe-size";
          $xml = $gen->$shoe_size("12 1/2");

       Which correctly generates:

          <shoe-size>12 1/2</shoe-size>

       You can use a hash ref as the first parameter if the tag should include
       atributes.  Normally this means that the order of the attributes will
       be unpredictable, but if you have the Tie::IxHash module, you can use
       it to get the order you want, like this:

         use Tie::IxHash;
         tie my %attr, 'Tie::IxHash';

         %attr = (name => 'Bob',
                  age  => 34,
                  job  => 'Accountant',
           'shoe-size' => '12 1/2');

         print $gen->person(\%attr);

       This produces

         <person name="Bob" age="34" job="Accountant" shoe-size="12 1/2" />

       An array ref can also be supplied as the first argument to indicate a
       namespace for the element and the attributes.

       If there is one element in the array, it is considered the URI of the
       default namespace, and the tag will have an xmlns="URI" attribute added
       automatically.  If there are two elements, the first should be the tag
       prefix to use for the namespace and the second element should be the
       URI.  In this case, the prefix will be used for the tag and an
       xmlns:PREFIX attribute will be automatically added.  Prior to version
       0.99, this prefix was also automatically added to each attribute name.
       Now, the default behavior is to leave the attributes alone (although
       you may always explicitly add a prefix to an attribute name).  If the
       prior behavior is desired, use the constructor option

       If you specify more than two elements, then each pair should correspond
       to a tag prefix and the corresponding URL.  An xmlns:PREFIX attribute
       will be added for each pair, and the prefix from the first such pair
       will be used as the tag's namespace.  If you wish to specify a default
       namespace, use '#default' for the prefix.  If the default namespace is
       first, then the tag will use the default namespace itself.

       If you want to specify a namespace as well as attributes, you can make
       the second argument a hash ref.  If you do it the other way around, the
       array ref will simply get stringified and included as part of the
       content of the tag.

       Here's an example to show how the attribute and namespace parameters

          $xml = $gen->account(
                   $gen->open(['transaction'], 2000),
                   $gen->deposit(['transaction'], { date => '1999.04.03'}, 1500)

       This generates:

            <open xmlns="transaction">2000</open>
            <deposit xmlns="transaction" date="1999.04.03">1500</deposit>

       Because default namespaces inherit, XML::Generator takes care to output
       the xmlns="URI" attribute as few times as strictly necessary.  For

          $xml = $gen->account(
                   $gen->open(['transaction'], 2000),
                   $gen->deposit(['transaction'], { date => '1999.04.03'},
                     $gen->amount(['transaction'], 1500)

       This generates:

            <open xmlns="transaction">2000</open>
            <deposit xmlns="transaction" date="1999.04.03">

       Notice how "xmlns="transaction"" was left out of the "<amount"> tag.

       Here is an example that uses the two-argument form of the namespace:

           $xml = $gen->widget(['wru' => ''],
                               {'id'  => 123}, $gen->contents());

           <wru:widget xmlns:wru="" id="123">
             <contents />

       Here is an example that uses multiple namespaces.  It generates the
       first example from the RDF primer (

           my $contactNS = [contact => ""];
           $xml = $gen->xml(
                    $gen->RDF([ rdf     => "",
                                @$contactNS ],
                       $gen->Person($contactNS, { 'rdf:about' => "" },
                         $gen->fullName($contactNS, 'Eric Miller'),
                         $gen->mailbox($contactNS, {'rdf:resource' => ""}),
                         $gen->personalTitle($contactNS, 'Dr.'))));

           <?xml version="1.0" standalone="yes"?>
           <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=""
             <contact:Person rdf:about="">
               <contact:fullName>Eric Miller</contact:fullName>
               <contact:mailbox rdf:resource="" />


       XML::Generator->new(':option', ...);

       XML::Generator->new(option => 'value', ...);

       (Both styles may be combined)

       The following options are available:

   :std, :standard
       Equivalent to

               escape      => 'always',
               conformance => 'strict',

       Equivalent to

               conformance => 'strict',

       Equivalent to

               escape      => 'always',
               conformance => 'strict',
               pretty      => N         # N defaults to 2

       This value of this option must be an array reference containing one or
       two values.  If the array contains one value, it should be a URI and
       will be the value of an 'xmlns' attribute in the top-level tag.  If
       there are two or more elements, the first of each pair should be the
       namespace tag prefix and the second the URI of the namespace.  This
       will enable behavior similar to the namespace behavior in previous
       versions; the tag prefix will be applied to each tag.  In addition, an
       xmlns:NAME="URI" attribute will be added to the top-level tag.  Prior
       to version 0.99, the tag prefix was also automatically added to each
       attribute name, unless overridden with an explicit prefix.  Now, the
       attribute names are left alone, but if the prior behavior is desired,
       use the constructor option "qualified_attributes".

       The value of this option is used as the global default namespace.  For

           my $html = XML::Generator->new(
                        pretty    => 2,
                        namespace => [HTML => ""]);
           print $html->html(
                     $html->font({ face => 'Arial' },
                                 "Hello, there")));

       would yield

           <HTML:html xmlns:HTML="">
               <HTML:font face="Arial">Hello, there</HTML:font>

       Here is the same example except without all the prefixes:

           my $html = XML::Generator->new(
                        pretty    => 2,
                        namespace => [""]);
           print $html->html(
                     $html->font({ 'face' => 'Arial' },
                                   "Hello, there")));

       would yield

          <html xmlns="">
               <font face="Arial">Hello, there</font>

   qualifiedAttributes, qualified_attributes
       Set this to a true value to emulate the attribute prefixing behavior of
       XML::Generator prior to version 0.99.  Here is an example:

           my $foo = XML::Generator->new(
                       namespace => [foo => ""],
                       qualifiedAttributes => 1);
           print $foo->bar({baz => 3});


           <foo:bar xmlns:foo="" foo:baz="3" />

       The contents and the values of each attribute have any illegal XML
       characters escaped if this option is supplied.  If the value is
       'always', then &, < and > (and " within attribute values) will be
       converted into the corresponding XML entity, although & will not be
       converted if it looks like it could be part of a valid entity (but see
       below).  If the value is 'unescaped', then the escaping will be turned
       off character-by- character if the character in question is preceded by
       a backslash, or for the entire string if it is supplied as a scalar
       reference.  So, for example,

               use XML::Generator escape => 'always';

               one('<');      # <one>&lt;</one>
               two('\&');     # <two>\&amp;</two>
               three(\'>');   # <three>&gt;</three> (scalar refs always allowed)
               four('&lt;');  # <four>&lt;</four> (looks like an entity)
               five('&#34;'); # <five>&#34;</five> (looks like an entity)


               use XML::Generator escape => 'unescaped';

               one('<');     # <one>&lt;</one>
               two('\&');    # <two>&</two>
               three(\'>');  # <three>></three> (aiee!)
               four('&lt;'); # <four>&amp;lt;</four> (no special case for entities)

       By default, high-bit data will be passed through unmodified, so that
       UTF-8 data can be generated with pre-Unicode perls.  If you know that
       your data is ASCII, use the value 'high-bit' for the escape option and
       bytes with the high bit set will be turned into numeric entities.  You
       can combine this functionality with the other escape options by comma-
       separating the values:

         my $a = XML::Generator->new(escape => 'always,high-bit');
         print $a->foo("<>");



       Because XML::Generator always uses double quotes ("") around attribute
       values, it does not escape single quotes.  If you want single quotes
       inside attribute values to be escaped, use the value 'apos' along with
       'always' or 'unescaped' for the escape option.  For example:

           my $gen = XML::Generator->new(escape => 'always,apos');
           print $gen->foo({'bar' => "It's all good"});

           <foo bar="It&apos;s all good" />

       If you actually want & to be converted to &amp; even if it looks like
       it could be part of a valid entity, use the value 'even-entities' along
       with 'always'.  Supplying 'even-entities' to the 'unescaped' option is
       meaningless as entities are already escaped with that option.

       To have nice pretty printing of the output XML (great for config files
       that you might also want to edit by hand), supply an integer for the
       number of spaces per level of indenting, eg.

          my $gen = XML::Generator->new(pretty => 2);
          print $gen->foo($gen->bar('baz'),
                          $gen->qux({ tricky => 'no'}, 'quux'));

       would yield

            <qux tricky="no">quux</qux>

       You may also supply a non-numeric string as the argument to 'pretty',
       in which case the indents will consist of repetitions of that string.
       So if you want tabbed indents, you would use:

            my $gen = XML::Generator->new(pretty => "	");

       Pretty printing does not apply to CDATA sections or Processing

       If the value of this option is 'strict', a number of syntactic checks
       are performed to ensure that generated XML conforms to the formal XML
       specification.  In addition, since entity names beginning with 'xml'
       are reserved by the W3C, inclusion of this option enables several
       special tag names: xmlpi, xmlcmnt, xmldecl, xmldtd, xmlcdata, and xml
       to allow generation of processing instructions, comments, XML
       declarations, DTD's, character data sections and "final" XML documents,

       Invalid characters ( will be
       filtered out.  To disable this behavior, supply the
       'filter_invalid_chars' option with the value 0.

       See "XML CONFORMANCE" and "SPECIAL TAGS" for more information.

   filterInvalidChars, filter_invalid_chars
       Set this to a 1 to enable filtering of invalid characters, or to 0 to
       disable the filtering.  See for
       the set of valid characters.

   allowedXMLTags, allowed_xml_tags
       If you have specified 'conformance' => 'strict' but need to use tags
       that start with 'xml', you can supply a reference to an array
       containing those tags and they will be accepted without error.  It is
       not an error to supply this option if 'conformance' => 'strict' is not
       supplied, but it will have no effect.

       There are 5 possible values for this option:

          self    -  create empty tags as <tag />  (default)
          compact -  create empty tags as <tag/>
          close   -  close empty tags as <tag></tag>
          ignore  -  don't do anything (non-compliant!)
          args    -  use count of arguments to decide between <x /> and <x></x>

       Many web browsers like the 'self' form, but any one of the forms
       besides 'ignore' is acceptable under the XML standard.

       'ignore' is intended for subclasses that deal with HTML and other SGML
       subsets which allow atomic tags.  It is an error to specify both
       'conformance' => 'strict' and 'empty' => 'ignore'.

       'args' will produce <x /> if there are no arguments at all, or if there
       is just a single undef argument, and <x></x> otherwise.

       Sets the default XML version for use in XML declarations.  See
       "xmldecl" below.

       Sets the default encoding for use in XML declarations.

       Specify the dtd.  The value should be an array reference with three
       values; the type, the name and the uri.


       use XML::Generator ':option';

       use XML::Generator option => 'value';

       (Both styles may be combined)

       Cause "use XML::Generator;" to export an "AUTOLOAD" to your package
       that makes undefined subroutines generate XML tags corresponding to
       their name.  Note that if you already have an "AUTOLOAD" defined, it
       will be overwritten.

       Implies :import, but if there is already an "AUTOLOAD" defined, the
       overriding "AUTOLOAD" will still give it a chance to run.  See "STACKED

       If you supply any other options, :import is implied and the
       XML::Generator object that is created to generate tags will be
       constructed with those options.


       When the 'conformance' => 'strict' option is supplied, a number of
       syntactic checks are enabled.  All entity and attribute names are
       checked to conform to the XML specification, which states that they
       must begin with either an alphabetic character or an underscore and may
       then consist of any number of alphanumerics, underscores, periods or
       hyphens.  Alphabetic and alphanumeric are interpreted according to the
       current locale if 'use locale' is in effect and according to the
       Unicode standard for Perl versions >= 5.6.  Furthermore, entity or
       attribute names are not allowed to begin with 'xml' (in any case),
       although a number of special tags beginning with 'xml' are allowed (see
       "SPECIAL TAGS"). Note that you can also supply an explicit list of
       allowed tags with the 'allowed_xml_tags' option.

       Also, the filter_invalid_chars option is automatically set to 1 unless
       it is explicitly set to 0.


       The following special tags are available when running under strict
       conformance (otherwise they don't act special):

       Processing instruction; first argument is target, remaining arguments
       are attribute, value pairs.  Attribute names are syntax checked, values
       are escaped.

       Comment.  Arguments are concatenated and placed inside <!-- ... -->
       comment delimiters.  Any occurences of '--' in the concatenated
       arguments are converted to '&#45;&#45;'

       Declaration.  This can be used to specify the version, encoding, and
       other XML-related declarations (i.e., anything inside the <?xml?> tag).
       @args can be used to control what is output, as keyword-value pairs.

       By default, the version is set to the value specified in the
       constructor, or to 1.0 if it was not specified.  This can be overridden
       by providing a 'version' key in @args.  If you do not want the version
       at all, explicitly provide undef as the value in @args.

       By default, the encoding is set to the value specified in the
       constructor; if no value was specified, the encoding will be left out
       altogether.  Provide an 'encoding' key in @args to override this.

       If a dtd was set in the constructor, the standalone attribute of the
       declaration will be set to 'no' and the doctype declaration will be
       appended to the XML declartion, otherwise the standalone attribute will
       be set to 'yes'.  This can be overridden by providing a 'standalone'
       key in @args.  If you do not want the standalone attribute to show up,
       explicitly provide undef as the value.

       DTD <!DOCTYPE> tag creation. The format of this method is different
       from others. Since DTD's are global and cannot contain namespace
       information, the first argument should be a reference to an array; the
       elements are concatenated together to form the DTD:

          print $xml->xmldtd([ 'html', 'PUBLIC', $xhtml_w3c, $xhtml_dtd ])

       This would produce the following declaration:

          <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

       Assuming that $xhtml_w3c and $xhtml_dtd had the correct values.

       Note that you can also specify a DTD on creation using the new()
       method's dtd option.

       Character data section; arguments are concatenated and placed inside
       <![CDATA[ ... ]]> character data section delimiters.  Any occurences of
       ']]>' in the concatenated arguments are converted to ']]&gt;'.

       "Final" XML document.  Must be called with one and exactly one
       XML::Generator-produced XML document.  Any combination of
       XML::Generator-produced XML comments or processing instructions may
       also be supplied as arguments.  Prepends an XML declaration, and re-
       blesses the argument into a "final" class that can't be embedded.


       For a simpler way to implement subclass-like behavior, see "STACKABLE

       At times, you may find it desireable to subclass XML::Generator. For
       example, you might want to provide a more application-specific
       interface to the XML generation routines provided. Perhaps you have a
       custom database application and would really like to say:

          my $dbxml = new XML::Generator::MyDatabaseApp;
          print $dbxml->xml($dbxml->custom_tag_handler(@data));

       Here, custom_tag_handler() may be a method that builds a recursive XML
       structure based on the contents of @data. In fact, it may even be named
       for a tag you want generated, such as authors(), whose behavior changes
       based on the contents (perhaps creating recursive definitions in the
       case of multiple elements).

       Creating a subclass of XML::Generator is actually relatively
       straightforward, there are just three things you have to remember:

          1. All of the useful utilities are in XML::Generator::util.

          2. To construct a tag you simply have to call SUPER::tagname,
             where "tagname" is the name of your tag.

          3. You must fully-qualify the methods in XML::Generator::util.

       So, let's assume that we want to provide a custom HTML table() method:

          package XML::Generator::CustomHTML;
          use base 'XML::Generator';

          sub table {
              my $self = shift;

              # parse our args to get namespace and attribute info
              my($namespace, $attr, @content) =

              # check for strict conformance
              if ( $self->XML::Generator::util::config('conformance') eq 'strict' ) {
                 # ... special checks ...

              # ... special formatting magic happens ...

              # construct our custom tags
              return $self->SUPER::table($attr, $self->tr($self->td(@content)));

       That's pretty much all there is to it. We have to explicitly call
       SUPER::table() since we're inside the class's table() method. The
       others can simply be called directly, assuming that we don't have a
       tr() in the current package.

       If you want to explicitly create a specific tag by name, or just want a
       faster approach than AUTOLOAD provides, you can use the tag() method
       directly. So, we could replace that last line above with:

              # construct our custom tags
              return $self->XML::Generator::util::tag('table', $attr, ...);

       Here, we must explicitly call tag() with the tag name itself as its
       first argument so it knows what to generate. These are the methods that
       you might find useful:

           This parses the argument list and returns the namespace (arrayref),
           attributes (hashref), and remaining content (array), in that order.

           This does the work of generating the appropriate tag. The first
           argument must be the name of the tag to generate.

           This retrieves options as set via the new() method.

           This escapes any illegal XML characters.

       Remember that all of these methods must be fully-qualified with the
       XML::Generator::util package name. This is because AUTOLOAD is used by
       the main XML::Generator package to create tags. Simply calling
       parse_args() will result in a set of XML tags called <parse_args>.

       Finally, remember that since you are subclassing XML::Generator, you do
       not need to provide your own new() method. The one from XML::Generator
       is designed to allow you to properly subclass it.


       As a simpler alternative to traditional subclassing, the "AUTOLOAD"
       that "use XML::Generator;" exports can be configured to work with a
       pre-defined "AUTOLOAD" with the ':stacked' option.  Simply ensure that
       your "AUTOLOAD" is defined before "use XML::Generator ':stacked';"
       executes.  The "AUTOLOAD" will get a chance to run first; the
       subroutine name will be in your $AUTOLOAD as normal.  Return an empty
       list to let the default XML::Generator "AUTOLOAD" run or any other
       value to abort it.  This value will be returned as the result of the
       original method call.

       If there is no "import" defined, XML::Generator will create one.  All
       that this "import" does is export AUTOLOAD, but that lets your package
       be used as if it were a subclass of XML::Generator.

       An example will help:

               package MyGenerator;

               my %entities = ( copy => '&copy;',
                                nbsp => '&nbsp;', ... );

               sub AUTOLOAD {
                 my($tag) = our $AUTOLOAD =~ /.*::(.*)/;

                 return $entities{$tag} if defined $entities{$tag};

               use XML::Generator qw(:pretty :stacked);

       This lets someone do:

               use MyGenerator;

               print html(head(title("My Title", copy())));


                   <title>My Title&copy;</title>


       Benjamin Holzman <>
           Original author and maintainer

       Bron Gondwana <>
           First modular version

       Nathan Wiger <>
           Modular rewrite to enable subclassing


       The XML::Writer module

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