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NAME

       initscr, newterm, endwin, isendwin, set_term, delscreen - curses screen
       initialization and manipulation routines

SYNOPSIS

       #include <curses.h>

       WINDOW *initscr(void);
       int endwin(void);
       bool isendwin(void);
       SCREEN *newterm(char *type, FILE *outfd, FILE *infd);
       SCREEN *set_term(SCREEN *new);
       void delscreen(SCREEN* sp);

DESCRIPTION

       initscr is normally the first curses routine to call when  initializing
       a  program.   A few special routines sometimes need to be called before
       it; these are slk_init, filter,  ripoffline,  use_env.   For  multiple-
       terminal applications, newterm may be called before initscr.

       The  initscr  code  determines  the  terminal  type and initializes all
       curses data structures.  initscr also causes the first call to  refresh
       to  clear  the  screen.  If errors occur, initscr writes an appropriate
       error message to standard error and  exits;  otherwise,  a  pointer  is
       returned to stdscr.

       A program that outputs to more than one terminal should use the newterm
       routine for each terminal instead of initscr.  A program that needs  to
       inspect capabilities, so it can continue to run in a line-oriented mode
       if the terminal cannot support a screen-oriented  program,  would  also
       use  newterm.   The  routine  newterm  should  be  called once for each
       terminal.  It returns a variable of type SCREEN * which should be saved
       as a reference to that terminal.  newterm's arguments are

       ·   the type of the terminal to be used in place of $TERM,

       ·   a file pointer for output to the terminal, and

       ·   another file pointer for input from the terminal

       If the type parameter is NULL, $TERM will be used.

       The  program  must also call endwin for each terminal being used before
       exiting from curses.  If newterm is called more than once for the  same
       terminal, the first terminal referred to must be the last one for which
       endwin is called.

       A program should always call endwin before  exiting  or  escaping  from
       curses mode temporarily.  This routine

       ·   restores tty modes,

       ·   moves the cursor to the lower left-hand corner of the screen and

       ·   resets the terminal into the proper non-visual mode.

       Calling refresh or doupdate after a temporary escape causes the program
       to resume visual mode.

       The isendwin routine returns TRUE if endwin has been called without any
       subsequent calls to wrefresh, and FALSE otherwise.

       The  set_term  routine  is  used to switch between different terminals.
       The screen  reference  new  becomes  the  new  current  terminal.   The
       previous terminal is returned by the routine.  This is the only routine
       which manipulates SCREEN pointers; all other routines affect  only  the
       current terminal.

       The  delscreen  routine  frees  storage associated with the SCREEN data
       structure.  The endwin routine does not do this, so delscreen should be
       called after endwin if a particular SCREEN is no longer needed.

RETURN VALUE

       endwin  returns  the  integer  ERR  upon failure and OK upon successful
       completion.

       Routines that return pointers always return NULL on error.

       X/Open defines no error conditions.  In this implementation

       ·   endwin returns an error if the terminal was not initialized.

       ·   newterm returns an error if it cannot allocate the data  structures
           for  the  screen,  or  for the top-level windows within the screen,
           i.e., curscr, newscr, or stdscr.

       ·   set_term returns no error.

NOTES

       Note that initscr and newterm may be macros.

PORTABILITY

       These functions are described in the XSI Curses standard, Issue 4.   It
       specifies  that  portable  applications must not call initscr more than
       once.

       Old versions of curses, e.g., BSD 4.4, may have returned a null pointer
       from  initscr  when  an  error is detected, rather than exiting.  It is
       safe but redundant to check the return value of initscr in XSI Curses.

       If the TERM variable is  missing  or  empty,  initscr  uses  the  value
       “unknown”,  which  normally  corresponds  to  a terminal entry with the
       generic (gn) capability.  Generic entries are detected by setupterm(3X)
       and  cannot  be  used for full-screen operation.  Other implementations
       may handle a missing/empty TERM variable differently.

SEE ALSO

       ncurses(3NCURSES), kernel(3NCURSES), refresh(3NCURSES),  slk(3NCURSES),
       terminfo(3NCURSES), util(3NCURSES), curses_variables(3NCURSES).

                                                             initscr(3NCURSES)



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